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Sample records for nas escalas espaciais

  1. CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E GERENCIAMENTO DE SISTEMAS ESPACIAIS Coordenador Acadêmico do Curso Evandro Marconi Rocco Coordenadora da Área de;2 CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E

  2. CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM COMBUSTÃO E PROPULSÃO Coordenador Acadêmico do Curso Evandro Marconi Rocco Coordenador da Área de Concentração David dos Mendonça do IAE/CTA, Univ. Pennsylvania, USA, 1997 #12;CURSO DE ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE

  3. CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E GERENCIAMENTO DE SISTEMAS ESPACIAIS Coordenador Acadêmico do Curso Evandro Marconi Rocco Coordenador da Área de, Doutora, ITA, Brasil, 1990 Roberto Luiz Galski, Doutor, INPE, Brasil, 2006 #12;2 CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM

  4. REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E GERENCIAMENTO DE SISTEMAS ESPACIAIS TÍTULO I DOS OBJETIVOS DO CURSO Art. 1º ­ A Área de Concentração em Engenharia e Gerenciamento de Sistemas Espaciais (CSE) do Curso de Pós-graduação em Engenharia

  5. CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM MECÂNICA ESPACIAL E CONTROLE Coordenador Acadêmico do Curso Evandro Marconi Rocco Coordenador Acadêmico da Área de / USP, 2000. Waldemar de Castro Leite Filho, Doutor, UFRJ/COPPE, 1991. #12;2 CURSO DE ENGENHARIA E

  6. CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE MATERIAIS E SENSORES Coordenador Acadêmico do Curso Evandro Marconi Rocco Coordenador Acadêmico Vladimir Jesus Trava-Airoldi, Doutor, ITA, Brasil, 1986 #12;2 CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E

  7. REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS, REA DE

    E-print Network

    REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS, ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM MECÂNICA ESPACIAL E CONTROLE TÍTULO I DOS OBJETIVOS DO CURSO Art. 1o ­ A Área de Concentração em Mecânica Espacial e Controle (CMC) do Curso de Pós-graduação em Engenharia e Tecnologia Espaciais (ETE) objetiva

  8. REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS, REA DE CONCENTRAO EM

    E-print Network

    REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E TECNOLOGIA ESPACIAIS, ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÂO EM COMBUSTÃO E PROPULSÃO TÍTULO I DOS OBJETIVOS DO CURSO Art. 1o ­ A Área de Concentração em Combustão e Propulsão (PCP) do Curso de Pós-graduação em Engenharia e Tecnologia Espaciais (ETE) objetiva formar e

  9. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais -INPE Centro de Previso de Tempo e Estudos Climticos -CPTEC

    E-print Network

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos acoplado OceanoAtmosfera (MCGOA) do Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos do Instituto Nacional

  10. t*iiBe*fe-bufriq.fs * frtus INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS

    E-print Network

    florestal na Amazonia Legat,existenÍes no planeta Terra. t T t I D #12;INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS#12;T- r It l; t It ! t t tI : tI : ! I b It I L t*iiBe*fe- bufriq.fs * frtus INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS DIRETORIA DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO nvaunçÃo DA ALTERAçÃo on coBERTURA FLoRESTAL NA

  11. Interpoladores Espaciais para Gerao de Superfcies de Densidade Populacional na Amaznia Brasileira: problemas e perspectivas.

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    . QUINTANILHA 2 1 INPE--Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Caixa Postal 515, 12201-097 São José dos density surfaces generation in the Amazonia region. The main problems related to the spatial representation of population distribution over Amazonia are identified. Interpolation methods frequently used

  12. NAS parallel benchmark results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.; Barszcz, E.; Dagum, L.; Simon, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    The NAS (Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation) parallel benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a 'pencil and paper' fashion. The performance results of various systems using the NAS parallel benchmarks are presented. These results represent the best results that have been reported to the authors for the specific systems listed. They represent implementation efforts performed by personnel in both the NAS Applied Research Branch of NASA Ames Research Center and in other organizations.

  13. NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEY (NAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Alcohol Survey (NAS) is designed to assess the trends in drinking practices and problems in the national population, including attitudes, norms, treatment and experiences and adverse consequences. It also studies the effects of public policy on drinking practices (i.e., ...

  14. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-11-15

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as they once were for comparing high-end system performance, they continue to be studied and analyzed a great deal in the high-performance computing community. The acronym 'NAS' originally stood for the Numerical Aeronautical Simulation Program at NASA Ames. The name of this organization was subsequently changed to the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Program, and more recently to the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Center, although the acronym remains 'NAS.' The developers of the original NPB suite were David H. Bailey, Eric Barszcz, John Barton, David Browning, Russell Carter, LeoDagum, Rod Fatoohi, Samuel Fineberg, Paul Frederickson, Thomas Lasinski, Rob Schreiber, Horst Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan and Sisira Weeratunga. The original NAS Parallel Benchmarks consisted of eight individual benchmark problems, each of which focused on some aspect of scientific computing. The principal focus was in computational aerophysics, although most of these benchmarks have much broader relevance, since in a much larger sense they are typical of many real-world scientific computing applications. The NPB suite grew out of the need for a more rational procedure to select new supercomputers for acquisition by NASA. The emergence of commercially available highly parallel computer systems in the late 1980s offered an attractive alternative to parallel vector supercomputers that had been the mainstay of high-end scientific computing. However, the introduction of highly parallel systems was accompanied by a regrettable level of hype, not only on the part of the commercial vendors but even, in some cases, by scientists using the systems. As a result, it was difficult to discern whether the new systems offered any fundamental performance advantage over vector supercomputers, and, if so, which of the parallel offerings would be most useful in real-world scientific computation. In part to draw attention to some of the performance reporting abuses prevalent at the time, the present author wrote a humorous essay 'Twelve Ways to Fool the Masses,' which described in a light-hearted way a number of the questionable ways in which both vendor marketing people and scientists were inflating and distorting their performance results. All of this underscored the need for an objective and scientifically defensible measure to compare performance on these systems.

  15. NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subhash, Saini; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a pencil and paper fashion i.e. the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: Cray C90, Cray T'90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: Cray T3D, IBM SP2 and IBM SP-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); (c) Symmetric Multiprocessing Processors: Convex Exemplar SPP1000, Cray J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL. We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention NAS future plans of NPB.

  16. Update on NAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the approval of the governing bodies of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the first phase of a major reorganization of the National Research Council [Eos, March 16, p. 194] is well underway. As part of the reorganization—which consolidates seven existing assemblies and commissions into three commissions, two offices, and an independent board—the new Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources will combine the activities of the former Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (AMPS) and the former Commission on Natural Resources (CNR).Herbert Friedman and Robert M. White, chairman of the assembly and of the commission, respectively, will cochair the new commission for 1 year. Charles K. Reed, executive director of the former assembly, is retiring but will serve as senior advisor to help establish the new commission and will serve as a member of the commission through June 1983. Raphael G. Kasper, executive secretary of the Environmental Studies Board, will be the commission's acting executive director.

  17. Storage : DAS / SAN / NAS Dploiement

    E-print Network

    Collette. Sébastien

    Modular Smart Array (utilisable en DAS mais aussi connectable à un SAN) #12;6 Direct Attached Storage... Storage : DAS, NAS, SAN · Direct Attached Storage · Network Attached Storage · Storage Area Network 6 même espace de stockage ­ Via les protocoles classiques SMB/CIFS, NFS, AppleTalk, FTP, HTTP

  18. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for this Project is limited ($150M over the five years), the focus is on reducing the technical barriers where NASA has unique capabilities. As a result, technical areas, such as Sense and Avoid (SAA) and beyond line of sight command and control will not be addressed. While these are critical barriers to UAS access, currently, there is a great deal of global effort being exercised to address these challenge areas. Instead, specific technology development in areas where there is certainty that NASA can advance the research to high technology readiness levels will be the Project's focus. Specific sub-projects include Separation Assurance, Human Systems Integration, Communications, Certification, and Integrated Test and Evaluation. Each sub-project will transfer technologies to relevant key stakeholders and decision makers through research transition teams, technology forums, or through other analogous means.

  19. New NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; Saphir, William; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Woo, Alex; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NPB2 (NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks 2) is an implementation, based on Fortran and the MPI (message passing interface) message passing standard, of the original NAS Parallel Benchmark specifications. NPB2 programs are run with little or no tuning, in contrast to NPB vendor implementations, which are highly optimized for specific architectures. NPB2 results complement, rather than replace, NPB results. Because they have not been optimized by vendors, NPB2 implementations approximate the performance a typical user can expect for a portable parallel program on distributed memory parallel computers. Together these results provide an insightful comparison of the real-world performance of high-performance computers. New NPB2 features: New implementation (CG), new workstation class problem sizes, new serial sample versions, more performance statistics.

  20. NAS Panel faults export controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Supercomputing 2002: NAS Demo Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hyperwall is a new concept in visual supercomputing, conceived and developed by the NAS Exploratory Computing Group. The hyperwall will allow simultaneous and coordinated visualization and interaction of an array of processes, such as a the computations of a parameter study or the parallel evolutions of a genetic algorithm population. Making over 65 million pixels available to the user, the hyperwall will enable and elicit qualitatively new ways of leveraging computers to accomplish science. It is currently still unclear whether we will be able to transport the hyperwall to SC02. The crucial display frame still has not been completed by the metal fabrication shop, although they promised an August delivery. Also, we are still working the fragile node issue, which may require transplantation of the compute nodes from the present 2U cases into 3U cases. This modification will increase the present 3-rack configuration to 5 racks.

  2. Espaos de Escala Discretos Anderson Cunha, Ralph Teixeira e Luiz Velho

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    observável. Se observamos uma oresta e diminuímos a escala, vamos observar uma árvore dessa oresta. Diminuindo a escala, observamos um galho dessa árvore. Diminuindo ainda mais a escala, observamos uma folha apropriada. Para a localização dessa casa no planeta a escala 1:1.000.000 é apropriada. A escolha apropriada

  3. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

  4. Communication Characteristics in the NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    E-print Network

    Communication Characteristics in the NAS Parallel Benchmarks Ahmad Faraj Xin Yuan Department-- In this paper, we investigate the communication characteris- tics of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) implementation of the NAS parallel benchmarks and study the effectiveness of com- piled communication for MPI

  5. I. H. Tan1, M. Ueda1, R. S. Dallaqua1, J. O. Rossi1, A. F. Beloto2 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 1Laboratrio Associado de Plasma

    E-print Network

    minimized by orienting samples parallel to plasma stream #12;Vacuum arc: Al cathode Tungsten grid anode HV Espaciais ­ 1Laboratório Associado de Plasma 2Laboratório Associado de Materiais e Sensores, São José dos Conference on Plasma-Based Ion Implantation (PBII) San Antonio, TX, USA Treatment of Polymers by Plasma

  6. NAS-current status and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) has met its first major milestone, the NAS Processing System Network (NPSN) Initial Operating Configuration (IOC). The program has met its goal of providing a national supercomputer facility capable of greatly enhancing the Nation's research and development efforts. Furthermore, the program is fulfilling its pathfinder role by defining and implementing a paradigm for supercomputing system environments. The IOC is only the begining and the NAS Program will aggressively continue to develop and implement emerging supercomputer, communications, storage, and software technologies to strengthen computations as a critical element in supporting the Nation's leadership role in aeronautics.

  7. NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) User Services Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandori, John; Hamilton, Chris; Niggley, C. E.; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing), its goals, and its mainframe computer assets. Also covered are its functions, including systems monitoring and technical support.

  8. Status and projections of the NAS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Frank R.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program has completed development of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network (NPSN). This is the first milestone in the continuing and pathfinding effort to provide state-of-the-art supercomputing for aeronautics research and development. The NPSN, available to a nation-wide community of remote users, provides a uniform UNIX environment over a network of host computers ranging from the Cray-2 supercomputer to advanced scientific workstations. This system, coupled with a vendor-independent base of common user interface and network software, presents a new paradigm for supercomputing environments. Background leading to the NAS program, its programmatic goals and strategies, technical goals and objectives, and the development activities leading to the current NPSN configuration are presented. Program status, near-term plans, and plans for the next major milestone, the extended operating configuration, are also discussed.

  9. DISTRIBUCION DE PERSONAL INVESTIGADOR DE PLANTILLA por reas cientficas, escalas y sexo.

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    DISTRIBUCION DE PERSONAL INVESTIGADOR DE PLANTILLA DEL CSIC por áreas científicas, escalas y sexo (totales por escla y sexo) Todas areas HOMBRES MUJERES TOTAL % MUJERES PI 398 71 469 15% IC 406 182 588 31 Distribución de personal (total 2343) por escala y sexo 17% 17% 34% 21% 8% 3% PI IC CT CT IC PI Hombres por

  10. American Physical Society comments on NAS Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrieffer, Robert; Bromley, Allen

    Here are relevant excerpts from the American Physical Society's (APS) comments on the NAS report, as reported in FYI, the AIP bulletin of science policy news."Dr. Press and his panel members organized their collected wisdom into 13 recommendations. We concur with most of them, but find substantial difficulty with several."

  11. Dilute nitride GaInNAs and GaInNAsSb for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Soong, Wai Mun; Steer, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shiyong; Ng, Jo Shien; David, John P. R.

    2012-02-01

    The dilute nitride GaInNAs(Sb) alloy system is challenging to grow and defects can cause short diffusion lengths and high background doping densities. Despite these difficulties, extremely high cell efficiencies have recently been achieved in multi-junction solar cells utilising 1 eV GaInNAs absorber layers. This study aims to highlight the tradeoffs between the electrical and optical characteristics related to the performance of GaInNAs(Sb) diode structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy , with band gaps ranging from 0.90 to 1.04 eV. Post-growth annealing was necessary in some instances to reduce the background doping and dark current densities. The incorporation of Sb into GaInNAs has enabled the possibility of producing a dilute nitride cell with a band gap lower than 0.80 eV, although with an increased dark current.

  12. NAS Panel endorses science center concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Science and technology centers, as proposed by President Ronald Reagan in his January 1987 State of the Union message, could make “significant contributions to science and to the nation's economic competitiveness,” according to a new report by a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel. What will be necessary to realize these contributions, the panel cautioned, are proper management, adequate resources, and, “above all, the selection of programs for which the centers are the most effective form of organization.”NSF plans to support science and technology centers, beginning October 1, 1988, which is the start of fiscal year 1988. NSF requested guidance from the NAS panel in implementing the program. Although other government agencies will participate in the program, NSF will play the primary role.

  13. NAS Grid Benchmarks. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob; Frumkin, Michael; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We provide a paper-and-pencil specification of a benchmark suite for computational grids. It is based on the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB). NGB problems are presented as data flow graphs encapsulating an instance of a slightly modified NPB task in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending/receiving initialization data. Like NPB, NGB specifies several different classes (problem sizes). In this report we describe classes S, W, and A, and provide verification values for each. The implementor has the freedom to choose any language, grid environment, security model, fault tolerance/error correction mechanism, etc., as long as the resulting implementation passes the verification test and reports the turnaround time of the benchmark.

  14. NAS Technical Summaries, March 1993 - February 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA created the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program in 1987 to focus resources on solving critical problems in aeroscience and related disciplines by utilizing the power of the most advanced supercomputers available. The NAS Program provides scientists with the necessary computing power to solve today's most demanding computational fluid dynamics problems and serves as a pathfinder in integrating leading-edge supercomputing technologies, thus benefitting other supercomputer centers in government and industry. The 1993-94 operational year concluded with 448 high-speed processor projects and 95 parallel projects representing NASA, the Department of Defense, other government agencies, private industry, and universities. This document provides a glimpse at some of the significant scientific results for the year.

  15. Implementation of NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A number of features make Java an attractive but a debatable choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) we have implemented NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would move Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

  16. NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results 3-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Bailey, David H.; Walter, Howard (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion, i.e., the complete details of the problem are given in a NAS technical document. Except for a few restrictions, benchmark implementors are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: CRAY C90, CRAY T90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: CRAY T3D, IBM SP2-WN (Wide Nodes), and IBM SP2-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); and (c) Symmetric Multiprocessors: Convex Exemplar SPPIOOO, CRAY J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL (75 MHz). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention future NAS plans for the NPB.

  17. UAS Integration in the NAS Project - Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the UAS integration in the NAS Project is to contribute capabili1es that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and opera1onal challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS.

  18. Carrier spin relaxation in GaInNAsSb/GaNAsSb/GaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, T.; Nosho, H.; Li, L. H.; Harmand, J. C.; Lu, S. L.; Tackeuchi, A.

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated the carrier spin relaxation in GaInNAsSb/GaNAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW) by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The sample consists of an 8-nm-thick GaIn0.36N0.006AsSb0.015 well, 5-nm-thick GaN0.01AsSb0.11 intermediate barriers and 100-nm-thick GaAs barriers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs(100) substrate. The spin relaxation time and recombination lifetime at 10 K are measured to be 228 ps and 151 ps, respectively. As a reference, we have also obtained a spin relaxation time of 125 ps and a recombination lifetime of 63 ps for GaInNAs/GaNAs/GaAs QW. This result shows that crystal quality is slightly improved by adding Sb, although these short carrier lifetimes mainly originate from a nonradiative recombination. These spin relaxation times are longer than the 36 ps spin relaxation time of InGaAs/InP QWs and shorter than the 2 ns spin relaxation time of GaInNAs/GaAs QW.

  19. Carrier spin relaxation in GaInNAsSb/GaNAsSb/GaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Asami, T.; Nosho, H.; Tackeuchi, A.; Li, L. H.; Harmand, J. C.; Lu, S. L.

    2011-12-23

    We have investigated the carrier spin relaxation in GaInNAsSb/GaNAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW) by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The sample consists of an 8-nm-thick GaIn{sub 0.36}N{sub 0.006}AsSb{sub 0.015} well, 5-nm-thick GaN{sub 0.01}AsSb{sub 0.11} intermediate barriers and 100-nm-thick GaAs barriers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs(100) substrate. The spin relaxation time and recombination lifetime at 10 K are measured to be 228 ps and 151 ps, respectively. As a reference, we have also obtained a spin relaxation time of 125 ps and a recombination lifetime of 63 ps for GaInNAs/GaNAs/GaAs QW. This result shows that crystal quality is slightly improved by adding Sb, although these short carrier lifetimes mainly originate from a nonradiative recombination. These spin relaxation times are longer than the 36 ps spin relaxation time of InGaAs/InP QWs and shorter than the 2 ns spin relaxation time of GaInNAs/GaAs QW.

  20. NAS Parallel Benchmarks. 2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new problem size, called Class D, for the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB), whose MPI source code implementation is being released as NPB 2.4. A brief rationale is given for how the new class is derived. We also describe the modifications made to the MPI (Message Passing Interface) implementation to allow the new class to be run on systems with 32-bit integers, and with moderate amounts of memory. Finally, we give the verification values for the new problem size.

  1. NAS Parallel Benchmarks, Multi-Zone Versions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Haopiang, Jin

    2003-01-01

    We describe an extension of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) suite that involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy, which is common among structured-mesh production flow solver codes in use at NASA Ames and elsewhere, provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Since the individual application benchmarks also allow fine-grain parallelism themselves, this NPB extension, named NPB Multi-Zone (NPB-MZ), is a good candidate for testing hybrid and multi-level parallelization tools and strategies.

  2. Remote access for NAS: Supercomputing in a university environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G.; Olson, B.; Swisshelm, J.; Pryor, D.; Ziebarth, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment was designed to assist the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Project Office in the testing and evaluation of long haul communications for remote users. The objectives of this work were to: (1) use foreign workstations to remotely access the NAS system; (2) provide NAS with a link to a large university-based computing facility which can serve as a model for a regional node of the Long-Haul Communications Subsystem (LHCS); and (3) provide a tail circuit to the University of Colorado a Boulder thereby simulating the complete communications path from NAS through a regional node to an end-user.

  3. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this…

  4. The Need for Vendor Source Code at NAS. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Russell; Acheson, Steve; Blaylock, Bruce; Brock, David; Cardo, Nick; Ciotti, Bob; Poston, Alan; Wong, Parkson; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Facility has a long standing practice of maintaining buildable source code for installed hardware. There are two reasons for this: NAS's designated pathfinding role, and the need to maintain a smoothly running operational capacity given the widely diversified nature of the vendor installations. NAS has a need to maintain support capabilities when vendors are not able; diagnose and remedy hardware or software problems where applicable; and to support ongoing system software development activities whether or not the relevant vendors feel support is justified. This note provides an informal history of these activities at NAS, and brings together the general principles that drive the requirement that systems integrated into the NAS environment run binaries built from source code, onsite.

  5. Física e Arte nas Estações do Ano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; da Conceição Barbosa Lima, Maria; Navarro Vasconcellos das Mercês, Maria

    2004-12-01

    The paper deals with the subject of the Four Seasons, exploring elements of Science and the Art in order to motivate students or public of museums of science and technology to understand it from their current cultural experiences and of old times. Physics joins to Astronomy to explain the phenomenon, while the use of Music and Painting make possible the immersion in the subject in way to many trips to the imagination capable to awake emotions.A proposal didactic is presented and justified for some consensus of the research in the area of teaching-learning of science, since that related to the persistent alternative conceptions concerning the causes of the changes observed at the different times of the year until the qualitative modelling of phenomena that appeals three-dimensional pedagogical models. Such proposal was developed in the activity named " Hiper interesting Talk: The Four Seasons, Science and Art" in the first Sunday of August/2003 in the Museum of Astronomy, MAST. O artigo trata do tema das Estações do Ano, explorando elementos da Ciência e da Arte como forma de motivar estudantes ou público de museus de ciência e tecnologia a compreendê-lo a partir de vivências culturais atuais e de outras épocas. A Física se junta à Astronomia para explicar o fenômeno, enquanto a Música e a Pintura possibilitam a imersão no tema em meio a muitas viagens à imaginação capazes de despertar emoções.Uma proposta didática é apresentada e justificada por consensos das muitas pesquisas na área de ensino-aprendizagem de ciências, desde os que se referem às persistentes concepções alternativas acerca das causas das mudanças observadas nas diferentes épocas do ano até à modelagem qualitativa de fenômenos que recorre a modelos pedagógicos tridimensionais. Tal proposta foi desenvolvida na atividade "Bate papo Hiperinteressante: As Quatro Estações, Ciência e Arte" realizada no primeiro domingo do mês de agosto de 2003 no Museu de Astronomia.

  6. UAS Integration in the NAS FY15 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenburg, Davis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS progress and future directions.

  7. UAS Integration in the NAS Project - FY 14 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenberg, Davis

    2014-01-01

    This briefing gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS Projects progress and future directions.

  8. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  9. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks 2.1 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saphir, William; Woo, Alex; Yarrow, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    We present performance results for version 2.1 of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the following architectures: IBM SP2/66 MHz; SGI Power Challenge Array/90 MHz; Cray Research T3D; and Intel Paragon. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks are a widely-recognized suite of benchmarks originally designed to compare the performance of highly parallel computers with that of traditional supercomputers.

  10. Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  11. Experimental studies on atmospheric Stirling engine NAS-2

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hiroichi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Ohtomo, Michihiro

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric hot air Stirling engine NAS-1 and 2 have a simple flat rubber sheet diaphragm as their power piston, and they have been experimentally studied at Nihon University for several years continuously, with the target of to get more than 100 watts shaft power by atmospheric air with simple construction and cheap material. The first NAS-1 was intended to be a solar heated engine using television glass and wood for cheap cost, but it failed by thermal break of glass, so the improved NAS-2 is changed to be heated by gas burner, using metallic materials in all parts except rubber power piston. Other than this rubber sheet diaphragm, NAS-2 has many features as using James Watt crank mechanism, high finny copper tube for conventional commercial heat exchanger, and two kinds of hot gas heaters, etc. About the rubber sheet for the power piston, the thickness of the sheet was changed from 2 mm to 6 mm gradually to known what thickness is best, and it is found that about 5 mm is best for this engine. After trying many improvements on this engine, NAS-2 has produced about 130 watt shaft power with indicated power of 350 watt at 1994. In this paper detail of many features, history, results and experiments of these NAS engines are reported.

  12. DISTRIBUCION DE PERSONAL INVESTIGADOR DE PLANTILLA por reas cientficas, escalas y sexo.

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    DISTRIBUCION DE PERSONAL INVESTIGADOR DE PLANTILLA DEL CSIC por áreas científicas, escalas y sexo (totales por escla y sexo) Hombres Mujeres Total PI 373 68 441 IC 411 166 577 CT 819 515 1334 Total 1610 Científicas y sexos 16% 17% 35% 22% 7% 3% PI H IC H CT H CT D IC D PI D H O M B R E S M U J E R E S Hombres 23

  13. Photoreflectance spectroscopy of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrawiec, R.; Andrzejewski, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Gollub, D.; Forchel, A.

    2005-05-01

    Photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to study of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. PR features related to optical transitions in the active part of the step-like QW structure, i.e. GaInNAs/GaInNAs QW, as well as PR features related to transitions above the step-like barrier (SLB) have been clearly observed and analysed in this paper. The analysis of the QW transitions gives information about the number of confined states in the active part of the step-like QW structure. In addition, the analysis of the second portion of PR signal gives information about the band gap energy of the SLB and optical transitions between hole and electron levels confined above the SLB.

  14. National Air Space (NAS) Data Exchange Environment Through 2060

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project focuses on capabilities to improve safety, capacity and efficiency of the National Air Space (NAS). In order to achieve those objectives, NASA sought industry-Government partnerships to research and identify solutions for traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations, airport surface operations and similar forward-looking air-traffic modernization (ATM) concepts. Data exchanges over NAS being the key enabler for most of these ATM concepts, the Sub-Topic area 3 of the CTD project sought to identify technology candidates that can satisfy air-to-air and air/ground communications needs of the NAS in the year 2060 timeframe. Honeywell, under a two-year contract with NASA, is working on this communications technology research initiative. This report summarizes Honeywell's research conducted during the second year of the study task.

  15. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  16. High-speed GaInNAs laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondow, Masahiko; Nakahara, Kouji; Fujisaki, S.; Tanaka, Shigehisa; Kudo, M.; Taniguchi, Tadashi; Terano, A.; Uchiyama, H.

    2004-05-01

    The explosive growth of Internet/intranet traffic has created a strong demand for cost-effective high-speed light-sources to be used in local access networks and data links. The frequency of relaxation oscillation (fr) is a major factor that restricts the high-speed operation of laser diodes. To achieve a high fr, the material of an active layer should have a large differential gain. By using GaInNAs, very deep quantum wells, especially in the conduction band can be formed. Deep quantum wells bring a large differential gain. In this paper, we show how GaInNAs lasers can be applied in this application

  17. Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense ?"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S ? Na2S5 + Na2S4? Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  18. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 3 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.

  19. Unstructured Adaptive (UA) NAS Parallel Benchmark. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Huiyu; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak; Mavriplis, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We present a complete specification of a new benchmark for measuring the performance of modern computer systems when solving scientific problems featuring irregular, dynamic memory accesses. It complements the existing NAS Parallel Benchmark suite. The benchmark involves the solution of a stylized heat transfer problem in a cubic domain, discretized on an adaptively refined, unstructured mesh.

  20. Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment (NAS Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. NAS_phthalates_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="left" border="1" alt="Cover ...

  1. Applications Performance on NAS Intel Paragon XP/S - 15#

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Copper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division received an Intel Touchstone Sigma prototype model Paragon XP/S- 15 in February, 1993. The i860 XP microprocessor with an integrated floating point unit and operating in dual -instruction mode gives peak performance of 75 million floating point operations (NIFLOPS) per second for 64 bit floating point arithmetic. It is used in the Paragon XP/S-15 which has been installed at NAS, NASA Ames Research Center. The NAS Paragon has 208 nodes and its peak performance is 15.6 GFLOPS. Here, we will report on early experience using the Paragon XP/S- 15. We have tested its performance using both kernels and applications of interest to NAS. We have measured the performance of BLAS 1, 2 and 3 both assembly-coded and Fortran coded on NAS Paragon XP/S- 15. Furthermore, we have investigated the performance of a single node one-dimensional FFT, a distributed two-dimensional FFT and a distributed three-dimensional FFT Finally, we measured the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the Paragon and compare it with the performance obtained on other highly parallel machines, such as CM-5, CRAY T3D, IBM SP I, etc. In particular, we investigated the following issues, which can strongly affect the performance of the Paragon: a. Impact of the operating system: Intel currently uses as a default an operating system OSF/1 AD from the Open Software Foundation. The paging of Open Software Foundation (OSF) server at 22 MB to make more memory available for the application degrades the performance. We found that when the limit of 26 NIB per node out of 32 MB available is reached, the application is paged out of main memory using virtual memory. When the application starts paging, the performance is considerably reduced. We found that dynamic memory allocation can help applications performance under certain circumstances. b. Impact of data cache on the i860/XP: We measured the performance of the BLAS both assembly coded and Fortran coded. We found that the measured performance of assembly-coded BLAS is much less than what memory bandwidth limitation would predict. The influence of data cache on different sizes of vectors is also investigated using one-dimensional FFTs. c. Impact of processor layout: There are several different ways processors can be laid out within the two-dimensional grid of processors on the Paragon. We have used the FFT example to investigate performance differences based on processors layout.

  2. NAS Grid Benchmarks: A Tool for Grid Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an approach for benchmarking services provided by computational Grids. It is based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called NAS Grid Benchmark (NGB) in this paper. We present NGB as a data flow graph encapsulating an instance of an NPB code in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending/receiving initialization data. These nodes may be mapped to the same or different Grid machines. Like NPB, NGB will specify several different classes (problem sizes). NGB also specifies the generic Grid services sufficient for running the bench-mark. The implementor has the freedom to choose any specific Grid environment. However, we describe a reference implementation in Java, and present some scenarios for using NGB.

  3. Hydrogen and carbon incorporation in GaInNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Takagishi, S.

    2000-12-01

    We have investigated the dependence of impurity incorporation of GaInNAs on the In concentration, substrate orientation, and growth temperature by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). GaInNAs films were grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaAs substrates. It was found that H and C concentrations were strongly related to the N concentration in the solid and the dimethylhydrazine (DMHy) flux at the surface. Furthermore, intentional Si-doping study revealed that incorporated H was stable, which is most likely a consequence of neutral bonding N, although the activation energy of H was as large as 197 kcal/mol derived from the observed growth-temperature dependence.

  4. Evaluating the Information Power Grid using the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaartm Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) are a collection of synthetic distributed applications designed to rate the performance and functionality of computational grids. We compare several implementations of the NGB to determine programmability and efficiency of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG), whose services are mostly based on the Globus Toolkit. We report on the overheads involved in porting existing NGB reference implementations to the IPG. No changes were made to the component tasks of the NGB can still be improved.

  5. Implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several features make Java an attractive choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

  6. Performance and Scalability of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several features make Java an attractive choice for scientific applications. In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for scientific applications.

  7. Autotasked Performance in the NAS Workload: A Statistical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, R. L.; Stockdale, I. E.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the workload performance of a production quality FORTRAN code for five different Cray Y-MP hardware and system software configurations is performed. The analysis was based on an experimental procedure that was designed to minimize correlations between the number of requested CPUs and the time of day the runs were initiated. Observed autotasking over heads were significantly larger for the set of jobs that requested the maximum number of CPUs. Speedups for UNICOS 6 releases show consistent wall clock speedups in the workload of around 2. which is quite good. The observed speed ups were very similar for the set of jobs that requested 8 CPUs and the set that requested 4 CPUs. The original NAS algorithm for determining charges to the user discourages autotasking in the workload. A new charging algorithm to be applied to jobs run in the NQS multitasking queues also discourages NAS users from using auto tasking. The new algorithm favors jobs requesting 8 CPUs over those that request less, although the jobs requesting 8 CPUs experienced significantly higher over head and presumably degraded system throughput. A charging algorithm is presented that has the following desirable characteristics when applied to the data: higher overhead jobs requesting 8 CPUs are penalized when compared to moderate overhead jobs requesting 4 CPUs, thereby providing a charging incentive to NAS users to use autotasking in a manner that provides them with significantly improved turnaround while also maintaining system throughput.

  8. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  9. Uso de hbitat del jagUar a escala regional en Un paisaje dominado por actividades hUmanas

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    101 Uso de hábitat del jagUar a escala regional en Un paisaje dominado por actividades hUmanas en, fragmentándolas y reduciendo el hábitat disponible para la fauna silvestre. Las poblaciones de jaguar han la Península de Yucatán mantiene la población más numerosa de jaguar en México. La conservación de la

  10. NAS Requirements Checklist for Job Queuing/Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, James Patton

    1996-01-01

    The increasing reliability of parallel systems and clusters of computers has resulted in these systems becoming more attractive for true production workloads. Today, the primary obstacle to production use of clusters of computers is the lack of a functional and robust Job Management System for parallel applications. This document provides a checklist of NAS requirements for job queuing and scheduling in order to make most efficient use of parallel systems and clusters for parallel applications. Future requirements are also identified to assist software vendors with design planning.

  11. Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

  12. Concepts of Integration for UAS Operations in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is the lack of an onboard pilot that can comply with the legal requirement identified in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. UAS will be expected to demonstrate the means to perform the function of see and avoid while preserving the safety level of the airspace and the efficiency of the air traffic system. This paper introduces a Sense and Avoid (SAA) concept for integration of UAS into the NAS that is currently being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and identifies areas that require additional experimental evaluation to further inform various elements of the concept. The concept design rests on interoperability principles that take into account both the Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment as well as existing systems such as the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Specifically, the concept addresses the determination of well clear values that are large enough to avoid issuance of TCAS corrective Resolution Advisories, undue concern by pilots of proximate aircraft and issuance of controller traffic alerts. The concept also addresses appropriate declaration times for projected losses of well clear conditions and maneuvers to regain well clear separation.

  13. Parallelization of NAS Benchmarks for Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents our experiences of parallelizing the sequential implementation of NAS benchmarks using compiler directives on SGI Origin2000 distributed shared memory (DSM) system. Porting existing applications to new high performance parallel and distributed computing platforms is a challenging task. Ideally, a user develops a sequential version of the application, leaving the task of porting to new generations of high performance computing systems to parallelization tools and compilers. Due to the simplicity of programming shared-memory multiprocessors, compiler developers have provided various facilities to allow the users to exploit parallelism. Native compilers on SGI Origin2000 support multiprocessing directives to allow users to exploit loop-level parallelism in their programs. Additionally, supporting tools can accomplish this process automatically and present the results of parallelization to the users. We experimented with these compiler directives and supporting tools by parallelizing sequential implementation of NAS benchmarks. Results reported in this paper indicate that with minimal effort, the performance gain is comparable with the hand-parallelized, carefully optimized, message-passing implementations of the same benchmarks.

  14. NAS/NRC Report:NAS/NRC Report: Health Risks from Dioxin and RelatedHealth Risks from Dioxin and Related

    E-print Network

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    NAS/NRC Report:NAS/NRC Report: Health Risks from Dioxin and RelatedHealth Risks from Dioxin Provost for Research University of WashingtonUniversity of Washington #12;Dioxins, Dibenzofurans and PCBs · Chlorinated Dioxins represent a class of compounds, of which 7 are included in EPA regulations (Contaminants

  15. [Psychometric properties of the Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE)].

    PubMed

    Godoy Izquierdo, Débora; Godoy García, Juan F; López-Chicheri García, Isabel; Martínez Delgado, Antonio; Gutiérrez Jiménez, Susana; Vázquez Vázquez, Luisa

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the theoretical construct of and an instrument for its assessment, the Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE; in English, Coping with Stress Self-Efficacy Scale), as well as the results obtained concerning its psychometric properties from an adult population. 812 individuals, aged 18 to 64 years old ( M = 26.46, SD = 9.93, 62.6% females and 37.4% males), recruited from various contexts, participated in this study. Participants completed the EAEAE along with other measures of constructs theoretically related to this specific self-efficacy. The EAEAE shows appropriate reliability in its complete form as well as in its two subscales of Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations, and adequate factorial construct validity (which reveals the bi-dimensionality of the instrument), and convergent validity with the remaining measures. The characteristics of brevity and ease of application of the scale, in addition to its adequate psychometric properties, indicate that the EAEAE is an appropriate tool to assess and investigate coping with stress self-efficacy in research as well as clinical settings. PMID:18206079

  16. Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, entrepreneurship has gained an important role in many economic and social policies, with the consequent growth of entrepreneurial research in many social areas. However, in the Spanish psychometric context, there is not an updated scale including recent contributions to entrepreneurship attitudes literature. The aim of this study is to present and validate a new scale named Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes-EAEE, (Entrepreneurial Attitudes Scale for Students, EASS), in two samples of high school and university Spanish students. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey of 524 high school and undergraduate students, from Valencia (Spain). Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were estimated, together with reliability and validity evidence of the scale. Results offered evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of the EASS. The CFAs showed overall and analytical adequate fit indexes (? 2 (120) = 163.19 (p < .01), GFI = .906, CFI = .959, SRMR = .044, RMSEA = .040 [CI .022-.054]); reliability indices of the entrepreneurial attitudes were appropriate for most of the entrepreneurial attitudes (? were between .63 and .87 for the different dimensions); and external evidence relating entrepreneurial dimensions to personality traits was similar to in previous studies. The scale could be a useful instrument both for previous diagnosis and effectiveness assessment of programs on entrepreneurship promotion. PMID:26055696

  17. NAS Miramar Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell demonstration status

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Part of M-C Power`s Technology Development Program, this MCFC power plant is designed to supply 250 kW of electricity to Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar. It also cogenerates steam for the district heating system. The power plant is a fully integrated unit incorporating an advanced design fuel cell based on years of laboratory tests and a prior field test. This demonstration incorporates many innovative features, one of which is the plate type reformer which processes the natural gas fuel for use in the fuel cell. M-C Power Corp. has completed the design, fabrication, and conditioning of a 250-cell fuel cell stack, which was shipped to the site where it will be installed, tested, and evaluated as a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept MCFC Power Plant. (Originally going to Kaiser Permanente`s Sand Diego Medical Center, it was relocated to Miramar.)

  18. 1.15 Å resolution structure of the proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 PDZ domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Chingakham R.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Chowdhury, Wasimul Q.; Geanes, Eric S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2014-03-25

    The proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 binds to the proteasome subunit Rpt5 using its PDZ domain. The structure of the Nas2 PDZ domain has been determined. The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa protease dedicated to the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this complex containing 66 polypeptides is assisted by at least nine proteasome-specific chaperones. One of these, Nas2, binds to the proteasomal AAA-ATPase subunit Rpt5. The PDZ domain of Nas2 binds to the C-terminal tail of Rpt5; however, it does not require the C-terminus of Rpt5 for binding. Here, the 1.15 Å resolution structure of the PDZ domain of Nas2 is reported. This structure will provide a basis for further insights regarding the structure and function of Nas2 in proteasome assembly.

  19. Performance Characteristics of the Multi-Zone NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new suite of computational benchmarks that models applications featuring multiple levels of parallelism. Such parallelism is often available in realistic flow computations on systems of grids, but had not previously been captured in bench-marks. The new suite, named NPB Multi-Zone, is extended from the NAS Parallel Benchmarks suite, and involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Three reference implementations are available: one serial, one hybrid using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP, and another hybrid using a shared memory multi-level programming model (SMP+OpenMP). We examine the effectiveness of hybrid parallelization paradigms in these implementations on three different parallel computers. We also use an empirical formula to investigate the performance characteristics of the multi-zone benchmarks.

  20. NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  1. Performance Analysis of the NAS Y-MP Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, Robert J.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the performance characteristics of the computational workloads on the NAS Cray Y-MP machines, a Y-MP 832 and later a Y-MP 8128. Hardware measurements indicated that the Y-MP workload performance matured over time, ultimately sustaining an average throughput of 0.8 GFLOPS and a vector operation fraction of 87%. The measurements also revealed an operation rate exceeding 1 per clock period, a well-balanced architecture featuring a strong utilization of vector functional units, and an efficient memory organization. Introduction of the larger memory 8128 increased throughput by allowing a more efficient utilization of CPUs. Throughput also depended on the metering of the batch queues; low-idle Saturday workloads required a buffer of small jobs to prevent memory starvation of the CPU. UNICOS required about 7% of total CPU time to service the 832 workloads; this overhead decreased to 5% for the 8128 workloads. While most of the system time went to service I/O requests, efficient scheduling prevented excessive idle due to I/O wait. System measurements disclosed no obvious bottlenecks in the response of the machine and UNICOS to the workloads. In most cases, Cray-provided software tools were- quite sufficient for measuring the performance of both the machine and operating, system.

  2. Performance Comparison of HPF and MPI Based NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash

    1997-01-01

    Compilers supporting High Performance Form (HPF) features first appeared in late 1994 and early 1995 from Applied Parallel Research (APR), Digital Equipment Corporation, and The Portland Group (PGI). IBM introduced an HPF compiler for the IBM RS/6000 SP2 in April of 1996. Over the past two years, these implementations have shown steady improvement in terms of both features and performance. The performance of various hardware/ programming model (HPF and MPI) combinations will be compared, based on latest NAS Parallel Benchmark results, thus providing a cross-machine and cross-model comparison. Specifically, HPF based NPB results will be compared with MPI based NPB results to provide perspective on performance currently obtainable using HPF versus MPI or versus hand-tuned implementations such as those supplied by the hardware vendors. In addition, we would also present NPB, (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu CAPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, and SGI Origin2000. We would also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  3. A Programming Model Performance Study Using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shan, Hongzhang; Blagojevi?, Filip; Min, Seung-Jai; Hargrove, Paul; Jin, Haoqiang; Fuerlinger, Karl; Koniges, Alice; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Harnessing the power of multicore platforms is challenging due to the additional levels of parallelism present. In this paper we use the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to study three programming models, MPI, OpenMP and PGAS to understand their performance and memory usage characteristics on current multicore architectures. To understand these characteristics we use the Integrated Performance Monitoring tool and other ways to measure communication versus computation time, as well as the fraction of the run time spent in OpenMP. The benchmarks are run on two different Cray XT5 systems and an Infiniband cluster. Our results show that in general the threemore »programming models exhibit very similar performance characteristics. In a few cases, OpenMP is significantly faster because it explicitly avoids communication. For these particular cases, we were able to re-write the UPC versions and achieve equal performance to OpenMP. Using OpenMP was also the most advantageous in terms of memory usage. Also we compare performance differences between the two Cray systems, which have quad-core and hex-core processors. We show that at scale the performance is almost always slower on the hex-core system because of increased contention for network resources.« less

  4. Nitrogen incorporation effects on gain properties of GaInNAs lasers: Experiment and theory

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Nitrogen incorporation effects on gain properties of GaInNAs lasers: Experiment and theory A April 2005; published online 12 May 2005 Gain properties of GaInNAs lasers with different nitrogen concentrations in the quantum wells are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Whereas nitrogen

  5. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments under fixed-price... Provisions and Clauses 852.236-83 Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS). As... Analysis System (NAS).” Payments Under Fixed-Price Construction Contracts (JUL 2002) The clause...

  6. Natural Attenuation Software (NAS): A computer program for estimating remediation times of contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Brauner, S.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a modeling system called Natural Attenuation Software (NAS). NAS was designed as a screening tool to estimate times of remediation (TORs), associated with monitored natural attenuation (MNA), to lower groundwater contaminant concentrations to regulatory limits. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include advection, dispersion, sorption, biodegradation, and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution. This paper discusses the three main interactive components of NAS: 1) estimation of the target source concentration required for a plume extent to contract to regulatory limits, 2) estimation of the time required for NAFL contaminants in the source area to attenuate to a predetermined target source concentration, and 3) estimation of the time required for a plume extent to contract to regulatory limits after source reduction. The model's capability is illustrated by results from a case study at a MNA site, where NAS time of remediation estimates compared well with observed monitoring data over multiple years.

  7. NRC/NAS report: “Energy in Transition, 1985-2010”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The National Academy of Sciences released a report, ‘Energy in Transition, 1985-2010,’ which sums up the findings of a 4-year study that cost over $4 million. In a sense, the study was in response to the hue and cry of ‘What are we doing about the energy problem?’ Probably the events that have come to pass since the study began were not anticipated. Nonetheless, aside from political considerations, the report attempts to assess the exceedingly difficult energy problems of the future. There was a large commitment of effort in the study to intersperse problems of the environment with those of the energy needs. It is this commitment to maintain a clean environment that left the conclusions more or less undefined. The report seems to hold the view that not only will energy be in short supply, and that conservation alone will not suffice, but that most of the energy technologies envisioned to replace conventional energy sources will be hazardous. The ‘clean’ energy sources, such as solar, geothermal, and nuclear fusion, are either not well enough developed to make large contributions to the nation's energy needs or are too costly at this stage. In a discussion of the report in Chemical and Engineering News, the policy of the NRC/NAS committee is summarized as twofold: vigorous conservation, coupled with enhanced U.S. production of petroleum products. One of the NRC committee members is quoted as summarizing the conclusion, ‘Use less oil; get more oil.’ (Chem. Eng. News, 39-40, January 28, 1980). Nuclear fusion, particularly the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, is to be needed during the next 30 years and beyond (it states that breeder reactors can extend the supply of nuclear fuel for hundreds of thousands of years). Coal will also have to be used in great quantities, and in judging the combined effect on the environment, another committee member is quoted as writing ‘We do not really know whether carbon dioxide is worse than plutonium.’

  8. Determination of composition of non-homogeneous GaInNAs layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucicki, D.; Bielak, K.; ?ciana, B.; Radziewicz, D.; Latkowska-Baranowska, M.; Ková?, J.; Vincze, A.; T?acza?a, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dilute nitride GaInNAs alloys grown on GaAs have become perspective materials for so called low-cost GaAs-based devices working within the optical wavelength range up to 1.6 ?m. The multilayer structures of GaInNAs/GaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) samples usually are analyzed by using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. However, demands for precise structural characterization of the GaInNAs containing heterostructures requires taking into consideration all inhomogeneities of such structures. This paper describes some of the material challenges and progress in structural characterization of GaInNAs layers. A new algorithm for structural characterization of dilute nitrides which bounds contactless electro-reflectance (CER) or photo-reflectance (PR) measurements and HRXRD analysis results together with GaInNAs quantum well band diagram calculation is presented. The triple quantum well (3QW) GaInNAs/GaAs structures grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (AP-MOVPE) were investigated according to the proposed algorithm. Thanks to presented algorithm, more precise structural data including the nonuniformity in the growth direction of GaInNAs/GaAs QWs were achieved. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is mentioned as a nondestructive method for characterization of multicomponent inhomogeneous semiconductor structures with quantum wells.

  9. NAS Parallel Benchmark. Results 11-96: Performance Comparison of HPF and MPI Based NAS Parallel Benchmarks. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subash; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    High Performance Fortran (HPF), the high-level language for parallel Fortran programming, is based on Fortran 90. HALF was defined by an informal standards committee known as the High Performance Fortran Forum (HPFF) in 1993, and modeled on TMC's CM Fortran language. Several HPF features have since been incorporated into the draft ANSI/ISO Fortran 95, the next formal revision of the Fortran standard. HPF allows users to write a single parallel program that can execute on a serial machine, a shared-memory parallel machine, or a distributed-memory parallel machine. HPF eliminates the complex, error-prone task of explicitly specifying how, where, and when to pass messages between processors on distributed-memory machines, or when to synchronize processors on shared-memory machines. HPF is designed in a way that allows the programmer to code an application at a high level, and then selectively optimize portions of the code by dropping into message-passing or calling tuned library routines as 'extrinsics'. Compilers supporting High Performance Fortran features first appeared in late 1994 and early 1995 from Applied Parallel Research (APR) Digital Equipment Corporation, and The Portland Group (PGI). IBM introduced an HPF compiler for the IBM RS/6000 SP/2 in April of 1996. Over the past two years, these implementations have shown steady improvement in terms of both features and performance. The performance of various hardware/ programming model (HPF and MPI (message passing interface)) combinations will be compared, based on latest NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmark (NPB) results, thus providing a cross-machine and cross-model comparison. Specifically, HPF based NPB results will be compared with MPI based NPB results to provide perspective on performance currently obtainable using HPF versus MPI or versus hand-tuned implementations such as those supplied by the hardware vendors. In addition we would also present NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz) NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin2000.

  10. Testing New Programming Paradigms with NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, H.; Frumkin, M.; Schultz, M.; Yan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly, not only in hardware architectures but also with increasing complexity of real applications. Technologies have been developing to aim at scaling up to thousands of processors on both distributed and shared memory systems. Development of parallel programs on these computers is always a challenging task. Today, writing parallel programs with message passing (e.g. MPI) is the most popular way of achieving scalability and high performance. However, writing message passing programs is difficult and error prone. Recent years new effort has been made in defining new parallel programming paradigms. The best examples are: HPF (based on data parallelism) and OpenMP (based on shared memory parallelism). Both provide simple and clear extensions to sequential programs, thus greatly simplify the tedious tasks encountered in writing message passing programs. HPF is independent of memory hierarchy, however, due to the immaturity of compiler technology its performance is still questionable. Although use of parallel compiler directives is not new, OpenMP offers a portable solution in the shared-memory domain. Another important development involves the tremendous progress in the internet and its associated technology. Although still in its infancy, Java promisses portability in a heterogeneous environment and offers possibility to "compile once and run anywhere." In light of testing these new technologies, we implemented new parallel versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPBs) with HPF and OpenMP directives, and extended the work with Java and Java-threads. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of alternative programming paradigms. NPBs consist of five kernels and three simulated applications that mimic the computation and data movement of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. We started with the serial version included in NPB2.3. Optimization of memory and cache usage was applied to several benchmarks, noticeably BT and SP, resulting in better sequential performance. In order to overcome the lack of an HPF performance model and guide the development of the HPF codes, we employed an empirical performance model for several primitives found in the benchmarks. We encountered a few limitations of HPF, such as lack of supporting the "REDISTRIBUTION" directive and no easy way to handle irregular computation. The parallelization with OpenMP directives was done at the outer-most loop level to achieve the largest granularity. The performance of six HPF and OpenMP benchmarks is compared with their MPI counterparts for the Class-A problem size in the figure in next page. These results were obtained on an SGI Origin2000 (195MHz) with MIPSpro-f77 compiler 7.2.1 for OpenMP and MPI codes and PGI pghpf-2.4.3 compiler with MPI interface for HPF programs.

  11. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...VA [New] Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field), VA...long. 76[deg]02'13'' W) NALF Fentress...radius of Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field), and within...Amended] Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) (Lat...long. 76[deg]02'13'' W.) NALF...

  12. 78 FR 21084 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) operating on...copy of Advisory circular No. 11-2A, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...the surface at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field), VA. The Air...Class E airspace at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field), VA. This...

  13. 78 FR 12951 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... NAS is needed for non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard beneficiary's claim to be paid. Currently, NAS are required for non-emergency inpatient mental health care...

  14. Safety Considerations for Operation of Different Classes of UAVs in the NAS

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Roland E.

    2004-09-20

    Recognizing the significant effort underway to integrate UAV operations in the NAS, a preliminary hazard analysis was conducted for two critical hazards of UAV operation. Models were developed to describe UAV ground impact ...

  15. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S.; Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D.; Chazelas, J.

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} ? cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 ?m, and a carrier lifetime of ?1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  16. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Subcommittee Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chuck; Griner, James H.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shively, Robert J.; Consiglio, Maria; Muller, Eric; Murphy, James; Kim, Sam

    2012-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project overview with details from each of the subprojects. Subprojects include: Communications, Certification, Integrated Test and Evaluation, Human Systems Integration, and Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability.

  17. GaInNAs Junctions for Next-Generation Concentrators: Progress and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D. J.; Ptak, A. J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Geisz, J. F.; Kiehl, J.

    2005-08-01

    We discuss progress in the development of GaInNAs junctions for application in next-generation multijunction concentrator cells. A significant development is the demonstration of near-100% internal quantum efficiencies in junctions grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Testing at high currents validates the compatibility of these devices with concentrator operation. The efficiencies of several next-generation multijunction structures incorporating these state-of-the-art GaInNAs junctions are projected.

  18. Hydrazine N Source for Growth of GaInNAs for Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D. J.; Geisz, G. F.; Kurtz, S. R.; Norman, A. G.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1999-05-25

    We evaluate hydrazine (Hy) as a nitrogen precursor source for the growth of GaNAs and GaInNAs for application in 1-eV solar cells lattice-matched to GaAs, and compare it to the more commonly used dimethylhydrazine (DMHy). The incorporation efficiency of N into the GaNAs alloy is found to be one to two orders of magnitude higher with Hy than with DMHy. This high N incorporation makes convenient the growth of GaNAs at higher growth temperatures, Tg=650 C, and arsine flows, AsH3/III=44, than are generally possible with the use of DMHy. GaInNAs and GaNAs solar cells are grown under these growth conditions and compared to a GaAs cell grown under the same conditions to determine the extent to which the poor minority-carrier properties routinely observed for the N-containing material can be attributed to the growth conditions. Finally, the background carrier concentrations for Hy- and DMHy-grown material are compared, and little difference is found between the two sources..

  19. The NAS Alert System: a look at the first eight years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matt; Huge, Dane H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database program (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) tracks the distribution of introduced aquatic organisms across the United States. Awareness of, and timely response to, novel species introductions by those involved in nonindigenous aquatic species management and research requires a framework for rapid dissemination of occurrence data as it is incorporated into the NAS database. In May 2004, the NAS program developed an alert system to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. This article summarizes information on system users and dispatched alerts from the system's inception through the end of 2011. The NAS alert system has registered over 1,700 users, with approximately 800 current subscribers. A total of 1,189 alerts had been transmitted through 2011. More alerts were sent for Florida (134 alerts) than for any other state. Fishes comprise the largest taxonomic group of alerts (440), with mollusks, plants, and crustaceans each containing over 100 alerts. Most alerts were for organisms that were intentionally released (414 alerts), with shipping, escape from captivity, and hitchhiking also representing major vectors. To explore the archive of sent alerts and to register, the search and signup page for the alert system can be found online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/AlertSystem/default.aspx.

  20. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  1. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center UAS Integration in the NAS project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the ATC and military ATC perspective, of particular interest is how mixed-operations (manned/UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  2. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the civilian ATC and military ATC perspectives, of particular interest are how mixed operations (manned / UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS Integration in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  3. First-principles study on structure stabilities of ?-S and Na-S battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2014-03-01

    To understand microscopic mechanisms of charge and discharge reactions in Na-S batteries, there has been increasing needs to study fundamental atomic and electronic structures of elemental S as well as that of Na-S phases. The most stable form of S is known to be an orthorhombic ?-S crystal at ambient temperature and pressure, and ?-S consists of puckered S8 rings which crystallize in space group Fddd . In this study, the crystal structure of ?-S is examined by using first-principles calculations with and without the van der Waals interaction corrections of Grimme's method, and results clearly show that the van der Waals interactions between the S8 rings have crucial roles on cohesion of ?-S. We also study structure stabilities of Na2S, NaS, NaS2, and Na2S5 phases with reported crystal structures. Using calculated total energies of the crystal structure models, we estimate discharge voltages assuming discharge reactions from 2Na+ xS -->Na2Sx, and discharge reactions in Na/S battery systems are discussed by comparing with experimental results. This work was partially supported by Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB) of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  4. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, M.; Whiteside, V. R.; Keay, J. C.; Meleco, A.; Sellers, I. R.; Hossain, K.; Golding, T. D.; Leroux, M.; Al Khalfioui, M.

    2015-04-06

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells.

  5. GaNAsP: An intermediate band semiconductor grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Y. J.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Kudrawiec, R.; Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze, Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw ; Luce, A. V.; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Ting, M.; Tu, C. W.

    2013-03-18

    Dilute nitride GaNAsP thin films were grown via a GaAsP metamorphic buffer on GaP(100) substrate with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The compositions of this III-V-V-V compound were determined by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Photoreflectance shows two distinctive transitions from the valence band to the split conduction bands due to N incorporation. Photoluminescence and optical absorption show the fundamental bandgap of Ga(N)AsP is largely tailored by the small amount of N. The observed multiband characteristics and the bandgap tunability of GaNAsP are two merits that fit into the intermediate-band solar cell roadmap, and GaNAsP of high crystal quality provides a strong candidate for intermediate band solar cell materials.

  6. Epitaxial growth and picosecond carrier dynamics of GaInAs/GaInNAs superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.; Mangeney, J.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Mauguin, O.; Patriarche, G.

    2009-10-05

    We study GaInAs/GaInNAs superlattice structures grown on InP substrate as potential candidates for photoconductive terahertz devices or saturable absorbers working at 1.55 {mu}m wavelength. The N-rich GaInNAs layers are flat, with no three-dimensional islanding, and act as trapping layers where carriers can recombine rapidly. The carrier lifetime in GaInAs/GaInNAs superlattice was measured for various growth parameters using time-resolved differential transmission experiments at 1.55 {mu}m wavelength. The carrier lifetime is found to depend strongly on N content and can be reduced down to 3.8 ps for samples with 14% of N. The mechanisms involved in the capture process of photocarriers are discussed.

  7. Development of tumours in Syrian hamsters during prolonged experimental exposure to nas*

    PubMed Central

    Kiseleva, N. S.; Milievskaja, I. L.; ?aklin, A. V.

    1976-01-01

    In several series of experiments, nas was introduced into the buccal pouch or oesophagus of Syrian hamsters or applied to the dorsal skin. In one series, nas was administered to six consecutive generations of hamsters. No tumours appeared at the site of administration, although changes appeared in the mucosa of the buccal pouch and the oesophagus. Tumours in organs remote from the site of application developed only in those series in which nas was introduced into the buccal pouch. The commonest site of tumorigenesis was the liver, followed by the adrenal glands, the forestomach, and the genital organs. Tumours occurred in 17.6% of the experimental animals compared with 3.5% of the controls. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:1088508

  8. Examination of Frameworks for Safe Integration of Intelligent Small UAS into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper briefly examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine "classes" of platforms and operations. A framework for categorization of the "intelligence" level of the UAS is postulated for purposes of NAS integration. Finally, constraints on the intelligent systems are postulated to ensure their ease of integration into the NAS.

  9. Experimental evaluation of impact ionization in dilute nitride GaInNAs diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. L.; Soong, W. M.; Green, J. E.; Steer, M. J.; Zhang, S.; Tan, L. J. J.; Ng, J. S.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Adams, A. R.; Allam, J.; David, J. P. R.

    2013-09-01

    The anomalous behavior of impact ionization in dilute-nitride GaInNAs photodiodes with a range of nitrogen content below 4% is investigated. The ratio of hole- and electron-initiated ionization coefficients, k = ?/?, is enhanced by a factor up to ˜4 with increasing nitrogen content. The absolute ionization coefficients are suppressed by up to two orders of magnitude at low electric fields in samples with 3% N. The narrow band gap, suppressed impact ionization, and increased breakdown voltage characteristics of GaInNAs make it a suitable material for use as part of a composite collector in GaAs-based heterojunction bipolar transistors.

  10. Comparison of Origin 2000 and Origin 3000 Using NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, Raymond D.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of benchmark tests on the Origin 3000 system currently being installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing facility. This machine will ultimately contain 1024 R14K processors. The first part of the system, installed in November, 2000 and named mendel, is an Origin 3000 with 128 R12K processors. For comparison purposes, the tests were also run on lomax, an Origin 2000 with R12K processors. The BT, LU, and SP application benchmarks in the NAS Parallel Benchmark Suite and the kernel benchmark FT were chosen to determine system performance and measure the impact of changes on the machine as it evolves. Having been written to measure performance on Computational Fluid Dynamics applications, these benchmarks are assumed appropriate to represent the NAS workload. Since the NAS runs both message passing (MPI) and shared-memory, compiler directive type codes, both MPI and OpenMP versions of the benchmarks were used. The MPI versions used were the latest official release of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks, version 2.3. The OpenMP versiqns used were PBN3b2, a beta version that is in the process of being released. NPB 2.3 and PBN 3b2 are technically different benchmarks, and NPB results are not directly comparable to PBN results.

  11. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    E-print Network

    Muñoz, César A.

    A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS C´esar A. Mu, VA, 23881, US The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from

  12. 1.5 lm GaInNAs semiconductor saturable absorber for passively modelocked

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    wavelength range and can be grown lattice-matched to InP. However, InP-based distributed Bragg reflectors on high-contrast AlAs=GaAs DBRs, however, is so strongly lattice-mismatched that mostly 3-D growth occurs: The GaInNAs SESAM was designed to be antiresonant [2] and grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Growth

  13. Beyond the NAS Parallel Benchmarks: Measuring Dynamic Program Performance and Grid Computing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biswas, Rupak; Frumkin, Michael; Feng, Huiyu; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contents include: 1) A brief history of NPB; 2) What is (not) being measured by NPB; 3) Irregular dynamic applications (UA Benchmark); and 4) Wide area distributed computing (NAS Grid Benchmarks-NGB). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Multi-agent Simulation of NAS Infrastructure Utilization in the Presence of Airline Policies

    E-print Network

    Introduction The symptoms of saturation that the Air Transportation System of the United States (NAS) shows [1 in the presence of airline policies and aircraft route selection strategies. The main hypothesis of the paper a set of alternate trans-continental routes to their common destination airport (or metroplex

  15. Propuesta de autorizacin para entornos Grid basada en la arquitectura NAS-SAML

    E-print Network

    Sánchez Cuenca, Manuel

    Propuesta de autorización para entornos Grid basada en la arquitectura NAS-SAML Manuel Sánchez1 que acceden a sus recursos. Se han propuesto varias arquitecturas de autorización para este tipo de como un recurso más. La arquitectura AAA fue diseñada para resolver este problema usando diferentes

  16. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events were built on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of previous simulations and tests, resulting in research findings that support the development of regulations governing the access of UAS into the NAS. The purpose of this document is to describe how well the system under test was representative

  17. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  18. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD). These analyses have not...

  19. 75 FR 33615 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The release of the draft...

  20. 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). These analyses have not...

  1. Meeting of Experts on NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Bauer, Jeff; Bixby, C.J.; Lauderdale, Todd; Shively, Jay; Griner, James; Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project; UAS Integration into the NAS Project; Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance; Pilot Aircraft Interface Objectives/Rationale; Communication; Certification; and Integrated Tests and Evaluations.

  2. 76 FR 57690 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... states a NAS is needed for non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard... the MTF catchment area for non-emergency inpatient mental health care. Currently, the number of...

  3. Auger recombination rates in dilute-As GaNAs semiconductor Chee-Keong Tan and Nelson Tansu

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Auger recombination rates in dilute-As GaNAs semiconductor Chee-Keong Tan and Nelson Tansu CitationN / dilute-As GaNAs alloy AIP Advances 5, 017129 (2015); 10.1063/1.4906569 Auger recombination rates recombination in InP GaAsSb InP double-heterostructure bipolar transistors: Suppression of Auger recombination

  4. Ubiquity and Diversity of Heterotrophic Bacterial nasA Genes in Diverse Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the ?-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be active participants contributing to the bloom dynamics. Our statistical results suggested that salinity, temperature and nitrate may be some of the key environmental factors controlling the composition and dynamics of the marine NAB communities. PMID:25647610

  5. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the ?-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be active participants contributing to the bloom dynamics. Our statistical results suggested that salinity, temperature and nitrate may be some of the key environmental factors controlling the composition and dynamics of the marine NAB communities. PMID:25647610

  6. NAS technical summaries. Numerical aerodynamic simulation program, March 1992 - February 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA created the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program in 1987 to focus resources on solving critical problems in aeroscience and related disciplines by utilizing the power of the most advanced supercomputers available. The NAS Program provides scientists with the necessary computing power to solve today's most demanding computational fluid dynamics problems and serves as a pathfinder in integrating leading-edge supercomputing technologies, thus benefitting other supercomputer centers in government and industry. The 1992-93 operational year concluded with 399 high-speed processor projects and 91 parallel projects representing NASA, the Department of Defense, other government agencies, private industry, and universities. This document provides a glimpse at some of the significant scientific results for the year.

  7. Atomic scale morphology of thin GaNAs films: Effects of nitrogen content and growth temperature

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, W.M.; Bone, P.A.; Williams, R.S.; Jones, T.S.

    2005-10-31

    The surface morphology of 8 nm GaNAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) substrates has been studied as a function of nitrogen content and growth temperature using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Increasing the nitrogen content from 0%-3% leads to a pronounced increase in surface roughness, caused by the appearance of deep pits. Raising the growth temperature from 400-500 deg. C produces the same effect. We propose that pit formation is symptomatic of phase segregation. STM images show that the GaNAs layers adopt an (nx3) surface reconstruction, suggesting that a disproportionately high concentration of N is present on the postgrowth surface compared with that incorporated into the layer during growth.

  8. Enhanced-Depletion-Width GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ptak, A. J.; Friedman, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    The 3-junction, GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cell is a non-optimized structure due to excess light falling on the Ge junction. Because of this, a fourth junction inserted between the GaAs and Ge subcells could use the excess light and provide an increase in device efficiency. Unfortunately, the leading candidate material, GaInNAs, suffers from very low minority-carrier diffusion lengths compared to its parent compound, GaAs. These low diffusion lengths do not allow for the collection of adequate current to keep the overall 4-junction structure current matched. If the currents generated from the GaInNAs subcell are increased, the possibility exists for practical efficiencies of greater than 40% from this structure.

  9. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  10. Al-enhanced N incorporation in GaNAs alloys grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhatkar, Gitanjali; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wallace, Steven G.; Fafard, Simon; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The N incorporation is studied in AlGaNAs with low Al content grown by chemical beam epitaxy at low temperature using dimethylhydrazine as the N precursor. The incorporation efficiency is significantly enhanced by introducing a relatively low Al concentration. The relation between the N incorporation and N/(N+As) flow ratio for Al concentrations of 0-15% is presented. The highest N incorporation and the best AlGaNAs crystal quality are obtained between 400 °C and 440 °C, where the growth mode starts to change from 2D to 3D. The activation energies for N incorporation in both the 2D and 3D growth mode regions are extracted.

  11. Object-Oriented Implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks using Charm++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Sanjeev; Bhandarkar, Milind; Kale, Laxmikant V.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes experiences with implementing the NAS Computational Fluid Dynamics benchmarks using a parallel object-oriented language, Charm++. Our main objective in implementing the NAS CFD kernel benchmarks was to develop a code that could be used to easily experiment with different domain decomposition strategies and dynamic load balancing. We also wished to leverage the object-orientation provided by the Charm++ parallel object-oriented language, to develop reusable abstractions that would simplify the process of developing parallel applications. We first describe the Charm++ parallel programming model and the parallel object array abstraction, then go into detail about each of the Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Lower/Upper Triangular (LU) benchmarks, along with performance results. Finally we conclude with an evaluation of the methodology used.

  12. NAS Parallel Benchmarks I/O Version 2.4. 2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Parkson; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe a benchmark problem, based on the Block-Tridiagonal (BT) problem of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB), which is used to test the output capabilities of high-performance computing systems, especially parallel systems. We also present a source code implementation of the benchmark, called NPBIO2.4-MPI, based on the MPI implementation of NPB, using a variety of ways to write the computed solutions to file.

  13. Carrier trapping and escape times in p-i-n GaInNAs MQW structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We used a semi-classical model to describe carrier capture into and thermionic escape from GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) situated within the intrinsic region of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The results are used to explain photocurrent oscillations with applied bias observed in these structures, in terms of charge accumulation and resonance tunnelling. PMID:24417767

  14. The opportunities, successes and challenges for GaInNAsSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, James S.

    2005-05-01

    Dilute nitride GaInNAs and GaInNAsSb alloys grown on GaAs have quickly become excellent candidates for a variety of lower cost 1.2-1.6 ?m lasers, optical amplifiers and high power Raman pump lasers that will be required for advanced high-speed communications systems. Two particularly critical devices are (1) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which must operate at high data rates (?10 Gbps), uncooled over a broad thermal operating range and (2) high-power (?500 mW) edge emitting lasers for Raman amplifier pumps. While progress has been both rapid and very promising, there remain some significant challenges. The major materials challenges include the limited solubility of N, a 2-D to 3-D growth transition with phase segregation, precise control over composition, strain and energy band offsets at heterointerfaces and elimination of non-radiative defects that are caused by some combination of N incorporation, low growth temperature and ion damage from the N plasma source. The addition of Sb significantly improves the epitaxial growth, maintaining 2-D growth over a broader range of growth temperature, larger In and N compositions, V/III ratio and significantly improves the optical properties at wavelengths longer than 1.3 ?m. This paper describes progress in overcoming some of the material challenges, particularly low temperature GaInNAsSb growth, plasma source ion damage in solid source MBE and progress in realizing record setting long wavelength edge emitting lasers and the first monolithic VCSELs operating at 1.5 ?m based on GaInNAsSb QWs grown on GaAs.

  15. Functional Requirements Document for HALE UAS Operations in the NAS: Step 1. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Functional Requirements Document (FRD) is to compile the functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 Vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the national airspace system (NAS)" for Step 1. These functional requirements could support the development of a minimum set of policies, procedures and standards by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and various standards organizations. It is envisioned that this comprehensive body of work will enable the FAA to establish and approve regulations to govern safe operation of UAS in the NAS on a routine or daily "file and fly" basis. The approach used to derive the functional requirements found within this FRD was to decompose the operational requirements and objectives identified within the Access 5 Concept of Operations (CONOPS) into the functions needed to routinely and safely operate a HALE UAS in the NAS. As a result, four major functional areas evolved to enable routine and safe UAS operations for an on-demand basis in the NAS. These four major functions are: Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, and Avoid Hazards. All of the functional requirements within this document can be directly traceable to one of these four major functions. Some functions, however, are traceable to several, or even all, of these four major functions. These cross-cutting functional requirements support the "Command / Control: function as well as the "Manage Contingencies" function. The requirements associated to these high-level functions and all of their supporting low-level functions are addressed in subsequent sections of this document.

  16. Large-scale structural analysis: The structural analyst, the CSM Testbed and the NAS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Macy, Steven C.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.

    1989-01-01

    The Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) activity is developing advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers. Methods are developed in the framework of the CSM testbed software system and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the CSM testbed methods development environment is presented and some numerical methods developed on a CRAY-2 are described. Selected application studies performed on the NAS CRAY-2 are also summarized.

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. The prototype radio will be used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the design, development, and flight test planning for this prototype radio.

  18. Effects of Bismuth on Wide-Depletion-Width GaInNAs Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C.-S.; Reedy, R. C.

    2008-05-01

    GaInNAs solar cells could be useful in next-generation multijunction solar cells if issues surrounding low photocurrents and photovoltages are surmounted. Wide-depletion-width devices generate significant photocurrent using a p-i-n structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, but these depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Here, bismuth is explored as a surfactant for the growth of GaInNAs solar cells. Very low fluxes of Bi are effective at maintaining smooth surfaces, even at high growth temperatures and In contents. However, Bi also increases the net donor concentration in these materials, manifested in our n-on-p device structures as a pn-junction that moves deeper into the base layer with increasing Bi fluxes. Quantum efficiency modeling and scanning kelvin probe microscopy measurements confirm the type conversion of the base layer from p type to n type. Bi incorporation in GaAsBi samples shows signs of surface segregation, leading to a finite buildup time, and this effect may lead to slow changes in the electrical properties of the GaInNAs(Bi) devices. Bi also appears to create a defect level, although this defect level is not deleterious enough to increase the dark current in the devices.

  19. NAS technical summaries: Numerical aerodynamic simulation program, March 1991 - February 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA created the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program in 1987 to focus resources on solving critical problems in aeroscience and related disciplines by utilizing the power of the most advanced supercomputers available. The NAS Program provides scientists with the necessary computing power to solve today's most demanding computational fluid dynamics problems and serves as a pathfinder in integrating leading-edge supercomputing technologies, thus benefiting other supercomputer centers in Government and industry. This report contains selected scientific results from the 1991-92 NAS Operational Year, March 4, 1991 to March 3, 1992, which is the fifth year of operation. During this year, the scientific community was given access to a Cray-2 and a Cray Y-MP. The Cray-2, the first generation supercomputer, has four processors, 256 megawords of central memory, and a total sustained speed of 250 million floating point operations per second. The Cray Y-MP, the second generation supercomputer, has eight processors and a total sustained speed of one billion floating point operations per second. Additional memory was installed this year, doubling capacity from 128 to 256 megawords of solid-state storage-device memory. Because of its higher performance, the Cray Y-MP delivered approximately 77 percent of the total number of supercomputer hours used during this year.

  20. Selective Defects Passivation of GaInNAs Solar Cells by Hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Miwa; Whiteside, Vincent R.; Sellers, Ian R.; Al Khalfioui, Mohamed; Leroux, Mathieu; Phinney, Lucas; Hossain, Khalid

    2014-03-01

    While GaInNAs has the potential to be a fourth-junction in multi-junction solar cells it has proved difficult to achieve the optimal alloy composition due to the low solubility of nitrogen in these materials. At this point we investigate the possibility of improving the performance of GaInNAs using hydrogenation to selectively passivate mid-gap defects, while preserving the functionality of substitutional nitrogen. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements of the intrinsic region of a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell show a classic ``s-shape'' associated with localization prior to hydrogenation, while after hydrogenation no sign of the ``s-shape'' is evident. The preliminary investigations of the effect of hydrogenation on the efficiency of carrier transport in the solar cells will also be presented. Amethyst Research Inc.'s photon-assisted defect mitigation-hydrogenation technique is usually a low temperature process; however, the annealing effects will be de-convoluted from that of hydrogenation. Research supported by Amethyst Research Inc. through the state of Oklahoma, OARS 12.2-040 program.

  1. First-principle natural band alignment of GaN / dilute-As GaNAs alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Tansu, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the local density approximation (LDA) functional are employed to investigate the band alignment of dilute-As GaNAs alloys with respect to the GaN alloy. Conduction and valence band positions of dilute-As GaNAs alloy with respect to the GaN alloy on an absolute energy scale are determined from the combination of bulk and surface DFT calculations. The resulting GaN / GaNAs conduction to valence band offset ratio is found as approximately 5:95. Our theoretical finding is in good agreement with experimental observation, indicating the upward movements of valence band at low-As content dilute-As GaNAs are mainly responsible for the drastic reduction of the GaN energy band gap. In addition, type-I band alignment of GaN / GaNAs is suggested as a reasonable approach for future device implementation with dilute-As GaNAs quantum well, and possible type-II quantum well active region can be formed by using InGaN / dilute-As GaNAs heterostructure.

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project. NASA Contributions to the SARP WC Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Debra K.; Consiglio, Maria Cristina; Santiago, Confesor

    2014-01-01

    To better inform sense and avoid research needs and to understand ongoing investigation of potential solutions that ultimately lead to the assisting the FAA with their Congressional mandate to fly UAS in the NAS.

  3. Effect of antimony on the deep-level traps in GaInNAsSb thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Muhammad Monirul Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Okada, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Takeaki; Akimoto, Katsuhiro

    2014-09-15

    Admittance spectroscopy has been performed to investigate the effect of antimony (Sb) on GaInNAs material in relation to the deep-level defects in this material. Two electron traps, E1 and E2 at an energy level 0.12 and 0.41?eV below the conduction band (E{sub C}), respectively, were found in undoped GaInNAs. Bias-voltage dependent admittance confirmed that E1 is an interface-type defect being spatially localized at the GaInNAs/GaAs interface, while E2 is a bulk-type defect located around mid-gap of GaInNAs layer. Introduction of Sb improved the material quality which was evident from the reduction of both the interface and bulk-type defects.

  4. UAS Integration Into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Johnson, Walter

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are expected to be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2015. Several human factors challenges need to be addressed before UAS can safely and routinely fly in the NAS with manned aircraft. Perhaps the most significant challenge is for the UAS to be non-disruptive to the air traffic management system. Another human factors challenge is how to provide UAS pilots with intuitive traffic information in order to support situation awareness (SA) of their airspace environment as well as a see-and-avoid capability comparable to manned aircraft so that a UAS pilot could safely maneuver the aircraft to maintain separation and collision avoidance if necessary. A simulation experiment was conducted to examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system. Researchers also examined the effects of introducing a Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) into a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) on UAS pilot performance, workload and situation awareness while flying in a positively controlled sector. Pilots were tasked with conducting a highway patrol police mission with a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS in L.A. Center airspace with two mission objectives: 1) to reroute the UAS when issued new instructions from their commander, and 2) to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) to negotiate flight plan changes and respond to vectoring and altitude change instructions. Objective aircraft separation data, workload ratings, SA data, and subjective ratings regarding UAS operations in the NAS were collected. Results indicate that UAS pilots were able to comply appropriately with ATC instructions. In addition, the introduction of the CSD improved pilot SA and reduced workload associated with UAS and ATC interactions.

  5. A Framework for Safe Integration of Small UAS Into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Bland, Geoffrey; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine classes of platforms and operations. Finally, a framework is proposed for both airworthiness and operations that attempts to balance safety with utility for these important systems.

  6. The OpenMP Implementation of NAS Parallel Benchmarks and its Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    As the new ccNUMA architecture became popular in recent years, parallel programming with compiler directives on these machines has evolved to accommodate new needs. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of OpenMP directives for parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Implementation details will be discussed and performance will be compared with the MPI implementation. We have demonstrated that OpenMP can achieve very good results for parallelization on a shared memory system, but effective use of memory and cache is very important.

  7. NAS (Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program) technical summaries, March 1989 - February 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Given here are selected scientific results from the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program's third year of operation. During this year, the scientific community was given access to a Cray-2 and a Cray Y-MP supercomputer. Topics covered include flow field analysis of fighter wing configurations, large-scale ocean modeling, the Space Shuttle flow field, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for rotary-wing airloads and performance prediction, turbulence modeling of separated flows, airloads and acoustics of rotorcraft, vortex-induced nonlinearities on submarines, and standing oblique detonation waves.

  8. Growth optimization and optical properties of AlGaNAs alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kolhatkar, Gitanjali; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wallace, Steven G.; Fafard, Simon

    2014-04-28

    The effect of Al on the surface morphology of chemical beam epitaxy grown AlGaNAs alloys is studied. Pits attributed to N clustering appearing on the dilute nitride surface become smaller, denser, and more uniformly distributed in the presence of Al. This reveals that the introduction of Al results in more homogenous N atoms spatial distribution. A growth temperature study reveals the formation of 3D structures at high temperature due to phase separation. The density of these structures decreases, while their diameter and height increase when the temperature is raised from 380?°C to 565?°C. At growth temperatures in the 380–420?°C range, the phase separation is suppressed and the growth mode is 2D. At 420?°C, the N incorporation is also maximized, making it the optimum temperature. The absorption coefficient and the bandgap of AlGaNAs alloys are extracted from transmittance measurement. A good agreement is obtained between the experimentally measured bandgap and the theoretical values calculated using the band anticrossing model. A bandgap as low as 1.22?eV was reached using Al and N concentrations of ?15% and ?3.4%, respectively.

  9. Web Prep: How to Prepare NAS Reports For Publication on the Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela; Balakrishnan, Prithika; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Felchle, Gail; Brickell, Cristy

    1996-01-01

    This document contains specific advice and requirements for NASA Ames Code IN authors of NAS reports. Much of the information may be of interest to other authors writing for the Web. WebPrep has a graphic Table of Contents in the form of a WebToon, which simulates a discussion between a scientist and a Web publishing consultant. In the WebToon, Frequently Asked Questions about preparing reports for the Web are linked to relevant text in the body of this document. We also provide a text-only Table of Contents. The text for this document is divided into chapters: each chapter corresponds to one frame of the WebToons. The chapter topics are: converting text to HTML, converting 2D graphic images to gif, creating imagemaps and tables, converting movie and audio files to Web formats, supplying 3D interactive data, and (briefly) JAVA capabilities. The last chapter is specifically for NAS staff authors. The Glossary-Index lists web related words and links to topics covered in the main text.

  10. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and Evaluation (IT&E) Flight Test 3. Revision E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and technical simulations, resulting in research findings that support the development of regulations governing the access of UAS into the NAS.

  11. NAS Demand Predictions, Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) Compared with Other Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These resulting demand scenarios can be incorporated into future flight schedules, therefore providing a quantifiable demand for flights in the NAS for a range of futures. In addition, new future airline business scenarios are investigated that illustrate when direct flights can replace connecting flights and larger aircraft can be substituted, only when justified by demand.

  12. Utilizing Traveler Demand Modeling to Predict Future Commercial Flight Schedules in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These resulting demand scenarios can be incorporated into future flight schedules, therefore providing a quantifiable demand for flights in the NAS for a range of futures. In addition, new future airline business scenarios are investigated that illustrate when direct flights can replace connecting flights and larger aircraft can be substituted, only when justified by demand.

  13. Security Risk Assessment Process for UAS in the NAS CNPC Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis Christopher; Young, Daniel Paul; Suresh, Thadhani; Winter, Gilbert A.

    2013-01-01

    This informational paper discusses the risk assessment process conducted to analyze Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) architectures for integrating civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The assessment employs the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management framework to identify threats, vulnerabilities, and risks to these architectures and recommends corresponding mitigating security controls. This process builds upon earlier work performed by RTCA Special Committee (SC) 203 and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to roadmap the risk assessment methodology and to identify categories of information security risks that pose a significant impact to aeronautical communications systems. A description of the deviations from the typical process is described in regards to this aeronautical communications system. Due to the sensitive nature of the information, data resulting from the risk assessment pertaining to threats, vulnerabilities, and risks is beyond the scope of this paper

  14. Security Risk Assessment Process for UAS in the NAS CNPC Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Young, Dennis P.; Thadani, Suresh K.; Winter, Gilbert A.

    2013-01-01

    This informational paper discusses the risk assessment process conducted to analyze Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) architectures for integrating civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The assessment employs the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management framework to identify threats, vulnerabilities, and risks to these architectures and recommends corresponding mitigating security controls. This process builds upon earlier work performed by RTCA Special Committee (SC) 203 and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to roadmap the risk assessment methodology and to identify categories of information security risks that pose a significant impact to aeronautical communications systems. A description of the deviations from the typical process is described in regards to this aeronautical communications system. Due to the sensitive nature of the information, data resulting from the risk assessment pertaining to threats, vulnerabilities, and risks is beyond the scope of this paper.

  15. >8W GaInNAs VECSEL emitting at 615 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Tomi; Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Korpijärvi, Ville-Markus; Kantola, Emmi; Guina, Mircea

    2015-03-01

    We report a high-power VECSEL emitting <8W around 615 nm. The gain chip of the laser was grown by plasmaassisted molecular beam epitaxy and it comprised 10 GaInNAs quantum wells. The VECSEL cavity had a V-shaped geometry and a 10-mm-long non-critically phase-matched LBO crystal for second harmonic generation. The cavity incorporated also an etalon and a birefringent filter for controlling the output wavelength. With the aid of the secondharmonic output and the infrared light leaking out from the laser cavity, the single-pass conversion efficiency of the crystal was estimated to have a value of 0.75%.

  16. 615 nm GaInNAs VECSEL with output power above 10 W.

    PubMed

    Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Korpijärvi, Ville-Markus; Guina, Mircea

    2015-08-10

    A high-power optically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) generating 10.5 W of cw output power at 615 nm is reported. The gain mirror incorporated 10 GaInNAs quantum wells and was designed to have an emission peak in the 1230 nm range. The fundamental emission was frequency doubled to the red spectral range by using an intra-cavity nonlinear LBO crystal. The maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 17.5%. The VECSEL was also operated in pulsed mode by directly modulating the pump laser to produce light pulses with duration of ~1.5 µs. The maximum peak power for pulsed operation (pump limited) was 13.8 W. This corresponded to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 20.4%. PMID:26367883

  17. Spin-Polarized Localized Exciton Photoluminescence Dynamics in GaInNAs Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shulong; Nosho, Hidetaka; Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Bian, Lifeng; Dong, Jianrong; Niu, Zhichuan

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated spin polarization-related localized exciton photoluminescence (PL) dynamics in GaInNAs quantum wells by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The emission energy dependence of PL polarization decay time as well as polarization-independent PL decay time suggests that the acoustic phonon scattering in the process of localized exciton transfer from the high-energy localized states to the low-energy ones dominates the PL polarization relaxation. By increasing the excitation power from 1 to 10 mW, the PL polarization decay time is changed from 0.17 to more than 1 ns, which indicates the significant effect of the trapping of localized electrons by nonradiative recombination centers. These experimental findings indicate that the spin-related PL polarization in diluted nitride semiconductors can be manipulated through carrier scattering and recombination process.

  18. Characterization of a Dominant Electron Trap in GaNAs Using Deep-Level Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S. W.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2006-08-01

    Dilute-nitrogen GaNAs epitaxial layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition were characterized by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). For all samples, the dominant DLTS signal corresponds to an electron trap having an activation energy of about 0.25 to 0.35 eV. The minority-carrier trap density in the p-type material is quantified based on computer simulation of the devices. The simulations show that only about 2% of the traps in the depleted layer are filled during the transient. The fraction of the traps that are filled depends strongly on the depth of the trap, but only weakly on the doping of the layers and on the conduction-band offset. The simulations provide a pathway to obtain semi-quantitative data for analysis of minority-carrier traps by DLTS.

  19. Seismic reflection exploration of geothermal reservoir at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alay G., Gebregiorgis

    The Primary objective of this study is to increase geologic and tectonic understanding of the geothermal resources at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada. The seismic reflection method is employed to study faults, fractures and other tectonic structures in the subsurface in order to identify geothermal drill targets. The efficiency of geothermal systems is strongly dependent on water circulation. Discrete faults may be permeable and provide pathways for water flow depending on the fracture density. It is therefore desirable to detect and map faults and fracture zones and characterize their physical properties when evaluating a geothermal prospect. The seismic data for this project were provided by the NAS environmental research program in Ridgecrest, CA. However, the data collection information was not available so the work includes determining the line geometry and mapping shot points to field files in order to process the data. ProMAX 2D(TM) is the software used to determine the geometry and to process the data. Data processing includes eliminating noise, datum and refraction statics, trace muting, bandpass filter, automatic gain control, amplitude recovery, CMP sorting, velocity analysis and NMO correction, stacking and migration. The results of this study indicate the presence of thick basin fill including Tertiary and Quaternary sediments underlain by Tertiary basalts which are interpreted to be capping rocks for the geothermal reservoirs. This seismic reflection study also reveals the presence of strongly fractured pre-Tertiary basement complex with their top at about 1500m on the north and west and about 900 m on the eastern and southern part of the study area.

  20. Benefits of a Unified LaSRS++ Simulation for NAS-Wide and High-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Patricia; Madden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The LaSRS++ high-fidelity vehicle simulation was extended in 2012 to support a NAS-wide simulation mode. Since the initial proof-of-concept, the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulation is maturing into a research-ready tool. A primary benefit of this new capability is the consolidation of the two modeling paradigms under a single framework to save cost, facilitate iterative concept testing between the two tools, and to promote communication and model sharing between user communities at Langley. Specific benefits of each type of modeling are discussed along with the expected benefits of the unified framework. Current capability details of the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulations are provided, including the visualization tool, live data interface, trajectory generators, terminal routing for arrivals and departures, maneuvering, re-routing, navigation, winds, and turbulence. The plan for future development is also described.

  1. Determination of the nitrogen distribution in InGaNAs/GaAs quantum wells by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, D.; Gerthsen, D.; Rosenauer, A.; Hetterich, M.; Grau, A.; Gilet, Ph.; Grenouillet, L.

    2004-10-25

    We report on measurements of the nitrogen-concentration profile in an InGaNAs heterostructure by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Two samples grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) substrates were investigated which contain InGaAs and InGaNAs wells with the same thickness and In concentration. The indium concentration was determined by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry. Indium-concentration profiles were obtained with the composition evaluation by lattice fringe analysis (CELFA) technique from the sample with the InGaAs wells exploiting the chemical sensitivity of the diffracted (002) beam. Nitrogen-concentration profiles were measured in the InGaNAs wells by comparison of the CELFA results observed in the samples with and without nitrogen.

  2. NasT-Mediated Antitermination Plays an Essential Role in the Regulation of the Assimilatory Nitrate Reductase Operon in Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Leland S.; Rensing, Christopher; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Kennedy, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a well-studied model system for nitrogen fixation in bacteria. Regulation of nitrogen fixation in A. vinelandii is independent of NtrB/NtrC, a conserved nitrogen regulatory system in proteobacteria. Previous work showed that an ntrC mutation in A. vinelandii resulted in a loss of induction of assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases encoded by the nasAB operon. In addition to NtrC, several other proteins, including NasT, a protein containing a potential RNA-binding domain ANTAR (AmiR and NasR transcription antitermination regulators), have been implicated in nasAB regulation. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of nasA and identify several DNA sequence elements, including two potential NtrC binding sites and a putative intrinsic transcriptional terminator upstream of nasA that are potentially involved in nasAB regulation. Our analyses confirm that the nasAB promoter, PnasA, is under NtrC control. However, unlike NtrC-regulated promoters in enteric bacteria, PnasA shows high activity in the presence of ammonium; in addition, the PnasA activity is altered in the nifA gene mutation background. We discuss the implication of these results on NtrC-mediated regulation in A. vinelandii. Our study provides direct evidence that induction of nasAB is regulated by NasT-mediated antitermination, which occurs within the leader region of the operon. The results also support the hypothesis that NasT binds the promoter proximal hairpin of nasAB for its regulatory function, which contributes to the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of ANTAR-containing antiterminators. PMID:22773651

  3. Direct visualization of the N impurity state in dilute GaNAs using scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Nobuyuki; Jo, Masafumi; Mano, Takaaki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Noda, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    The interaction between nitrogen (N) impurity states in III-V compounds plays a key role in controlling optoelectronic properties of the host materials. Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to characterize the spatial distribution and electronic properties of N impurity states in dilute GaNAs. We demonstrated that the N impurity states can be directly visualized by taking empty state current images using the multipass scanning method. The N impurity states broadened over several nanometers and exhibited a highly anisotropic distribution with a bowtie-like shape on the GaAs(110) surface, which can be explained by anisotropic propagation of strain along the zigzag chains of Ga and As atoms in the {110} plane. Our experimental findings provide strong insights into a possible role of N impurity states in modifying properties of the host materials.The interaction between nitrogen (N) impurity states in III-V compounds plays a key role in controlling optoelectronic properties of the host materials. Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to characterize the spatial distribution and electronic properties of N impurity states in dilute GaNAs. We demonstrated that the N impurity states can be directly visualized by taking empty state current images using the multipass scanning method. The N impurity states broadened over several nanometers and exhibited a highly anisotropic distribution with a bowtie-like shape on the GaAs(110) surface, which can be explained by anisotropic propagation of strain along the zigzag chains of Ga and As atoms in the {110} plane. Our experimental findings provide strong insights into a possible role of N impurity states in modifying properties of the host materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Identification of N impurity positions in terms of depth of depressions in the filled state topographic image. Filled state topographic images of N impurity in the fourth plane. Slight modification of topographic height due to existence of N impurity in the sixth plane. Current images taken around surface adsorbates. Current and dI/dV images extracted from current imaging tunneling spectroscopy data. Current image of fifth plane N impurity without height correction. Line profiles taken along the [001] and [1&cmb.macr;10] directions for N impurities in first to eighth planes. Differential tunneling conductance spectra obtained above N impurities in first to eighth planes. Position dependence of differential tunneling conductance spectra obtained at N impurity in the second plane. Detailed growth conditions of each N-doped GaAs layer. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04193g

  4. 78 FR 21084 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) operating on a part time basis. This action...-0038; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-2, at the beginning of your comments. You may also submit and...

  5. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... airspace, and establish Class E airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, (78 FR 21084). Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  6. Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…

  7. GaInNAs SESAMs passively mode-locking 1.3-mm solid-state lasers

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    GaInNAs SESAMs passively mode-locking 1.3-mm solid-state lasers V. Liverini, S. Scho¨ n, R. Grange (SESAM) is demonstrated that is able to passively mode-lock a 1.3-mm Nd:YLF laser. The mirror was grown to about 1370 nm. The nonlinear optical characterisation of the antiresonant SESAM showed low saturation

  8. NAS Benchmarks on the Tera MTA Jay Boisseau \\Lambda , Larry Carter \\Lambda y , Kang Su Gatlin y , Amit Majumdar \\Lambda ,

    E-print Network

    Snavely, Allan

    NAS Benchmarks on the Tera MTA Jay Boisseau \\Lambda , Larry Carter \\Lambda y , Kang Su Gatlin y , Amit Majumdar \\Lambda , and Allan Snavely \\Lambday Abstract The Tera MTA is new, revolutionary their performance on computers with cache­based memories. Keywords: Tera multithreaded architecture, performance

  9. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

  1. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  2. Abundâncias de oxigênio e enxofre nas estrelas de tipo solar da vizinhança solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requeijo, F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns resultados sugerem que o Sol seja 58% mais abundante em oxigênio que o meio interestelar local. Esta anomalia parece estender-se para o carbono e o criptônio. Entre as possíveis explicações deste fenômeno estão: uma supernova de tipo II que tenha enriquecido a nebulosa protosolar, tornando-a superabundante em oxigênio; um episódio de infall de material pobre em metais sobre o disco Galático, diluindo o meio interestelar local ou uma migração dinâmica do Sol de uma órbita mais interna da Galáxia para sua posição atual. A escolha entre estes cenários exige o conhecimento preciso da abundância solar em relação às anãs G da vizinhança. Neste contexto, o oxigênio e enxofre, são elementos-chave por serem ambos produzidos pelas supernovas de tipo II, devendo portanto possuir o mesmo padrão de abundância. Este projeto visa esclarecer qual a posição do Sol na distribuição local de abundâncias de enxofre e oxigênio para uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar com idades e metalicidades bem conhecidas. Para tal, analisamos espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído nas regiões espectrais de ll 6300, 7774 (O) e l8695 (S). Para o enxofre encontramos que o Sol parece ser uma estrela típica dentre as da vizinhança, e que este elemento não mostra a sobreabundância para baixas metalicidades, já bem estabelecida para o oxigênio. Discutimos as abundâncias do enxofre no contexto da Evolução Química da Galáxia. Apresentamos resultados preliminares muito precisos para a linha proibida do oxigênio l6300 e comparamos estes com os obtidos para o tripleto em l7774. Quantificamos os efeitos não-ETL presentes no tripleto em função dos parâmetros atmosféricos estelares.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters the expression patterns of three key iron homeostasis genes, ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3, and ZmYS1, in S deprived maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Chorianopoulou, Styliani N.; Saridis, Yiorgos I.; Dimou, Maria; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Bouranis, Dimitris L.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotianamine is an essential molecule for Fe homeostasis in plants, its primary precursor is the S-containing compound methionine, and it is biosynthesized by the enzyme family of nicotianamine synthases (NASs). In maize, a graminaceous plant that follows Strategy II for Fe uptake, ZmNAS genes can be subgrouped into two classes, according to their roles and tissue specific expression profiles. In roots, the genes of class I provide NA for the production of deoxymugineic acid (DMA), which is secreted to the rhizosphere and chelates Fe(III). The Fe(III)-DMA complex is then inserted to the root via a ZmYS1 transporter. The genes of class II provide NA for local translocation and detoxification of Fe in the leaves. Due to the connection between S and Fe homeostasis, S deficiency causes Fe deprivation responses to graminaceous plants and when S is supplied, these responses are inverted. In this study, maize plants were grown in pots with sterile river sand containing FePO4 and were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60 from sowing and on that day sulfate was provided to the plants. In order to assess the impact of AM symbiosis on Fe homeostasis, the expression patterns of ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3 (representatives of ZmNAS class I and class II), and ZmYS1 were monitored before and after S supply by means of real time RT-PCR and they were used as indicators of the plant Fe status. In addition, total shoot Fe concentration was determined before and after S supply. AM symbiosis prevented Fe deprivation responses in the S deprived maize plants and iron was possibly provided directly to the mycorrhizal plants through the fungal network. Furthermore, sulfate possibly regulated the expression of all three genes revealing its potential role as signal molecule for Fe homeostasis. PMID:25941530

  4. Pressure and PL study of dilute-N GaInNAs films for applications in photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, George; Fukuda, Miwa; Al Khalfioui, M.; Hossain, Khalid; Sellers, Ian; Weinstein, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Multi-junction photovoltaic devices employing dilute-N GaInNAs alloys are currently of high interest for efficient solar energy conversion. The negative band-bowing produced by introducing a few percent N into GaInAs provides a convenient way to match the 1eV component of the solar spectrum, providing recombination losses in localized states can be reduced while maintaining favorable carrier extraction. High pressure photoluminescence (PL) experiments exploring the localization of band-edge excitons in dilute-N GaInNAs films grown by plasma assisted MBE will be discussed. The effects of post-growth annealing and hydrogen incorporation on the PL spectra of the films are considered. Research supported by Amethyst Research Inc. through the State of Oklahoma, ONAP program.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project - Gen-4 and Gen-5 Radio Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current plans for the prototype radio development.

  6. Nitrogen-concentration control in GaNAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using nitrogen ?-doping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mano, Takaaki; Jo, Masafumi; Kuroda, Takashi; Noda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Elborg, Martin; Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2014-05-15

    GaNAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with nitrogen ?-doping were fabricated on GaAs (100) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High controllability of nitrogen-concentrations in the MQWs was achieved by tuning nitrogen ?-doping time. The maximum nitrogen concentration in the MQWs was 2.8%. The MQWs exhibit intense, narrow photoluminescence emission.

  7. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS: A Report on the Human Systems Integration Phase 1 Simulation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Shively, R. Jay

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began a five-year Project to address the technical barriers related to routine access of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Planned in two phases, the goal of the first phase was to lay the foundations for the Project by identifying those barriers and key issues to be addressed to achieve integration. Phase 1 activities were completed two years into the five-year Project. The purpose of this paper is to review activities within the Human Systems Integration (HSI) subproject in Phase 1 toward its two objectives: 1) develop GCS guidelines for routine UAS access to the NAS, and 2) develop a prototype display suite within an existing Ground Control Station (GCS). The first objective directly addresses a critical barrier for UAS integration into the NAS - a lack of GCS design standards or requirements. First, the paper describes the initial development of a prototype GCS display suite and supporting simulation software capabilities. Then, three simulation experiments utilizing this simulation architecture are summarized. The first experiment sought to determine a baseline performance of UAS pilots operating in civil airspace under current instrument flight rules for manned aircraft. The second experiment examined the effect of currently employed UAS contingency procedures on Air Traffic Control (ATC) participants. The third experiment compared three GCS command and control interfaces on UAS pilot response times in compliance with ATC clearances. The authors discuss how the results of these and future simulation and flight-testing activities contribute to the development of GCS guidelines to support the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. Finally, the planned activities for Phase 2, including an integrated human-in-the-loop simulation and two flight tests are briefly described.

  8. Suppression of non-radiative surface recombination by N incorporation in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shula L.; Chen, Weimin M.; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Buyanova, Irina A.

    2015-01-01

    III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) such as GaAs NWs form an interesting artificial materials system promising for applications in advanced optoelectronic and photonic devices, thanks to the advantages offered by the 1D architecture and the possibility to combine it with the main-stream silicon technology. Alloying of GaAs with nitrogen can further enhance performance and extend device functionality via band-structure and lattice engineering. However, due to a large surface-to-volume ratio, III-V NWs suffer from severe non-radiative carrier recombination at/near NWs surfaces that significantly degrades optical quality. Here we show that increasing nitrogen composition in novel GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NWs can strongly suppress the detrimental surface recombination. This conclusion is based on our experimental finding that lifetimes of photo-generated free excitons and free carriers increase with increasing N composition, as revealed from our time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies. This is accompanied by a sizable enhancement in the PL intensity of the GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NWs at room temperature. The observed N-induced suppression of the surface recombination is concluded to be a result of an N-induced modification of the surface states that are responsible for the nonradiative recombination. Our results, therefore, demonstrate the great potential of incorporating GaNAs in III-V NWs to achieve efficient nano-scale light emitters. PMID:26100755

  9. Suppression of non-radiative surface recombination by N incorporation in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shula L.; Chen, Weimin M.; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Buyanova, Irina A.

    2015-06-01

    III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) such as GaAs NWs form an interesting artificial materials system promising for applications in advanced optoelectronic and photonic devices, thanks to the advantages offered by the 1D architecture and the possibility to combine it with the main-stream silicon technology. Alloying of GaAs with nitrogen can further enhance performance and extend device functionality via band-structure and lattice engineering. However, due to a large surface-to-volume ratio, III-V NWs suffer from severe non-radiative carrier recombination at/near NWs surfaces that significantly degrades optical quality. Here we show that increasing nitrogen composition in novel GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NWs can strongly suppress the detrimental surface recombination. This conclusion is based on our experimental finding that lifetimes of photo-generated free excitons and free carriers increase with increasing N composition, as revealed from our time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies. This is accompanied by a sizable enhancement in the PL intensity of the GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NWs at room temperature. The observed N-induced suppression of the surface recombination is concluded to be a result of an N-induced modification of the surface states that are responsible for the nonradiative recombination. Our results, therefore, demonstrate the great potential of incorporating GaNAs in III-V NWs to achieve efficient nano-scale light emitters.

  10. Suppression of non-radiative surface recombination by N incorporation in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shula L; Chen, Weimin M; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Buyanova, Irina A

    2015-01-01

    III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) such as GaAs NWs form an interesting artificial materials system promising for applications in advanced optoelectronic and photonic devices, thanks to the advantages offered by the 1D architecture and the possibility to combine it with the main-stream silicon technology. Alloying of GaAs with nitrogen can further enhance performance and extend device functionality via band-structure and lattice engineering. However, due to a large surface-to-volume ratio, III-V NWs suffer from severe non-radiative carrier recombination at/near NWs surfaces that significantly degrades optical quality. Here we show that increasing nitrogen composition in novel GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NWs can strongly suppress the detrimental surface recombination. This conclusion is based on our experimental finding that lifetimes of photo-generated free excitons and free carriers increase with increasing N composition, as revealed from our time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies. This is accompanied by a sizable enhancement in the PL intensity of the GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NWs at room temperature. The observed N-induced suppression of the surface recombination is concluded to be a result of an N-induced modification of the surface states that are responsible for the nonradiative recombination. Our results, therefore, demonstrate the great potential of incorporating GaNAs in III-V NWs to achieve efficient nano-scale light emitters. PMID:26100755

  11. 1.55 {mu}m GaAs/GaNAsSb/GaAs optical waveguides grown by radio frequency nitrogen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Loke, W. K.; Wicaksono, S.; Xu, Z.; Ng, T. K.; Lew, K. L.; Saadsaoud, N.; Zegaoui, M.; Decoster, D.; Chazelas, J.

    2008-03-17

    We demonstrate a 1.55 {mu}m GaAs/GaNAsSb/GaAs optical waveguide grown by molecular beam epitaxy as an alternative to the AlGaAs/GaAs system. The 0.4-{mu}m-thick GaNAsSb guiding layer contains {approx}3.5% of N and 9% of Sb, resulting in optical band gap of 0.88 eV. The refractive index of the GaNAsSb layer was measured from 800 to 1700 nm. The GaNAsSb layer has a refractive index value of 3.42 at 1.55 {mu}m wavelength. The propagation loss measured using the Fabry-Perot resonance method was found to be affected by nitrogen-related defect absorption.

  12. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

  13. Ultra-broadband GaInNAs semiconductor optical amplifier incorporating N compositional fluctuations for the next generation passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Chang, Qingjiang

    2015-01-01

    Compositional fluctuations of the N in GaInNAs results in QD-like fluctuations in the conduction band minimum. The GaInNAs SOA gain is significantly broadened by adding the gain of both QW and QD-like fluctuations, providing a < 18 dB gain over 107 nm bandwidth cross both C and L bands in NG-PON2 applications.

  14. Monolithic growth of the direct band gap material Ga(NAsP) lattice matched on (001) silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, B.; Németh, I.; Zinnkann, S.; Lukin, G.; Adams, T. B.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.

    2008-02-01

    The GaP-based dilute nitride Ga(NAsP) reveals a direct band gap and first laser device operation based on GaP substrate have been demonstrated recently. Since the lattice mismatch between GaP and Si is very small and the defect free deposition of thick GaP/Ga(NP) sequences on off-oriented Si substrate have been reported in literature, the epitaxial transfer of this novel direct band gap material Ga(NAsP) on Si substrate should allow for the monolithic integration of laser diodes on Si microprocessors. The present study introduces a nucleation scheme of GaP on exact oriented (001) Si substrate by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) to achieve this goal. Appling an optimized annealing procedure to (001) Si substrates with a slight off-orientation towards (see manuscript) direction leads to a Si surface, where step-doubling has set in and bi-atomic terraces are formed. Even though mono-atomic terraces are still present in low density, an optimized GaP nucleation procedure ensures self-annihilation of all present antiphase domains (APDs) and reveals an antiphase disorder free III/V film on Si after the deposition of about 50nm of GaP. This ideal nucleation layer together with a precise strain-management allows for the deposition of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)(AsP) multi-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures embedded in 1?m thick (BGa)P layers on Si substrate. Structural investigations using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) prove a high crystal quality and abrupt heterointerfaces. This monolithic integration concept of the GaP-based laser material on exact oriented (001) Si substrates enables the integration of optoelectronic devices into the standard CMOS process.

  15. Incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeochemical investigations for rural development: the Bir Al-Nas approach for socio-hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Viviana

    2015-11-01

    A replicable multidisciplinary approach is presented for science-based groundwater management practices: Bir Al-Nas (Bottom-up IntegRated Approach for sustainabLe grouNdwater mAnagement in rural areaS). This approach provides a practical example of the concept of "socio-hydrogeology", a way of incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeological investigations, as reinforced by the translation of the Arabic bir al-nas: "the people's well". To achieve this, hydrogeologists act as "social hydrologists" during their monitoring activities, which often bring them into contact with local communities and end users (and polluters) of water. Not only can they retrieve reliable information about traditional know-how and local issues, but they can also change the public perception of science/scientists to create the basis for mutual collaboration and understanding in view of implementing improved integrated groundwater management. The final outcomes are expected to be an increased awareness of communities at the local level and a clear understanding of their water issues and needs from the very early stages of the investigation. Although the importance of using such methods in groundwater analysis and management is widely recognized, hydrogeological investigations are currently dominated by sectorial approaches that are easier to implement but less sustainable. The pressure of population growth, the shift towards more water-dependent economies, climate change and its impact on water availability will require scientists to use a more integrated approach, such as Bir Al-Nas, when dealing with increasing water pollution and water-scarcity issues.

  16. Incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeochemical investigations for rural development: the Bir Al-Nas approach for socio-hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Viviana

    2015-07-01

    A replicable multidisciplinary approach is presented for science-based groundwater management practices: Bir Al-Nas (Bottom-up IntegRated Approach for sustainabLe grouNdwater mAnagement in rural areaS). This approach provides a practical example of the concept of "socio-hydrogeology", a way of incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeological investigations, as reinforced by the translation of the Arabic bir al-nas: "the people's well". To achieve this, hydrogeologists act as "social hydrologists" during their monitoring activities, which often bring them into contact with local communities and end users (and polluters) of water. Not only can they retrieve reliable information about traditional know-how and local issues, but they can also change the public perception of science/scientists to create the basis for mutual collaboration and understanding in view of implementing improved integrated groundwater management. The final outcomes are expected to be an increased awareness of communities at the local level and a clear understanding of their water issues and needs from the very early stages of the investigation. Although the importance of using such methods in groundwater analysis and management is widely recognized, hydrogeological investigations are currently dominated by sectorial approaches that are easier to implement but less sustainable. The pressure of population growth, the shift towards more water-dependent economies, climate change and its impact on water availability will require scientists to use a more integrated approach, such as Bir Al-Nas, when dealing with increasing water pollution and water-scarcity issues.

  17. Minimum Capacity of NaS Battery according to Capacity of PV System in a Microgrid under 30 min Power Balancing Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Sone, Akihito; Sumita, Jiro; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    On constructing a microgrid, it is essential to design capacity of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems and storage batteries in accordance with a control target. In this study, we constructed a simulation model of energy control system in the microgrid used in the demonstration project. By using this model, we investigated the minimum capacity of NaS battery for different PV system capacities for keeping the target power imbalance within ±3% over 30 min. The main results are as follows. The microgrid involving 330-kW PV systems (corresponding to the actual system) needs a NaS battery capacity of at least approximately ±20kW, and PV systems with a capacity up to about 890kW can be integrated in the microgrid with a NaS battery capacity of ±500kW (corresponding to the actual system). We estimated the minimum capacity of NaS battery for different PV system capacities and clarified that the output behavior of the NaS battery and PAFC when supply and demand power imbalance over 30 min. exceeds the ±3% limit. We suggested the improved control model and showed that it is effective in decreasing the minimum capacity of NaS battery, although it has negative effects on the reduction of short-period power flow fluctuation at the grid-connection point.

  18. Cohort Profile: The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry).

    PubMed

    Gatz, Margaret; Harris, Jennifer R; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt; Smith, Nicholas L; Snieder, Harold; Spiro, Avron; Butler, David A

    2015-06-01

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry) is a comprehensive registry of White male twin pairs born in the USA between 1917 and 1927, both of the twins having served in the military. The purpose was medical research and ultimately improved clinical care. The cohort was assembled in the early 1960s with identification of approximately 16,000 twin pairs, review of service records, a brief mailed questionnaire assessing zygosity, and a health survey largely comparable to questionnaires used at that time with Scandinavian twin registries. Subsequent large-scale data collection occurred in 1974, 1985 and 1998, repeating the health survey and including information on education, employment history and earnings. Self-reported data have been supplemented with mortality, disability and medical data through record linkage. Potential collaborators should access the study website [http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Veterans/TwinsStudy.aspx] or e-mail the Medical Follow-up Agency at [Twins@nas.edu]. Questionnaire data are being prepared for future archiving with the National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA) at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), University of Michigan, MI. PMID:25183748

  19. Probing of the Nature of Carrier Recombination in GaInNAs epilayers using Optical Spin Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yutsung; Barman, Biplob; Scrace, Thomas; Petrou, Athos; Fukuda, M.; Sellers, I. R.; Khalfioui, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Optical pumping experiments have been performed on as-grown and p-type MBE grown GaInNAs epilayers. The PL peak of the nominally undoped as-grown sample exhibits the characteristic S-shaped dependence of dilute nitride material for T < 60 K. This is associated with carrier recombination via localized states at low temperatures. The reflectance spectra on the other hand map the band-to-band free carrier transition, displaying a Varshni-type behavior. In the p-type material the S-dependence of the PL disappears, and the PL peak coincides with the reflectance spectrum at all temperatures. This indicates band-to-band, rather than localized exciton recombination, in the p-type GaInNAs at all temperatures. This picture was verified by optical pumping experiments. In the undoped sample a large degree of circular polarization was evident only at T > 60 K: below 60 K the polarization is small, and coincident with the reflectance peak. In the p-type samples, on the other hand, non-zero circular polarization, whose maximum matches the peak PL energy, was evident at all temperatures. Research supported by Amethyst Research Inc. through the State of Oklahoma, ONAP program.

  20. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package, 2005: Composite Report on FAA Flight Plan and Operational Evaluation Plan. Version 7.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the findings that resulted from a high-level analysis and evaluation of the following documents: (1) The OEP (Operational Evolution Plan) Version 7 -- a 10-year plan for operational improvements to increase capacity and efficiency in U.S. air travel and transport and other use of domestic airspace. The OEP is the FAA commitment to operational improvements. It is outcome driven, with clear lines of accountability within FAA organizations. The OEP concentrates on operational solutions and integrates safety, certification, procedures, staffing, equipment, avionics and research; (2) The Draft Flight Plan 2006 through 2010 -- a multi-year strategic effort, setting a course for the FAA through 2001, to provide the safest and most efficient air transportation system in the world; (3) The NAS System Architecture Version 5 -- a blueprint for modernizing the NAS and improving NAS services and capabilities through the year 2015; and (4) The NAS-SR-1000 System Requirements Specification (NASSRS) -- a compilation of requirements which describe the operational capabilities for the NAS. The analysis is particularly focused on examining the documents for relevance to existing and/or planned future UAV operations. The evaluation specifically focuses on potential factors that could materially affect the development of a commercial ROA industry, such as: (1) Design limitations of the CNS/ATM system, (2) Human limitations, The information presented was taken from program specifications or program office lead personnel.

  1. Localized and free exciton spin relaxation dynamics in GaInNAs /GaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. L.; Bian, L. F.; Uesugi, M.; Nosho, H.; Tackeuchi, A.; Niu, Z. C.

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the exciton spin relaxation in a GaInNAs /GaAs quantum well. The recombination from free and localized excitons is resolved on the basis of an analysis of the photoluminescence characteristics. The free exciton spin relaxation time is measured to be 192ps at 10K, while the localized exciton spin relaxation time is one order of magnitude longer than that of the free exciton. The dependence of the free exciton spin relaxation time on the temperature above 50K suggests that both the D'yakonov-Perel' and the Elliot-Yafet effects dominate the spin relaxation process. The temperature independence below 50K is considered to be due to the spin exchange interaction. The ultralong spin relaxation time of the localized excitons is explained to be due to the influence of nonradiative deep centers.

  2. Origin of radiative recombination and manifestations of localization effects in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. L.; Filippov, S.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.; Ishikawa, Fumitaro

    2014-12-22

    Radiative carrier recombination processes in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si substrate are systematically investigated by employing micro-photoluminescence (?-PL) and ?-PL excitation (?-PLE) measurements complemented by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. At low temperatures, alloy disorder is found to cause localization of photo-excited carriers leading to predominance of optical transitions from localized excitons (LE). Some of the local fluctuations in N composition are suggested to lead to strongly localized three-dimensional confining potential equivalent to that for quantum dots, based on the observation of sharp and discrete PL lines within the LE contour. The localization effects are found to have minor influence on PL spectra at room temperature due to thermal activation of the localized excitons to extended states. Under these conditions, photo-excited carrier lifetime is found to be governed by non-radiative recombination via surface states which is somewhat suppressed upon N incorporation.

  3. Incorporation model of N into GaInNAs alloys grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, A.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Tukiainen, A.; Puustinen, J.; Guina, M.

    2014-12-07

    We present a Maxwell-Boltzmann electron energy distribution based model for the incorporation rate of nitrogen into GaInNAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a radio frequency plasma source. Nitrogen concentration is predicted as a function of radio-frequency system primary resistance, N flow, and RF power, and group III growth rate. The semi-empirical model is shown to be repeatable with a maximum error of 6%. The model was validated for two different MBE systems by growing GaInNAs on GaAs(100) with variable nitrogen composition of 0%–6%.

  4. GaAs-based room-temperature continuous-wave 1.59 {mu}m GaInNAsSb single-quantum-well laser diode grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Z.C.; Zhang, S.Y.; Ni, H.Q.; Wu, D.H.; Zhao, H.; Peng, H.L.; Xu, Y.Q.; Li, S.Y.; He, Z.H.; Ren, Z.W.; Han, Q.; Yang, X.H.; Du, Y.; Wu, R.H.

    2005-12-05

    Starting from the growth of high-quality 1.3 {mu}m GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well (QW), the QW emission wavelength has been extended up to 1.55 {mu}m by a combination of lowering growth rate, using GaNAs barriers and incorporating some amount of Sb. The photoluminescence properties of 1.5 {mu}m range GaInNAsSb/GaNAs QWs are quite comparable to the 1.3 {mu}m QWs, revealing positive effect of Sb on improving the optical quality of the QWs. A 1.59 {mu}m lasing of a GaInNAsSb/GaNAs single-QW laser diode is obtained under continuous current injection at room temperature. The threshold current density is 2.6 kA/cm{sup 2} with as-cleaved facet mirrors.

  5. Effects of rapid thermal annealing conditions on GaInNAs band gap blueshift and photoluminescence intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Rutz, A.; Keller, U.; Schoen, S.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the effects of various conditions of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on 10 nm GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) with fixed indium concentration and increasing nitrogen content to obtain photoluminescence (PL) in the telecom wavelength regime of 1.3 and 1.5 {mu}m. Specifically, we analyzed the results of annealing for a fixed short time but at different temperatures and for longer times at a fixed temperature. In all experiments, InGaAs SQWs with the same In concentration were used as references. For both RTA conditions, the well-known blueshift of the band gap energy and the PL intensity improvement show trends that reveal that these are unrelated effects. At high RTA temperatures the PL efficiency reaches a maximum and then drops independently of N content. On the contrary, the blueshift experiences a rapid increase up to 700 deg. C (strong blueshift regime) and it saturates above this temperature (weak blueshift regime). Both these blueshift regimes are related to the nitrogen content in the SQWs but in different ways. In the strong blueshift regime, we could obtain activation energy for the blueshift process in the range of 1.25 eV, which increases with N content. Analysis with high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) shows that the blueshift experienced in this regime is not due to a stoichiometric change in the QW. In the weak blueshift regime, the blueshift, which is only partly due to In outdiffusion, saturates more slowly the higher the N content. Annealing at the same temperature (600 deg. C) for a longer time shows that the blueshift saturates earlier than the PL intensity and that samples with higher nitrogen experience a larger blueshift. Only a small In outdiffusion for annealing at high temperatures (>650 deg. C) and long duration was observed. However, this modest stoichiometric change does not explain the large blueshift experienced by the GaInNAs SQWs. We conclude that the mechanism responsible for the drastic blueshift after annealing is related to the N content in the QW, while the improvement in PL integrated intensity is uniquely related to the annealing conditions.

  6. Historia de la Probabilidad y la Estadistica [VI] (J. M. Arribas, A. Almazan, B. Ma~nas y A. Vallejos eds.) Madrid: Servicio de Publicaciones de la UNED

    E-print Network

    Gómez Villegas, Miguel Ángel

    Historia de la Probabilidad y la Estad´istica [VI] (J. M. Arribas, A. Almaz´an, B. Ma~nas y A. A. G´omez Villegas Departamento de Estad´istica e Investigaci´on Operativa Facultad de CC Matem utilizan dos tama~nos diferentes lleguen a resultados distintos con la misma evidencia estad´istica, lo que

  7. December 1415, 2007 Meeting BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Tel 202-334-3520 Fax 202-334-3575 E-mail bpa@nas.edu

    E-print Network

    -334-3575 · E-mail bpa@nas.edu Committee to Review U.S. ITER Science Participation Planning Process (CRISPPP of member states and research agenda D. Campbell, ITER Organization, Fusion Science and Technology Department 12:30 pm Working lunch 1:30 pm EU participation in ITER and research plans J. Pamela, EFDA 2:15 pm

  8. Study of a 1?eV GaNAsSb photovoltaic cell grown on a silicon substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. H.; Loke, W. K.; Wicaksono, S.; Li, D.; Leong, Y. R.; Yoon, S. F.; Sharma, P.; Milakovich, T.; Bulsara, M. T.; Fitzgerald, E. A.

    2014-03-10

    We report the performance of a 1?eV GaNAsSb photovoltaic cell grown on a Si substrate with a SiGe graded buffer grown using molecular beam epitaxy. For comparison, the performance of a similar 1?eV GaN{sub 0.018}As{sub 0.897}Sb{sub 0.085} photovoltaic cell grown on a GaAs substrate was also reported. Both devices were in situ annealed at 700?°C for 5?min, and a significant performance improvement over our previous result was observed. The device on the GaAs substrate showed a low open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.42?V and a short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 23.4?mA/cm{sup 2} while the device on the Si substrate showed a V{sub OC} of 0.39?V and a J{sub SC} of 21.3?mA/cm{sup 2}. Both devices delivered a quantum efficiency of 50%–55% without any anti-reflection coating.

  9. The solution of linear systems of equations with a structural analysis code on the NAS CRAY-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Eugene L.; Overman, Andrea L.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods for solving linear systems of equations on the NAS Cray-2 are described. One is a direct method; the other is an iterative method. Both methods exploit the architecture of the Cray-2, particularly the vectorization, and are aimed at structural analysis applications. To demonstrate and evaluate the methods, they were installed in a finite element structural analysis code denoted the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed. A description of the techniques used to integrate the two solvers into the Testbed is given. Storage schemes, memory requirements, operation counts, and reformatting procedures are discussed. Finally, results from the new methods are compared with results from the initial Testbed sparse Choleski equation solver for three structural analysis problems. The new direct solvers described achieve the highest computational rates of the methods compared. The new iterative methods are not able to achieve as high computation rates as the vectorized direct solvers but are best for well conditioned problems which require fewer iterations to converge to the solution.

  10. Utility experience with a 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration power plant at NAS Miramar, San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, R. A.; Otahal, J.

    This paper focuses on the strategy and experience of San Diego Gas and Electric with the development and demonstration of a proof of concept 250-kW internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX®) carbonate fuel cell power plant. The plant was installed, commissioned, and operated by San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) in a cogeneration mode at the Naval Air Station (NAS) at Miramar in San Diego. These activities were part of a collaborative effort between SDG&E and M-C Power's Program team (IMHEX® Team). The IMHEX® Team consists of M-C Power, Bechtel Engineering, Stewart and Stevenson, and the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The technical aspects of the plant's commissioning and operation were addressed by my colleague, J. Otahal, in a poster presentation. Our activities in carbonate fuel cell development are unique because of the level of involvement by an investor-owned utility in the development, engineering, installation, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell demonstration plant. The following topics are discussed in this paper: (i) SDG&E's involvement in the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology; (ii) the active role in engineering and specification of the IMHEX® MCFC demonstration plant; (iii) responsibility for installation, commissioning, and operation; (iv) utility role in technology development and application of MCFC in a restructured and competitive environment; (v) summary.

  11. NAS Considers Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reports the key issues discussed at a national two-day forum of the National Academy of Sciences held in Washington, D.C. The symposium sought answers to problems brought on by the energy crisis and focused on future alternatives and risks. (JR)

  12. The NAS parallel benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David (editor); Barton, John (editor); Lasinski, Thomas (editor); Simon, Horst (editor)

    1993-01-01

    A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

  13. Metodologias deciso nas

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    . 108, 29- 41, 2012. "A prototype decision support system for sustainable urban tree planting programs..." em Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 8 (1), 3-19, 2009. "Spatial and temporal scheduling-574, 2004. "Operations management of a packaging plant in the fruit industry...In order to tackle

  14. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot laser with GaAsN barrier grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Sun, Z. Z.

    We present the results of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot structures with GaAsN barrier layers grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Extension of the emission wavelength of GaInNAs quantum dots by ~170nm was observed in ...

  15. GaInNAs/Ge (1.10/0.67?eV) double-junction solar cell grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for high efficiency four-junction solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Chen, Bingzhen; Pan, Xu; Wang, Lei; Ma, Difei; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Cuibai; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    GaInNAs materials with narrow bandgaps of 1.10?eV have been grown on a Ge substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition to fabricate GaInNAs/Ge (1.10/0.67?eV) double-junction solar cells. We have studied the photovoltaic characteristics and the external quantum efficiencies of the double-junction cells with various annealing conditions and different GaInNAs base layer thicknesses. The best external quantum efficiency is obtained from the double-junction cell with a 1170?nm thick GaInNAs base layer annealed at 675 °C for 30?min. Under AM1.5G illumination, the best double-junction cell has a short circuit current density (J SC) as 23.63 mA cm?2, which is dominated by the J SC of the GaInNAs subcell.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaNAs alloys with high As content for potential photoanode applications in hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Foxon, C. T.; Yu, K. M.; Broesler, R.; Hawkridge, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Denlinger, J.; Demchenko, I.

    2009-10-06

    The authors have succeeded in growing GaN1?xAsx alloys over a large composition range (0 < x < 0.8) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The enhanced incorporation of As was achieved by growing the films with high As{sub 2} flux at low (as low as 100 C) growth temperatures, which is much below the normal GaN growth temperature range. Using x-ray and transmission electron microscopy, they found that the GaNAs alloys with high As content x > 0.17 are amorphous. Optical absorption measurements together with x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy results reveal a continuous gradual decrease in band gap from -3.4 to < 1 eV with increasing As content. The energy gap reaches its minimum of -0.8 eV at x - 0.8. The composition dependence of the band gap of the crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys follows the prediction of the band anticrossing model (BAC). However, our measured band gap of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} with 0.3 < x < 0.8 are larger than that predicted by BAC. The results seem to indicate that for this composition range the amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys have short-range ordering that resembles random crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys. They have demonstrated the possibility of the growth of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} layers with variable As content on glass substrates

  17. A room temperature Na/S battery using a ?? alumina solid electrolyte separator, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether electrolyte, and a S/C composite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Icpyo; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Chang Hyeon; Park, Jin-Woo; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To realize a high-performance room temperature Na/S battery with an elemental sulfur cathode, it is important that sodium polysulfides stay within the cathode and that they have room enough to react freely. In this work, sodium polysulfides are confined to the cathode using a ?? alumina solid electrolyte separator and an optimal amount of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolyte. In addition, an activated carbon material, in the form of a sulfur/carbon (S/C) composite, with high surface area, porosity, and pore volume is employed in the cathode. The resulting Na/S battery shows a high first discharge capacity of 855 mAh g-1 and coulombic efficiency close to 100%, as well as stable cyclability, with a discharge capacity of 521 mAh g-1 at the 104th discharge.

  18. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, UAS Control and Non-Payload Communication System Phase-1 Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.

  20. Identification of nitrogen- and host-related deep-level traps in n-type GaNAs and their evolution upon annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Gelczuk, ?.; Henini, M.

    2014-07-07

    Deep level traps in as-grown and annealed n-GaNAs layers (doped with Si) of various nitrogen concentrations (N=0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.2%) were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. In addition, optical properties of GaNAs layers were studied by photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance. The identification of N- and host-related traps has been performed on the basis of band gap diagram [Kudrawiec, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 082109 (2012)], which assumes that the activation energy of electron traps of the same microscopic nature decreases with the rise of nitrogen concentration in accordance with the N-related shift of the conduction band towards trap levels. The application of this diagram has allowed to investigate the evolution of donor traps in GaNAs upon annealing. In general, it was observed that the concentration of N- and host-related traps decreases after annealing and PL improves very significantly. However, it was also observed that some traps are generated due to annealing. It explains why the annealing conditions have to be carefully optimized for this material system.

  1. Development and manufacturing of panoramic Stokes polarimeter using the polarization films in the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Syniavskyi, I. I.; Sergeev, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    In the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine is proposed and implemented the concept of the imaging Stokes polarimeter [1-5]. This device allows carrying out measurements of the four Stokes vector components at the same time, in a wide field, and without any restrictions on the relative aperture of the optical system. Its scheme is developed so that only by turning wheel with replaceable elements, photopolarimeter could be transformed into a low resolution spectropolarimeter. The device has four film's polarizers with positional angles 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°. The device uses a system of special deflecting prisms in each channel. These prisms were achromatizing in the spectral range of 420-850 nm [2], the distortion of the polarimeter optical system is less than 0.65%. In manufacturing version of spectropolarimeter provided for the possibility of using working on passing the diffraction grating with a frequency up to 100 lines/mm. Has begun the laboratory testing of instrument. References. 1. Sinyavskii I.I., Ivanov Yu. S., Vidmachenko Anatoliy P., Karpov N.V. Panoramic Stokes-polarimeter // Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. - 2013. - V. 3, No 4. - P. 123-127. 2. Sinyavskii I. I., Ivanov Yu. S., Vil'machenko A. P. Concept of the construction, of the optical setup of a panoramic Stokes polarimeter for small telescopes // Journal of Optical Technology. - 2013. - V. 80, Issue 9. - P. 545-548. 3. Vidmachenko A. P., Ivanov Yu. S., Morozhenko A. V., Nevodovsky E. P., Syniavskyi I. I., Sosonkin M. G. Spectropolarimeter of ground-based accompanying for the space experiment "Planetary Monitoring" // Kosmichna Nauka i Tekhnologiya. - 2007. - V. 13, No. 1, p. 63 - 70. 4. Yatskiv Ya. S., Vidmachenko A. P., Morozhenko A. V., Sosonkin M. G., Ivanov Yu. S., Syniavskyi I. I. Spectropolarimetric device for overatmospheric investigations of Solar System bodies // Kosmichna Nauka i Tekhnologiya. - 2008. - V. 14, No. 2. - P. 56-67. 5. Yatskiv Ya. S., Vidmachenk o A. P., Morozhenko A. V., Sosonkin M. G., Ivanov Yu. S., Sinyavskiy I. I. Spectropolarimetric devices for extraterrestrial investigation of the Solar system bodies // 10 Ukrainian Conference on Space Research with International Participation. August 30-September 4, 2010. The program and abstracts. Yevpatoria, Ukraine. P. 81.

  2. Optical properties of multi-stacked InGaAs/GaNAs quantum dot solar cell fabricated on GaAs (311)B substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, Yasushi; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2012-09-15

    Quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) comprised of 10 stacked pairs of strain-compensated InGaAs/GaNAs QD structure have been fabricated by atomic hydrogen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A homogeneous and high-density QD array structure with improved in-plane ordering and total density of {approx}10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} has been achieved on GaAs (311)B grown at 460 Degree-Sign C after stacking. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of InGaAs/GaNAs QDSC increases in the longer wavelength range due to additive contribution from QD layers inserted in the intrinsic region. The short-circuit current density measured for QDSC is 17.2 mA/cm{sup 2} compared to 14.8 mA/cm{sup 2} of GaAs reference cell. Further, an increase in EQE due to photocurrent production by 2-step photon absorption has been observed at room temperature though it is still small at around 0.1%.

  3. Thermally induced diffusion in GaInNAs/GaAs and GaInAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, T.K.; Djie, H.S.; Yoon, S.F.; Mei, T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the thermal annealing induced diffusion on the photoluminescence (PL) of a GaAs/GaInAs/GaAs/GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) structure grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The PL experimental results in conjunction with the numerical quantum-mechanical modeling that predicts the changes in the QW confining potential with group-III atomic diffusion, have been used to obtain the values for diffusion coefficient. The activation energies of GaInAs/GaAs QW (E{sub D,GIA}) were found to be between 0.49 to 0.51 eV, while that of GaInNAs/GaAs QW (E{sub D,GINA}) showed comparable values of between 0.6 to a 0.67 eV, as annealing time increases from 10 to 30 s. The E{sub D,GIA} and E{sub D,GINA} values are attributed to the same interstitial diffusion mechanism.

  4. p- to n-type conductivity transition in 1.0?eV GaInNAs solar cells controlled by the V/III ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, Fabian Perl, Svenja; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2015-02-09

    In this work, we report a p- to n-type conductivity transition of GaInNAs (1.0?eV bandgap) layers in p-i-n dilute nitride solar cells continuously controlled by the V/III ratio during growth. Near the transition region, we were able to produce GaInNAs layers with very low effective electrically active doping concentrations resulting in wide depleted areas. We obtained internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) up to 85% at 0.2?eV above the bandgap. However, the high IQE comes along with an increased dark current density resulting in a decreased open circuit voltage of about 0.2?V. This indicates the formation of non-radiant defect centers related to the p-type to n-type transition. Rapid-thermal annealing of the solar cells on the one hand helps to anneal some of these defects but on the other hand increases the effective doping concentrations.

  5. Influence of nitride and oxide cap layers upon the annealing of 1.3 ?m GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Peng, C. S.; Likonen, J.; Jouhti, T.; Karirinne, S.; Konttinen, J.; Pessa, M.

    2004-04-01

    Effects of thermal annealing on optical and structural properties of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) heterostructures, which were coated with dielectric films, were studied using photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A sample having no dielectric coating exhibited a rapid saturable blueshift in the beginning of annealing. A Si3N4 cap layer prevented the line shift, while a SiO2 cap enhanced the shift. The XRD and SIMS spectra provided evidence that the large blueshift for the SiO2-capped sample originated from Ga/In interdiffusion across the QW walls, and from a local reorganization of N-bonding configuration within the QW. The inhibition of blueshift for the Si3N4-capped sample was likely due to an improved stability of Ga-N bonds during annealing.

  6. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais -Laboratrio Associado de Plasma 1 X LAWPP 7 EBFP 2003

    E-print Network

    .A. Berni, J.G. Ferreira, R.M. Oliveira, M.C.R. Andrade, C.S. Shibata, J.J. Barroso, P.J. Castro, L,16 Plasmadensity(10 20 m -3 ) R (cm) Time = 4 ms · Current 60 kA ­ Pulse duration 12 ms. Thomson scattering

  7. ANLISE EXPLORATRIA DAS RELAES ESPACIAIS DO DESFLORESTAMENTO NA AMAZNIA LEGAL BRASILEIRA.

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    of the deforestation spatial distribution at Amazon region along with its relations with some social-economic variables. For each city of the Amazon region, deforestation rates, obtained in the periods from 1991 to 1992 and from emphasized deforestation regions and their evolution, what could also be observed in the maps of Local Moran

  8. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Exame para o curso de ps-graduao em Astrofsica

    E-print Network

    for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), afirmava que o grande radiotelescópio de Arecibo, em Porto Rico, "pode detectar um magnético? b) A que aceleração ele é submetido? #12;6. Frank Drake, um dos criadores do projeto SETI (Search

  9. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Av. dos Astronautas, 1758 So Jos dos Campos, SP.

    E-print Network

    (quantidade de energia por unidade de tempo) emitida por uma lâmpada incandescente. Para isso, utiliza um tempo de vida médio destas partículas ? 9) Uma nave viajando de encontro à Terra a uma velocidade igual

  10. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS EDITAL N 4 DE 27 DE JUNHO DE 2012

    E-print Network

    responsabilidade do candidato, podendo este, se comprovada má fé, ser eliminado do concurso e responder por crime internet, no endereço www.inpe.br, conforme o cronograma do ANEXO VII. 4.7.7 Os candidatos com isenção

  11. Pratt and Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts: Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Douglas; Bock, Larry A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Dougherty, R. P.; Premo, John W.; Scharpf, Dan F.; Yu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Major airports in the world's air transportation systems face a serious problem in providing greater capacity to meet the ever increasing demands of air travel. This problem could be relieved if airports are allowed to increase their operating time, now restricted by curfews and by relaxing present limits on takeoffs and landings. The key operational issue in extending the present curfews is noise. In response to these increasing restrictive noise regulations, NASA has launched a program to validate through engine testing, noise reduction concepts and technologies that have evolved from the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) Noise Reduction Program. The goal of this AST program was to develop and validate technology that reduces engine noise and improves nacelle suppression effectiveness relative to 1992 technology. Contract NAS3-97144 titled "Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts" (EVNRC) was awarded to P&W on August 12, 1997 to conduct full scale noise reduction tests in two Phases on a PW4098 engine. The following Section 1.2 provides a brief description of the overall program. The remainder of this report provides a detailed documentation of Phase I of the program.

  12. DNA microarray-based solid-phase PCR on copoly (DMA-NAS-MAPS) silicon coated slides: An example of relevant clinical application.

    PubMed

    Damin, Francesco; Galbiati, Silvia; Ferrari, Maurizio; Chiari, Marcella

    2016-04-15

    In a previous study we developed a highly sensitive DNA microarray for the detection of common KRAS oncogenic mutations, which has been proven to be highly specific in assigning the correct genotype without any enrichment strategy even in the presence of minority mutated alleles. However, in this approach, the need of a spotter for the deposition of the purified PCR products on the substrates and the purification step of the conventional PCR are serious drawbacks. To overcome these limitations we have introduced the solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (SP-PCR) to form the array of PCR products starting from the oligonucleotide primers. This work was possible thanks to the great thermal stability of the copoly (DMA-NAS-MAPS) coating which withstands PCR thermal cycling temperatures. As an example of the application of this platform we performed the analysis of six common mutations in the codon 12 of KRAS gene (G12A, G12C, G12D, G12R, G12S, and G12V). In conclusion solid-phase PCR, combined with dual-color hybridization, allows mutation analysis in a shorter time span and is more suitable for automation. PMID:26655175

  13. Electric Machines with Non-Radially Mounted Rectangular Permanent Magnets / Elektrisk?s Maš?nas Ar Prizmatiskiem Neradi?li Novietotiem Past?v?gajiem Magn?tiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, N.; Pugachev, V.; Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.

    2013-04-01

    The authors analyze the advantages and disadvantages of brushless synchronous electric machines with radially and non-radially mounted rectangular permanent magnets. The results show that the proposed nonradial mounting of permanent magnets considered in the paper, in several cases (e.g. multi-pole brushless generators with tooth windings of the armature) allows achievement of the following advantages: better technology of manufacturing the electric machine owing to simple packing of the stator winding in the stator open slots, which also increases the copper slot fillfactor; reduction in the mass-and-size of permanent magnets at least twice; significantly lower cost of the electric machine; and, finally, its greater specific power. Darb? tiek analiz?tas priekšroc?bas un tr?kumi sinhron?m bezkontaktu maš?n?m ar radi?li un neradi?li novietotiem prizmatiskiem past?v?gajiem magn?tiem. Par?d?ts, ka vair?kos gad?jumos, piem?ram, daudzpolu bezkontaktu sinhronajos ?eneratoros ar zobu tinumiem, neradi?ls past?v?go magn?tu izvietojums nodrošina vair?kas priekšroc?bas: uzlabojas maš?nas izgatavošanas tehnolo?ija, jo statora atv?rtaj?s riev?s viegl?k novietot tinumus un iesp?jams sasniegt augst?ku rievas aizpild?juma koeficientu; samazin?s past?v?go magn?tu masa un izmaksas; palielin?s maš?nas ?patn?ja jauda.

  14. LAPMinistrio da Cincia e Tecnologia -Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais -Laboratrio Associado de Plasma Macroscopic instabilities in lightning

    E-print Network

    Associado de Plasma Macroscopic instabilities in lightning 1 2 G.O. Ludwig , M.M.F. Saba 1 2 Laboratório Characteristics of lightning discharges Typically, a lightning stroke lowers negative charge to earth from over a distance of 5km. The first return stroke in a lightning discharge is preceded by a stepped

  15. NAS Report Reveals Dangers From SST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Jo Ann V.

    1973-01-01

    Reported are some harmful effects of supersonic travel on humans and other living organisms. Slight decreases in ozone concentration as a result of emissions from the SST aircrafts reduce absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Effects of this may include skin cancer, distort balance of activity in cells and have a deleterious effect on insects and…

  16. Multiband GaNAsP Quaternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Bour, D.; Farshchi,R.; Dubon, O.D.; Li, S.X.; Sharp, I.D.; Haller, E.E.

    2005-12-08

    We have synthesized GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-y}P{sub y} alloys (x {approx} 0.3-1% and y = 0-0.4) using nitrogen N ion implantation into GaAsP epilayers followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid thermal annealing techniques. As predicted by the band anticrossing model, the incorporation of N splits the conduction band (E{sub M}) of the GaAs{sub 1-y}P{sub y} substrate, and strong optical transitions from the valence band to the lower (E{sub -}) and upper (E{sub +}) conduction subbands are observed. The relative strengths of the E{sub -} and E{sub +} transition change as the localized N level E{sub N} emerges from the conduction band forming narrow intermediate band for y > 0.3. The results show that GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x-y}P{sub y} alloys with y > 0.3 is a three band semiconductor alloy with potential applications for high-efficiency intermediate band solar cells.

  17. The NAS perchlorate review: Adverse effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Rick A.; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992), a dose of 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks had no effect on thyroid function. In occupational studies, doses as high as 0.5 mg/kg per day were not associated with adverse effects on thyroid function in workers. In epidemiologic studies, there were no abnormalities in growth or thyroid function in children exposed life-long to 100 to 120 mg of perchlorate per liter of drinking water, or in pregnant women and newborn infants similarly exposed. Given the choice of a non-adverse effect (inhibition of iodide uptake by the thyroid) as the point of departure and the multiple studies in which doses of perchlorate much larger than 0.007 mg/kg per day had no effect on any aspect of thyroid function, the committee did not apply a database uncertainty factor. Finally, Ginsberg and Rice argue that inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is adverse. That conclusion assumes that any acute inhibition would be sustained, so that thyroid hormone production would fall. That is not the case. There is remarkable compensation for even substantial reductions in thyroid iodide uptake – and thyroid hormone production. As noted above, subjects given 0.04 mg/kg per day for 6 months and 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks?doses that certainly would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake for a few weeks?had no fall in serum thyroid hormone or rise in serum thyrotropin concentrations (the hallmark of even minor systemic thyroid deficiency). Short-term inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is not an adverse effect; it has no adverse consequences, because there is rapid compensation mediated by several independent processes. One is upregulation of the thyroid sodium-iodide transport system, as a result of intrathyroidal iodide deficiency. The second, should there be even a very small fall in thyroid hormone production, is an increase in thyrotropin secretion, resulting in overall stimulation of the thyroid gland.

  18. Ecological risk assessment framework -- the NAS perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-06-01

    A Workshop on Ecological Risk Assessment was held on February 26--March 1, 1991, at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia. In addition to presentation and discussion of the case study papers, the workshop included breakout sessions to discuss conceptual and technical aspects of ecological risk assessment. A general consensus emerged that an ecological version of the 1983 framework is desirable and feasible. The committee concluded that the 1983 human health framework could be expanded to accomodate both human health and ecological risk assessment. For general applicability to ecological assessments, the 1983 scheme requires augmentation to address some of the interfaces between science and management, primarily because of the need to focus on appropriate questions relevant to applicable environmental law and policy under different circumstances. Specifically, the scheme needs modification to address (1) the influence of legal and regulatory considerations on the initial stages of ecological risk assessment and (2) the importance of characterizing ecological risks in terms that are intelligible to risk managers. The committee`s opinion is that these augmentations are as important for human health risk assessment as they are for ecological risk assessment. This paper briefly describes the framework recommended by the Committee and compares it to EPA`s recently-published Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment.

  19. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  20. Job Management Requirements for NAS Parallel Systems and Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saphir, William; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Traversat, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    A job management system is a critical component of a production supercomputing environment, permitting oversubscribed resources to be shared fairly and efficiently. Job management systems that were originally designed for traditional vector supercomputers are not appropriate for the distributed-memory parallel supercomputers that are becoming increasingly important in the high performance computing industry. Newer job management systems offer new functionality but do not solve fundamental problems. We address some of the main issues in resource allocation and job scheduling we have encountered on two parallel computers - a 160-node IBM SP2 and a cluster of 20 high performance workstations located at the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation facility. We describe the requirements for resource allocation and job management that are necessary to provide a production supercomputing environment on these machines, prioritizing according to difficulty and importance, and advocating a return to fundamental issues.

  1. Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (NAS Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2009, the Committee on Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the U.S. EPA, National Research Council released a final report, requested and sponsored by the EPA, entitled Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment 2009.

  2. Feasibility study for a secondary Na/S battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Schiff, R.; Brummer, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of a moderate temperature Na battery was studied. This battery is to operate at a temperature in the range of 100-150 C. Two kinds of cathode were investigated: (1) a soluble S cathode consisting of a solution of Na2Sn in an organic solvent and (2) an insoluble S cathode consisting of a transition metal dichalcogenide in contact with a Na(+)ion conducting electrolyte. Four amide solvents, dimethyl acetamide, diethyl acetamide, N-methyl acetamide and acetamide, were investigated as possible solvents for the soluble S cathode. Results of stability and electrochemical studies using these solvents are presented. The dialkyl substituted amides were found to be superior. Although the alcohol 1,3-cyclohexanediol was found to be stable in the presence of Na2Sn at 130 C, its Na2Sn solutions did not appear to have suitable electrochemical properties.

  3. PM - EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION, FACTORS AND CONTROLS (NAS 12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program will focus on diesel trucks, prescribed and open burning, construction sites and residential wood combustion. Differences in emission rates due to changes in operating conditions and fuel type will be included in the revised factors. Ammonia research will produce i...

  4. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  5. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  6. NAS Albuquerque 3/20/11 National Academy of Science

    E-print Network

    ressure oresholein oronal asma Laser Electrons (hole-boring) Electrons (cone-guided) Protons DT fuel C Principle Steps in Cone Guided FI 3/30/2011 7 #12; Ignition requirement is rh ParallelJ for collimated electrons to well over 200kJ. As we discuss below, control of the hot electron divergence

  7. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  8. LADEE Update NAsA spacecraft Embarks On Historic

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    by the Minotaur V launch vehicle into an el- liptic orbit around Earth, as the start of our journey to the moon system tests, and on-board controller tun- ing. The spacecraft was at the highest point in the current in the Goddard community that support Goddard's mission to explore, discover, and understand our dynamic uni

  9. NAS/NAE Committee on the Prospects for IFE Systems

    E-print Network

    for Polar-Drive Ignition on the NIF J. D. Zuegel University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics 0 0 stress on the laser ­ Polar-drive phase plate and polarization-smoothing designs are underway ­ A NIF PD) requires five changes on the NIF for an ignition demonstration 5 3 4 New PD phase plates (2

  10. Researchers wrangle petabytes of data storage with NAS, tape

    E-print Network

    Pariseau, Beth

    2007-01-01

    "Much is made in the enterprise data storage industry about the performance of disk systems over tape drives, but the managers of one data center that has eached the far limits of capacity say otherwise. Budget and performance demands forced them to build access protocols and data management tools for disk systems from scratch."

  11. NAS/NAE Committee on the Prospects for IFE Systems

    E-print Network

    .0 0.5 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 1480nm DT gas 170 nm DT 27 nm DT Power(TW)×102 Time (ns) 1 MJ Energetics #12;E19676 LLE is the leader for direct-drive laser-based inertial fusion energy (IFE) conceptsLLNLhavepartneredtodeveloptheglasslaserIFEconcept Summary The solid-state laser concept shows great promise for IFE. #12;I1098z Laboratory for Laser

  12. Significant Accomplishments Release of NAS/Shalala report

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    to put a heretofore unseen amount of institutional and in the aggregate national/public power and Engineering." The National Academies Press: Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11741.html #12;

  13. NAS Associate Works on Environmental Implications of Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Manomita Patra joined the EPA's, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division at the Las Vegas, NV location in June 2007. Her research project parallels her previous interests in the genotoxicity of mercury in plants. She is working with Dr. Kim Rogers and Tammy Jones-Lep...

  14. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    In this report will be presented the development of educational resources for the presentation of concepts of astronomy in the early grades of elementary school. This material is composed by presentations developed with the use of new technological resources, by the development of experiments and by the presentation of curiosities related to this field. The experiments were constructed with low cost material in order to allow the students involved to rework them in other occasions. The material presented aims to emphasize the relationship between Astronomy and the daily life of students. The inclusion of Astronomy in elementary school is a way to demonstrate to students how this area is present in an active way in their daily lives. The classes involved in the project participated in a survey with the aim of providing information about the prior knowledge they had about topics in astronomy that were considered during the project. With the experiments conducted, and the aid of new technologies, the astronomical concepts were presented to students of 4th and 5th years of basic education of a municipal school of Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). After the presentations new data collections were carried out with the aim of verifying the level of learning obtained and it was observed that the method used was an important tool to aid the process of teaching and learning. The project obtained good results. En este informe se presenta el desarrollo de recursos pedagógicos para la presentación de los conceptos de la astronomía en los primeros grados de la escuela primaria. Este material consiste en las presentaciones hechas con el uso de nuevos recursos tecnológicos, haciendo experimentos y análisis de objetos de interés relacionados con este ámbito. Los experimentos fueron construidos con material de bajo costo a fin de que los estudiantes involucrados podrían rehacer en otras ocasiones. El material presentado tiene como objetivo destacar la relación entre la astronomía y la vida cotidiana de los estudiantes. La inclusión de la astronomía en la escuela primaria es una manera de demostrar a los estudiantes cómo este campo está presente de forma activa en su vida cotidiana. Las clases que participan en el proyecto participaron en un estudio con el objetivo de proporcionar información a los conocimientos previos que tenían sobre los temas de la astronomía que se examinaron durante el proyecto. Con los experimentos realizados, y la ayuda de las nuevas tecnologías, conceptos astronómicos fueron presentados a los estudiantes de 4to y 5to año de la educación básica de una escuela municipal de Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). Después de las presentaciones nuevos datos fueran colectados y se han llevado a cabo con el fin de verificar el nivel de aprendizaje alcanzado y se observó que el método utilizado fue una herramienta importante para ayudar al proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El proyecto logró resultados satisfactorios. Neste trabalho será apresentado o desenvolvimento de recursos pedagógicos para a apresentação de conceitos de astronomia nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. Este material é composto por apresentações realizadas com o uso de novos recursos tecnológicos, pela fabricação de experimentos e a discussão de curiosidades relativas a esta área de conhecimento. Os experimentos foram construídos com material de baixo custo com o objetivo de permitir que os alunos envolvidos pudessem refazê-los em outras ocasiões. O material apresentado busca enfatizar a relação entre a astronomia e o cotidiano dos alunos. A inclusão da astronomia no ensino fundamental e uma forma de demonstrar aoestudante como esta área está presente de forma ativa em seu cotidiano. As turmas envolvidas no projeto participaram de uma pesquisa com o objetivo de obter dados relativos ao conhecimento prévio que possuíam sobre os tópicos de astronomia que foram considerados no decorrer do projeto. Com os experimentos desenvolvidos, o auxílio de novas tecnologias, foram apresentados conceitos astronômicos aos aluno

  15. O Problema do Escalonamento de Enfermeiros Isabel Cardoso dos Santos

    E-print Network

    Soares, João Luís Cardoso

    Departamento de Matemática, Faculadade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra 1 #12;CONTE�DO 2. Actualmente, nas unidades do Hospital Pediátrico do Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra são elaboradas escalas de Universidade de Coimbra, na Unidade de Cirurgia/Queimados do Hospital Pediátrico de Coimbra. Este estágio

  16. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  17. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n?=?1?304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n?=?1?304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE]?=?9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  18. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 191 (2014) 3350 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    2014-01-01

    , Wageningen, Netherlands z Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, AM, Brazil aa Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre (CCST), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP

  19. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 182183 (2013) 145155 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    2013-01-01

    -Liang Yango a Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP Amazônia Oriental, Belém, PA, Brazil g Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, AM

  20. 2526 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 43, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2005 Spatial Validation of the Collection 4 MODIS

    E-print Network

    Grant Proc. 02/00985-2. L. E. O. C. Aragão is with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE and F. D. B. Espírito-Santo are with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Divisão de Validation of the Collection 4 MODIS LAI Product in Eastern Amazonia Luiz Eduardo O. C. Aragão, Yosio Edemir

  1. Polymers: Technical activities, 1991. NAS-NRC Assessment Panel, February 13-14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.E.; Fanconi, B.M.

    1991-10-01

    All of the Division's programs are described in the report, organized according to these six Groups. These Groups have made a number of significant accomplishments during the last year. Some of these are summarized below: A computer simulation was performed to model resin flow in liquid molding of the front end structure of a Ford Escort; A NIST/industry consortium has evolved for the purpose of developing in-line measurement technology based on optical and fluorescence methods; A combined light scattering photometer/rheometer has been constructed to examine phase separation behavior of polymer blends and solutions under the influence of a simple shear field; A unique new tool has been developed to study the physics involved in the adhesion between a polymer and a solid surface like glass; The distribution of polarization in poly(vinylidene fluoride) poled by corona discharge rather than by contacting electrodes indicated positive charge injection near the surface; Proton spin diffusion results indicated domain sizes in poly(butylmethacrylate)/hydroxy modified polystyrene blends with minimum dimensions in the 6-10 nm range and stoichiometries of the order of 75/25; Novel, siloxane-containing difunctional and multifunctional vinyl monomers were prepared; The apparent 'shift' in polymer blend phase separation temperature, Tc, under shear flow has been interpreted with the mode-coupling theory for mean-field polymer blend systems; The radial flow behavior was successfully predicted from measurements in unidirectional flow; An exposure technique that rapidly determines whether or not a polymer is biodegradable has been developed; Instrumentation has been set up and calibrated to measure the dielectric constant of thin polymer films at high electric fields; A viscoelastic model of stresses in porcelain-metal strips has been developed.

  2. Transformations of citrate and Tween coated silver nanoparticles reacted with Na?S.

    PubMed

    Baalousha, M; Arkill, K P; Romer, I; Palmer, R E; Lead, J R

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are susceptible to transformations in environmental and biological media such as aggregation, oxidation, dissolution, chlorination, sulfidation, formation/replacement of surface coatings following interaction with natural organic matter (NOM). This paper investigates the impact of surface coating and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) on the transformations and behavior of Ag NPs (citrate coated and Tween coated; cit-Ag NPs and Tween-Ag NPs, respectively), following reaction with different concentrations of Na2S solution (as a source of sulfide species, H2S and HS(-)). These transformations and the dominant mechanisms of transformations were investigated using UV-vis and scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Here, we have shown that Ag NP surface coating impacts their dissolution following dilution in ultrahigh purity water, with higher extent of dissolution of Tween-Ag NPs compared with cit-Ag NPs. Tween-Ag NPs are susceptible to dissolution following their sulfidation at low S/Ag molar ratio. Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) slows down the dissolution of Tween-Ag NPs at low sulfide concentrations and reduces the aggregation of cit-Ag NP in the presence of sodium sulfide. Sulfidation appears to occur by direct interaction of sulfide species with Ag NPs rather than by indirect reaction of sulfide with dissolved Ag species subsequent to dissolution. Furthermore, the sulfidation process results in the formation of partially sulfidized Ag NPs containing unreacted (metallic) subgrains at the edge of the NPs for Tween-Ag NPs in the presence of high sulfide concentration (2000nM Na2S), which occurred to less extent at lower Na2S concentration for Tween-Ag NPs and at all concentrations of Na2S for cit-Ag NPs. Thus, sulfidized Ag NPs may preserve some of the properties of the Ag NPs such as their potential to shed Ag(+) ions and their toxic potential of Ag NPs. PMID:25262296

  3. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Elevators and dumbwaiters 10 Materials transport system 10 Engine-generator system 5 Primary switchgear 5 Secondary switchgear 5 Fire alarm system 5 Nurse call system 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5...

  4. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Elevators and dumbwaiters 10 Materials transport system 10 Engine-generator system 5 Primary switchgear 5 Secondary switchgear 5 Fire alarm system 5 Nurse call system 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5...

  5. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Elevators and dumbwaiters 10 Materials transport system 10 Engine-generator system 5 Primary switchgear 5 Secondary switchgear 5 Fire alarm system 5 Nurse call system 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5...

  6. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Elevators and dumbwaiters 10 Materials transport system 10 Engine-generator system 5 Primary switchgear 5 Secondary switchgear 5 Fire alarm system 5 Nurse call system 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5...

  7. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engineer. (1) The branches shall be subdivided into as many sub-branches as are necessary to cover all... resident engineer so desire, he/she may require the contractor to submit the original estimate sheets or... shop drawings. (2) Only those materials and/or equipment as are approved by the resident engineer...

  8. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... schedule must be true costs and, should the resident engineer so desire, he/she may require the contractor... equipment as are approved by the resident engineer for storage will be included. (3) Such materials and/or... resident engineer. (4) Such materials and/or equipment will be protected against weather, theft and...

  9. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Newmiller, Jeff; Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  10. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system 5...itemized accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

  11. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...component parts of the contract work. (2) Costs as shown on...the cost of each branch of the work. (5) The cost schedule...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system...

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...component parts of the contract work. (2) Costs as shown on...the cost of each branch of the work. (5) The cost schedule...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system...

  13. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system 5...itemized accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

  14. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...component parts of the contract work. (2) Costs as shown on...the cost of each branch of the work. (5) The cost schedule...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system...

  15. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...component parts of the contract work. (2) Costs as shown on...the cost of each branch of the work. (5) The cost schedule...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system...

  16. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system 5...itemized accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system 5...itemized accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

  18. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...payment purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test...system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment) system 5...itemized accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

  19. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Test Site Kick-off Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Witzberger, Kevin; Hackenberg, Davis L.; Murphy, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This briefing was presented during the Test Site Kick Off Meeting to discuss the contract awards for Task 1 and Task 2. This briefing covered a high level overview for contract deliverables, Task 1 - UAS Traffic Management and Task 2, Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment.

  20. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating Risk Mitigation Measures for UAV Operational Concepts in the NAS

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Roland E

    2005-09-26

    An integrated approach is outlined in this paper to evaluate risks posed by operating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System. The approach supports the systematic evaluation of potential risk mitigation ...

  1. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Overview: RTCA SC-228 Plenary DAA Working Group 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation is intended to allow the public to know and understand NASA's plans for integrated test to allow them the opportunity to provide feedback and suggestions. The integrated testing will support verification and validation of the RTCA SC-228 UAS minimum operation performance standard requirements.

  2. Materials reliability. Technical activities, 1990. (NAS-NRC Assessment Panel, January 31-February 1, 1991)

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, H.I.

    1990-12-01

    Selected Highlights of the Materials Reliability Division are as follows: Composites NDE: A high resolution ultrasonic system has been developed for inspecting thick polymer-matrix composites; NDE Instruments: Field trials were conducted on two prototype ultrasonic NDE instruments. A formability sensor system was delivered to the Ford Motor Company for evaluation at their Dearborn stamping plant. An ultrasonic system for roll-by inspection of railroad wheels is being evaluated at the American Association of Railroads test track in Pueblo, Colorado; Elastic Waves in Composites: A powerful technique using a time-dependent Green's function method has been developed for studying propagation of elastic waves and their scattering from discontinuities in anisotropic solids; Electronic Packaging: Computer programs have been developed to convert coordinate points on solder joint surfaces obtained by x-ray laminography and optical inspection into finite element meshes for stress analysis; Thermomechanical Processing: The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) characteristics and the high-temperature, high strain-rate flow properties were measured for microalloyed SAE 1141 forging steel; Charpy Standards: Over 1000 industrial customers were supplied with Charpy V-notch reference specimens and calibration services for certification of Charpy impact test machines to ASTM Standard E23; Cryogenic Testing: A 5 MN (1 million pound-force) servohydraulic testing machine was refurbished and equipped with a cryostat and dewar capable of testing specimens 2 m long and 50 cm in diameter in liquid helium; Aluminum-Lithium Alloys: A cooperative program with NASA indicated that aluminum-lithium alloys have sufficient oxygen compatibility for use in cryogenic tankage for the Advanced Launch System; Automated Welding: An intelligent welding program was initiated for the U.S. Navy in conjunction with Babcock and Wilcox and INEL.

  3. Support of Activities of the NAS in Relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Douple, Evan B.

    2006-05-31

    The National Academies (NA) provides support for the activities related to the long-term follow up of the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki being conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) laboratories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The NA serves as scientific and administrative liaison between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and RERF, and performs tasks in the areas of scientific oversight, information/public interface, fiscal oversight, and personnel management. The project includes recruitment and support of approximately 10 NA employees who work at RERF in Japan. Specific activities are performed consistent with the cooperative agreement’s Statement of Work between DOE and NA and consistent with an Annual Work Plan developed by DOE and NA.

  4. Large UAS Operations in the NAS - The NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on wildfires throughout Western US. Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20+ hours). Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition).

  5. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Diurnal Gas Exchange of NAS Boreal Forest Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie; Dang, Qinglai

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. The purpose of the BOREAS TE-09 study was threefold: 1) to provide in situ gas exchange data that will be used to validate models of photosynthetic responses to light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2); 2) to compare the photosynthetic responses of different tree crown levels (upper and lower); and 3) to characterize the diurnal water potential curves for these sites to get an indication of the extent to which soil moisture supply to leaves might be limiting photosynthesis. The gas exchange data of the BOREAS NSA were collected to characterize diurnal gas exchange and water potential of two canopy levels of five boreal canopy cover types: young jack pine, old jack pine, old aspen, lowland old black spruce, and upland black spruce. These data were collected between 27-May-1994 and 17-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Picosecond carrier lifetimes in dilute GaInNAs grown on InP substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mangeney, J.; Laurent, T.; Martin, M.; Harmand, J. C.; Travers, L.; Mauguin, O.

    2011-10-03

    We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in Ga{sub 1-y}In{sub y} N{sub 0.03}As{sub 0.97} layers grown on InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. This dilute nitride semiconductor is a potential candidate for ultrafast components such as photoconductive terahertz devices driven at 1.55 {mu}m wavelength. Carrier lifetimes are measured by pump-probe experiments at 1550 nm wavelength and the shortest carrier lifetime is 2.6 ps under photoexcitation with {approx}4.2 {mu}J/cm{sup 2}. We observe two contributions in the differential transmittance decay. These contributions are discussed in terms of photocarrier recombination processes.

  7. Evaluation of the Terminal Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Near-Term NAS Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Swenson, Harry N.; Lin, Paul; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has developed a capability for terminal area precision scheduling and spacing (TAPSS) to provide higher capacity and more efficiently manage arrivals during peak demand periods. This advanced technology is NASA's vision for the NextGen terminal metering capability. A set of human-in-the-loop experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the TAPSS system for near-term implementation. The experiments evaluated the TAPSS system under the current terminal routing infrastructure to validate operational feasibility. A second goal of the study was to measure the benefit of the Center and TRACON advisory tools to help prioritize the requirements for controller radar display enhancements. Simulation results indicate that using the TAPSS system provides benefits under current operations, supporting a 10% increase in airport throughput. Enhancements to Center decision support tools had limited impact on improving the efficiency of terminal operations, but did provide more fuel-efficient advisories to achieve scheduling conformance within 20 seconds. The TRACON controller decision support tools were found to provide the most benefit, by improving the precision in schedule conformance to within 20 seconds, reducing the number of arrivals having lateral path deviations by 50% and lowering subjective controller workload. Overall, the TAPSS system was found to successfully develop an achievable terminal arrival metering plan that was sustainable under heavy traffic demand levels and reduce the complexity of terminal operations when coupled with the use of the terminal controller advisory tools.

  8. Analysis of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defnes the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models. Some of these properties are numerically quantifed using statistical methods.

  9. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  10. Implementation of BT, SP, LU, and FT of NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Matthew; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A number of Java features make it an attractive but a debatable choice for High Performance Computing. We have implemented benchmarks working on single structured grid BT,SP,LU and FT in Java. The performance and scalability of the Java code shows that a significant improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation are necessary for Java to compete with Fortran in HPC applications.

  11. 1.15?Å resolution structure of the proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 PDZ domain

    E-print Network

    Singh, Chingakham R.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Chowdhury, Wasimul Q.; Geanes, Eric S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2014-04-01

    The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa protease dedicated to the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this complex containing 66 polypeptides is assisted by at least nine proteasome-specific ...

  12. Design of Unstructured Adaptive (UA) NAS Parallel Benchmark Featuring Irregular, Dynamic Memory Accesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Hui-Yu; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design of a new method for the measurement of the performance of modern computer systems when solving scientific problems featuring irregular, dynamic memory accesses. The method involves the solution of a stylized heat transfer problem on an unstructured, adaptive grid. A Spectral Element Method (SEM) with an adaptive, nonconforming mesh is selected to discretize the transport equation. The relatively high order of the SEM lowers the fraction of wall clock time spent on inter-processor communication, which eases the load balancing task and allows us to concentrate on the memory accesses. The benchmark is designed to be three-dimensional. Parallelization and load balance issues of a reference implementation will be described in detail in future reports.

  13. A Validation Study of Merging and Spacing Techniques in a NAS-Wide Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Patricia C.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) delivered an M&S software tool to that allows system level studies of the complex terminal airspace with the ACES simulation. The software was evaluated against current day arrivals in the Atlanta TRACON using Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (KATL) arrival schedules. Results of this validation effort are presented describing data sets, traffic flow assumptions and techniques, and arrival rate comparisons between reported landings at Atlanta versus simulated arrivals using the same traffic sets in ACES equipped with M&S. Initial results showed the simulated system capacity to be significantly below arrival capacity seen at KATL. Data was gathered for Atlanta using commercial airport and flight tracking websites (like FlightAware.com), and analyzed to insure compatible techniques were used for result reporting and comparison. TFM operators for Atlanta were consulted for tuning final simulation parameters and for guidance in flow management techniques during high volume operations. Using these modified parameters and incorporating TFM guidance for efficiencies in flowing aircraft, arrival capacity for KATL was matched for the simulation. Following this validation effort, a sensitivity study was conducted to measure the impact of variations in system parameters on the Atlanta airport arrival capacity.

  14. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Incinerators (medical waste and trash) 5 Sewage treatment plant equipment 5 Water treatment plant equipment 5 Washers (dish, cage, glass, etc.) 5 Sterilizing equipment 5 Water distilling equipment 5 Prefab temperature rooms...

  15. Minority carrier transport properties of GaInNAs heterojunction bipolar transistors with 2% nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Asbeck, Peter M.

    % nitrogen Rebecca J. Welty,a) Huoping Xin, Charles W. Tu, and Peter M. Asbeck University of California) of 0.98 eV; this is achieved with a nitrogen composition of 2%. These devices have a turn-on voltage HFE is 8. The current gain of nitrogen containing HBTs is degraded due to the complex change

  16. UAS Integration into the NAS: HSI Full Mission Simulation Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Jay; Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Full Mission Sim was to examine the effects of different command and control interfaces on UAS pilots' ability to respond to ATC commands and traffic advisories. Results suggest that higher levels of automation (i.e., waypoint-to-waypoint control interfaces) lead to longer initial response times and longer edit times. The findings demonstrate the importance of providing pilots with interfaces that facilitate their ability to get back "in the loop."

  17. 76 FR 1511 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... navigation aids, at the request of the U.S. Navy, that are listed in the description. This action does...

  18. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (NAS) REVIEW OF THE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF PERCHLORATE INGESTION (2005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the interest of resolving scientific questions, the EPA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - members of a broader Interagency Working Group on Perchlorate led by the Office of Science and Technology Polic...

  19. Materials Data on NaS (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. NAS Parallel Conjugate Gradient Benchmark on the Cray T3D

    E-print Network

    and John Con­ roy of SRC for their help. In addition, I would like to acknowledge the National Physical much of its time waiting for memory access. 1 ``AC'' is written by Bill Carlson and Jesse Draper of SRC

  1. The Washington Alphabet Circa 1895-1905: NAS, USGS, SI, WAS, CC, GWMA, WMI, CIW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelson, E. L.

    2002-05-01

    Pursuit of science as part of the Federal responsibility to the American public was vigorously defended by John Wesley Powell in the 1880s, but received serious financial setback during the next decade. The following decade saw the gradual laying of foundations for the present-day non-academic component of "big science" through the development of a series of Federal and private organizations, some which were ephemeral. A key person in this alphabet soup has the initials CDW (Charles Doolittle Walcott). His influence will be discussed and if time permits, BM, NACA and NRC will be used to demonstrate methodology.

  2. Memorias del Segundo Simposio Internacional Sobre Polticas, Planificacin y Economa de los Programas de Proteccin Contra Incendios Forestales: Una Visin Global Plan de Gestin de Incendios a Escala

    E-print Network

    Profesor plenario, Dep. Agroselviter, Universidad de Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO de Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO) Italia. Correo electrónico: elisa.guglielmet@unito.it. 4 Doctor en Ciencias forestales, Dep. Agroselviter, Universidad de Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44

  3. La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  4. Zita Martins Astrobiloga portuguesa do Imperial College de Londres "Estamos mais perto

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    todos fa- lam de Marte, mas os candida- tos mais prováveis parecem ser os satélites de Júpiter e Saturno as agências espaciais não concentrem só as atenções em Marte para a procura de vida, mas também noutros sítios

  5. MONITORAMENTO DA COBERTURA FLORESTAL DA AMAZNIA

    E-print Network

    INPE SOBRE O RELATÓRIO: "INSPEÇÃO DE PONTOS E ÁREAS DO DETER" DA SECRETARIA DE ESTADO DO MEIO AMBIENTE 2008, técnicos do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) e da Secretaria de Estado do Meio

  6. 78 FR 12951 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard...non-emergency inpatient mental health care for TRICARE Standard...

  7. Effects of rapid thermal annealing conditions on GaInNAs band gap blueshift and photoluminescence intensity

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    Electronics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland S. Schön ETH Zurich, FIRST Center for Micro- and Nanoscience, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland Received 7 December 2005

  8. Investigations of Planets in the Shamakhy Astrophysical Observatory of Nas of Azerbaijan Named after M.N.TUSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atai, A. A.; Yuzbashov, E. R.

    2010-09-01

    The history of planets research in Azerbaijan and scientific results of research carried out by colleagues of Shamakhy Astrophysical Observatory named after N.Tusi of National Academy of Sciences is briefly described in this article.

  9. Proceedings of Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine 2004, Vol. 50, Part 2, 569573 Symmetries and Supersymmetries

    E-print Network

    Nikitin, Anatoly

    of the degenerate trap whose annihilation (creation) operators are ^aj (^a j). The total system of Bohr frequencies mechanics may be tested and useful applications in quantum computation may be realized [1]. Generally Introduction Trapped ions provide an interesting physical scenario wherein fundamental aspects of quantum

  10. Recent advances in the development of yellow-orange GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, T.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Härkönen, A.; Guina, M.

    2012-03-01

    We review recent results concerning the development of dilute nitride based semiconductor disk lasers. We have demonstrated over 7.4 W of output power at the second harmonic wavelength (around 590 nm) using a ?-BBO crystal. Over 10 W has been demonstrated at ~1.2 ?m, and multi-watt output power has been achieved at 589 nm with narrow linewidth (?? < 20 MHz).

  11. 75 FR 33615 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... was announced in a May 21, 2010, Federal Register Notice (75 FR 28610). EPA also announced that it..., 2010, Federal Register Notice (75 FR 28805). Members of the public who wish to ensure that their... comment period for review of this draft assessment was announced previously in the Federal Register (75...

  12. Defects in Ga(In)NAs thin films grown by atomic H-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Mura, Yusuke; Uedono, Akira; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2006-09-15

    The vacancy-type defects in Ga{sub 1-y}In{sub y}N{sub x}As{sub 1-x} dilute nitride films grown by atomic H-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (H-MBE) were investigated. The positron annihilation measurements showed that the densities of vacancy-type defects in GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} (x=0%-1.3%) films grown under an optimized atomic H flux were as low as that for a liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs substrate. Further, the influence of vacancy-type defects on the crystal quality and optical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integrated PL intensity at 77 K drastically decreased as N composition was increased, but we found no clear correlation between the density or volume of vacancy defects and optical properties, and the S parameters were nearly constant at a value of {approx}0.516 in all Ga{sub 1-y}In{sub y}N{sub x}As{sub 1-x} films grown by our H-MBE technique.

  13. NAS Experiences of Porting CM Fortran Codes to HPF on IBM SP2 and SGI Power Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash

    1995-01-01

    Current Connection Machine (CM) Fortran codes developed for the CM-2 and the CM-5 represent an important class of parallel applications. Several users have employed CM Fortran codes in production mode on the CM-2 and the CM-5 for the last five to six years, constituting a heavy investment in terms of cost and time. With Thinking Machines Corporation's decision to withdraw from the hardware business and with the decommissioning of many CM-2 and CM-5 machines, the best way to protect the substantial investment in CM Fortran codes is to port the codes to High Performance Fortran (HPF) on highly parallel systems. HPF is very similar to CM Fortran and thus represents a natural transition. Conversion issues involved in porting CM Fortran codes on the CM-5 to HPF are presented. In particular, the differences between data distribution directives and the CM Fortran Utility Routines Library, as well as the equivalent functionality in the HPF Library are discussed. Several CM Fortran codes (Cannon algorithm for matrix-matrix multiplication, Linear solver Ax=b, 1-D convolution for 2-D datasets, Laplace's Equation solver, and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes have been ported to Subset HPF on the IBM SP2 and the SGI Power Challenge. Speedup ratios versus number of processors for the Linear solver and DSMC code are presented.

  14. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... the Internet on the NCEA home page under the Recent Additions and Publications menus at http://www.epa... and answers may be accessed at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodContaminantsAdulteration... docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit electronic comments, EPA recommends that...

  15. 76 FR 57690 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard...MTF) has the right of first refusal for specialty services requested...MTF is referred for specialty care by a civilian provider and...

  16. 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... public review and comment (75 FR 28610). Written comments on the draft report were to be submitted to EPA... by the SAB staff office in a separate May 24, 2010, Federal Register Notice (75 FR 28805). EPA... FR 28610). The public comment period and SAB external peer review are independent processes...

  17. Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

  18. GaNAs/InGaAs Superlattice Solar Cells with High N Content in the Barrier Grown by All Solid-State Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian-Ya; Zheng, Xin-He; Wang, Nai-Ming; Chen, Xi; Li, Bao-Ji; Lu, Shu-Long; Yang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 61274134, the University of Science and Technology Beijing Talents Start-up Program under Grant No 06105033, and the International Cooperation Projects of Suzhou City under Grant No SH201215.

  19. Pratt & Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Larry A.; Hauser, Joseph E.; Mathews, Douglas C.; Topol, David A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Lan, Justin H.; Premo, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed in Phase 2 of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) contract. The purpose of the program is to validate, through engine testing, advanced noise reduction concepts aimed at reducing engine noise up to 6 EPNdB and improving nacelle suppression by 50 percent relative to 1992 technology. Phase 1 of the program is completed and is summarized in NASA/CR-2014-218088.

  20. Review of the NAS/NRC report: {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. Special report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    There are three basic and serious problems that produce disagreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the Academy report entitled {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. These are: First, the report ignores a considerable body of critical data relating to the ages and nature of hydrothermal alterations at the site; second, many of the strong conclusions expressed in the report are not reasonably supported by the evidence presented and, in some cases, are inconsistent with data and results available to the committee but which are not cited or used by them; and finally, there are statements describing field relationships and data that are not consistent with the facts or are made in such a way as to be misleading.

  1. A description of work accomplished under Contract NAS 7-100 between the California Institute of Technology and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Other Activities 33 Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive with the partic- ipation of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in major u. S. space flights. In January, the Laboratory marked the end of an era for the Jet Propu lsion Laboratory, as it did for the nation

  2. Issued 02/03/2011 BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Tel 202-334-3520 Fax 202-334-3575 E-mail bpa@nas.edu

    E-print Network

    Issued 02/03/2011 BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Tel 202-334-3520 Fax 202-334-3575 E-mail bpa report, "Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program," researchers were asked to provide a two the committee get a sense of the current research landscape for IFE. Guidelines for the Preparation of Two

  3. UAS-NAS Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment (LVC): LVC Gateway, Gateway Toolbox, Gateway Data Logger (GDL), SaaProc Software Design Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovic, Srboljub

    2015-01-01

    This document provides the software design description for the two core software components, the LVC Gateway, the LVC Gateway Toolbox, and two participants, the LVC Gateway Data Logger and the SAA Processor (SaaProc).

  4. Proceedings of Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine 2004, Vol. 50, Part 1, 3439 Solitary Wave Solutions for Heat Equations

    E-print Network

    Nikitin, Anatoly

    Wave Solutions for Heat Equations Tetyana A. BARANNYK and Anatoly G. NIKITIN Poltava State@imath.kiev.ua We present exact solitary wave solutions for a class of nonlinear heat equations and for coupled of equations (1), (2) which can be reduced using the mentioned Ans¨atze. #12;Solitary Wave Solutions for Heat

  5. Teaching of Astronomy at Teresa Martin College. (Breton Title: Ensino de Astronomia Nas Faculdades Teresa Martin.) Enseñanza de la Astronomia en la Facultad Teresa Martin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2005-12-01

    Courses with exclusive Astronomy contents did not exist at (FATEMA) Teresa Martin College's program until the end of 2002. In 2001, a series of educational experiments started in courses and classes of Astronomy at Mathematics and Geography departments. This actions culminated with the insertion of Teaching of Astronomy as a study theme in the course of Independent Studies for Mathematics professors in 2005. Até o final de 2002 inexistiam na grade curricular das Faculdades Integradas Teresa Martin (FATEMA) cadeiras com conteúdos exclusivos de Astronomia. A partir do ano de 2001 iniciou-se uma série de experiências educacionais através de modelos de cursos e de aulas de Astronomia nos Departamentos de Matemática e de Geografia, o que culminou com a inserção do Ensino de Astronomia como temática da disciplina de Estudos Independentes para o curso de Licenciatura em Matemática, em 2005. Hasta el final de 2002 no había en el currículo dela Facultad TeresaMartín (FATEMA) en San Pablo - SP, Brasil, disciplinas con contenidos exclusivos de Astronomía. A partir del año 2001 comenzó una secuencia de experimentos educacionales de carrera y de clases de Astronomía en los Departamentos de Matemática y Geografía, culminando en la implantación de clases de Enseñanza dela Astronomíaenla Licenciaturaen Matemática, en el año de 2003, y de la cátedra de extensión en Cosmografía parala Licenciaturaen Geografía.

  6. An Evolutionary-Inspired Approach for Moving Target Defenses Errin W. Fulp, Daniel Ca~nas, David J. John, and William H. Turkett

    E-print Network

    Erway, Jennifer

    . John, and William H. Turkett Department of Computer Science · Wake Forest University · Winston-Salem, NC supported by National Science Foundation Secure and Trustworthy Cyberspace Award 1252551 Motivation Moving Target (MT) environments provide security through diversity by changing various system

  7. Satlites brasileiros de observao da Terra: balano e perspectivas Jos Carlos Neves Epiphanio1

    E-print Network

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE Caixa Postal 515 - 12227-010 - São José dos Campos - SP satellites designed for Earth observation: CBERS, Amazonia and Sabia. At the same time makes a balance is planned to be launched two years after CBERS-3 launching. Amazonia-1 is a satellite with a medium

  8. Vegetation dynamics and rainfall sensitivity of Thomas Hilkera,1

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    ; and e Divisão de Sensoriamento Remoto, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation green- ness across large parts of Amazonia. Large, and photosyn- thetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000

  9. Landscape pattern and spatial variability of leaf area index in Eastern Amazonia

    E-print Network

    a Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Divisa~o de Sensoriamento Remoto, Av. dos Astronautas 1758Landscape pattern and spatial variability of leaf area index in Eastern Amazonia Luiz Eduardo O, transpiration and photosynthesis). In order to generate a sampling strategy for LAI across a section of Amazonia

  10. Spatial relations across scales in land change models Evaldinolia G. Moreira1, 2

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    1 , Sérgio S. Costa1 , Gilberto Câmara1 1 Earth System Science Center (CST) ­ Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) - Av. dos Astronautas, 1758 ­ 12227-001 ­ São José dos Campos ­ SP ­ Brasil 2 at different scales (such as farms in Central Amazonia to soybean market consumers at the global scale). We

  11. Biologia 64/3: 433--437, 2009 Section Botany

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    Nobre, Gilvan Sampaio, Marina Hirota, Dalton Valeriano & Gilberto C^amara Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais ­ INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, 12630-000 SP ­ Brasil; e-mail: mcardoso of original tropical forests of Amazonia (Fig. 2), as determined by the CPTEC-PVM (Oyama & Nobre 2004

  12. Assessing Nighttime DMSP/OLS Data for Detection of Human Settlements in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    QUINTANILHA 3 1 INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Caixa Postal 515 - 12201-097 - São José dos1 Assessing Nighttime DMSP/OLS Data for Detection of Human Settlements in the Brazilian Amazonia-light data as an instrument to investigate the human presence and activity over the Brazilian Amazonia

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 43, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005 1855 Analysis and Optimization of the MODIS Leaf Area

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    .P. 515, Brazil. Y. E. Shimabukuro is with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Di- visão de broadleaf forests of the eastern part of North America and evergreen broadleaf forests of Amazonia of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3TB, U.K. and also with the Instituto Na

  14. Estimating population and energy consumption in Brazilian Amazonia using

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    Quintanilha b , Christopher D. Elvidge c a INPE­­Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, DPI­­Divis~ao deEstimating population and energy consumption in Brazilian Amazonia using DMSP night-time satellite in the Brazilian Amazonia region using DMSP/OLS night-time satellite sensor imagery. It consists on exploring

  15. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 182183 (2013) 111127 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    2013-01-01

    b Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil c Earth System Science Interdisciplinary-Scale Biosphere­Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Data Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-DMIP) Luis Gustavo Gonc Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia i Instituto

  16. Heterogeneity of Soils and Vegetation in an Eastern Amazonian

    E-print Network

    , Massachusetts 02543, USA; 2 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sa~o Jose´ dos Campos, SP, Brazil; and 3, and relationships among, vegeta- tion and soil properties in terra firme rain forest ecosystems in eastern Amazonia); gross primary production (GPP); Large-Scale Biosphere­Atmosphere experiment; soil texture; Amazonia

  17. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 182183 (2013) 177188 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis, MeteoSwiss, Zurich, Switzerland j Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista Departamento de Cienciêas Atmosfericas, IAG, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil c Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz onia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil d Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre/Instituto

  18. Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge M. J. Hole, R. S. Dallaqua, S. W. Simpson* and E. Del Bosco.

    E-print Network

    at the cathode. The interaction of the current with the axial magnetic field sets the plasma in rotation described here. TABLE 1. Typical VAC Plasma Parameters Parameter value cathode Mg background gas pressure 1 Plasma (LAP), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), CP 515, 12201-970, São José dos Campos

  19. Surface and Coatings Technology 169170 (2003) 379383 0257-8972/03/$ -see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    2003-01-01

    were implanted by plasma immersion ion implantation on Si wafers. The vacuum arc plasma gun has Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S0257-8972Z03.00053-7 Magnesium plasma immersion ion, a a b b Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas, Av. dos Astronautas

  20. REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PS-GRADUAO EM CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE MATERIAIS E SENSORES

    E-print Network

    REGIMENTO DO CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE MATERIAIS E SENSORES TÍTULO I DOS Sensores (CMS), do Curso de Pós-graduação em Engenharia e Tecnologia Espaciais (ETE) do INPE, tem como Regimento dos Cursos de Pós-Graduação do INPE, pelas normas do Conselho de Pós-Graduação, pelo Regimento do

  1. As interfaces grficas vem sendo desenvolvidas em TCL/TK em conjunto com a sua extenso, o iTCL/iTK.

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Distribuída. SIBGRAPI'96. Caxambu, MG, Out., 1996. p. 15­22. C. Esperança et al., 3D Viewer: Um Visualizador 3D Utilizando OpenGL e TCL/TK. SIBGRAPI'96. Caxambu, MG, Out, 1996. p. 345­346. M. Zuffo et al., Um utilização de scanners espaciais, em especial na Medicina, como a Tomografia Computadorizada (TC

  2. CERIMNIA DO 25 ANIVERSRIO DO LABORATRIO DE INTEGRAO E TESTES DO INPE

    E-print Network

    CERIMÔNIA DO 25º ANIVERSÁRIO DO LABORATÓRIO DE INTEGRAÇÃO E TESTES DO INPE 03.12.2012 Leonel Laboratório de Integração e Testes ­ LIT, e efetuar algumas reflexões e homenagens. As atividades do Brasil na consolidação das atividades espaciais no país. O projeto e construção do Laboratório de Integração e Testes de

  3. The Astrophysical Journal, 548:L95L98, 2001 February 10 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Giménez de Castro, Guillermo Carlos

    5400, Argentina M. Rovira, C. Mandrini, and R. Ferna´ndez-Borda Instituto de Astronomia y Fi´sica del was undergoing final alignment adjust- 1 CRAAE­Centro de Ra´dio Astronomia e Aplicac¸o~es Espaciais is a joint

  4. My Documents\\Presentations\\IFE\\NAS\\JCF_IFE_NAS_LANL_V4Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Slide 1

    E-print Network

    A S S I F I E D Slide 2 · Addressing NRC committee charge ­ Power generation prospects ­ Challenges, cost that the physics underpinning IFE exploitation is fundamentally sound. · US is a clear world leader in IFE. Prospects National Ignition Facility aerial Moses - 31st Annual Meeting and Symposium Fusion Power

  5. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    There are several interesting astronomical topics that must be addressed in the High School and Elementary/Middle School in the disciplines of Geography and of Sciences. Among them, the topic of time zones which is one of the most important to understand the correlation of the Earth's rotation and its implications on daily activities of citizens in local scale, regional and global scales which involve problems of time differences. For the teaching of time zones in the lessons of Geography, for example, there are bi-dimensional representations of thematic maps of world time zones, textbooks and atlas. It happens that teachers face some difficulties to permit its students to view three-dimensionally this astronomical phenomenon from the textbooks available in schools. The aim of this paper is to present two proposals with low-cost materials, which allow the preparation of three-dimensional models for the teaching of time zones. Há vários temas astronômicos interessantes que devem ser trabalhados nos Ensinos Médio e Fundamental, nas disciplinas de Geografia e de Ciências. Entre eles, o tema dos fusos horários que é um dos mais importantes para se correlacionar a rotação da Terra e suas implicações nas atividades cotidianas dos cidadãos em escala local, regional e global, que envolvem problemas de diferenças horárias. Para o ensino dos fusos horários nas aulas de Geografia, por exemplo, há representações bidimensionais de mapas temáticos de fusos horários mundiais, nos livros didáticos e nos atlas. Ocorre que os professores enfrentam algumas dificuldades para possibilitar aos seus alunos a visão tridimensional deste fenômeno astronômico, a partir dos materiais didáticos disponíveis nas escolas. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas propostas para a confecção de materiais de baixo custo, que possibilitem a elaboração de modelos tridimensionais para o ensino dos fusos horários. Hay algunos temas astronómicos interesantes que se deben trabajar en la enseñanza media y básica, en las asignaturas de Geografía y de Ciencias. Entre ellos, el de los husos horarios que es uno de los más importantes para correlacionar la rotación de la Tierra y sus implicaciones en las actividades diarias de los ciudadanos en escala local, regional y global, y en general, cuestiones que implican problemas de las diferencias horarias. Para la enseñanza de los husos horarios en las clases de Geografía, por ejemplo, hay representaciones bidimensionales de los mapas temáticos de husos horarios mundiales, en libros y atlas didácticos. Sin embargo, los profesores se enfrentan con algunas dificultades para hacer posible que sus alumnos tengan una visión tridimensional de este fenómeno astronómico, usando los materiales didácticos disponibles en las escuelas. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la construcción de dos propuestas de materiales de bajo costo, que hacen posible la elaboración de modelos tridimensionales para la enseñanza de los husos horarios.

  6. Realizacao domestica e escolar de foto e video 3D

    E-print Network

    Lunazzi, Jose J

    2012-01-01

    English: Industry does not give attention to the small domestic or professional market of digital technologies for 3D images. What was done on the XX century by using photographic film is not know available to the common people, though the facilities are even better. Some technique developed in Brasil twenty years ago and the use of conventional domestic photo or video cameras allows fot making pictures and films at home by using digital conversions for editing, and two-color goggles. The anaglyphic technique, the same NASA employs to show Mars images to the public, is not employed in Brazil yet. We must analize the reasons for that. Portugues: A industria nao tem dado atencao ao mercado domestico ou profissional de pequena escala nas novas tecnologias digitais para imagem 3D. O que foi feito ao longo do seculo XX usando filme fotografico nao esta hoje ao alcance das pessoas, sendo que a facilidade de uso e muito maior. Tecnicas desenvolvidas no Brasil ha mais de vinte anos, e o uso de simples cameras convenc...

  7. Realizacao domestica e escolar de foto e video 3D

    E-print Network

    Jose J. Lunazzi

    2012-12-19

    English: Industry does not give attention to the small domestic or professional market of digital technologies for 3D images. What was done on the XX century by using photographic film is not know available to the common people, though the facilities are even better. Some technique developed in Brasil twenty years ago and the use of conventional domestic photo or video cameras allows fot making pictures and films at home by using digital conversions for editing, and two-color goggles. The anaglyphic technique, the same NASA employs to show Mars images to the public, is not employed in Brazil yet. We must analize the reasons for that. Portugues: A industria nao tem dado atencao ao mercado domestico ou profissional de pequena escala nas novas tecnologias digitais para imagem 3D. O que foi feito ao longo do seculo XX usando filme fotografico nao esta hoje ao alcance das pessoas, sendo que a facilidade de uso e muito maior. Tecnicas desenvolvidas no Brasil ha mais de vinte anos, e o uso de simples cameras convencionais de fotografia e video permitem realizar fotos e filmes caseiros por meio de conversoes digitais na edicao e o uso de oculos bicolor. A tecnica anagifica, a mesma que a NASA usa para mostrar ao publico as imagens de Marte, por exemplo, nao teve espaco no Brasil ainda. Devemos analisar os motivos que podem estar influenciando e os caminhos para mudar isso.

  8. Debates in the Environmentalist Community: The soy moratorium and the construction of illegal soybeans in the Brazilian Amazon

    E-print Network

    Brown, J. Christopher; Koeppe, Matthew

    2013-02-01

    Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais), a key institution that has over the years produced official deforestation statistics and maps from interpretation of satellite imagery, primarily from NASA satellites that were first launched in the early 1970s. This Radar... that would dissuade people from Debates in the Environmentalist Community: The Soy Moratorium and the Construction of Illegal Soybeans in the Brazilian Amazon J. Christopher Brown and Matthew Koeppe 8 Cooper and Hunefeldt - Amazonia - final - Phoenix 03...

  9. electronic reprint Crystallography

    E-print Network

    Morelhão, Sérgio Luiz

    © International Union of Crystallography Author(s) of this paper may load this reprint on their own web site, CP 66318, 05315-970 SaÄo Paulo, SP, Brazil, b Instituto de FõÂsica, USP, LNMS, CP 66318, 05315-970 SaÄo Paulo, SP, Brazil, and c Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, LAS, CP 515, 12201-970 SaÄo Jose

  10. A compact and low cost TT&C S-Band Ground Station for low orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacola, Luiz C.; Ferrari, Carlos A.

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE's) S-Band Ground Station for satellite control and monitoring is revised consdiering the current software and hardware technology. A Ground Station concept for low orbit satellites is presented. The front-end uses a small antenna and low cost associated equipment without loss of performance. The baseband equipment is highly standardized and developed on a personal computer IBM compatible using extensively Digital Signal Processing (DSP). A link budget for ranging, telecommand and telemetry is also presented.

  11. 1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate

    E-print Network

    1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011 Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil, and the Met Office Hadley Centre, UK Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK An

  12. Ground Software Maintenance Facility (GSMF) user's manual. Appendices NASA-CR-178806 NAS 1.26:178806 Rept-41849-G159-026-App HC A05/MF A01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Derrig, D.; Griffith, G.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures are presented that allow the user to assemble tasks, link, compile, backup the system, generate/establish/print display pages, cancel tasks in memory, and to TET an assembly task without having to enter the commands every time. A list of acronyms is provided. Software identification, payload checkout unit operating system services, data base generation, and MITRA operating procedures are also discussed.

  13. A Pos-Graduacao Nas Ciencias Humanas e o Paradigma da Medicina: A Era da Especializacao. (Post-Graduation in the Human Sciences and the Paradigm of Medicine: The Era of Specialization.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Celio Juvenal

    2000-01-01

    Reflects on the current tendency in Brazilian higher education for greater and greater specialization, particularly in human sciences and in medicine. Calls for less specialization and a more historic and general preparation, especially in teacher education. (BT)

  14. The National Academies | Science in the Headlines | New Research Mim... http://www.nas.edu/headlines/20060124.html 1 of 1 1/27/2006 8:03 AM

    E-print Network

    by resistance-free flow similar to that of gas found at the core of neutron stars. Previously it was believed: The X-Games of Contemporary Science looks at why it is important for U.S. scientists to develop Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science (2003) Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos

  15. [Review of] Stali?nas, Darius. Making Russians: Meaning and Practice of Russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics, 11.

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    2008-01-01

    intelligence network during the Manchurian campaign and its contribution to the war efforts, he seems to overlook the grand picture of intelligence incapacity. The Russian intelligence debacle in 1904–5 was greater, in fact, than the American debacle in Pearl... Harbor thirty seven years later. Both were unable to predict Japanese plans for a preemptive attack, although it was the Russian intelligence that never fully recovered in the subsequent stages of the war. Until the very end it kept providing the army...

  16. IOV&T OTM MrOYtXt^CLl Nas universidades portuguesas nasceram ou esto a surgir tecnologias capazes de conquistar o interesse de todo o mundo. Das criaes que salvam vidas,

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    incontinentes, passando por meios de reutilizar excedentes da agricultura como combustíveis ou testes deADNà uva " à frente de um hambúrguer e de uma cer- veja", não foi um fim em si mas um meio para continuar

  17. Developing a Masters Degree in Native American Studies at the University of New Mexico-Main Campus Thank you for taking the time to complete this short survey. Native American Studies (NAS) would like to

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    Developing a Masters Degree in Native American Studies at the University of New Mexico-Main Campus Certificate option appeal to you or to prospective students in your opinion? (A Certificate is an official a joint degree with another field of study (ie., law, business, administration) appeal to you

  18. CCOONNSSEEJJOO SSUUPPEERRIIOORR DDEE IINNVVEESSTTIIGGAACCIIOONNEESS

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    SEXO..........................................................................................3 DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL PERSONAL POR SEXO / RELACIÓN LABORAL.................................................3 DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL PERSONAL FUNCIONARIO POR SEXO/CUERPO-ESCALA.........................3 DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL

  19. Disruption of endocrine function in H295R cell in vitro and in zebrafish in vivo by naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jinhua; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-15

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) have been reported to exhibit endocrine disrupting effects on aquatic organisms. Although the responsible compounds are unknown, naphthenic acids (NAs) have been considered to be implicated. The current study was designed to investigate the endocrine disruption of OSPW extracted NAs (OS-NAs) and commercial NAs (C-NAs) using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of OS-NAs and C-NAs on steroidogenesis were assessed both at hormone levels and expression levels of hormone-related genes in the H295R cells. The transcriptions of biomarker genes involved in endocrine systems in zebrafish larvae were investigated to detect the effects of OS-NAs and C-NAs on endocrine function in vivo. Exposure to OS-NAs and C-NAs significantly increased production of 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), and decreased production of testosterone (T). Both OS-NAs and C-NAs significantly induced the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. The abundances of transcripts of biomarker gene CYP19b, ER?, and VTG were significantly up-regulated in zebrafish larvae exposed to OS-NAs and C-NAs, which indicated that NAs had negative effects on estrogen-responsive gene transcription in vivo. These results indicated that NAs should be partly responsible for the endocrine disrupting effects of OSPW. PMID:26073515

  20. Ecosystem Management across Ownerships: The Potential for Collision with Antitrust Laws

    E-print Network

    -boundary management, ecosystem management, forest industry, Sherman Act Gesti´on de Ecosistemas a trav´es de´imites de ecosistemas esta siendo apoyada para atender temas ecol´ogicos de gran escala en paisajes boscosos industria forestal en la gesti´on de ecosistemas a gran escala. Soluciones potenciales a este problema

  1. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds National Academy Sciences (External Review Draft) (2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dioxin Reassessment, NAS Review Draft

    On October 15, 2004, the EPA transmitted to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) the nas-review/index.cfm">NAS Review Draft of EPA's Exposure and Human Hea...

  2. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Naphthenic Acids Species from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-TOFMS), integrating traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, was used to achieve two-dimensional (2D) separation (drift vs retention times) of naphthenic acids (NAs). Unprocessed and ozonated commercial NAs were used for method development. Only O2-NAs were found in unprocessed NAs with ozonation creating O3-NAs and O4-NAs. Unprocessed and ozonated oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) were examined to validate the method for complex matrix NAs. Ozonation increased the x number for Ox-NAs (2 ? x ? 5) and also impacted the -Z number distribution. OSPW extracted using dichloromethane removed the potential for sample matrix impacts and was used for MS/MS NAs characterization. The Ox-NAs (2 ? x ? 6) were identified with O2-NAs separated into three clusters indicating isobaric and isomeric species. MS/MS was used to verify compounds, while also indicating the presence of CH3CH2S- NAs groups. This result may be useful for future studies of sulfur-NAs fate, toxicity, and treatment. Overall, the value-added information provided by UPLC-IM-TOFMS makes it a promising analytical technique for analysis of NAs in complex OSPW samples. Moreover, this methodology can be used for other matrices to investigate relative molecular sizes and to separate complex species (e.g., fatty acids, lipids), making it beneficial for environmental and bioanalytical applications. PMID:26322530

  3. Occurrences and behaviors of naphthenic acids in a petroleum refinery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beili; Wan, Yi; Gao, Yingxin; Zheng, Guomao; Yang, Min; Wu, Song; Hu, Jianying

    2015-05-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are one class of compounds in wastewaters from petroleum industries that are known to cause toxic effects, and their removal from oilfield wastewater is an important challenge for remediation of large volumes of petrochemical effluents. The present study investigated occurrences and behaviors of total NAs and aromatic NAs in a refinery wastewater treatment plant, located in north China, which combined physicochemical and biological processes. Concentrations of total NAs were semiquantified to be 113-392 ?g/L in wastewater from all the treatment units, and the percentages of aromatic NAs in total NAs was estimated to be 2.1-8.8%. The mass reduction for total NAs and aromatic NAs was 15±16% and 7.5±24% after the physicochemical treatment, respectively. Great mass reduction (total NAs: 65±11%, aromatic NAs: 86±5%) was observed in the biological treatment units, and antiestrogenic activities observed in wastewater from physicochemical treatment units disappeared in the effluent of the activated sludge system. The distributions of mass fractions of NAs demonstrated that biodegradation via activated sludge was the major mechanism for removing alicyclic NAs, aromatic NAs, and related toxicities in the plant, and the polycyclic NA congener classes were relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation, which is a complete contrast to the preferential adsorption of NAs with higher cyclicity (low Z value). Removal efficiencies of total NAs were 73±17% in summer, which were higher than those in winter (53±15%), and the seasonal variation was possibly due to the relatively high microbial biotransformation activities in the activated sludge system in summer (indexed by O3-NAs/NAs). The results of the investigations indicated that biotransformation of NA mixtures by the activated sludge system were largely affected by temperature, and employing an efficient adsorbent together with biodegradation processes would help cost-effectively remove NAs in petroleum effluents. PMID:25850668

  4. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois períodos possíveis: 2,2 ou 3,8 dias, além de variações irregulares superpostas. Foram observados, também, dois eventos súbitos, espaçados de uma hora, com amplitudes de 0,05mag e duração de aproximadamente 30 minutos. Admitindo-se que tal modulação seja originada por acréscimo sobre a superfície estelar, dois cenários são possíveis. No caso do menor período, apenas uma mancha quente seria visível. No outro caso, duas manchas seriam necessárias, explicando assim a presença de dois picos ao se colocar os pontos em fase.

  5. Portugueses criam terapeuta virtual da fala

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    avaliação de 30 terapeutas da fala, "numa escala de zero a cinco, teve a nota muito boa de 4,65", diz Fonseca, da Facul- dade de Medicina da Universidade de Lis- boa, ficou claro que uma ferramenta deste tipo

  6. Estudio de Exámenes de Detección de Cáncer de Próstata, Pulmón, Colorrectal y Ovarios (PLCO): preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El estudio de exámenes de detección PLCO es un estudio a gran escala, aleatorizado, para determinar si el uso de ciertos exámenes selectivos de detección disminuirá el riesgo de morir por esos cuatro tipos de cáncer.

  7. Instantánea de nanotecnología

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen básico de la nanotecnología, la cual consiste en el diseño y la creación de dispositivos tan pequeños que solo pueden medirse a escala molecular. También se incluye información sobre las investigaciones que realiza el NCI en este campo.

  8. Theatre Notes: Teatro Peruano

    E-print Network

    Joffré , Sara

    1983-10-01

    proyectos a mayor escala. CUATRO TABLAS Más importante actualmente por las Células desprendidas de la célula madre (Raíces, Luis Ramírez y su estupendo desarrollo corporal) presenta Oye nuevamente con gente muy joven, y Mario Delgado (esencia de Cuatro...

  9. EVALUACIN Y CREACIN DE DOS CORREDORES ECOLGICOS: UTILIZANDO SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIN GEOGRFICA

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Departamento de Salud Ambiental Escuela Graduada de Salud Pública Recinto de Ciencias Médicas Universidad de contribución a la salud) utilizadas en la valoración de estos espacios a escala local y regional se usará como

  10. Nanotecnología - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Piensa en pequeño. No, más pequeño -- piensa en nano. Achícate a la "nano escala", podrías ver los átomos que forman todo Y poder moverlos. Los científicos especialistas en nanotecnología crean nue...

  11. Influence of land use and landscape setting on the ecological status of J. David Allan

    E-print Network

    Allan, David

    , catchment, watershed RESUMEN El desarrollo de métodos de evaluación biológica para ecosistemas lóticos factores del paisaje influyen en los ecosistemas lóticos en un amplio rango a escala espa- cial, aunque

  12. Albert Laszl Barabsi es un cientfico hngaro nacido el 30 de marzo de 1967 en Rumana.

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    Departamento de Medicina, Harvard Medical School, el Brigham and Women Hospital, y el Center of Cancer Systems de redes libres de escala y la propuesta del modelo de Barabási-Albert para explicar su emergencia

  13. DISTRIBUCI~NY ABUNDANCIA DE LAS AVES EN LA PEN~NSULAIBERICA. UNA APROXIMACI~N

    E-print Network

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    sobre su avifauna. La distribuci6n geo- grafica de las aves en Iberia es el resultado de la interacci6n abundancia de las aves en Iberia, poniendo especial Cnfasis en 10spatrones existentes a gran escala (tanto

  14. ARQUITECTURA PARA LA DISTRIBUCIN DE DOCUMENTOS

    E-print Network

    Navarro Moldes, Leandro

    T E S I S ARQUITECTURA PARA LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE DOCUMENTOS EN UN SISTEMA DISTRIBUIDO A GRAN ESCALA: ARQUITECTURA Y TECNOLOGÍA DE COMPUTADORES BARCELONA, OCTUBRE DE 2002 #12;Dr. President Dr. Secretari Dr. Vocal

  15. Impa, um centro de estudos que faz bonito no Rio Publicada em 23/05/2009 s 18h04m

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    ) no mesmo ano, reforça como o instituto mantém o país entre os melhores do gênero: 1,50, em pé de igualdade Aplicada (Impa) faz bonito na escala mundial de entidades do gênero. Segundo indicadores de produção

  16. 77 FR 47924 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed in National Academy of Sciences Report: Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ...including infertility; spontaneous abortion other than after paternal exposure to...paternal herbicide exposure and spontaneous abortion. In Update 2010, NAS identified no...paternal herbicide exposure and spontaneous abortion. Detailed information on NAS'...

  17. 77 FR 43275 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, Florida AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West Airfield Operations, Florida. The...Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, NAS Key West Air Operations EIS Project...

  18. Ames Director William 'Bill' Ballhaus (center left) joins visitor Sir Jeffrey Pope from Royla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Ames Director William 'Bill' Ballhaus (center left) joins visitor Sir Jeffrey Pope from Royla Aircraft Industry, England (center right) at the NAS Facility Cray 2 computer with Ron Deiss, NAS Deputy Manager (L) and Vic Peterson, Ames Deputy Director (R).

  19. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR... submitted in writing to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS), National Archives and... to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS), National Archives and...

  20. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR... submitted in writing to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS), National Archives and... to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS), National Archives and...

  1. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR... submitted in writing to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS), National Archives and... to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS), National Archives and...

  2. Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Use of opiates during pregnancy can result in a drug withdrawal ... with NAS —equivalent to one baby suffering from opiate withdrawal born every 25 minutes. Newborns with NAS ...

  3. 78 FR 59082 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... New Application Screening (NAS)--NAS is an application, which is populated by A&I, that identifies potential ``chameleon carriers'' within the FMCSA past and present carrier population. This tool provides you with the ability to search...

  4. 32 CFR 245.5 - Terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...implemented. National Airspace System (NAS). The NAS consists...manpower and material. Included are system components used by the DoD...including but are not limited to, Global Positioning System (GPS), Tactical Air...

  5. 32 CFR 245.5 - Terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...implemented. National Airspace System (NAS). The NAS consists...manpower and material. Included are system components used by the DoD...including but are not limited to, Global Positioning System (GPS), Tactical Air...

  6. 32 CFR 245.5 - Terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...implemented. National Airspace System (NAS). The NAS consists...manpower and material. Included are system components used by the DoD...including but are not limited to, Global Positioning System (GPS), Tactical Air...

  7. 76 FR 26290 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Chartered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS...

  8. Pluralizing the Monoculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    The National Association of Scholars (NAS) is now entering its twentieth year. The organization has grown over ten-fold since their national launch. When NAS made its debut, today's extensive infrastructure for higher education reform did not yet exist. In this article, the author discusses the contributions of NAS to the academe. The author also…

  9. 77 FR 28471 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, PA, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...Station Joint Reserve Base (NAS JRB) Willow Grove left the Montgomery wage area without...Station Joint Reserve Base (NAS JRB) Willow Grove left the Montgomery wage area without...County is currently 20 employees at NAS JRB Willow Grove. DOD recommended that OPM...

  10. Assessing the Progress of New American Schools: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark

    This report presents a data-collection plan for addressing these questions: (1) What were the New American Schools (NAS) like before they implemented their restructuring design efforts? (2) How have these evolved over time? (3) Are the critical components of the NAS designs being implemented across a wide array of schools? (4) Do the NAS designs…

  11. Developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption of naphthenic acids on the early life stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been reported to exhibit adverse effects on the environment and wildlife. Although the compounds responsible are unknown, naphthenic acids (NAs) have been considered to be implicated. The current study was designed to investigate whether NAs might cause developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption on the early life stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The success of embryo hatch was inhibited by 2.5?mg?l(-1) oil sands NAs (OS-NAs) exposure, and both OSPW NAs and commercial NAs (C-NAs) exposure resulted in a variety of developmental lesions in the fish larvae, such as yolk sac edema, pericardial edema and spinal malformation. The transcription of genes involved cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19a and CYP19b), estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?1 and ER?2), and vitellogenin (VTG) was analyzed to evaluate the endocrine disrupting effects of NAs. Significant up-regulated gene expressions of CYP19b, ER? and VTG were observed in both OS-NAs and C-NAs groups, which indicated the deleteriously estrogenic potential of NAs. These results confirmed that NAs derived from crude petroleum could negatively impact the development and endocrine function of zebrafish, and be primarily responsible for the toxicity of OSPW. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25995127

  12. Intrinsic Job Satisfaction, Overall Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave the Job among Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Frederic H.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We examined predictors of intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants (NAs). Design and Methods: The study focused on NAs who worked 30 or more hours per week in a nursing home. Data on 2,146 NAs meeting this criterion came from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, the…

  13. 75 FR 28805 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...Academy of Sciences (NAS) to review the 2003 dioxin reassessment...2006, The NAS published its review and identified three areas that...is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php...recommendations presented in the 2006 NAS review, the EPA published a...

  14. Time-Space Trade-Offs for Longest Common Extensions

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    4 sna 6 s a 1 bananas 3 nas 5 s na 7 s 12 / 56 #12;Two Simple Solutions #1: Store nothing T = b a n nas 4 sna 6 s a 1 bananas 3 nas 5 s na 7 s LCE(i, j) = |NCA(i, j)| = 3 13 / 56 #12;Two Simple: Store the suffix tree NCA(2, 4) 2 nas 4 sna 6 s a 1 bananas 3 nas 5 s na 7 s Time: O(1) Space: O(n) LCE

  15. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3?-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  16. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  17. N-Acetylserotonin: Neuroprotection, Neurogenesis, and the Sleepy Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tosini, Gianluca; Ye, Keqiang; Iuvone, P. Michael

    2012-01-01

    N-Acetylserotonin (NAS) is a naturally occurring chemical intermediate in biosynthesis of melatonin. Previous studies have shown that NAS has different brain distribution patterns from those of serotonin and melatonin suggesting that NAS might have functions other than as a precursor or metabolite of melatonin. Indeed several studies have now shown that NAS may play an important role in mood regulation and may have antidepressant activity. Additional studies have shown that NAS stimulates proliferation of neuroprogenitor cells and prevents some of the negative effects of sleep deprivation. It is believed that the antidepressant and neurotrophic actions of NAS are due, at least in part, to the capability on this molecule to activate the TrkB receptor in a BDNF-independent manner. Emerging evidence also indicates that NAS and its derivatives have neuroprotective properties and protect retinal photoreceptor cells from light-induced degeneration. In this review we will discuss the literature about this exciting and underappreciated molecule. PMID:22585341

  18. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

  19. Mechanistic investigation of industrial wastewater naphthenic acids removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm based processes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) have known environmental toxicity and are resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. The granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm treatment process has been shown to effectively treat OSPW NAs via combined adsorption/biodegradation processes despite the lack of research investigating their individual contributions. Presently, the NAs removals due to the individual processes of adsorption and biodegradation in OSPW bioreactors were determined using sodium azide to inhibit biodegradation. For raw OSPW, after 28 days biodegradation and adsorption contributed 14% and 63% of NA removal, respectively. For ozonated OSPW, biodegradation removed 18% of NAs while adsorption reduced NAs by 73%. Microbial community 454-pyrosequencing of bioreactor matrices indicated the importance of biodegradation given the diverse carbon degrading families including Acidobacteriaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae. Overall, results highlight the ability to determine specific processes of NAs removals in the combined treatment process in the presence of diverse bacteria metabolic groups found in GAC bioreactors. PMID:26410699

  20. Maria Adelaide Amaral ou a Crise da Classe Média Brasileira

    E-print Network

    Ravetti, Graciela; Rojo, Sara

    1996-10-01

    Adelaide Amaral ou a Crise da Classe Média Brasileira Graciela Ravetti e Sara Rojo INTRODUÇÃO l. A família Quando entramos em contato com a produção dramática da escritora brasileira Maria Adelaide Amaral, mergulhamos no mundo privado da classe média... limite do privado, romper com a imagem do amor cor de rosa ou dos anúncios publicitários que se valem da família feliz para vender carros. A obra entra nas lutas internas do poder, nas pequenas ou grandes maldades, nas pessoas asfixiadas pela repressão...

  1. A derivatisation and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry method for the characterisation of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Rowland, S J

    2008-12-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are partially uncharacterised complex mixtures of carboxylic acids, resulting from the microbial oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons. They are associated with the fouling of pipelines and process equipment in oil production and with corrosion in oil refineries. As by-products of the rapidly expanding oil (tar) sands industries, NAs are also pollutants and have proved to be toxic to a range of organisms. They also have important beneficial uses as fungicides, tyre additives and, paradoxically, also in the manufacture of corrosion inhibitors. These features make the characterisation of NAs an important goal for analytical chemists. Here we describe the synthesis of amide derivatives of NAs for characterisation by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS(n)). The method was applied to commercially available carboxylic acids, novel synthetic NAs, commercial NAs refined from crude oils, crude oil NAs and Athabasca oil sands NAs. In addition to confirming the number of alicyclic rings and length of alkyl side chain substituents (confirming information from existing methods), the MS(n) results provided further structural information. Most important of these was the finding that bi- to polycyclic acids containing ethanoate side chains, in addition to alkyl substituents, were widespread amongst the oil and oil sands NAs. The latter NAs are known end members of the beta-oxidation of NAs with even carbon number alkanoate chains. Since such NA mixtures are toxic, they should be targets for bioremediation. Bioremediation of NAs can also be monitored better by application of the methods described herein. PMID:18988206

  2. Measurement of naphthenic acids in the receiving waters around an offshore oil platform by passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Harman, Christopher; Langford, Katherine; Sundt, Rolf C; Brooks, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the vicinity of an offshore oil installation and analyzed for naphthenic acids (NAs). The POCIS accumulated a range of mono- to tetracyclic NAs, with different degrees of alkylation, with monocyclic acids being the most abundant. Currently, POCIS or similar polar samplers may be the only way to measure exposure to NAs from offshore discharges in situ. In addition, they may be a valuable tool for monitoring similar organic acids in general. PMID:24889815

  3. Nucleic acid delivery into skin for the treatment of skin disease: Proofs-of-concept, potential impact, and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Kumar, Sunny; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-12-10

    Nucleic acids (NAs) hold significant potential for the treatment of several diseases. Topical delivery of NAs for the treatment of skin diseases is especially advantageous since it bypasses the challenges associated with systemic administration which suffers from enzymatic degradation, systemic toxicity and lack of targeting to skin. However, the skin's protective barrier function limits the delivery of NAs into skin after topical application. Here, we highlight strategies for enhancing delivery of NAs into skin, and provide evidence that translation of topical NA therapies could have a transformative impact on the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26385169

  4. Home Availability and the Impact of Weekly Stressful Events Are Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among African American and Hispanic/Latina Women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Background. Mediating and moderating variables may interfere with the association between neighborhood availability of grocery stores (NAG) and supermarkets (NAS) and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Objective.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism of squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles in mice using dual radio-labeling and radio-HPLC analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Alice; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Mougin, Julie; Parrod, Martine; Pieters, Grégory; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Loreau, Olivier; Goncalves, Jordan; Chacun, Hélène; Courbebaisse, Yann; Clayette, Pascal; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Andrieux, Karine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a pleiotropic endogenous nucleoside with potential neuroprotective pharmacological activity. However, clinical use of adenosine is hampered by its extremely fast metabolization. To overcome this limitation, we recently developed a new squalenoyl nanomedicine of adenosine [Squalenoyl-Adenosine (SQAd)] by covalent linkage of this nucleoside to the squalene, a natural lipid. The resulting nanoassemblies (NAs) displayed a dramatic pharmacological activity both in cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury pre-clinical models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma profile and tissue distribution of SQAd NAs using both Squalenoyl-[3H]-Adenosine NAs and [14C]-Squalenoyl-Adenosine NAs as respective tracers of adenosine and squalene moieties of the SQAd bioconjugate. This study was completed by radio-HPLC analysis allowing to determine the metabolization profile of SQAd. We report here that SQAd NAs allowed a sustained circulation of adenosine under its prodrug form (SQAd) for at least 1 h after intravenous administration, when free adenosine was metabolized within seconds after injection. Moreover, the squalenoylation of adenosine and its formulation as NAs also significantly modified biodistribution, as SQAd NAs were mainly captured by the liver and spleen, allowing a significant release of adenosine in the liver parenchyma. Altogether, these results suggest that SQAd NAs provided a reservoir of adenosine into the bloodstream which may explain the previously observed neuroprotective efficacy of SQAd NAs against cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury. PMID:26087468

  6. Genotoxic potential of several naphthenic acids and a synthetic oil sands process-affected water in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lacaze, E; Devaux, A; Bruneau, A; Bony, S; Sherry, J; Gagné, F

    2014-07-01

    The exploitation of oil sands has raised major environmental concerns, particularly regarding the presence of high concentration in contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs) in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). The purpose of this study was, first to evaluate the genotoxic impact of OSPW-related compounds such as NAs and PAHs in a salmonid species and secondly to assess if OSPW exposure leads to genotoxicity. For this purpose, rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed in vitro to environmentally relevant concentrations of synthetic NAs, naphtalene, benzo(a)pyrene, and extracts of synthetic OSPW (generated by a laboratory bitumen extraction) and of oil sands leaching water (OSLW, mimicking leaching of oil sands in river water). Primary DNA damage was assessed by the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycolyase (Fpg)-modified comet assay. Genotoxicity was observed in hepatocytes exposed to several NAs, mixture of them, OSPW and OSLW extracts. The chemical structure of NAs influences the genotoxicity potential: among the NAs tested, the most cyclic NA was the most genotoxic. It also appears that genotoxicity was more marked for OSPW than for OSLW. Because exposure to OSPW led to oxidative DNA damage, while after exposure to several NAs, these types of DNA damage were limited, the NAs tested in this study could not be qualified as the only major contaminants responsible for OSPW genotoxicity. Notwithstanding, it should be noteworthy that exposure to NAs resulted in genotoxic impact at concentrations lower than those documented by literature for fresh OSPW. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between the chemical structure of NAs and their genotoxicity in the light of the distribution of NAs in fresh OSPW samples as well as in surface waters. PMID:24799193

  7. Optimal Short Forms of the Spanish WAIS (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demsky, Yvonne; Gass, Carlton; Edwards, William T.; Golden, Charles J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated optimal two-, three-, four-, and five-test short forms of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), the Spanish form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1956). Results with 616 adults suggest that use of the EIWA should be limited to research and tracking cognitive changes over time. (SLD)

  8. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  9. Primer censo nacional del jaguar Cuauhtmoc Chvez, Gerardo Ceballos,

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    133 Primer censo nacional del jaguar Cuauhtémoc Chávez, Gerardo Ceballos, Rodrigo Medellín A. y, como los jaguares,deben de planearse a diferentes escalas (local a geográfica),además de tomar en interacciones con las actividades humanas. El Censo Nacional del Jaguar y sus Presas (CENJAGUAR), pretende

  10. CCOONNSSEEJJOO SSUUPPEERRIIOORR DDEE IINNVVEESSTTIIGGAACCIIOONNEESS CCIIEENNTTFFIICCAASS

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    NIVEL 30 3 DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL PERSONAL POR SEXO/RELACIÓN LABORAL 4 DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL PERSONAL FUNCIONARIO POR SEXO/CUERPO-ESCALA 4 DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL PERSONAL CIENTÍFICO POR ÁREAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN 5 PERSONAL POR SEXO/RELACIÓN LABORAL HOMBRES MUJERES PERSONAL FUNCIONARIO 2.618 2.084 PERSONAL LABORAL FIJO

  11. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  12. Trajectories of Spectral Clusters of HRV Related to Myocardial Ischemic J. Souza Neto1

    E-print Network

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Trajectories of Spectral Clusters of HRV Related to Myocardial Ischemic Episodes J. Souza Neto1 freqüência cardíaca (HRV) antes, durante e após episódios isquêmicos miocárdicos transitórios e prolongados episódio. Palavras-chave: Escalogramas, Wavelets, CWT, Tempo-escala, Tempo-freqüência, HRV, Isquemia

  13. Vida e interaes qumicas autocatalticas: segregao e especializao Metabolismo: fbrica de energia e matria

    E-print Network

    Liu, I-Shih

    larga-escala: reações in-silico e aplicações Prevendo fluxos do metabolismo celular Marcio Argollo de Prevendo fluxos do metabolismo celular, M. Argollo de Menezes, F. Noriega & A. Vazquez Bethe, H. A. (1939). "Energy Production in Stars". Physical Review 55 (5): 434­456 #12;Prevendo fluxos do metabolismo celular

  14. The Future of the National Association of Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Scholars (NAS) today is focused more than ever on public controversies and on public tools of communication. Where once NAS members were primarily concerned with debates within the academy, now they are equally concerned with debates about the academy. If the topics they address have changed, so too have the means by…

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Lüttgen, Gerald

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contract No. NAS1 97046 while the rst author by Universities Space Research Association March 2000 Prepared for Langley Research Center under Contract NAS1

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Guattery, Steve

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681, Hampton, VA 23681­0001 (email: smg@icase.edu). This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contract Nos. NAS1­97046 and NAS1­19480 while the author

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Guattery, Steve

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681, Hampton, VA 23681-0001 (email: smg@icase.edu). This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contract Nos. NAS1-97046 and NAS1-19480 while the author

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Lüttgen, Gerald

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681- This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contract No. NAS1 by Universities Space Research Association July 2000 Prepared for Langley Research Center under Contract NAS1

  19. The USAF Phillips Laboratory sodium-sulfur battery technology program: Results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbow, Marc E.; Somerville, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Tests performed on NaS batteries are reported. The results of safety and abuse testing, shock and vibration tests, cell failure on warm-up, freeze thaw, overtemperature conditions, electrolyte fracture, overdischarge, and short circuit tests are presented along with GEO and LEO cycle tests and the status of the NaS cell flight tests.

  20. 75 FR 26739 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Airfield Operations at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...Operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West, FL and To Announce Public Scoping...from airfield training operations at NAS Key West. The EIS will consider all reasonable...Public scoping meetings will be held in Key West, Florida to receive oral...

  1. 78 FR 66904 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL AGENCY: Department...operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West by accomplishing the proposed action...Final Environmental Impact Statement for NAS Key West Airfield Operations, dated July...

  2. Mary Lucy Cartwright (19001998) Felipe Rizzato e Marcia C. Barbosa

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

    pessoas de boa formação, mas não particularmente abastados, pois a herança nas famílias nobres ficava nas havia a frase "seja uma boa e doce jovem, e deixe os outros serem espertos" (tradução livre para: "be Hardy e dedica boa parte de seu tempo à leitura do livro de Análise de Whittaker e Watson. Para

  3. Maternal Methadone Treatment and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, William F; Singh, Kultar; Faisal, Mohamed; Li, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    Objective?This article aims to describe neonatal outcomes, clinical correlates, and the rate for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) for women on methadone maintenance therapy. Methods?This study is a retrospective review, which includes 119 mothers and 120 live newborns. Results?Methadone mothers tends to be white, single, on government insurance, with increased tobacco use (73%) and hepatitis C (11%). Prematurity increased (28%), and the term infant had a higher risk for admission for respiratory symptoms (22, 7%, p?NAS, with the onset of symptoms 4.3?±?2.9 days, and average length of stay of 36.7?±?26.4 days. There was a decreased overall gestational age for those infants who did not have NAS (36, 38 weeks, p?=?0.04). Overall, 56% had possible illicit drug supplementation. Self-reporting had a 59% negative predictive value with a positive drug screen. No difference in maternal methadone dosage and newborns with and without NAS. Increasing gestational age will increase the odds for NAS. Conclusions?Newborns are at higher risk for prematurity and admission for respiratory symptoms. Utilizing a 7-day observation period, 78% of newborns were diagnosed with NAS with a mean onset of symptoms of 4.3 days. There was no difference in methadone dosage between babies with and without NAS. Increasing gestational age increases the risk for NAS. PMID:25915141

  4. A nineteenth-century Bonpo pilgrim in Western Tibet and Nepal: Episodes from the life of dKar ru grub dbang bsTan 'dzin rin chen

    E-print Network

    Ramble, Charles

    2008-01-01

    nas mchi ma blug / der nang mgar ra bkra-shis zhes bya ba’i / ri gtsang rtswa za lung gtsang chu ’thung ba’i / phyi pa min na rkyang sha til tsam zhig / bzhes nas khyed rang dka’ thub thog med ’dug / slar yang dge sbyor sgrub pa’i rten du ’ong / nged...

  5. 76 FR 10379 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... consistent with high quality, humane animal care and use. The eighth edition of the Guide was published in January 2011 following a study by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The NAS study process began in 2008 and followed the requirements of Section 15 of...

  6. 75 FR 13051 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... warrant a presumption of service connection for any disease discussed in that report. See 66 FR 35702... discussed in that report. 72 FR 48734 (2007). The NAS issued an update on sarin in a report titled ``Gulf... from sarin. 73 FR 42411 (2008). The NAS issued its third report, titled ``Gulf War and Health, Volume...

  7. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering Elinav1 Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide NAS comprise ,5% sweetener and ,95% glucose, we used as controls mice drinking only water or water

  8. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results

  9. Opioid neonatal abstinence syndrome: controversies and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Kim; Perez-Montejano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The Opioid Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a term used to describe a cluster of signs and symptoms seen in infants experiencing withdrawal from opioid drugs. Despite a substantial literature the relationship between maternal methadone dose, NAS and the method of assessment of NAS symptoms has not been agreed. The following review will address current and historical controversies surrounding these issues and will examine the evidence concerned with the evaluation of neonates exposed to methadone in utero. The key findings are as follows: A variety of NAS scales are used to assess the severity of neonatal withdrawal symptoms including locally adapted validated tools. Inconsistencies in the use of NAS scales have included the timing, duration and frequency of administration; the degree to which observers were trained to reliability; the use of NAS scales designed for term neonates to assess pre-term neonates who may have a qualitatively different expression of abstinence symptoms and; the research setting in which the tool was administered. There is a lack of research investigating the observant bias' effect upon scoring NAS, the basis for treatment decisions and the influence of concomitant maternal use of non-opioid drugs late in pregnancy. We also discuss the implications of the lack of recognition of NAS symptoms leading to possible under reporting and inappropriate, early neonatal discharge from hospital. In addition, this paper also discusses the merits and problems of conducting research in this area and highlights gaps in our knowledge and areas for further research. PMID:25323126

  10. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  11. GUIDANCE ON IDENTIFYING THE APPROPRIATE AGE GROUPS FOR ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1993 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report "Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children" highlights important differences between children and adults with respect to risks posed by pesticides. Some of the principles in the NAS report provided the foundation for the Fo...

  12. PATTERN SEARCH METHODS FOR LINEARLY CONSTRAINED MINIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Torczon, Virginia

    was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contracts No. NAS1-19480 and NAS1 Science Foundation under Grant No. CCR-9734044, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was supported by the Air Force Office of Scien- tific Research under Grant F49620­95­1­0210, by the National

  13. PATTERN SEARCH ALGORITHMS FOR BOUND CONSTRAINED MINIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Torczon, Virginia

    by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contract No. NAS1-19480 while the author Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA Contract No. NAS1-19480 while the author was in residence grant F49620­95­1­ 0210, Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore, RFQ LC-2683, the National

  14. PATTERN SEARCH METHODS FOR LINEARLY CONSTRAINED MINIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    @icase.edu). The research of this author was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA-95-1-0210, by the National Science Foundation under grant CCR-9734044, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA contracts NAS1-19480 and NAS1-97046 while the author was in residence at ICASE, NASA

  15. Model development for naphthenic acids ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Al Jibouri, Ali Kamel H; Wu, Jiangning

    2015-02-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which is generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. NAs consist mainly of carboxylic acids which are generally biorefractory. For the treatment of OSPW, ozonation is a very beneficial method. It can significantly reduce the concentration of NAs and it can also convert NAs from biorefractory to biodegradable. In this study, a factorial design (2(4)) was used for the ozonation of OSPW to study the influences of the operating parameters (ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, pH, and mixing) on the removal of a model NAs in a semi-batch reactor. It was found that ozone concentration had the most significant effect on the NAs concentration compared to other parameters. An empirical model was developed to correlate the concentration of NAs with ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, and pH. In addition, a theoretical analysis was conducted to gain the insight into the relationship between the removal of NAs and the operating parameters. PMID:25189805

  16. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Evaluating the Impact of Deploying Unrestricted Unmanned

    E-print Network

    Roychoudhury, Indranil

    Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used for scientific, and technologies do not allow routine UAS access to the National Airspace System (NAS), with the UAS being flown requirement for UAS operations in the NAS are extremely resource intensive, lengthy, and often lacks

  17. 1EV GaN[subscript x]As[subscript 1-x-y]Sb[subscript y] material for lattice-matched III-V solar cell implementation on GaAs and Ge

    E-print Network

    Yoon, Soon Fatt

    The effect of different arsenic species (As[subscript 2] or As[subscript 4]) on the quality of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GaNAsSb materials (samples A and B) and GaAs/ GaNAsSb/GaAs p+n-n+ devices (samples C and D) ...

  18. The Novaco Anger Scale--Provocation Inventory (1994 Version) in Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsveld, Ruud H. J.; Muris, Peter; Kraaimaat, Floris W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Novaco Anger Scale--Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI, 1994 version) in Dutch violent forensic psychiatric patients and secondary vocational students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the subscale structure of the NAS was carried out, reliability was investigated, and relations were calculated between…

  19. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001...this subpart. NARA reserves the right...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD...

  20. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001...this subpart. NARA reserves the right...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD...

  1. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001...this subpart. NARA reserves the right...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD...

  2. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001...this subpart. NARA reserves the right...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD...

  3. 36 CFR 1234.30 - How does an agency request authority to establish or relocate records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001...this subpart. NARA reserves the right...Division (NAS), National Archives and Records...Adelphi Road, College Park, MD...

  4. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...on the use of the automated system. At activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational, prepare each DD...the original of each DD 1251 prepared at activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational. Send the...

  5. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...on the use of the automated system. At activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational, prepare each DD...the original of each DD 1251 prepared at activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational. Send the...

  6. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...on the use of the automated system. At activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational, prepare each DD...the original of each DD 1251 prepared at activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational. Send the...

  7. 77 FR 70155 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal and Reuse of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Reuse of the Former Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Willow Grove, Horsham, PA, and Notice of Public... consequences of the disposal and reuse of the former Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NAS JRB) Willow... 1990, as amended in 2005 (BRAC Law). Potential impacts associated with reuse of NAS JRB Willow...

  8. 77 FR 64110 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal and Reuse of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Reuse of the Former Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Willow Grove, Horsham, PA and Notice of Public... consequences of the disposal and reuse of the former Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NAS JRB) Willow... 1990, as amended in 2005 (BRAC Law). Potential impacts associated with reuse of NAS JRB Willow...

  9. 78 FR 77440 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal and Reuse of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... and Reuse of Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Willow Grove, Horsham, Pennsylvania, and To Announce... Station Joint Reserve Base (NAS JRB) Willow Grove, Horsham, Pennsylvania, and its subsequent reuse by the... Reuse of NAS JRB Willow Grove, Horsham, Pennsylvania, in accordance with the requirements of NEPA (42...

  10. Making the Case for New Research to Support the Integration of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdaragh, Raymon M.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of sUAS regulation, their technical capabilities and the latest technologies that will allow for sUAS NAS integration. The research that is needed to demonstrate sUAS NAS integration capability is identified, and recommendations for conducting this necessary research are suggested.

  11. "What Does Bowdoin Teach"? A Dialogue between Wood and Klingenstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Peter; Klingenstein, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This article is an exchange of ideas between Peter Wood, President of the National Association of Scholars (NAS), and Tom Klingerstein, Chairman of the Claremont Institute and NAS Board Director, on the study "What Does Bowdoin Teach? How a Contemporary Liberal Arts College Shapes Students" (by Peter Wood and Michael Toscano). This…

  12. Coordination between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in nitrogen fixing bean nodules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA clone of asparagine synthetase (AS) called PvNAS2 and two different cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from bean nodules. Southern blot analysis indicated that a small gene family encodes AS. Northern analysis demonstrated that PvNAS2 expression is induced in nodules during the early d...

  13. Portal do Governo Cidado.SP Investimentos.SP Destaques: OK Secretaria do Ensino Superior do Estado

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

    ://www.ensinosuperior.sp.gov.br/sis/lenoticia.ph... 1 de 4 24-07-2008 18:23 #12;Wrana Pazzini: distribuição desigual de sexo nas áreas de conhecimento. A coordenadora da mesa, Wrana Pazzini, lembrou ainda que a distribuição de sexo nas áreas de conhecimento são

  14. EMBO reports VOL 11 | NO 10 | 2010 2010 EurOpEaN MOLEcuLar BiOLOgy OrgaNizatiON720 opinionopinion

    E-print Network

    Chanfreau, Guillaume

    escaped the splicing process. in the absence of rNa quality control, unspliced rNas would accumulate to mediate rNa splicing also coincide with sequences that have the potential to trigger transla- tion g ene expression in eukaryotes requires the excision of introns from pre-mrNas by splicing, which

  15. Relationship between Weather, Traffic and Delay Based on Empirical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Swei, Sean S. M.

    2006-01-01

    The steady rise in demand for air transportation over the years has put much emphasis on the need for sophisticated air traffic flow management (TFM) within the National Airspace System (NAS). The NAS refers to hardware, software and people, including runways, radars, networks, FAA, airlines, etc., involved in air traffic management (ATM) in the US. One of the metrics that has been used to assess the performance of NAS is the actual delays provided through FAA's Air Traffic Operations Network (OPSNET). The OPSNET delay data includes those reportable delays, i.e. delays of 15 minutes or more experienced by Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) flights, submitted by the FAA facilities. These OPSNET delays are caused by the application of TFM initiatives in response to, for instance, weather conditions, increased traffic volume, equipment outages, airline operations, and runway conditions. TFM initiatives such as, ground stops, ground delay programs, rerouting, airborne holding, and miles-in-trail restrictions, are actions which are needed to control the air traffic demand to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalance due to the reduction in capacity. Consequently, TFM initiatives result in NAS delays. Of all the causes, weather has been identified as the most important causal factor for NAS delays. Therefore, in order to accurately assess the NAS performance, it has become necessary to create a baseline for NAS performance and establish a model which characterizes the relation between weather and NAS delays.

  16. An Analysis of the Effects of Net-Centric Operations Using Multi-Agent Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Meza, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is a resource managed in the public good. Equity in NAS access, and use for private, commercial and government purposes is coordinated by regulations and made possible by procedures, and technology. Researchers have documented scenarios in which the introduction of new concepts-of-operations and technologies has…

  17. Wireless Network Esercitazioni

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    ;Ethereal: Accounting su AP Cisco La procedura di accounting per gli AP Cisco registra molte più;Ethereal: Accounting su AP Cisco Richiesta di Accounting (Code = 4): Start Frame 1 (242 bytes on wire, 242 Id(31) l:14, Value:"000bcd8d303b" t:NAS identifier(32) l:15, Value:"CISCO 350 - 2" t:NAS IP Address(4

  18. Decisionmaking, Transitions, and Resilient Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Richard H.; Lane, Meredith A.

    2012-08-01

    The article describes the focus of research in the social sciences on environmental change, describing studies on adaptation and mitigation. It is the first of 5 articles in the NAS quarterly journal IS&T on the occasion of the launch of a new Board at the NAS chaired by the author.

  19. Chief of Naval Air Training Resource Planning System (RPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodak, Gary W.; And Others

    The Resource Planning System (RPS) provides the Chief of Naval Air Training (CNATRA) with the capability to determine the resources required to produce a specified number of Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers (NAs/NFOs) quickly and efficiently. The training of NAs and NFOs is extremely time consuming and complex. It requires extensive…

  20. WATER IMPLICATIONS OF BIOFUELS PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation requested by the National Academy of Science (NAS) for a Colloquium on Water Quality Implications of Biofuels Production, to be held at the NAS in Washington, D.C. on July 12, 2007. This presentation will address the influence of ethanol on hydrocarbon plumes and th...

  1. MODEL SIMULATION STUDIES OF SCALE-DEPENDENT GAIN IN STREAM NUTRIENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY RESULTING FROM IMPROVING NUTRIENT RETENTION METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considering the difficulty in measuring restoration success for nonpoint source pollutants, nutrient assimilative capacity (NAS) offers an attractive systems-based metric. Here NAS was defined using an impulse-response model of nitrate fate and transport. Eleven parameters were e...

  2. Nurse Assistant Communication Strategies About Pressure Ulcers in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L

    2015-07-01

    There is growing recognition of benefits of sophisticated information technology (IT) in nursing homes (NHs). In this research, we explore strategies nursing assistants (NAs) use to communicate pressure ulcer prevention practices in NHs with variable IT sophistication measures. Primary qualitative data were collected during focus groups with NAs in 16 NHs located across Missouri. NAs (n = 213) participated in 31 focus groups. Three major themes referencing communication strategies for pressure ulcer prevention were identified, including Passing on Information, Keeping Track of Needs and Information Access. NAs use a variety of strategies to prioritize care, and strategies are different based on IT sophistication level. NA work is an important part of patient care. However, little information about their work is included in communication, leaving patient records incomplete. NAs' communication is becoming increasingly important in the care of the millions of chronically ill elders in NHs. PMID:25331206

  3. A study of mixed group-V nitrides grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a nitrogen radical beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, W.G.; Tu, C.W.; Mathes, D.; Hull, R.

    1997-12-31

    The authors report a study of N incorporation in GaAs and InP by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a N radical beam source. For GaNAs grown at high temperatures, phase separation was observed, as evidenced from the formation of cubic GaN aside from GaNAs. By lowering the growth temperature, however, GaNAs alloys with N as high as 14.8% have been obtained without showing any phase separation. For InNP, no phase separation was observed in the temperature range studied (310--420 C). Contrary to GaNAs, incorporating N in InP is very difficult, with only less than 1% N being achieved. Optical absorption measurement reveals strong red shift of bandgap energy with direct-bandgap absorption. However, no semimetallic region seems to exist for GaNAs and a composition, dependent bowing parameter has been observed.

  4. Transcriptional responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to naphthenic acids in soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jinhua; Chai, Liwei; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to commercial NAs contaminated soil, and changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and gene expressions of their defense system were monitored. The effects on the gene expression involved in reproduction and carcinogenesis were also evaluated. Significant increases in ROS levels was observed in NAs exposure groups, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes were both up-regulated at low and medium exposure doses, which implied NAs might exert toxicity by oxidative stress. The transcription of CRT and HSP70 coincided with oxidative stress, which implied both chaperones perform important functions in the protection against oxidative toxicity. The upregulation of TCTP gene indicated a potential adverse effect of NAs to terrestrial organisms through induction of carcinogenesis, and the downregulation of ANN gene indicated that NAs might potentially result in deleterious reproduction effects. PMID:25984985

  5. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  6. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  7. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  8. Climatic shift in patterns of shallow clouds over the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, F. J. F.; Bras, R. L.; Wang, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest has experienced dramatic changes in the past 50 years due to active deforestation. As of 2001, 15% of the 4,000,000 km2 Brazilian Amazon has been deforested [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), 2003]; each year, agricultural exploitation claims an estimated 13,000 km2 of tropical forest [Achard et al., 2002]. In this paper we investigate the climatic effects caused by the observed change of the physical characteristics of the land surface (i.e., increased surface albedo, decreased root-zone depth, decreased surface roughness and decreased leaf-area index). More precisely, we examine the spatial correspondence of shallow cumulus clouds with deforestation. Through the creation of an 8-year record of thrice daily shallow cumulus cloud cover at 1 km resolution from multi-spectral satellite imagery, we quantitatively show the existence of a significant climatic shift in shallow cloudiness patterns associated with deforestation. This shift manifests itself as an enhancement of shallow cumuli over deforested patches, and has potentially important climatic, hydrologic and ecological implications.

  9. Ozone budget over the Amazon: Regional effects from biomass-burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jennifer L.; Fishman, Jack; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1991-07-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent, photochemical model is used in conjunction with data obtained during the dry-season portion of NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment and Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) (National Institute for Space Research) Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) to simulate the chemistry of the dry-season Amazon troposphere. The background atmosphere, unperturbed by the presence of emissions from biomass burning, is simulated with inputs of surface sources and deposition of various species measured during ABLE 2A. The presence of haze layers over a region is simulated by the imposition of profiles of species characteristic of haze within the model for 12 hours. The inclusion of hydrocarbons within the modeled haze is found to approximately double the calculated in situ ozone production rate. The difference between the calculated total column ozone production rates in the haze simulation and the background simulation is the model-predicted enhancement of the in situ ozone production due to regionally transported haze layers (up to 1000 km transport distance). The predicted enhancement of ozone is between 0.3 and 2.9 × 1011molecules O3 cm-2 s-1, near the range of observed rates of ozone increase over the Amazon Basin during the dry season. This suggests that the regional transport of haze during the southern tropical burning season is an important factor in explaining the increase of ozone observed annually during this period.

  10. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  11. Controle orbital de satélites artificiais com propulsão e uso de gravidade lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. S.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.

    2003-08-01

    A redução do custo de combustível de uma manobra é atualmente a grande prioridade de todos os programas espaciais existentes no mundo. As manobras assistidas pela gravidade são uma ótima forma de se contornar o problema pois proporcionam economias com vasto impacto no custo final da missão. Neste trabalho é feito um estudo particular do controle orbital de um satélite artificial da Terra usando a gravidade da Lua. O objetivo é estudar uma técnica econômica para uma mudança de plano de um satélite que está em órbita em volta da Terra. A idéia principal desta abordagem é enviar primeiramente o veículo espacial em direção à Lua usando uma manobra mono-impulsiva para que assim o campo gravitacional da Lua possa fazer a mudança de plano desejada (sem custo de combustível) e só então retornar o veículo aos valores iniciais de semi-eixo e excentricidade usando uma manobra bi-impulsiva tipo Hohmann. Para tanto, é assumido que a espaçonave inicia em uma órbita circular coplanar à órbita da lua em torno da Terra e a meta é colocá-la em uma órbita similar que difere da órbita inicial somente pela inclinação. São usadas equações analíticas baseadas na abordagem Patched Conics para se calcular a variação na velocidade, momento angular, energia e inclinação do veículo espacial que realiza esta manobra. Várias simulações são feitas para se avaliar as economias de combustível envolvidas.

  12. The 3DVar Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation Impacts in the CPTEC/INPE Global Operational System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goncalves, L.

    2013-05-01

    A Global 3DVar (G3DVar) analysis cycle has become operacional since January 1st, 2013 at the Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC - Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos) from the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais). The G3DVar, based upon the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system produces every 6 hours analysis for the spectral T299L64 Atmospheric Global Circulation Model (AGCM/CPTEC/INPE) that runs at CPTEC/INPE to provide up to 168 hours forecasts. These analyses and forecasts were intercompared against the previous operational data assimilation scheme based on the Physical Space Assimilation System (PSAS) during two case studies for a typical South American summer meteorological system: the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). This work presents the formal implementation of the G3DVar at CPTEC/INPE with a review of the satellite, conventional data and model background configurations along with the major improvements in the model skill when compared with the previous PSAS data assimilation system. Preliminary results show improvements in systematic errors for 850 and 250 hPa temperature, umididty and wind fields in the G3DVar compared to that in PSAS.

  13. Internal-Modified Dithiol DNA-Directed Au Nanoassemblies: Geometrically Controlled Self-Assembly and Quantitative Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Properties.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuan; Shan, Hangyong; Li, Min; Chen, Shu; Liu, Jianyu; Cheng, Yanfang; Ye, Cui; Yang, Zhilin; Lai, Xuandi; Hu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a hierarchical DNA-directed self-assembly strategy to construct structure-controlled Au nanoassemblies (NAs) has been demonstrated by conjugating Au nanoparticles (NPs) with internal-modified dithiol single-strand DNA (ssDNA) (Au-B-A or A-B-Au-B-A). It is found that the dithiol-ssDNA-modified Au NPs and molecule quantity of thiol-modified ssDNA grafted to Au NPs play critical roles in the assembly of geometrically controlled Au NAs. Through matching Au-DNA self-assembly units, geometrical structures of the Au NAs can be tailored from one-dimensional (1D) to quasi-2D and 2D. Au-B-A conjugates readily give 1D and quasi-2D Au NAs while 2D Au NAs can be formed by A-B-Au-B-A building blocks. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements and 3D finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) calculation results indicate that the geometrically controllable Au NAs have regular and linearly "hot spots"-number-depended SERS properties. For a certain number of NPs, the number of "hot spots" and accordingly enhancement factor of Au NAs can be quantitatively evaluated, which open a new avenue for quantitative analysis based on SERS technique. PMID:26581251

  14. Kushenin Combined with Nucleos(t)ide Analogues for Chronic Hepatitis B: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Ma, Xiao; Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Yaming; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Lifu; Chen, Chang; Wei, Shizhang; Yang, Zhirui; Gong, Man; Shen, Honghui; Bai, Zhaofang; Guo, Yuming; Niu, Ming; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Kushenin (KS) combined with nucleoside analogues (NAs) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of KS combined with NAs for CHB were identified through 7 databases. Frequencies of loss of serum HBeAg, HBeAg seroconversion, undetectable serum HBV-DNA, ALT normalization, and adverse events at 48 weeks were abstracted by two reviewers. The Cochrane software was performed to assess the risk of bias in the included trials. Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 software. Results. 18 RCTs involving 1684 subjects with CHB were included in the analysis. KS combined with NAs including lamivudine (LAM), entecavir (ETV), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), and telbivudine (TLV) showed different degree of improvement in CHB indices. KS combined with NAs increased the frequency of loss of serum HBeAg, HBeAg seroconversion, undetectable HBV-DNA levels, and ALT normalization compared with single agents. It also decreased serum ALT and AST level after one-year treatment. However, KS combined with TLV did not show a significant difference in CHB indices. The side-effects of KS combined with NAs were light and of low frequency. Conclusion. KS combined with NAs improves the efficacy of NAs in CHB. PMID:26347789

  15. Application of patterned growth of aligned zinc oxide nanoarrays by mirocontact printing in quantum dots-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jianping; Wang, Minqiang; Yang, Zhi; Liu, Jing; Sun, Zhongwang; Song, Xiaohui

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a simple method for patterned growth of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs) that is based on a combination of the microcontact printing process for patterning ZnO seed films and the low-temperature hydrothermal approach for depositing ZnO NAs. The patterned ZnO seed films were achieved via printing patterned TiO2 sol on ZnO seed films. It is found that the pattern quality is mainly affected by the viscosity of TiO2 ink and the pressure including value and direction. To assess the possibility of patterned ZnO NAs applied to devices, the patterned ZnO NAs were used as light scattering layer in CdSe-sensitized solar cells. The diffuse-reflection, absorption and transmission spectra show that the patterned ZnO NAs greatly enhance the light scattering and absorbance in the visible range. The enhancement of cell performance is attributed to the patterned ZnO NAs: 1) multiple-light scattering improves the light absorbance, and 2) NAs with high electron mobility facilitate the electron collection.

  16. Harnessing oil sands microbial communities for use in ex situ naphthenic acid bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Marc A; Lemire, Joe; George, Iain; Yue, Gordon; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2014-02-01

    The caustic hot water extraction process used to release bitumen from the Alberta oil sands generates large volumes of tailings waste, or oil sands process water (OSPW). OSPW contains several components of environmental concern including diluents, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and naphthenic acids (NAs); the latter are of particular concern as they are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms and mammals. Studies have demonstrated that the naturally occurring OSPW bacteria are capable of metabolizing the NAs. However, this in situ process takes place over hundreds of years, and is incomplete, leaving a recalcitrant fraction of NAs intact. In this study we explore options for recovering and harnessing the naturally occurring OSPW bacteria for potential future use in an aerobic ex situ OSPW treatment system. Here we evaluate our recovered microbes on their ability to degrade two model NAs, cyclohexane carboxylic acid and cyclohexane acetic acid. Using OSPW as a source for a bacterial inoculum, we were able to compare single and multispecies OSPW cultures, grown as either a biofilm, or as a planktonic suspension. Furthermore, we examined the effect of available nutrients on the ability of these cultures to degrade NAs. All biofilms were grown using the Calgary Biofilm Device. GC-MS, and GC-FID reveal that multispecies biofilm and planktonic cultures are each capable of degrading both NAs; a trait not observed for single species cultures. Moreover, complementary carbon sources have a tangible effect on the ability of the cultures to initiate the degradation of the NAs. PMID:24325800

  17. Internal-Modified Dithiol DNA–Directed Au Nanoassemblies: Geometrically Controlled Self–Assembly and Quantitative Surface–Enhanced Raman Scattering Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuan; Shan, Hangyong; Li, Min; Chen, Shu; Liu, Jianyu; Cheng, Yanfang; Ye, Cui; Yang, Zhilin; Lai, Xuandi; Hu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a hierarchical DNA–directed self–assembly strategy to construct structure–controlled Au nanoassemblies (NAs) has been demonstrated by conjugating Au nanoparticles (NPs) with internal–modified dithiol single-strand DNA (ssDNA) (Au–B–A or A–B–Au–B–A). It is found that the dithiol–ssDNA–modified Au NPs and molecule quantity of thiol–modified ssDNA grafted to Au NPs play critical roles in the assembly of geometrically controlled Au NAs. Through matching Au–DNA self–assembly units, geometrical structures of the Au NAs can be tailored from one–dimensional (1D) to quasi–2D and 2D. Au–B–A conjugates readily give 1D and quasi–2D Au NAs while 2D Au NAs can be formed by A–B–Au–B–A building blocks. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements and 3D finite–difference time domain (3D-FDTD) calculation results indicate that the geometrically controllable Au NAs have regular and linearly “hot spots”–number–depended SERS properties. For a certain number of NPs, the number of “hot spots” and accordingly enhancement factor of Au NAs can be quantitatively evaluated, which open a new avenue for quantitative analysis based on SERS technique. PMID:26581251

  18. Indices of serum tonicity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Mark; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Glew, Robert H; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-06-01

    Although disturbances of serum tonicity (effective osmolality) may have dire consequences, only surrogate indices of tonicity are available in practice. This report identifies the appropriate index for expressing clinical states of dystonicity. Serum sodium concentration ([Na]S) and osmolality ([Osm]S) may be incongruent. When the tonicity state shown by [Osm]S is higher than [Na]S and the difference between the 2 indices is caused by an excess of solute that distributes in total body water, tonicity is described by [Na]S. When this difference results from a gain of solute with extracellular distribution like mannitol or a decrease in serum water content, causing a falsely low measurement of [Na]S, [Osm]S accurately reflects tonicity. Two indices of tonicity are applicable during hyperglycemia: the tonicity formula (2 ·[Na]S + [Glucose]S/18) and the corrected [Na]S ([Na]S corrected to a normal [Glucose]S using an empirically derived coefficient). Clinicians should understand the uses and limitations of the tonicity indices. PMID:26002851

  19. Making Each Other’s Daily Life: Nurse Assistants’ Experiences and Knowledge on Developing a Meaningful Daily Life in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    James, Inger; Fredriksson, Carin; Wahlström, Catrin; Kihlgren, Annica; Blomberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a larger action research project, guidelines were generated for how a meaningful daily life could be developed for older persons. In this study, we focused on the nurse assistants’ (NAs) perspectives, as their knowledge is essential for a well-functioning team and quality of care. The aim was to learn from NAs’ experiences and knowledge about how to develop a meaningful daily life for older persons in nursing homes and the meaning NAs ascribe to their work. Methods: The project is based on Participatory and Appreciative Action and Reflection. Data were generated through interviews, participating observations and informal conversations with 27 NAs working in nursing homes in Sweden, and a thematic analysis was used. Result: NAs developed a meaningful daily life by sensing and finding the “right” way of being (Theme 1). They sense and read the older person in order to judge how the person was feeling (Theme 2). They adapt to the older person (Theme 3) and share their daily life (Theme 4). NAs use emotional involvement to develop a meaningful daily life for the older person and meaning in their own work (Theme 5), ultimately making each other’s daily lives meaningful. Conclusion: It was obvious that NAs based the development of a meaningful daily life on different forms of knowledge: the oreticaland practical knowledge, and practical wisdom, all of which are intertwined. These results could be used within the team to constitute a meaningful daily life for older persons in nursing homes. PMID:25246997

  20. Amelioration of binge eating by nucleus accumbens shell deep brain stimulation in mice involves D2 receptor modulation

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Casey H.; Tekriwal, Anand; Santollo, Jessica; Keating, Jeffrey G.; Wolf, John A.; Daniels, Derek; Bale, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Hedonic over-consumption contributing to obesity involves altered activation within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) has been implicated in reward-seeking behaviors, such as binge eating, which contributes to treatment resistance in obesity (Wise, 2012). Direct modulation of the NAS with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure currently under investigation in humans for the treatment of major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction, may also be effective in ameliorating binge eating. Therefore, we examined the ability of DBS of the NAS to block this behavior in mice. c-Fos immunoreactivity was assessed as a marker of DBS-mediated neuronal activation. NAS DBS was found to reduce binge eating, and increased c-Fos levels in this region. DBS of the dorsal striatum had no influence on this behavior, demonstrating anatomical specificity for this effect. The dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, attenuated the action of DBS, while the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH-23390, was ineffective, suggesting that dopamine signaling involving D2 receptors underlies the effect of NAS DBS. To determine the potential translational relevance to the obese state, chronic NAS DBS was also examined in diet-induced obese mice, and was found to acutely reduce caloric intake and induce weight loss. Taken together, these findings support the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine pathways in the hedonic mechanisms contributing to obesity, and the efficacy of NAS DBS to modulate this system. PMID:23616522

  1. Internal-Modified Dithiol DNA–Directed Au Nanoassemblies: Geometrically Controlled Self–Assembly and Quantitative Surface–Enhanced Raman Scattering Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yuan; Shan, Hangyong; Li, Min; Chen, Shu; Liu, Jianyu; Cheng, Yanfang; Ye, Cui; Yang, Zhilin; Lai, Xuandi; Hu, Jianqiang

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a hierarchical DNA–directed self–assembly strategy to construct structure–controlled Au nanoassemblies (NAs) has been demonstrated by conjugating Au nanoparticles (NPs) with internal–modified dithiol single-strand DNA (ssDNA) (Au–B–A or A–B–Au–B–A). It is found that the dithiol–ssDNA–modified Au NPs and molecule quantity of thiol–modified ssDNA grafted to Au NPs play critical roles in the assembly of geometrically controlled Au NAs. Through matching Au–DNA self–assembly units, geometrical structures of the Au NAs can be tailored from one–dimensional (1D) to quasi–2D and 2D. Au–B–A conjugates readily give 1D and quasi–2D Au NAs while 2D Au NAs can be formed by A–B–Au–B–A building blocks. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements and 3D finite–difference time domain (3D-FDTD) calculation results indicate that the geometrically controllable Au NAs have regular and linearly “hot spots”–number–depended SERS properties. For a certain number of NPs, the number of “hot spots” and accordingly enhancement factor of Au NAs can be quantitatively evaluated, which open a new avenue for quantitative analysis based on SERS technique.

  2. Amelioration of binge eating by nucleus accumbens shell deep brain stimulation in mice involves D2 receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Casey H; Tekriwal, Anand; Santollo, Jessica; Keating, Jeffrey G; Wolf, John A; Daniels, Derek; Bale, Tracy L

    2013-04-24

    Hedonic overconsumption contributing to obesity involves altered activation within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) has been implicated in reward-seeking behaviors, such as binge eating, which contributes to treatment resistance in obesity (Wise, 2012). Direct modulation of the NAS with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure currently under investigation in humans for the treatment of major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction, may also be effective in ameliorating binge eating. Therefore, we examined the ability of DBS of the NAS to block this behavior in mice. c-Fos immunoreactivity was assessed as a marker of DBS-mediated neuronal activation. NAS DBS was found to reduce binge eating and increased c-Fos levels in this region. DBS of the dorsal striatum had no influence on this behavior, demonstrating anatomical specificity for this effect. The dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, attenuated the action of DBS, whereas the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH-23390, was ineffective, suggesting that dopamine signaling involving D2 receptors underlies the effect of NAS DBS. To determine the potential translational relevance to the obese state, chronic NAS DBS was also examined in diet-induced obese mice and was found to acutely reduce caloric intake and induce weight loss. Together, these findings support the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine pathways in the hedonic mechanisms contributing to obesity, and the efficacy of NAS DBS to modulate this system. PMID:23616522

  3. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

  4. Council of U.S. Academy of Sciences Expresses Concern to Soviet Counterparts over Sakharov Harrassment.

    PubMed

    1973-09-21

    National Academy of Sciences (NAS) president Philip Handler has made public a cable to his opposite number in the Soviet Union expressing the "deep concern" of the NAS Council for the welfare of dissenting Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov and warning that, if further measures were taken against Sakharov, "it would be extremely difficult to imagine successful fulfillment of American pledges of binational scientific cooperation . . . ." Handler's message is the strongest public expression to date of NAS concern over treatment of Soviet scientists and other intellectuals (Science, 6 April). The cable, addressed to M. V. Keldysh, president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, is given in full below. PMID:17744285

  5. Alternative Architectures for Distributed Work in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Billings, Charles E.; Chapman, Roger; Obradovich, Heintz; McCoy, C. Elaine; Orasanu, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The architecture for the National Airspace System (NAS) in the United States has evolved over time to rely heavily on the distribution of tasks and control authority in order to keep cognitive complexity manageable for any one individual. This paper characterizes a number of different subsystems that have been recently incorporated in the NAS. The goal of this discussion is to begin to identify the critical parameters defining the differences among alternative architectures in terms of the locus of control and in terms of access to relevant data and knowledge. At an abstract level, this analysis can be described as an effort to describe alternative "rules of the game" for the NAS.

  6. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  7. QU ES UN FRACTAL? Un fractal es un objeto geomtrico en el

    E-print Network

    Rovira, Carles

    ¿QU� ES UN FRACTAL? Un fractal es un objeto geométrico en el que se repite el mismo patrón a diferentes escalas y con diferente orientación. Conjunto de Mandelbrot HISTORIA La expresión fractal viene catalogables dentro de esta categoría, pero no son reconocidos como tales. FRACTALES EN LA VIDA COTIDIANA

  8. GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1983, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)/National Research Council (NRC) published its report entitled Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. In that report, the NRC recommended that Federal regulatory agencies establish "inference guidelines" to ...

  9. 77 FR 18791 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Associates Information System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Associates Information System AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION: Notice... Associates Information System (NAIS) information collection instrument(s) are completed by incoming NAs....

  10. Using tactical flight level resource allocation to alleviate congested en-route airspace

    E-print Network

    Abad, Antonio Manuel, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    A motivation exists to formulate and implement new tools and methodologies to address the problem of congestion in the National Airspace System (NAS). This thesis presents a novel methodology for allocating aircraft among ...

  11. 48 CFR 852.236-72 - Performance of work by the contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...mark-up, on that portion of the work which the contractor fails or refuses...requirements which include Network Analysis System (NAS), substitute the following...contractor's forces will perform the work. The cost of these activities...

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-72 - Performance of work by the contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...mark-up, on that portion of the work which the contractor fails or refuses...requirements which include Network Analysis System (NAS), substitute the following...contractor's forces will perform the work. The cost of these activities...

  13. Trusting the Cloud Christian Cachin

    E-print Network

    Keidar, Idit

    , Nirvanix CloudNAS, or Microsoft SkyDrive. Some cloud providers utilize the fact that online storage can of maintaining such resources locally. Finally, online collaboration tools, such as Google Apps or versioning

  14. Este espao foi criado para trocar ideias e destaques positivos da sociedade, compartilhando com os leitores experincias vividas ao longo da minha profisso.

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

    ... PALMEIRAS CONFIRMA JOGO CONTRA O BOTA NA ARENA SECRETARIA APURA MORTE DE PROFESSORA. QUE PAÍS É E... EVANGÉLICOS PROTESTAM NAS REDES SOCIAIS CONTRA NOV... O GAVIONENSE NESTOR FOI DECISIVO EM JOGO DE SEMI F

  15. A stochastic and dynamic model of delay propagation within an airport network for policy analysis

    E-print Network

    Pyrgiotis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    As demand for air travel increases over the years and many busy airports operate close to their capacity limits, congestion at some airports on any given day can quickly spread throughout the National Aviation System (NAS). ...

  16. 75 FR 39914 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Conflict of Interest Disclosure for Nonfederal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Conflict... agencies to adopt or adapt the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) policy for evaluating conflicts of... subject to Federal ethics requirements). For peer review purposes, the term ``conflicts of...

  17. 78 FR 57130 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Conflict of Interest Disclosure for Nonfederal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Conflict... Sciences (NAS) policy for evaluating conflicts of interest when selecting peer reviewers who are not... review purposes, the term ``conflicts of interest'' means any financial or other ] interest...

  18. Application of the Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) tool to assess risks of national pesticide registrations to federally listed (threatened and endangered) species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Science (NAS) recently recommended exploration of predictive tools, such as interspecies correlation estimation (ICE), to estimate acute toxicity values for listed species and support development of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). We explored the...

  19. 75 FR 47736 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...amend the Class D and E airspace at Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS), Patuxent River, MD, to reflect the part-time operating...

  20. 75 FR 59608 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action amends Class D and E Airspace at Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS), Patuxent River, MD, to reflect the part-time operating...