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1

Fisica a escala de Planck usando o principio de incerteza generalizado: efeitos nas flutuações primordiais e buracos negros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Em escalas proximas à escala de Planck todas as teorias perturbativas de cordas produzem essenciamente a mesma relação de conmutação entre as coordenadas e impulsos (a chamada "álgebra deformada"), permitindo assim estudar a física resultante independentemente dos detalhes da teoria de cordas que seja considerada correta. Este resultado completamente geral, que inclui as interações gravitacionais junto com o resto dos campos pode ser considerada uma versão generalizada (GUP) do Princípio de Incerteza de Heisenberg. Aplicamos neste trabalho essas relações de conmutação para dois sistemas físicos bem definidos: buracos negros de massas próximas à massa de Planck, e flutuações quânticas em pequenas escalas antes do universo sofrer inflação. Obtemos dois resultados concretos dos efeitos do GUP : o primeiro é que o GUP impede a evaporação completa de buracos negros microscópicos na extensão do formalismo semiclássico, deixando assim remanescentes de pequena massa que já foram postulados como candidatos a matéria escura. O segundo resultado é o 'smoothing' das flutuações primordiais em pequenas escalas que levariam à produção de buracos negros primordiais após a inflação, impedindo assim a produção abundante destes últimos e predizendo abundancias atuais bem menores do que os limites disponíveis. Concluimos que, analogamente a utilização do Princípio de Incerteza de Heisenberg para estudar e determinar propriedades fundamentais das interações sem gravitação, o GUP e uma ferramenta poderosa para estudar uma ampla variedade de sistemas trans-Planckianos e predizer seu comportamento dispensando cálculos mais detalhados proprios da teoria quântica da gravitação.

Horvath, J. E.; Custódio, P. S.

2003-08-01

2

New NAS journal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 1984 the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) will begin publishing a new quarterly focusing on science policy. Written primarily for legislators, diplomats, corporate managers, security analysts, and other public policy analysts, the new journal will deal with such diverse topics as arms control, economic competition, social change, and health care.Original articles are expected to create a 120-page periodical that will discuss policy issues on a sophisticated but nonspecialist level, in a manner similar to that which Foreign Affairs uses to discuss U.S. foreign policy topics, according to NAS.

3

Update on NAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the approval of the governing bodies of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the first phase of a major reorganization of the National Research Council [Eos, March 16, p. 194] is well underway. As part of the reorganization—which consolidates seven existing assemblies and commissions into three commissions, two offices, and an independent board—the new Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources will combine the activities of the former Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (AMPS) and the former Commission on Natural Resources (CNR).Herbert Friedman and Robert M. White, chairman of the assembly and of the commission, respectively, will cochair the new commission for 1 year. Charles K. Reed, executive director of the former assembly, is retiring but will serve as senior advisor to help establish the new commission and will serve as a member of the commission through June 1983. Raphael G. Kasper, executive secretary of the Environmental Studies Board, will be the commission's acting executive director.

4

Escala de avaliação de tipos psicológicos: validade e precisão  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este estudo investiga as validades de conceito e com referência ao critério, e a precisão por consistência interna da Escala de Autoavaliação Tipológica, desenvolvida com base na teoria tipológica de C. G. Jung, para ser utilizada como critério em um estudo de validação do QUATI. Participaram 185 estudantes de oito cursos de graduação. Os instrumentos construídos para avaliar as

Ilmara Fátima De Moraes; Ricardo Primi

5

Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

2006-01-01

6

Validez y confiabilidad de tres escalas para evaluar conductas sociales en preescolares y escolares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Estudiamos la validez y confiabilidad de tres escalas para eva- luar conductas sociales niños y niñas costarricenses de preescolar y primer grado (n=262). Una de las escalas evalúa el comportamiento prosocial (ECPRO), otra evalúa la habilidad de explotar la experticia de los demás (EXHAD), y una más evalúa el comportamiento maquiavélico (EMach) en el ámbito escolar. Las escalas son

Odir Rodríguez Villagra; Michael Padilla Mora; Jaime Fornaguera Trías

2010-01-01

7

PROJETO GERES \\/ 2005: NOVOS INDICADORES PARA CONSTRUÇÃO E INTERPRETAÇÃO DA ESCALA DE PROFICIÊNCIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. INTRODUÇÃO Usualmente, programas de avaliação em larga escala utilizam uma metodologia de interpretação e construção de escalas de proficiência baseada na Teoria da Resposta ao Item e na análise pedagógica das habilidades avaliadas por meio de itens âncora, selecionados com base na freqüência observada de acertos. Dessa abordagem resultam escalas que associam a cada nível de proficiência um conjunto

Lina Kátia; Mesquita de Oliveira; Creso Franco; Tufi Machado Soares

2007-01-01

8

Greenhouse policy study from NAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Academy of Sciences will produce a study for the Environmental Protection Agency on policy responses to global warming. The report is due out before the end of 1990.Dan J. Evans, former U.S. Senator and former Governor of Washington, will chair a panel of the Commission on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, a body of the councils of the NAS, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Evans is a registered civil engineer and previously chaired the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council.The 13-person panel includes AGU members Stephen Schneider of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Robert Frosch, Vice President of Research Laboratores at General Motors Corp., Jessica Mathews, Vice President of the World Resources Institute, and Sir Crispin Tickell, the United Kingdom's Ambassador to the United Nations.

Maggs, William Ward

9

GaInNAs laser gain  

SciTech Connect

The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

2000-05-23

10

Study on atmospheric Stirling engine NAS-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NAS-1 Stirling engines under development at Nihon University feature considerable output power at low temperature. The atmospheric solar Stirling engine exhibits an efficiency of about 15 percent even at a very low temperature difference of 200 C. The NAS-1 engine is found to be effective in any solar-light-abundant regions.

Watanabe, Hiroichi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Ohtomo, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Kuniya; Sagae, Masumi; Hokutoh, Minoru

11

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a set of implementations of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks based on Fortran 77 and the MPI message passing standard. These implementations,which are intended to be run with little or no tuning, approximate the performance a typical user can expect for a portable parallel program on a distributed memory computer. They complement rather than replace the originalNAS Parallel Benchmarks.We

David Bailey; Tim Harris; William Saphir; Rob Van Der Wijngaart; Alex Woo; Maurice Yarrow

1995-01-01

12

National Airspace System. Communications Operational Concept NAS-SR-136.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A requirement of the National Airspace System (NAS) is to provide for communications, as identified in the NAS Requirement Specification, NAS-SR-1000 (NASSRS). A concept of operation for air-ground, ground-ground communications connectivity and capability...

W. Trent T. Pickerell H. Nelson

1991-01-01

13

Parallel programming at NASA\\/NAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes parallel programming at NASA. After extensive survey and evaluation, we have decided to focus our design and development effort on tools that assist debugging and performance optimization, and tools that help data alignment and distribution. Meanwhile, we are actively participating programming language design and standardization. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center is

D. Y. Cheng

1993-01-01

14

Security Controls Hurt Research, NAS Warns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report found no evidence that leaks of technical information from universities or other research centers have damaged national security. However, in areas where control is warranted, decisions should be based on criteria. These criteria and issues related to security control and technological transfer are…

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

15

Nas Parallel Benchmark Results 3-94  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study theperformance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil andpaper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technicaldocument, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are mostly free to select the language

David H. Bailey; Eric Barszcz; Leonardo Dagum; Horst D. Simon

1994-01-01

16

NAS Benchmarks on the Tera MTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tera MTA is new, revolutionary commercial computer based on a multithreaded processor architecture.We have compiled and run the five NAS kernel parallel benchmarks on a prototype version of the MTA.This paper briefly describes the MTA architecture, our experience with the compiler, and some performanceresults.We compare a single-processor MTA's performance and ease of programming to that of the Cray T90,the

Jay Boisseau; Larry Carter; Kang Su Gatlin

1998-01-01

17

NAS Grid Benchmarks: A Tool for Grid Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a benchmark suite for computational grids in this paper. It is based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called the NAS Grid Benchmark (NGB). We present NGB as a data flow graph encapsulating an instance of an NPB code in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending\\/receiving initialization data. These nodes may be

Michael A. Frumkin; Rob F. Van Der Wijngaart

2001-01-01

18

Data communication requirements for the advanced NAS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is to provide a powerful computational environment for advanced research and development in aeronautics and related disciplines. The present NAS system consists of a Cray 2 supercomputer connected by a data network to a large mass storage system, to sophisticated local graphics workstations, and by remote communications to researchers throughout the

Eugene Levin; C. K. Eaton; Bruce Young

1986-01-01

19

Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

2003-08-01

20

New glass-ceramic sealants for Na\\/S battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium sulfur (Na\\/S) battery is one of the most promising candidates for energy storage applications developed since the\\u000a 1980s. However, the seal between the alpha-alumina and beta-alumina in the Na\\/S battery presents a challenge. In this work,\\u000a the new glass-ceramic sealants for the Na\\/S battery have been developed. The borosilicate glass was chosen as the basic glass\\u000a and TiO2

Shufeng Song; Zhaoyin Wen; Yu Liu; Jiu Lin; Xiaogang Xu; Qunxi Zhang

2010-01-01

21

A Review of the NAS Manpower Studies. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume II provides assessments of the four NAS Manpower Studies by independent, external consultants with the purpose of assisting the Department of Medicine and Surgery in the decision-making process necessary in dealing with the recommendations of the N...

1977-01-01

22

Evaluating the Information Power Grid using the NAS Grid Benchmarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) are a collection of synthetic distributed applications designed to rate the performance and functionality of computational grids. We compare several implementations of the NGB to determine programmability and efficiency of NA...

M. A. Frumkin

2004-01-01

23

510k Summary - NGTL Automation system (NAS), BK020032 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... ARC has determined that NAS is substantially equivalent to the existing Information Data Management's Surround System ... 4.7 Performance Data ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

24

Performance and Scalability of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several features make Java an attractive choice for scientific applications. In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The per...

M. A. Frumkin M. Schultz H. Jin J. Yan

2002-01-01

25

Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

2005-01-01

26

NAS user decision support tools for airport resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the design and development of prototype tools designed to support airport resource and surface management. We named this suite of tools ARMADA - airport resource management and decision aid; it was developed as either stand alone software or to be integrated into the NAS user's existing software environment. The system makes use of airport surface

Amy Spencer; Philip J. Smith; Charles Billings

2005-01-01

27

A Standard C Port of the NAS Kernels Benchmark Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

FORTRAN is widely viewed as the programming language of choice for scientific and numerical computations. However, limitations of the language lead some to argue that it should be replaced by another language which better lends itself to the production of structured and maintainable code. We provide quantitative data relevant to this argument by reporting on a port of the NAS

I. E. Stockdale

28

Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense ?"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S ? Na2S5 + Na2S4? Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo (Gary)

2013-01-01

29

Consumer and Worker Opinions of Cash Food Systems: NAS Alameda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to evaluate the effects of the conversion from traditional military dining hall service to CASH/A La Carte upon both the enlisted consumer and the food service worker at NAS Alameda, paper-and-pencil surveys and face-to-face interviews designed t...

W. C. Wilkinson L. E. Symington J. R. Siebold H. L. Meiselman D. L. Maas

1977-01-01

30

Uma nova versão da escala de autoconceito: Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS-2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. É apresentada a adaptação portuguesa da escala americana Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS-2), recentemente revista e publicada em versão reduzida (Piers & Hertzberg, 2002). São referenciados os estudos que, entre nós, têm vindo a ser realizados com a versão adaptada em anterior estudo (Veiga, 1989), bem como os novos elementos por eles trazidos. São apresentadas as propriedades psicométricas da

Feliciano H. Veiga

2006-01-01

31

Characterizations of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterostructures of GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells were characterized by high resolution x-ray diffraction. Complexity and stress compensating effect of such quaternary alloys cause many characterization problems. One of the most important issue is determination of composition of the material, which cannot be performed utilizing only one characterization method. That is why structural analysis had to be related with optical measurements which give different information correlated with composition. A comparison of theoretical calculations of energy band gap with energy of transitions in GaInNAs QWs from photoluminescence or contactless electro-reflectance measurements supplement the results of HRXRD and gives complete information about the structure required as a feedback to develop technology of heterostructures epitaxial growth.

Bielak, Katarzyna; Pucicki, Damian; ?ciana, Beata; Radziewicz, Damian; Dawidowski, Wojciech; Badura, Mikolaj; Kudrawiec, Robert; Serafi?czuk, Jaros?aw; T?acza?a, Marek

2013-07-01

32

Estimation of Temperature Distribution on NaS Battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses temperature distribution based on fundamental formulas, and each thermal resistance calculated by temperature data measured during operational examinations on a NaS battery in 1997. Profiles of temperature distribution at divergence and convergence depend on profiles of thermal current. Thermal current and thermal resistance are changed by temperature distribution profiles, and are calculated by applying a new style formula of thermal resistance which is proportional to volume. A new theory of temperature distribution is discussed by applying this new formula and differential equations.

Tada, Toshiharu

33

A Method for Suppressing Line Overload Phenomena Using NAS Battery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we pay attention to the superior operating control function and instantaneous discharging characteristics of NAS battery systems, and propose a method for determining installation planning and operating control schemes of NAS battery systems for suppressing line overload phenomena. In the stage of planning, a target contingency is identified, and an optimal allocation and capacity of NAS battery

Toshiya Ohtaka; Shinichi Iwamoto

2004-01-01

34

National Airspace System Search and Rescue Operational Concept (NAS-SR-1329).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A requirement for the National Airspace System (NAS) is to provide for detecting the need for initiating and assisting in search and rescue activities, as identified in the NAS System Requirement Specification, NAS-SR-1000. The document presents a concept...

W. Trent R. Kuhn T. Pickerell

1989-01-01

35

National Airspace System Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System Operational Concept (NAS-SR-NOTAM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A requirement for the National Airspace System (NAS) to provide timely knowledge to users of information which is essential to safety of flight is identified in the NAS System Requirement Specification, NAS-SR-1000. The primary method of providing aeronau...

B. K. Falato

1988-01-01

36

Escalas de risco de Torrington e Henderson e de Epstein: aplicabilidade e efetividade nas ressecções pulmonares* Torrington and Henderson and Epstein risk assessment scales: applicability and effectiveness in lung resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the incidences of pulmonary and cardiopulmonary postoperative complications estimated using, respectively, the scoring systems devised by Torrington and Henderson and by Epstein in a populational sample undergoing lung resection for the treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Prospective data from patients submitted to resection of one or more pulmonary lobes were selected from the databases of two tertiary-care

Stanzani F; Oliveira MA; Forte V; Faresin SM; MARIA ALENITA DE OLIVEIRA; SONIA MARIA FARESIN

37

Production technology of an electrolyte for Na/S batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A production method for a ceramic electrolyte for Na/S batteries was developed. The ceramic materials are based on MgO and MgAl2O4 (spinel). A dense MgO-ceramic (purity 99.5%) shows no damage after 100 hr at 1500 C in an Na2O-vapor atmosphere. Cartridges with a sintered density 340 g/cc achieve 50 burn cycles. A small scale production line for 1000 cartrigdes with a monthly output of 250 parts is described. Variations of powder properties cause high scrap rates and a large variation of sintered densities. A short quality test based on internal pressure was devised. Compared with MgO the nonhygroscopic spinel has production advantages, but is expensive.

Mayer, H.; Reckziegel, A.

1984-12-01

38

Kidney transcriptome reveals altered steroid homeostasis in NaS1 sulfate transporter null mice.  

PubMed

Sulfate is essential for human growth and development, and circulating sulfate levels are maintained by the NaS1 sulfate transporter which is expressed in the kidney. Previously, we generated a NaS1-null (Nas1(-/-)) mouse which exhibits hyposulfatemia. In this study, we investigated the kidney transcriptome of Nas1(-/-) mice. We found increased (n=25) and decreased (n=60) mRNA levels of genes with functional roles that include sulfate transport and steroid metabolism. Corticosteroid-binding globulin was the most up-regulated gene (110% increase) in Nas1(-/-) mouse kidney, whereas the sulfate anion transporter-1 (Sat1) was among the most down-regulated genes (>or=50% decrease). These findings led us to investigate the circulating and urinary steroid levels of Nas1(-/-) and Nas1(+/+) mice, which revealed reduced blood levels of corticosterone ( approximately 50% decrease), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, approximately 30% decrease) and DHEA-sulfate ( approximately 40% decrease), and increased urinary corticosterone ( approximately 16-fold increase) and DHEA ( approximately 40% increase) levels in Nas1(-/-) mice. Our data suggest that NaS1 is essential for maintaining a normal metabolic state in the kidney and that loss of NaS1 function leads to reduced circulating steroid levels and increased urinary steroid excretion. PMID:18790054

Dawson, Paul Anthony; Gardiner, Brooke; Lee, Soohyun; Grimmond, Sean; Markovich, Daniel

2008-08-22

39

InAs/InGaNAs/GaNAs QW and QD heterostructures emitting at 1.4-1.8 {mu}m  

SciTech Connect

Heterostructures with InGaNAs quantum wells (QWs) that contain InAs monolayer insertions and are confined between InGaNAs/GaNAs superlattices, grown on GaAs substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy, have been studied. At high indium concentrations, a transition from the two dimensional to island growth mode was observed, which was caused by an increase in the mismatch strain. The longest emission wavelength achieved at room temperature was 1.59 {mu}m in structures with QWs and 1.76 {mu}m in those with quantum dots (QDs)

Mikhrin, V. S., E-mail: mikhrin@yahoo.com; Vasil'ev, A. P.; Semenova, E. S.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Musikhin, Yu. G.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Zhukov, A. E.; Ustinov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

40

Enhanced-depletion-width GaInNAs solar cells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaInNAs, potentially useful in a 4-junction GaInP2\\/GaAs\\/GaInNAs\\/Ge solar cell, suffers from very low minority-carrier collection lengths. To date, the currents available from GaInNAs solar cells are not high enough to increase the efficiency of a 3-junction device by adding this fourth junction. Here, we grow p-i-n GaInNAs solar cells by MBE with wide, intrinsic base layers and internal QE's near

Aaron J. Ptak; Daniel J. Friedman; Sarah Kurtz; James Kiehl

2005-01-01

41

The NAS and The Histopathologic Diagnosis in NAFLD: Distinct Clinicopathologic Meanings  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is defined by the presence and pattern of specific histological abnormalities on liver biopsy. A separate system of scoring the features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NA) called the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) was developed as a tool to measure changes in NAFLD during therapeutic trials. However, some studies have used threshold values of the NAS, specifically NAS ? 5, as a surrogate for the histologic diagnosis of NASH. To evaluate whether this unintended use of the NAS is valid, biopsy and clinical data from the 976 adults in NASH CRN studies were reviewed. Biopsies were evaluated centrally by the NASH CRN Pathology Committee. Definite steatohepatitis (SH) was diagnosed in 58.1%, borderline SH in 19.5% and “not SH” in 22%. The NAS was ? 5 in 50% and ? 4 in 49%; in this cohort only 75% of biopsies with definite SH had a NAS ? 5, while 28% of borderline SH and 7% of "not SH" biopsies had NAS ? 5. Of biopsies with a NAS ? 5, 86% had SH and 3% "not SH". NAS ? 4 did not indicate benign histology; 29% had SH and only 42% had "not SH". Higher values of the NAS were associated with higher levels of ALT and AST, while the diagnosis of SH was associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The diagnosis of definite SH or the absence of SH based on evaluation of patterns as well as individual lesions on liver biopsies does not always correlate with threshold values of the semiquantitative NAS. Clinical trials and observational studies should take these different performance characteristics into account.

Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Kleiner, David E.; Wilson, Laura A.; Belt, Patricia; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

2010-01-01

42

Looking Backward: Parting Reflections on Higher Education Reform from NAS's Founding President  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five years at the helm of the National Association of Scholars (NAS) have left the author with vivid memories: of knocks and bruises, peaks of exhilaration and, especially, unforgettable characters. But as for lessons learned, that's a very different story. In this article, the author shares some of the successes that happened in NAS for…

Balch, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

43

Long-wavelength MBE grown GaInNAs quantum well laser emitting at 1270 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on comprehensive theoretical optical properties analysis and experimental device electrical-optical characterization of long wavelength GaInNAs edge-emitting laser diode. The theoretical analysis demonstrates that a high quality GaInNAs active region and device design are devised, where high material gain near 1.3 ?m and optimal optical mode confinement are calculated. Experimentally, room temperature lasing emission around 1.27 ?m with threshold current densities of 670-810 A/cm2 is obtained from the fabricated broad area GaInNAs edge-emitting laser grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique.

Alias, M. S.; Maskuriy, F.; Mitani, S. M.

2011-11-01

44

National Airspace System: Flight Planning Operational Concept (NAS-SR-1310).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is an operational concept of the flight planning processing system which will be in place upon implementation of the Federal Aviation Administration National Airspace System (NAS) Plan. Flight planning includes all activities involved in the ...

1989-01-01

45

National Airspace System: Air Defense and Law Enforcement Surveillance Operational Concept NAS-SR-135.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This operational concept describes the Air Defense and Law Enforcement Surveillance system which will be in place upon implementation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Airspace System (NAS) Plan. Air Defense and Law Enforcement Surveil...

W. Trent T. Pickerell H. Nelson

1992-01-01

46

Effect of growth temperature on photoluminescence of GaNAs/GaAs quantum well structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of growth temperature on the optical properties of GaAs/GaNxAs1-x quantum wells is studied in detail using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. An increase in growth temperature up to 580 °C is shown to improve the optical quality of the structures, while still allowing one to achieve high (>3%) N incorporation. This conclusion is based on: (i) an observed increase in intensity of the GaNAs-related near-band-edge emission; (ii) a reduction in band-edge potential fluctuations, deduced from the analysis of the PL line shape; and (iii) a decrease in concentration of some extended defects detected under resonant excitation of the GaNAs. The thermal quenching of the GaNAs-related PL emission, however, is almost independent of the growth temperature and is attributed to a thermal activation of an efficient nonradiative recombination channel located in the GaNAs layers.

Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Monemar, B.; Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

1999-12-01

47

Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 107 ? cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 ?m, and a carrier lifetime of ~1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S.; Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D.; Chazelas, J.

2013-09-01

48

The opportunities, successes and challenges for GaInNAsSb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute nitride GaInNAs and GaInNAsSb alloys grown on GaAs have quickly become excellent candidates for a variety of lower cost 1.2–1.6?m lasers, optical amplifiers and high power Raman pump lasers that will be required for advanced high-speed communications systems. Two particularly critical devices are (1) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which must operate at high data rates (?10Gbps), uncooled

James S. Harris

2005-01-01

49

The opportunities, successes and challenges for GaInNAsSb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute nitride GaInNAs and GaInNAsSb alloys grown on GaAs have quickly become excellent candidates for a variety of lower cost 1.2 1.6 mum lasers, optical amplifiers and high power Raman pump lasers that will be required for advanced high-speed communications systems. Two particularly critical devices are (1) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which must operate at high data rates

James S. Harris

2005-01-01

50

GaInNAs Junctions for Next-Generation Concentrators: Progress and Prospects  

SciTech Connect

We discuss progress in the development of GaInNAs junctions for application in next-generation multijunction concentrator cells. A significant development is the demonstration of near-100% internal quantum efficiencies in junctions grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Testing at high currents validates the compatibility of these devices with concentrator operation. The efficiencies of several next-generation multijunction structures incorporating these state-of-the-art GaInNAs junctions are projected.

Friedman, D. J.; Ptak, A. J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Geisz, J. F.; Kiehl, J.

2005-08-01

51

Hydrazine N Source for Growth of GaInNAs for Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate hydrazine (Hy) as a nitrogen precursor source for the growth of GaNAs and GaInNAs for application in 1-eV solar cells lattice-matched to GaAs, and compare it to the more commonly used dimethylhydrazine (DMHy). The incorporation efficiency of N into the GaNAs alloy is found to be one to two orders of magnitude higher with Hy than with DMHy. This high N incorporation makes convenient the growth of GaNAs at higher growth temperatures, Tg=650 C, and arsine flows, AsH3/III=44, than are generally possible with the use of DMHy. GaInNAs and GaNAs solar cells are grown under these growth conditions and compared to a GaAs cell grown under the same conditions to determine the extent to which the poor minority-carrier properties routinely observed for the N-containing material can be attributed to the growth conditions. Finally, the background carrier concentrations for Hy- and DMHy-grown material are compared, and little difference is found between the two sources..

Friedman, D. J.; Geisz, G. F.; Kurtz, S. R.; Norman, A. G. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Yeh, Y. C. M. (TECSTAR, Inc.)

1999-05-25

52

Improved optical quality of GaNAsSb in the dilute Sb limit  

SciTech Connect

GaNAs(Sb) layers were grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy utilizing a radio frequency (rf) nitrogen plasma source. The samples contained less nitrogen and antimony (0.5%-0.8% N and {<=}2% Sb) than in previous studies and were examined for their optical and electronic properties and any interactions between the elements. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, electroreflectance (ER) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to study those properties. We found that the addition of small amounts of antimony enhanced nitrogen incorporation into GaAs, similar to other studies that used 5-15x the mole fraction of antimony. The nitrogen concentration increased with increasing antimony flux. PL measurements indicated an improvement in optical quality with increasing nitrogen and antimony concentrations--contrary to the belief that adding more nitrogen necessarily degrades material quality. We collected and simulated ER spectra to examine the general band properties of the layers. Isoelectronic codoping can explain the improved quality when antimony is added to GaNAs. The improvement in GaNAs with small amounts of antimony holds great promise for improving strain-compensated GaInNAs(Sb)/GaNAs devices.

Yuen, Homan B.; Bank, Seth R.; Wistey, Mark A.; Harris, James S. Jr.; Seong, Maeng-Je; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kudrawiec, Robert; Misiewicz, Jan [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

2005-06-01

53

GaNAsP: An intermediate band semiconductor grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dilute nitride GaNAsP thin films were grown via a GaAsP metamorphic buffer on GaP(100) substrate with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The compositions of this III-V-V-V compound were determined by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Photoreflectance shows two distinctive transitions from the valence band to the split conduction bands due to N incorporation. Photoluminescence and optical absorption show the fundamental bandgap of Ga(N)AsP is largely tailored by the small amount of N. The observed multiband characteristics and the bandgap tunability of GaNAsP are two merits that fit into the intermediate-band solar cell roadmap, and GaNAsP of high crystal quality provides a strong candidate for intermediate band solar cell materials.

Kuang, Y. J.; Yu, K. M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Luce, A. V.; Ting, M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Tu, C. W.

2013-03-01

54

Experimental evaluation of impact ionization in dilute nitride GaInNAs diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anomalous behavior of impact ionization in dilute-nitride GaInNAs photodiodes with a range of nitrogen content below 4% is investigated. The ratio of hole- and electron-initiated ionization coefficients, k = ?/?, is enhanced by a factor up to ~4 with increasing nitrogen content. The absolute ionization coefficients are suppressed by up to two orders of magnitude at low electric fields in samples with 3% N. The narrow band gap, suppressed impact ionization, and increased breakdown voltage characteristics of GaInNAs make it a suitable material for use as part of a composite collector in GaAs-based heterojunction bipolar transistors.

Tan, S. L.; Soong, W. M.; Green, J. E.; Steer, M. J.; Zhang, S.; Tan, L. J. J.; Ng, J. S.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Adams, A. R.; Allam, J.; David, J. P. R.

2013-09-01

55

Comparison of Na/S and LiAl/FeS batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NaS and LiAl/FeS batteries, both promising candidates for electric-vehicle propulsion and load leveling applications, are compared by assessing 25 different properties of each system. The most important of these properties, including the specific energy of cells and batteries, maximum specific power, lifetime, safety, key technical problems, and economic considerations, are discussed in detail. It is shown that both types of batteries qualify as high-performance batteries. The NaS system has a slight advantage for applications in West Germany (mainly electric vehicle propulsion; no Li resources); for applications in the United States (electric vehicle propulsion and load leveling), both systems are equally suitable.

Knoedler, R.

56

GaInNAs: a novel material for long-wavelength semiconductor lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaInNAs was proposed and created in 1995 by the authors. It can be grown pseudomorphically on a GaAs substrate and is a light-emitting material having a bandgap energy suitable for long-wavelength laser diodes (1.3-1.55 ?m and longer wavelengths). By combining GaInNAs with GaAs or other wide-gap materials that can be grown on a GaAs substrate, a type-I band lineup is

Masahiko Kondow; Takeshi Kitatani; S. Nakatsuka; M. C. Larson; K. Nakahara; Y. Yazawa; M. Okai; K. Uomi

1997-01-01

57

Characteristics of GaInNAsSb\\/GaAs VCSELs operating near 1.55um  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the high-power pulsed operation of C-band optically-pumped GaInNAsSb vertical cavity surface emitting lasers is reported. The devices employ a resonant periodic gain structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate with a 31-pair GaAs\\/AlAs bottom distributed Bragg reflector and a 4-lambda, GaAs-based resonant cavity containing 10 GaInNAsSb quantum wells distributed among the 7 antinodes

James A. Gupta; Stephane Calvez; Nicolas Laurand; Jelmer Weda; David Burns; Daniel Poitras; Geof C. Aers; Martin D. Dawson

2008-01-01

58

Self-assembled GaInNAs\\/GaAs quantum dots grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaInNAs\\/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy equipped with a radio frequency nitrogen (N2) plasma source for the first time. High-density (?1010cm?2) GaInNAs QDs with small sizes (?30nm) were achieved. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation revealed that the formation of GaInNAs QDs follows the Stranski–Krastanow growth mode. The evolution of GaInNAs QDs was investigated by atomic

Z. Z Sun; S. F Yoon; K. C Yew; W. K Loke; S. Z Wang; T. K Ng

2002-01-01

59

TRICARE; elimination of the non-availability statement (NAS) requirement for non-emergency inpatient mental health care. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule eliminates the requirement that states a NAS is needed for non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard beneficiary's claim to be paid. Currently, NAS are required for non-emergency inpatient mental health care for TRICARE Standard beneficiaries who live within a military treatment facility catchment area. At this time, the number of NASs issued is negligible as most mental health admissions are emergency admissions. Requiring a NAS for a relatively few non-emergency inpatient mental health admissions is disproportionate to the cost of maintaining the systems necessary to process and coordinate the NAS. PMID:23476989

2013-02-26

60

NAS: the NAIST user authorization management system for network accesses in consideration of system administration volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) user Authorization management System for network accesses (NAS) was designed and developed as a campus-network management system for administrators who are not information and communications technology (ICT) experts. Student residents have successfully operated the system in the dormitory network since November 2002, in the staff accommodation network by residents since June 2003,

Motohiro Ichikawa; Yutaka Nakamura; Eiji Kawai; Kazutoshi Fujikawa; Hideki Sunahara

2005-01-01

61

A Scalable Implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmark BT on Distributed Memory Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an efficient and scalable implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmark BT suitable for distributed memory systems such as the IBM Scalable POWERparallel Systems@. After describing the parallelization and data partitioning methods used, we outline some of the optimization steps used to realize good performance on individual processors and to reduce the communication overheads on the

Vijay K. Naik

1995-01-01

62

WHOSE FAULT?—DAUBERT, THE NAS REPORT, AND THE NOTION OF ERROR IN FORENSIC SCIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of “error” and “error rates” is central both to the Daubert opinion and to the recent NAS Report on the strengths and weaknesses of forensic science in the United States. I will not be attempting a full-scale examination of the concept of error in this paper, however, I believe there are some observations that can be made that

D. Michael Risinger

2010-01-01

63

Solution of linear systems of equations with a structural analysis code on the NAS CRAY2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for solving linear systems of equations on the NAS Cray-2 are described. One is a direct method; the other is an iterative method. Both methods exploit the architecture of the Cray-2, particularly the vectorization, and are aimed at structural analysis applications. To demonstrate and evaluate the methods, they were installed in a finite element structural analysis code denoted

E. L. Poole; A. L. Overman

1988-01-01

64

Nonequilibrium gain in optically pumped GaInNAs laser structures.  

SciTech Connect

A theory is presented which couples a dynamical laser model to a fully microscopic calculation of scattering effects. Calculations for two optically pumped GaInNAs laser structures show how this approach can be used to analyze nonequilibrium and dynamical laser properties over a wide range of system parameters.

Becker, Stanley Edward (Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany); Thranhardt, A. (Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany); Hader, J. (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona); Schlichenmaier, C. (Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany); Koch, Stephan W. (Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany); Chow, Weng Wah; Meier, Torsten. (Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany); Moloney, Jerome V. (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona); Kuznetsova, I. (Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany)

2004-11-01

65

MPI versus MPI+OpenMP on IBM SP for the NAS benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrid memory model of clusters of multiprocessors raises two issues: programming model and performance. Many parallel programs have been written by using the MPI standard. To evaluate the pertinence of hybrid models for existing MPI codes, we compare a unified model (MPI) and a hybrid one (OpenMP fine grain parallelization after profiling) for the NAS 2.3 benchmarks on two

Franck Cappello; Daniel Etiemble

2000-01-01

66

Analysis of Depletion-Region Collection in GalanNAs Solar Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We provide qualitative insight into depletion-region collection in GaInNAs cells to (1) understand the effect of diffusion length L on the QE; and (2) describe the magnitude of L required to get adequate current from the cell. We use Wolf's equations for ...

D. J. Friedman A. J. Ptak S. R. Kurtz J. F. Geisz

2005-01-01

67

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS): Transitioning Methadone Treated Infants From An Inpatient to an Outpatient Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Each year in the US approximately 50,000 neonates receive inpatient pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of a traditional inpatient only approach with a combined inpatient and outpatient methadone treatment program. Design/Methods Retrospective review (2007-9). Infants were born to mothers maintained on methadone or buprenorphine in an antenatal substance abuse program. All infants received methadone for NAS treatment as inpatient. Methadone weaning for the traditional group (75 pts) was inpatient while the combined group (46 pts) was outpatient. Results Infants in the traditional and combined groups were similar in demographics, obstetrical risk factors, birth weight, GA and the incidence of prematurity (34 & 31%). Hospital stay was shorter in the combined than in the traditional group (13 vs 25d; p < 0.01). Although the duration of treatment was longer for infants in the combined group (37 vs 21d, p<0.01), the cumulative methadone dose was similar (3.6 vs 3.1mg/kg, p 0.42). Follow-up: Information was available for 80% of infants in the traditional and 100% of infants in the combined group. All infants in the combined group were seen ? 72 hours from hospital discharge. Breast feeding was more common among infants in the combined group (24 vs. 8% p<0.05). Following discharge there were no differences between the two groups in hospital readmissions for NAS. Prematurity (<37w GA) was the only predictor for hospital readmission for NAS in both groups (p 0.02, OR 5). Average hospital cost for each infant in the combined group was $13,817 less than in the traditional group. Conclusions A combined inpatient and outpatient methadone treatment in the management of NAS decreases hospital stay and substantially reduces cost. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the potential long term benefits of the combined approach on infants and their families.

Backes, Carl H.; Backes, Carl R.; Gardner, Debra; Nankervis, Craig A.; Giannone, Peter J.; Cordero, Leandro

2013-01-01

68

Avaliação das normas de biossegurança nas clínicas odonto- lógicas da UFPE Evaluation of biosecutrity norms in UFPE dental clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key-words O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar o cumprimento das normas de biossegurança e os cuidados com os riscos ocupacionais pelos alunos que atenderam nas clínicas de Odontologia Preventiva, Odontopediatria, Dentística, Endodontia e nos procedimentos cirúrgicos nas clínicas de Periodontia e Cirurgia, da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Este trabalho consistiu em um estudo observacional, no qual

Márcia Maria; Vendiciano Barbosa Vasconcelos; Catarina da Mot; Vasconcelos Brasi; Cláudia Cristina; Brainer de Oliveira Mot; Rabelo de Carvalho

69

Enhancement of activation energies of sharp photoluminescence lines for GaInNAs quantum wells due to quantum confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that localized emission from GaInNAs quantum wells (QW) is composed of sharp photoluminescence (PL) lines. Spectral position of these PL lines varies in a very broad range (˜150 meV) but the activation energy of each line is the same within the experimental uncertainty and equals ˜11 meV. This value is higher than in bulk GaInNAs (˜6 meV) and corresponds very well to electron-hole attraction in GaInNAs QW. It means that the source of these sharp PL lines are excitons localized on deep centres, which can recombine radiatively while the thermal energy is smaller than the Coulomb attraction between electrons and holes. Because of this the localized emission composing of sharp PL lines is observed at low temperatures and quenched much faster for GaInNAs layers than GaInNAs/GaAs QWs.

Latkowska, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Misiewicz, J.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Henini, M.; Hopkinson, M.

2013-10-01

70

Al-enhanced N incorporation in GaNAs alloys grown by chemical beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N incorporation is studied in AlGaNAs with low Al content grown by chemical beam epitaxy at low temperature using dimethylhydrazine as the N precursor. The incorporation efficiency is significantly enhanced by introducing a relatively low Al concentration. The relation between the N incorporation and N/(N+As) flow ratio for Al concentrations of 0–15% is presented. The highest N incorporation and the best AlGaNAs crystal quality are obtained between 400 °C and 440 °C, where the growth mode starts to change from 2D to 3D. The activation energies for N incorporation in both the 2D and 3D growth mode regions are extracted.

Kolhatkar, Gitanjali; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wallace, Steven G.; Fafard, Simon; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard

2013-10-01

71

Quantitative chemical evaluation of dilute GaNAs using ADF STEM: avoiding surface strain induced artifacts.  

PubMed

The high angle annular dark field intensity (HAADF) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) can be used for a quantitative evaluation of the chemical composition in dilute GaNAs quantum wells by comparison with simulated intensities. As the scattered intensity is highly sensitive to surface strain fields originating from the quantum wells embedded in GaAs, the HAADF intensity is difficult to evaluate in a quantitative way as long as strain contrast cannot be distinguished from chemical contrast. We present a method to achieve full 2D HAADF STEM compositional mapping of GaNAs/GaAs quantum well systems by making use of information from two different camera lengths. PMID:23542584

Grieb, Tim; Müller, Knut; Fritz, Rafael; Grillo, Vincenzo; Schowalter, Marco; Volz, Kerstin; Rosenauer, Andreas

2013-02-16

72

Nonexponential photoluminescence transients in a Ga(NAsP) lattice matched to a (001) silicon substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ga(NAsP) grown lattice-matched on (001) silicon substrate is a very promising material for future integrated, electrically pumped lasers on silicon. Here, we present experimental and theoretical studies of the time-resolved photoluminescence in Ga(NAsP)/Si quantum well structures. The experimental results obtained at 10 K show a strong nonexponential transient behavior for the photoluminescence signal. A detailed comparison with theoretical calculations based on rate equations and on straightforward Monte Carlo simulations reveals that this effect is controlled by an interplay between the fast capture of carriers on nonradiative centers and the slow radiative recombination via localized states. We demonstrate that the measurement of the time-resolved photoluminescence can serve as a convenient tool for estimating the relative concentrations of nonradiative and radiative centers in compound materials.

Jandieri, K.; Kunert, B.; Liebich, S.; Zimprich, M.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Gebhard, F.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Koukourakis, N.; Gerhardt, N. C.; Hofmann, M. R.

2013-01-01

73

GaInNAs-Based High-Power and Tapered Laser Diodes for Pumping Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaInNAs-based high-power laser diodes with emission in the 1220-1240 nm wavelength range are presented. Broad-area (BA) devices show very low internal losses of only 0.5 cm-1, allowing high continuous-wave room-temperature output powers of almost 9 W and emission at a wavelength of 1220 nm. Based on the needs for applications like, e.g., pumping of Raman amplifiers, wavelength-stabilized tapered laser diodes

Dirk Bisping; Damian Pucicki; Marc Fischer; Johannes Koeth; Christian Zimmermann; Pia Weinmann; S. Hofling; M. Kamp; A. Forchel

2009-01-01

74

The NAS EarlyBird ProgrammePartnership with Parents in Early Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early intervention bridges the gap between early diagnosis and appropriate educational placement. The National Autistic Society has developed an autism-specific three-month parent package, the NAS EarlyBird Programme, that emphasizes partnership with parents. Six families participate in each three-month programme, which combines weekly group training sessions for parents with individualized home visits. During the programme parents learn to understand autism, to

Jane Shields

2001-01-01

75

Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence Peak Energy in Ga(In)NAs  

SciTech Connect

Introducing normal coordinate system, theoretical approach to band gap alteration with temperature is described. The derived expression is applied to a GaNAs system having the nitrogen composition of about 1.4%. It is found that the band gap narrowing in this system is originated in the inter-band mixing assisted by an LO phonon at a {Gamma} point through electron--phonon interaction.

Emura, Shuichi; Asahi, Hajime [ISIR, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihoga-oka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Kondow, Masahiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yakadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-12-23

76

Improved container electrode coatings for Na\\/S battery systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current sodium sulfur (Na\\/S) battery systems utilize the fast ion conducting properties of sodium betaâ³-alumina electrolyte (BASE) to create high energy density sodium-sulfur electrochemical cells which can be used as components of secondary batteries. Since the days when these cells were invented at the Ford Motor Company Scientific Laboratory by J.T. Kummer and N. Weber, problems with container electrode corrosion

Hunt

1995-01-01

77

NAS-wide simulation and passenger itinerary performance: Implications for NextGen benefits analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAS-wide simulations are one of the methods used to estimate annual system-wide benefits for Air Traffic Control modernization concepts-of-operations and technologies (e.g. NextGen\\/SESAR). These tools simulate the operation of up to 60,000 flights per day in various combinations of demand (i.e. flights) and capacity (i.e. airport and airspace capacity). The main input to the simulation is a schedule of flights

Lance Sherry

2011-01-01

78

The OpenMP Implementation of NAS Parallel Benchmarks and Its Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the new ccNUMA architecture became popular in recent years, parallel programming with compiler directives on these machines has evolved to accommodate new needs. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of OpenMP directives for parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Implementation details will be discussed and p erformance will be compared with the MPI implementation. We have demonstrated that OpenMP

H. Jin; M. Frumkin; J. Yan

1999-01-01

79

High power frequency doubled GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser emitting at 615 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an optically-pumped intracavity frequency doubled GaInNAs\\/GaAs -based semiconductor disk laser emitting around 615 nm. The laser operates at fundamental wavelength of 1230 nm and incorporates a BBO crystal for light conversion to the red wavelength. Maximum output power of 172 mW at 615 nm was achieved from a single output. Combined power from two outputs was 320

Antti Härkönen; Jussi Rautiainen; Mircea Guina; Janne Konttinen; Pietari Tuomisto; Lasse Orsila; Markus Pessa; Oleg G. Okhotnikov

2007-01-01

80

MBE grown GaInNAs-based multi-Watt disk lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the fabrication and characterization of high-quality GaInNAs\\/GaAs gain mirror as an active media for semiconductor disk lasers emitting at the 12XXnm spectral range. The structure was fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy using a radio frequency plasma source for incorporating the nitrogen. The growth parameters have been optimized to reduce detrimental effects of nitrogen on the emission efficiency. Using

V.-M. Korpijärvi; M. Guina; J. Puustinen; P. Tuomisto; J. Rautiainen; A. Härkönen; A. Tukiainen; O. Okhotnikov; M. Pessa

2009-01-01

81

Economic viability of NaS battery plant in a competitive electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. One of the emerging electric energy storage technologies is NaS (Natrium Sulfur) battery system. Recently, this technology is strongly

S. Jalal Kazempour; Mohsen Parsa Moghaddam

2009-01-01

82

Effects of Bismuth on Wide-Depletion-Width GaInNAs Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

GaInNAs solar cells could be useful in next-generation multijunction solar cells if issues surrounding low photocurrents and photovoltages are surmounted. Wide-depletion-width devices generate significant photocurrent using a p-i-n structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, but these depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Here, bismuth is explored as a surfactant for the growth of GaInNAs solar cells. Very low fluxes of Bi are effective at maintaining smooth surfaces, even at high growth temperatures and In contents. However, Bi also increases the net donor concentration in these materials, manifested in our n-on-p device structures as a pn-junction that moves deeper into the base layer with increasing Bi fluxes. Quantum efficiency modeling and scanning kelvin probe microscopy measurements confirm the type conversion of the base layer from p type to n type. Bi incorporation in GaAsBi samples shows signs of surface segregation, leading to a finite buildup time, and this effect may lead to slow changes in the electrical properties of the GaInNAs(Bi) devices. Bi also appears to create a defect level, although this defect level is not deleterious enough to increase the dark current in the devices.

Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C.-S.; Reedy, R. C.

2008-05-01

83

Improved container electrode coatings for Na/S battery systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Current sodium sulfur (Na/S) battery systems utilize the fast ion conducting properties of sodium beta{double_prime}-alumina electrolyte (BASE) to create high energy density sodium-sulfur electrochemical cells which can be used as components of secondary batteries. Since the days when these cells were invented at the Ford Motor Company Scientific Laboratory by J.T. Kummer and N. Weber, problems with container electrode corrosion have troubled the Na/S systems that have been developed in the many laboratories. In an unpublished investigation carried out at the Ford Motor Company laboratory, it was shown that titanium nitride films sputter deposited onto aluminum substrates under the appropriate conditions can exhibit excellent resistance to corrosion by sodium polysulfide melts. In the work carried out here, the corrosion resistant properties of TiN coatings sputter deposited on Al substrates have been investigated. TiN sputter coated aluminum samples were tested under static conditions in sodium sulfide melts and in Na/S cells under the range of electrochemical conditions needed for battery operation. The sputter deposited coatings produced in these experiments exhibited satisfactory corrosion resistance in the static tests but degraded under full cell operation. Tests of TiN coatings deposited by reactive ion-plating (IP), a common commercial process, showed excellent corrosion and electrical performance in both static and complete cell testing. Charge/discharge testing of sulfur core cells with IP coatings for over 350 cycles to 70 % depth of discharge has shown only very minor changes in cell performance and the tests are continuing.

Hunt, T.K. [Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Applications Development Dept.

1995-08-01

84

Passively mode-locked GaInNAs disk laser operating at 1220 nm.  

PubMed

We report an optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror. Both the absorber and the gain media were made of dilute nitride compound semiconductor, GaInNAs, which enables operation around 1.2 microm wavelengths. The laser generated 5 ps optical pulses with an average output power up to 275 mW. Our demonstration provides an attractive approach for efficiently generating red-wavelengths through external cavity frequency doubling. PMID:18825234

Rautiainen, Jussi; Korpijärvi, Ville-Markus; Puustinen, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Okhotnikov, Oleg

2008-09-29

85

2.7 W tunable orange-red GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser.  

PubMed

We report on a GaInNAs/GaAs semiconductor disk laser frequency-doubled to produce orange-red radiation. The disk laser operates at a fundamental wavelength of 1224 nm and delivers an output power of 2.68 W in the visible region with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 7.4%. The frequency-converted signal could be launched into a singlemode optical fiber with 70-78% coupling efficiency, demonstrating good beam quality for the visible radiation. Using a Fabry-Pérot glass etalon the emission wavelength could be tuned over an 8 nm spectral range. PMID:19551132

Rautiainen, J; Härkönen, A; Korpijärvi, V-M; Tuomisto, P; Guina, M; Okhotnikov, O G

2007-12-24

86

1.5-microm monolithic GaInNAs semiconductor saturable-absorber mode locking of an erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We present a new monolithic GaAs-based semiconductor saturable absorber operating at 1.55 microm. An epitaxially grown absorber mirror in a GaInNAs/GaAs material system was successfully used to mode lock an erbium-doped fiber laser. The GaInNAs material system possesses intriguing physical properties and provides great potential for lasers and nonlinear optical devices operating at the 1.3-1.55-microm wavelength range. PMID:12659445

Okhotnikov, O G; Jouhti, T; Konttinen, J; Karirinne, S; Pessa, M

2003-03-01

87

Nitrogen-dependent effects on GaInNAs photoluminescence upon annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the effects of nitrogen on GaInNAs during the annealing process, we analyzed several quantum wells (QWs) with different nitrogen contents after annealing at different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) conditions. When only the RTA temperature was varied, we found two blueshift regimes. Up to 700 °C (strong blueshift regime), the blueshift experiences a rapid increase with increasing RTA temperature, while above this temperature (weak blueshift regime) it saturates. The activation energies of the blueshift mechanism in the strong blueshift regime decrease with increasing nitrogen content. In the weak blueshift regime, the blueshift saturates more slowly with respect to RTA temperature and to higher values the higher the nitrogen content. When only the RTA time was changed, the blueshift again saturated to higher values the more the nitrogen content. The photoluminescence (PL) efficiency improvement is, on the other hand, unaffected by the nitrogen concentration and depends only on the RTA conditions used. Moreover, short-time annealing at high temperatures results in a smaller PL broadening and is therefore preferable for the growth of active GaInNAs. In outdiffusion from the QW is evident only for long-time annealing. Therefore, the blueshift effects seen for the short-time annealing are related to a different mechanism.

Liverini, V.; Rutz, A.; Keller, U.; Schön, S.

2007-04-01

88

Characteristics of GaInNAsSb/GaAs VCSELs operating near 1.55um  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the high-power pulsed operation of C-band optically-pumped GaInNAsSb vertical cavity surface emitting lasers is reported. The devices employ a resonant periodic gain structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate with a 31-pair GaAs/AlAs bottom distributed Bragg reflector and a 4-?, GaAs-based resonant cavity containing 10 GaInNAsSb quantum wells distributed among the 7 antinodes of the electric field. A dual-pump-band SiO2/TiO2 dielectric top mirror allows efficient optical pumping via low reflectivities at 808nm and 1064nm while providing very high reflectivity at the 1.55?m target emission wavelength. The laser characteristics were evaluated using both a Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064nm pump and a 20W-peak 180ns-pulsed 850nm diode laser. The importance of the gain-cavity detuning was evident from time-dependent spectral measurements of laser material subjected to post-growth annealing at different temperatures between 725 and 775°C. The highest annealing temperature produces the largest blue shift of the gain peak relative to the cavity resonance, resulting in the best power transfer characteristics as well as reduced temperature sensitivity.

Gupta, James A.; Calvez, Stephane; Laurand, Nicolas; Weda, Jelmer; Burns, David; Poitras, Daniel; Aers, Geof C.; Dawson, Martin D.

2008-01-01

89

NasT-mediated antitermination plays an essential role in the regulation of the assimilatory nitrate reductase operon in Azotobacter vinelandii.  

PubMed

Azotobacter vinelandii is a well-studied model system for nitrogen fixation in bacteria. Regulation of nitrogen fixation in A. vinelandii is independent of NtrB/NtrC, a conserved nitrogen regulatory system in proteobacteria. Previous work showed that an ntrC mutation in A. vinelandii resulted in a loss of induction of assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases encoded by the nasAB operon. In addition to NtrC, several other proteins, including NasT, a protein containing a potential RNA-binding domain ANTAR (AmiR and NasR transcription antitermination regulators), have been implicated in nasAB regulation. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of nasA and identify several DNA sequence elements, including two potential NtrC binding sites and a putative intrinsic transcriptional terminator upstream of nasA that are potentially involved in nasAB regulation. Our analyses confirm that the nasAB promoter, P(nasA), is under NtrC control. However, unlike NtrC-regulated promoters in enteric bacteria, P(nasA) shows high activity in the presence of ammonium; in addition, the P(nasA) activity is altered in the nifA gene mutation background. We discuss the implication of these results on NtrC-mediated regulation in A. vinelandii. Our study provides direct evidence that induction of nasAB is regulated by NasT-mediated antitermination, which occurs within the leader region of the operon. The results also support the hypothesis that NasT binds the promoter proximal hairpin of nasAB for its regulatory function, which contributes to the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of ANTAR-containing antiterminators. PMID:22773651

Wang, Baomin; Pierson, Leland S; Rensing, Christopher; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Kennedy, Christina

2012-07-06

90

Identification of defect types in moderately Si-doped GaInNAsSb layer in p-GaAs/n- GaInNAsSb/n-GaAs solar cell structure using admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bias dependence of the admittance spectroscopy of GaInNAsSb based solar cell structure has been performed to identify and characterize the type of defects, for example interface and/or bulk type defects in a moderately Si doped GaInNAsSb (n-GaInNAsSb) layer in the structure. From the zero bias admittance spectrum, three peaks namely E1, E2, and E3 corresponding to the localized level at 0.03 eV, 0.07 eV, and 0.16 eV below the conduction band edge (EC) of n-GaInNAsSb material, respectively, were found. Constant position of E2 and E3 peak in the admittance spectra in response to the various applied DC reverse bias suggests that E2 and E3 are related to the bulk type defects being spatially homogeneous throughout the bulk of the n- GaInNAsSb film. However, bias dependence admittance of the E1 peak along with the capacitance - voltage (C-V) measurement as well as characteristic feature in the temperature dependent junction capacitance value strongly suggests that E1 peak might be originated due to the free carrier relaxation in the n- GaInNAsSb layer in lower temperature. Conduction mechanism in the freeze-out regime has been discussed. Analysis of the admittance peak, E1 together with the characteristic features in the frequency dependence of the conduction in freeze out regime suggest that conduction properties of the n-GaInNAsSb material in the freeze-out condition is governed by Mott's variable range hopping mechanism.

Monirul Islam, Muhammad; Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Sakurai, Takeaki; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Okada, Yoshitaka

2012-12-01

91

Characterization of a Dominant Electron Trap in GaNAs Using Deep-Level Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Dilute-nitrogen GaNAs epitaxial layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition were characterized by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). For all samples, the dominant DLTS signal corresponds to an electron trap having an activation energy of about 0.25 to 0.35 eV. The minority-carrier trap density in the p-type material is quantified based on computer simulation of the devices. The simulations show that only about 2% of the traps in the depleted layer are filled during the transient. The fraction of the traps that are filled depends strongly on the depth of the trap, but only weakly on the doping of the layers and on the conduction-band offset. The simulations provide a pathway to obtain semi-quantitative data for analysis of minority-carrier traps by DLTS.

Johnston, S. W.; Kurtz, S. R.

2006-08-01

92

Contactless electroreflectance approach to study the Fermi level position in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fruitful approach to study the Fermi level position in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) has been proposed in this paper. This approach utilizes contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy and a very simple design of semiconductor structures. The idea of this design is to insert a GaInNAs quantum well (QW) into a region of undoped GaAs layer grown on n-type GaAs substrate. The possible pinning of the Fermi level in the GaInNAs QW region modifies band bending in this system. In CER spectra both QW transitions and GaAs-related Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKOs) are clearly observed. The analysis of QW transitions allows one to determine the band gap discontinuity at GaInNAs/GaAs interface whereas the analysis of FKOs allows one to determine the built-in electric field in the GaAs cap layer, and, finally, one is able to find the Fermi level pinning in GaInNAs QW region.

Kudrawiec, R.; Yuen, H. B.; Bank, S. R.; Bae, H. P.; Wistey, M. A.; Harris, James S.; Motyka, M.; Misiewicz, J.

2007-12-01

93

Mid-infrared luminescence of an InNAsSb/InAs single quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the growth and characterization of a dilute nitride, InNAsSb/InAs, by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Optimizing growth conditions for nitrogen incorporation has resulted in high-quality InNAsSb epilayers without any structural degradation, as confirmed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Optical properties were investigated by temperature dependent and excitation power dependent photoluminescence. The authors obtained mid-infrared luminescence around 4 {mu}m at low temperature, which reveals strong carrier localization behavior at low temperature, induced by nitrogen and antimony interaction. The band alignment of InNAsSb/InAs can be type I instead of the conventional type II found for InAsSb/InAs. A conduction band offset, E{sub c}, of {approx}102 meV was obtained.

Yuen, Homan B.; Kim, Seongsin M.; Hatami, Fariba; Harris, James S.; Chin, Alan H. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States); Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

2006-09-18

94

GaInNAs-GaAs long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes with GaInNAs-GaAs quantum-well (QW) active layers are demonstrated for the first time. GaInNAs permits the realization of a long-wavelength vertical-cavity laser grown directly on a GaAs substrate. Room-temperature (RT) pulsed operation is achieved, with an active wavelength near 1.18 ?m, threshold current density of 3.1 kA\\/cm2, slope efficiency of ~0.04 W\\/A, and output power above 5

M. C. Larson; M. Kondow; T. Kitatani; K. Nakahara; K. Tamura; H. Inoue; K. Uomi

1998-01-01

95

Impact of GaNAs strain compensation layer on the electronic structure of InAs/GaAs quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain and electron energy levels of InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots (QDs) with a GaNAs strain compensation layer (SCL) are investigated. The results show that both the hydrostatic and biaxial strain inside the QDs with a GaNAs SCL are reduced compared with those with GaAs capping layers. Moreover, most of the compressive strain in the growth surface is compensated by the tensile strain of the GaNAs SCL, which implies that the influence of the strain environment of underlying QDs upon the next-layer QDs' growth surface is weak and suggests that the homogeneity and density of QDs can be improved. Our results are consistent with the published experimental literature. A GaNAs SCL is shown to influence the strain and band edge. As is known, the strain and the band offset affect the electronic structure, which shows that the SCL is proved to be useful to tailor the emission wavelength of QDs. Our research helps to better understand how the strain compensation technology can be applied to the growth of stacked QDs, which are useful in solar cells and laser devices.

Song, Xin; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yu-Min; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Liu, Jian-Tao

2013-01-01

96

Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…

Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

2004-01-01

97

Pulsed 25-108°C operation of GaInNAs multiple quantum well vertical cavity lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaAs-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes are becoming increasingly important in transmitters. By using GaInNAs MQW active regions, the emission wavelength of GaAs-based lasers can be extended into the range of 1200-1300 nm. In addition, the reduced temperature sensitivity of this active region allows for the possibility of uncooled transmitter operation

C. W. Coldren; M. C. Larson; S. G. Spruytte; H. E. Garrett; J. S. Harris

2000-01-01

98

Reliability assessment and degradation analysis of 1.3 ?m GaInNAs lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of 1.3 ?m GaInNAs lasers was investigated using accelerated aging tests. This was followed by comprehensive characterization, including standard light-current-voltage (L-I-V) characterization, capacitance measurements, photoluminescence microscopy (PLM), on-axis amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra measurements, and photocurrent (PC) and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopies. The slope efficiency of the device dropped by 50% with a 300% increase in the threshold current after the accelerated aging test. The ideality factors of the aged devices are higher than those of the unaged devices. PLM images showed no evidence of catastrophic optical mirror damage. The measured capacitances of the aged devices are all similar to those of the unaged devices, indicating that there was no significant dopant diffusion in the junction region. Fourier transforms of the ASE spectra showed that no intracavity defects were present in the aged lasers, suggesting that intracavity defects are not responsible for the rapid degradation of the aged devices. Although the PC measurements showed defects at 0.88-0.95 eV and at ~0.76 eV, these defect signatures did not increase with aging. On the other hand, EL measurements revealed that radiative deep level defects were generated during the aging tests, which may be related to the degradation of the devices. Based on the above measurement results, we identify the generation of radiative deep level defects as the main causes of degradation of these devices.

Lu, W.; Bull, S.; Lim, J. J.; MacKenzie, R.; Sujecki, S.; Andrianov, A. V.; Sadeghi, M.; Wang, S. M.; Larsson, A.; Melanen, P.; Sipilä, P.; Uusimaa, P.; Foxon, C. T.; Larkins, E. C.

2009-11-01

99

Abundâncias de oxigênio e enxofre nas estrelas de tipo solar da vizinhança solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns resultados sugerem que o Sol seja 58% mais abundante em oxigênio que o meio interestelar local. Esta anomalia parece estender-se para o carbono e o criptônio. Entre as possíveis explicações deste fenômeno estão: uma supernova de tipo II que tenha enriquecido a nebulosa protosolar, tornando-a superabundante em oxigênio; um episódio de infall de material pobre em metais sobre o disco Galático, diluindo o meio interestelar local ou uma migração dinâmica do Sol de uma órbita mais interna da Galáxia para sua posição atual. A escolha entre estes cenários exige o conhecimento preciso da abundância solar em relação às anãs G da vizinhança. Neste contexto, o oxigênio e enxofre, são elementos-chave por serem ambos produzidos pelas supernovas de tipo II, devendo portanto possuir o mesmo padrão de abundância. Este projeto visa esclarecer qual a posição do Sol na distribuição local de abundâncias de enxofre e oxigênio para uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar com idades e metalicidades bem conhecidas. Para tal, analisamos espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído nas regiões espectrais de ll 6300, 7774 (O) e l8695 (S). Para o enxofre encontramos que o Sol parece ser uma estrela típica dentre as da vizinhança, e que este elemento não mostra a sobreabundância para baixas metalicidades, já bem estabelecida para o oxigênio. Discutimos as abundâncias do enxofre no contexto da Evolução Química da Galáxia. Apresentamos resultados preliminares muito precisos para a linha proibida do oxigênio l6300 e comparamos estes com os obtidos para o tripleto em l7774. Quantificamos os efeitos não-ETL presentes no tripleto em função dos parâmetros atmosféricos estelares.

Requeijo, F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.

2003-08-01

100

Investigation on the high speed modulation in (GaIn)(NAs)/GaAs lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of 1.3um GaInNAs SQW laser diodes for high speed operation is experimentally investigated in this paper, computing the differential gain, dg/dn, at a temperature range suitable for most network applications (293K-348K) and the small signal modulation bandwidth. The investigation begins with a basic characterization calculating the T0, with a value of 56K in a range of temperatures of 293K-318K. The lasing wavelength at 293K is found to be 1250nm with a linear temperature dependence of 0.377nm/K. Secondly, the paper presents a detailed study of the modulation bandwidth of the device, obtaining a value of 6.06Ghz for the maximum modulation bandwidth at 293K. In a range of temperatures of 293K-318K, the modulation bandwidth is found to decrease only slightly with the temperature with a slope of 0.0088Ghz/K. Finally, the paper explains the temperature behaviour obtained for the modulation bandwidth studying the temperature dependence of the differential gain, dg/dn. For this evaluation, the value of the differential gain with the current (how the peak gain changes with the sub-threshold bias current applied to the sample), dg/dI, is obtained using the Hakki-Paoli method. Using impedance measurements, a relation between the carrier density, n, and the bias current applied to the laser, I, has been obtained. With this relation, we obtained the differential current with the carrier density, dI/dn. Then, we calculated the differential gain dg/dn = dg/dI * dI/dn. To conclude we saw how the differential gain, dg/dn, has been found to have similar temperature behaviour as the small signal modulation bandwidth.

Pozo, J.; Qiu, Y.; Ivanov, P.; Yu, P.; Rorison, J. M.; Saarinen, M. J.; Konttinen, J.; Jouhti, T.; Pessa, M.

2005-07-01

101

Laser Gain and Threshold Properties in Compressive-Strained and Lattice-Matched GaInNAs/GaAs Quantum Wells  

SciTech Connect

The optical gain spectra for compressive-strained and lattice-matched GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of lasing threshold current density for different GAInNAs/GaAs laser structures.

Chow, W.W.; Jones, E.D.; Modine, N.A.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

1999-08-04

102

Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-AI-SI (NAS) Waste Form for Hanford LAW and Secondary Waste  

SciTech Connect

FBSR sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form has been identified as a promising supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW and/or Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW). Objectives of the project: 1) Prove the robustness of FBSR as a waste form for either LAW and/or WTP-SW; 2) Reduce the risk associated with implementing the FBSR NAS waste form as a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW and/or WTP-SW; 3) Conduct two treatability studies with SRS radioactive wastes that have been shimmed to look like Hanford WTP-SW and LAW; 4) Conduct three treatability studies with actual Hanford tank wastes; 5) Fill key data gaps; 6) Link previous and new results together.

Jantzen, C.; Pierce, E.

2010-11-01

103

Improvement of crystal quality of GaInNAs films grown by atomic hydrogen-assisted RF-MBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of post-growth annealing and atomic H irradiation in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of Ga(In)NAs on vacancy-type defects was studied by positron annihilation technique. We observed a reduction of vacancy-type defects after post-growth anneal at 600 °C for 5 min in a flowing N2 ambient. However, irradiation of atomic H during growth showed no apparent effect on vacancy-type defects. The role of atomic H irradiation in MBE is known to enhance two-dimensional growth mode, which results in overall improvement of material quality. However, we found that supply of excessive amounts of atomic H would result in degradation of GaInNAs films. Under optimized conditions of ˜1% cracking ratio and 0.6 sccm H2 flow rate, a surface roughness of 0.27 nm or ˜1 monolayer (ML) was successfully obtained.

Shimizu, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Uedono, Akira; Okada, Yoshitaka

2005-05-01

104

Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures.  

PubMed

The low temperature photoluminescence under bias (PLb) and the photoconductivity (PC) of a p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well sample have been investigated. Under optical excitation with photons of energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, PC and PLb results show a number of step-like increases when the sample is reverse biased. The nature of these steps, which depends upon the temperature, exciting wavelength and intensity and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the device, is explained in terms of thermionic emission and negative charge accumulation due to the low confinement of holes in GaInNAs QWs. At high temperature, thermal escape from the wells becomes much more dominant and the steps smear out. PMID:23021540

Khalil, Hagir M; Royall, Ben; Mazzucato, Simone; Balkan, Naci

2012-09-28

105

Photoconductivity and photoluminescence under bias in GaInNAs/GaAs MQW p-i-n structures  

PubMed Central

The low temperature photoluminescence under bias (PLb) and the photoconductivity (PC) of a p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well sample have been investigated. Under optical excitation with photons of energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, PC and PLb results show a number of step-like increases when the sample is reverse biased. The nature of these steps, which depends upon the temperature, exciting wavelength and intensity and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the device, is explained in terms of thermionic emission and negative charge accumulation due to the low confinement of holes in GaInNAs QWs. At high temperature, thermal escape from the wells becomes much more dominant and the steps smear out.

2012-01-01

106

Pressure and PL study of dilute-N GaInNAs films for applications in photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-junction photovoltaic devices employing dilute-N GaInNAs alloys are currently of high interest for efficient solar energy conversion. The negative band-bowing produced by introducing a few percent N into GaInAs provides a convenient way to match the 1eV component of the solar spectrum, providing recombination losses in localized states can be reduced while maintaining favorable carrier extraction. High pressure photoluminescence (PL) experiments exploring the localization of band-edge excitons in dilute-N GaInNAs films grown by plasma assisted MBE will be discussed. The effects of post-growth annealing and hydrogen incorporation on the PL spectra of the films are considered.

Lindberg, George P.; Fukuda, Miwa; Khalfioui, M. Al; Hossain, Khalid; Sellers, Ian R.; Weinstein, Bernard A.

2013-03-01

107

Mode locking a 1550 nm semiconductor disk laser by using a GaInNAs saturable absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive mode locking of an optically pumped, InP-based, 1550 nm semiconductor disk laser by using a GaInNAs saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. To reduce material heating and enable high-power operation, a 50 µm thick diamond heat spreader is bonded to the surface of the gain chip. The laser operates at a repetition frequency of 2.97 GHz and emits near-transform-limited 3.2

Hans Lindberg; Mahdad Sadeghi; Mathias Westlund; Shumin Wang; Anders Larsson; Martin Strassner; Saulius Marcinkevicius

2005-01-01

108

Experimental analysis of the optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of GaInNAs/GaAs lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gain and agr-factor spectra of a molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown 1.3 µm GaInNAs laser are experimentally determined using the method of Hakki and Paoli and a transmission method. The gain in our structure is due to inhomogeneously broadened band-band transitions but, in general, critically depends on the growth process. The value 2.5 for agr at the laser emission wavelength clamps with increasing injection current.

Gerhardt, N. C.; Hofmann, M. R.

2004-08-01

109

Static and dynamic characteristics of 1.29-?m GaInNAs ridge-waveguide laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid progress has been made in the growth of GaInNAs-GaAs by solid source molecular beam epitaxy, leading to significant improvements of such heterostructures for 1.3-?m wavelength laser emission. We report on growth, device fabrication and characteristics of ridge-waveguide lasers in this material system. Performance data of these devices (emission at ?=1.29 ?m, threshold currents of 16 mA, slope efficiencies of

B. Borchert; A. Y. Egorov; S. Illek; H. Riechert

2000-01-01

110

Improvements in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum-well lasers using focused ion beam post-processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time, there is a considerable demand for long wavelength (1.3?m-1.5?m) laser diodes for low cost data-communication applications capable of operating at high speed and at high ambient temperatures without the need for thermoelectric coolers. First proposed in 1995 by M. Kondow, the GaInNAs/GaAs material system has attracted a great deal of interest as it promises good temperature performance. The broad gain observed in GaInNAs/GaAs QW samples suggests that wavelength tuning should be possible by the application of gratings to select an optical mode. In addition, splitting the contact has been shown to improve modulation speed in other materials. These two methods should be able to be used jointly and processed together. The use of split-contact lasers has the advantage of that no change is made in the processing steps, since there is only need for a new metal mask to define a new top p-contact. Despite the bandwidth enhancement of two-contact lasers compared to the single contact case is well known, to the authors' knowledge, so far it has not being applied to GaInNAs/GaAs lasers. The use of Bragg-gratings on the ridge waveguide of the laser will generate a periodic modulation inducing an interaction between the forward and backward travelling modes. The effect of this interaction is the one of a band pass filter on the gain shape of the laser, allowing filtering out the actual lasing wavelength, and tuning the lasing wavelength in the range of wavelengths with substantial optical gain. Therefore, this method can be used optimally in lasers with broad gain, as is the case of GaInNAs/GaAs. In this paper, we reveal experimental investigations in how to apply these two post-processing methods to 600m-long 1.25?m-Ga0.66In0.34N0.01As0.0.99/GaAs 6nm single quantum-well ridge waveguide lasers.

Pozo, J.; Hu, J.; Rorison, J. M.; Saarinen, M.; Konttinen, J.; Viheriälä, J.; Leinonen, P.; Jouhti, T.; Pessa, M.

2006-04-01

111

Enhanced luminescence in GaInNAsSb quantum wells through variation of the arsenic and antimony fluxes  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence efficiency was enhanced in molecular-beam-epitaxial-grown 1.55-{mu}m GaInNAsSb single quantum wells through modulation of the arsenic and antimony fluxes. The arsenic-to-antimony flux ratio was found to be a key consideration at reduced group-V fluxes in maintaining the beneficial effects of antimony while reducing the number of point defects, most likely arsenic antisites. Samples were also characterized by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and low-temperature photoluminescence. These findings offer a means to substantially reduce dilute-nitride laser threshold current densities.

Bank, Seth R.; Yuen, Homan B.; Bae, Hopil; Wistey, Mark A.; Moto, Akihiro; Harris, James S. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Innovation Core SEI, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95051 (United States); Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2006-06-12

112

Investigation of optical gain and L-I characteristics in (GaIn)(NAs)/GaAs lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaInNAs quantum well lasers have attracted significant interest in recent years. Their potential for operation at high temperatures without coolers and their application for low cost vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the main reasons for this interest. The main consequence of adding Nitrogen (N) to InGaAs materials is the band gap shrinkage. The reason for that is the interaction of N (acting as a localized defect) with the conduction band of the InGaAs. In previous studies, low temperature PL measurements of the impact of Nitrogen on the band structure of GaIn NAs have been examined. Pulsed measurements using a broad area GaInNAs QW laser were carried out and the results were analyzed in terms of the interaction of the N defect state with the GaInAs conduction band edge (band-anticrossing model). A detailed experimental temperature study of single quantum-well GaInNAs lasers at room temperature and above has been carried out. Experimental results of L-I, T0, temperature dependence of lasing wavelength, optical gain and efficiencies are presented, discussed and compared with other materials. The temperature ranges studied is appropriate for most network applications. The gain spectra for moderate densities were experimentally measured using the method of Hakki and Paoli: the 600 ?m long devise is biased below threshold and the gain is evaluated form the Fabry Perot modulation of the spontaneous emission spectra. A new concept will be introduced to study the bandwidth of the spectral gain and see its dependence with the temperature. The half-peak-BW will be the bandwidth where the gain decreases 50% from the peak gain. The temperature performance of the half-peak-BW has been studied obtaining a slope of 0.5871 nm/K. About the temperature dependence of the laser, a value of To (50 K) similar than the one found in InGaAsP has been found. This might disagree with the first results published of this new material system, giving extremely high values above 100 K. This is due to the high A parameter found in the previous materials. The improvement of the material is decreasing the A parameter and the characteristic temperature of the device. A small temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength was found (0.37 nm/K). This value was confirmed measuring the temperature dependence of the gain peak wavelength. This small temperature dependence can be understood by the interaction of the N state with the conduction band edge.

Pozo, Jose; Houle, T.; Rorison, Judy M.; Jouhti, T.; Pessa, Markus

2004-09-01

113

High-voltage, low-current GaInP\\/GaInP\\/GaAs\\/GaInNAs\\/Ge solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-junction GaInP\\/GaAs\\/GaInNAs\\/Ge solar cells are a widely-pursued route toward AM0 efficiencies of 35% and above, and terrestrial efficiencies of up to 40%. Extensive research into the new material system of GaInNAs has so far yielded subcells with AM0 current densities far below the ?17 mA\\/cm2 needed to current match the other subcells in the stack. A new multijunction structure, a

R. R. King; P. C. Colter; D. E. Joslin; K. M. Edmondson; D. D. Krut; N. H. Karam; S. Kurtz

2002-01-01

114

Minimum Capacity of NaS Battery according to Capacity of PV System in a Microgrid under 30 min Power Balancing Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On constructing a microgrid, it is essential to design capacity of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems and storage batteries in accordance with a control target. In this study, we constructed a simulation model of energy control system in the microgrid used in the demonstration project. By using this model, we investigated the minimum capacity of NaS battery for different PV system capacities for keeping the target power imbalance within ±3% over 30 min. The main results are as follows. The microgrid involving 330-kW PV systems (corresponding to the actual system) needs a NaS battery capacity of at least approximately ±20kW, and PV systems with a capacity up to about 890kW can be integrated in the microgrid with a NaS battery capacity of ±500kW (corresponding to the actual system). We estimated the minimum capacity of NaS battery for different PV system capacities and clarified that the output behavior of the NaS battery and PAFC when supply and demand power imbalance over 30 min. exceeds the ±3% limit. We suggested the improved control model and showed that it is effective in decreasing the minimum capacity of NaS battery, although it has negative effects on the reduction of short-period power flow fluctuation at the grid-connection point.

Shimakage, Toyonari; Sone, Akihito; Sumita, Jiro; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

115

Optical investigations of GaInNAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells with low nitrogen content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of GaInNAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells were investigated by photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, as well as by photoluminescence (PL), under various excitation intensities and at various temperatures. The PLE spectra demonstrated pronounced excitonic features and the corresponding transitions were identified. At low temperatures the PL spectra were sensitive to the excitation intensity. Under fixed excitation intensity, both the peak energy and the linewidth of photoluminescence showed anomalous temperature dependence, specifically an S-shaped temperature dependence of the peak energy and a N-shaped temperature dependence of linewidth in the PL spectra. The observed results are explained consistently in terms of the exciton localization effect due to the local fluctuations of nitrogen concentration.

Sun, H. D.; Hetterich, M.; Dawson, M. D.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Bernklau, D.; Riechert, H.

2002-08-01

116

Study of nitrogen incorporation into GaInNAs: The role of growth temperature in molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaInNAs has an important impact on developing GaAs-based optoelectronics and multijunction solar cells, but the complex nature of the nitrogen incorporation into GaInAs is still not fully understood. By combining x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we show that nitrogen incorporation is enhanced with increasing growth temperature in the range of 300-450 °C. We study the growth front and show that the surface reconstruction is (1 × 3) regardless of growth temperature in this range. The enhanced nitrogen incorporation can be modeled as a thermally activated process with activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Aho, A.; Laukkanen, P.; Tukiainen, A.; Laakso, A.; Tuominen, M.; Guina, M.

2012-07-01

117

Transmission electron microscopy study of GaInNAs(Sb) thin films grown by atomic hydrogen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The quaternary GaInNAs is a promising material system for use in next generation multijunction photovoltaic devices. We have investigated the effect of introducing antimony on the growth by using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Two-dimensional growth was observed in GaInNAs films with striation features associated with compositional fluctuation and nanometer scale elemental segregation on the growth front. On the contrary, GaInNAsSb films exhibit uniform contrast throughout. EDX profile indicates uniform compositional distribution, as antimony atoms suppress the surface mobilites of adatoms resulting in a lower probability to generate the favored bonds, such as Ga-N and In-As.

Oshima, R. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Huang, J. Y.; Ponce, F. A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Matsubara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2011-11-07

118

Effects of hydrogenation on non-radiative defects in GaNP and GaNAs alloys: An optically detected magnetic resonance study  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance techniques are utilized to study defect properties of GaNP and GaNAs alloys subjected to post-growth hydrogenation by low-energy sub-threshold ion beam irradiation. It is found that in GaNP H incorporation leads to activation of new defects, which has a Ga interstitial (Ga{sub i}) atom at its core and may also involve a H atom as a partner. The observed activation critically depends on the presence of N in the alloy, as it does not occur in GaP with a low level of N doping. In sharp contrast, in GaNAs hydrogen is found to efficiently passivate Ga{sub i}-related defects present in the as-grown material. A possible mechanism responsible for the observed difference in the H behavior in GaNP and GaNAs is discussed.

Dagnelund, D.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Vorona, I. P.; Nosenko, G. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Wang, X. J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200083 Shanghai (China); Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Yonezu, H. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan); Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M. [INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ''La Sapienza'', Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

2012-01-15

119

Effects of hydrogenation on non-radiative defects in GaNP and GaNAs alloys: An optically detected magnetic resonance study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance techniques are utilized to study defect properties of GaNP and GaNAs alloys subjected to post-growth hydrogenation by low-energy sub-threshold ion beam irradiation. It is found that in GaNP H incorporation leads to activation of new defects, which has a Ga interstitial (Gai) atom at its core and may also involve a H atom as a partner. The observed activation critically depends on the presence of N in the alloy, as it does not occur in GaP with a low level of N doping. In sharp contrast, in GaNAs hydrogen is found to efficiently passivate Gai-related defects present in the as-grown material. A possible mechanism responsible for the observed difference in the H behavior in GaNP and GaNAs is discussed.

Dagnelund, D.; Vorona, I. P.; Nosenko, G.; Wang, X. J.; Tu, C. W.; Yonezu, H.; Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.

2012-01-01

120

Effects of rapid thermal annealing conditions on GaInNAs band gap blueshift and photoluminescence intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effects of various conditions of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on 10 nm GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) with fixed indium concentration and increasing nitrogen content to obtain photoluminescence (PL) in the telecom wavelength regime of 1.3 and 1.5 ?m. Specifically, we analyzed the results of annealing for a fixed short time but at different temperatures and for longer times at a fixed temperature. In all experiments, InGaAs SQWs with the same In concentration were used as references. For both RTA conditions, the well-known blueshift of the band gap energy and the PL intensity improvement show trends that reveal that these are unrelated effects. At high RTA temperatures the PL efficiency reaches a maximum and then drops independently of N content. On the contrary, the blueshift experiences a rapid increase up to 700 °C (strong blueshift regime) and it saturates above this temperature (weak blueshift regime). Both these blueshift regimes are related to the nitrogen content in the SQWs but in different ways. In the strong blueshift regime, we could obtain activation energy for the blueshift process in the range of 1.25 eV, which increases with N content. Analysis with high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) shows that the blueshift experienced in this regime is not due to a stoichiometric change in the QW. In the weak blueshift regime, the blueshift, which is only partly due to In outdiffusion, saturates more slowly the higher the N content. Annealing at the same temperature (600 °C) for a longer time shows that the blueshift saturates earlier than the PL intensity and that samples with higher nitrogen experience a larger blueshift. Only a small In outdiffusion for annealing at high temperatures (>650 °C) and long duration was observed. However, this modest stoichiometric change does not explain the large blueshift experienced by the GaInNAs SQWs. We conclude that the mechanism responsible for the drastic blueshift after annealing is related to the N content in the QW, while the improvement in PL integrated intensity is uniquely related to the annealing conditions.

Liverini, V.; Rutz, A.; Keller, U.; Schön, S.

2006-06-01

121

Reduced Air Emissions for Hard Chrome Plating at the NADEP NAS North Island, San Diego Using an Alternative Emission Control Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Air Systems Command Depot (NADEP) facility located on the Naval Air Station (NAS) North Island, San Diego, CA currently has five (5) hard chrome plating tanks in operation. The facility typically plates 3-5 million amp-hours per year and is iden...

T. Hutchins

2004-01-01

122

The Nas Parallel Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of benchmarks has been developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of five parallel kernels and three simulated application benchmarks. Together theymimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications.The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their penciland paper specification---all details of these benchmarks are

D. Bailey; E. Barszcz; J. Barton; D. Browning; R. Carter; L. Dagum

1994-01-01

123

NAS Considers Energy Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the key issues discussed at a national two-day forum of the National Academy of Sciences held in Washington, D.C. The symposium sought answers to problems brought on by the energy crisis and focused on future alternatives and risks. (JR)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

124

Molecular beam epitaxy of GaNAs alloys with high As content for potential photoanode applications in hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The authors have succeeded in growing GaN1?xAsx alloys over a large composition range (0 < x < 0.8) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The enhanced incorporation of As was achieved by growing the films with high As{sub 2} flux at low (as low as 100 C) growth temperatures, which is much below the normal GaN growth temperature range. Using x-ray and transmission electron microscopy, they found that the GaNAs alloys with high As content x > 0.17 are amorphous. Optical absorption measurements together with x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy results reveal a continuous gradual decrease in band gap from -3.4 to < 1 eV with increasing As content. The energy gap reaches its minimum of -0.8 eV at x - 0.8. The composition dependence of the band gap of the crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys follows the prediction of the band anticrossing model (BAC). However, our measured band gap of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} with 0.3 < x < 0.8 are larger than that predicted by BAC. The results seem to indicate that for this composition range the amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys have short-range ordering that resembles random crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys. They have demonstrated the possibility of the growth of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} layers with variable As content on glass substrates

Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Foxon, C. T.; Yu, K. M.; Broesler, R.; Hawkridge, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Denlinger, J.; Demchenko, I.

2009-10-06

125

Intrinsic temperature sensitivities of 1.3 ?m GaInNAs\\/GaAs, InGaAsP\\/InP and AlGaInAs\\/InP-based semiconductor lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent temperature stability of GaInNAs-based lasers is attributed to significant defect current. By removing this current, GaInNAs devices have a similar temperature dependence to InGaAsP devices whilst AlGaInAs devices are more thermally stable.

S. J. Sweeney; R. Fehse; A. R. Adams; H. Riechert

2003-01-01

126

Upside-down tuning of light- and heavy-hole states in GaNAs/GaAs single quantum wells by thermal expansion and quantum confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization resolved photoluminescence from a cleaved sample edge (edge photoluminescence) was used to investigate the valence-band splitting in GaNAs/GaAs single quantum wells. The spectra resulting from the heavy- and light-hole transitions shows an interesting phenomenon, in which the light-hole state is above the heavy-hole state at low temperatures, they degenerate at about 195 K, and finally the light-hole state is below the heavy-hole state at higher temperatures. We point out that the underlying origin of our observation can be attributed to the competitive effect between the tensile strain induced by lattice mismatch and quantum confinement. It is known that the large density of heavy-hole states is beneficial for laser diodes. Our result is therefore very useful for the application of GaNAs/GaAs quantum wells in optical devices.

Ya, M. H.; Cheng, W. Z.; Chen, Y. F.; Lin, T. Y.

2002-10-01

127

Low-loss 1.3-mum GaInNAs saturable Bragg reflector for high-power picosecond neodymium lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low-loss, single-step-growth 1.3-mum GaInNAs saturable Bragg reflector mode-locking element has been developed. Combined radial thickness and postgrowth annealing control have permitted a tuning range of 46 nm for passive mode locking to be demonstrated from one wafer. With this structure, stabilized mode locking was obtained from quasi-cw diode-pumped Nd:YLF and Nd:YALO lasers operating at 1314 and 1342 nm,

H. D. Sun; G. J. Valentine; R. Macaluso; S. Calvez; D. Burns; M. D. Dawson; T. Jouhti; M. Pessa

2002-01-01

128

Investigation of 1.3-?m GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the temperature and pressure dependence of the threshold current (Ith) of 1.3 ?m emitting GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and the equivalent edge-emitting laser (EEL) devices employing the same active region. Our measurements show that the VCSEL devices have the peak of the gain spectrum on the high-energy side of the cavity mode energy and hence operate

G. Knowles; Robin Fehse; Stanko Tomic; Stephen John Sweeney; T. E. Sale; Alfred R. Adams; E. P. O'Reilly; G. Steinle; H. Riechert

2003-01-01

129

A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

2003-08-01

130

Validación de escalas de medición en salud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validating scales used for measuring factors in medicine This article shows the mayor issues related with validation of scales applied in health research and illustrates the steps of this process. Concepts related with the selection of items, translation, validity, reliability and usefulness are discussed in this article.

Ricardo Sánchez; Jairo Echeverry

2004-01-01

131

The optical gain and radiative current density of GaInNAs/GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement heterostructure quantum well lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical gain and radiative current density of GaInNAs/GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement heterostructure quantum well (QW) lasers with an emission wavelength of 1.3 ?m have been theoretically investigated. The effect of carrier leakage from the GaInNAs QW to the GaAs waveguide layer is studied, and its influence on the optical gain and radiative current density is identified. The hole filling caused by an injected carrier has a strong impact on the optical gain and radiative current density, while the effect of electron filling is negligible, reflecting the smaller band-gap discontinuity in the valence band than in the conduction band. Hole occupation in the waveguide layer decreases the optical gain, and increases the radiative and threshold current densities of the laser. Our calculated threshold current density (659.6 A/cm2) at T=300 K is in good agreement with the experimental value (650.9 A/cm2) reported in literature [R. Fehse et al., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 801 (2002)].

Wu, Shudong; Cao, Yongge; Tomi?, Stanko; Ishikawa, Fumitaro

2010-01-01

132

Thermal dependence of the optical gain and threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal dependence of the optical gain and threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) lasers with the emission wavelength of 1.3 ?m have been theoretically investigated. The optical gain is found to decrease with the increase of the temperature due to the hole leakage in the separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) region. The distribution of unconfined electrons in the SCH region is negligible while the distribution of unconfined holes in the SCH region plays an important role in the leakage process, reflecting the smaller bandgap discontinuity in the valence band than in the conduction band. The threshold current density increases with the increase of temperature, which is dominated by the monomolecular recombination process. Our calculated threshold current densities with temperatures are in agreement with the available experimental results.

Wu, Shudong; Wan, Li

2011-12-01

133

Optimal Blast Condition for the Inner Surface of Mass Produced NAS Battery Cylindrical Aluminum Cell Containers as Pretreatment of Thermal Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between roughness caused by blasting and adhesion of spray coatings on aluminum container substrates was studied through various experiments as part of measures for improving the adhesion of the 75mass%Cr-Fe alloy plasma spray coating for sulfi dation corrosion resistance, which is applied on the inner surface of cylindrical Al containers of high-temperature type NAS batteries. Surface roughness of ?mRa2.8 - 7.3 was acquired by using Al2O3 particle size #100 (212 - 75?m) to #46 (600 - 250?m) grit. In order to achieve uniform roughness and a clean surface, a combination of blasting when the nozzle was being inserted from the top of the container, and air blowing when the nozzle was being removed was done. It was determined that when Al2O3 particles of size #100 grit was used, a good anchoring shape was formed throughout with a roughened surface of ?mRa 2.8. When the internal surface of 3000 Al cylindrical containers were continually blasted using particle size #100 grit, the initial surface roughness of ?mRa3.7 - 3.9 only deteriorated to about ?mRa2.6. A 75mass%Cr-Fe alloy spray coating was applied to the Al cylindrical containers that were roughened using particle size #100 grit. This coating showed cracks by a bending test, but no peeling occurred. This coating was examined by a tensile strength test and showed good adhesion at 64 - 66 MPa. Through experiments, it was proven that spray coatings formed on the Al cylindrical containers after receiving optimal blasting with particle size #100 grit had good adhesion and corrosion resistance after being used for NAS batteries that stored electrical power for about nine years.

Ando, Takashi; Harada, Yoshio

134

Analysis of the room temperature performance of 1.3-1.52 ?m GaInNAs/GaAs LDs grown by MBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasing emission is demonstrated at room temperature in the entire spectral region from 1.29 to 1.52 microns using GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) laser diodes (LD) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. The separate confinement heterostructures (SCH) is made up by AlGaAs cladding layers, a GaInNAs-based QW and GaAs barriers. To achieve lasing emission from 1.29 to 1.52 microns the In in the QW content is maintained at 40%, while the N content is varied from 1.3 to 3.3%. With this structure, the threshold current density (Jth) and external differential quantum efficiency (hd) at 1.29 microns are 685 A/cm2 and 45 %, respectively. Increasing the wavelength to reach 1.5 micron emission degrades these figures to Jth=2890 A/cm2 and hd=23% at 1.49 microns, and to Jth=4060 A/cm2 and hd=16% at 1.52 microns, which still represent a very large improvement with respect to previous reports of LDs based on the quaternary. Even though adding N to the structure decreases the internal quantum efficiency (hi), from 75% to 50%, this figure does not change with increasing wavelengths up to 1.44 microns. The differential modal gain also degrades as a result of adding N to the QW, but like the case of hi, does not change significantly with increasing wavelength. Thus, achieving long wavelength emission up to 1.55 micron emission starts to become viable, even with simple LD structures.

Hierro, A.; Ulloa, J. M.; Montes, M.; Damilano, B.; Barjon, J.; Hugues, M.; Duboz, J.-Y.; Massies, J.

2005-07-01

135

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the non-ATPase subunit Nas6 in complex with the ATPase subunit Rpt3 of the 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The non-ATPase subunit Nas6, which is the human orthologue of gankyrin, was co-expressed with the C-terminal domain of the ATPase subunit Rpt3 of the yeast 26S proteasome in Escherichia coli, purified to near-homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The protein crystallized in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.38, b = 100.22, c = 72.20?Å, ? = 94.70° and with three Nas6–Rpt3C molecules per asymmetric unit. The crystal diffracted to beyond 2.2?Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.

Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Umehara, Takashi; Tanaka, Akiko; Horikoshi, Masami; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2007-01-01

136

Reliability and Validity of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Student Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project tested the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) and the Novaco Anger Scale-Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) in a sample of U.S. Hispanic (n = 257) and U.S. non-Hispanic White (n = 246) undergraduate students. Internal consistency, subscale correlations, convergent validity with the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI),…

Culhane, Scott E.; Morera, Osvaldo F.

2010-01-01

137

Type-II 450-550 nm InGaN-GaNAs for quantum well active region lasers and light emitters on GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and analyze a new nitride-based gain media by utilizing type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum well (QW) on GaN. This novel III-N based type-II QW allows extension of the emission wavelength from blue regime (450-nm) to yellow regime (550-nm) with relatively-low In-content in the QW, while maintaining a large electron-hole wavefunction overlap. High electron-hole wavefunction overlap (? 65%-70%) can be obtained by careful energy band engineering to take advantage of the polarization-induced electric field. Our analysis shows this new type-II QW gain media offers wide emission wavelength coverage, from pure blue (~450-nm) to yellow-green (~530-nm). Design and optimization for pure blue (~450-nm), green (~515-nm) and yellow-green (~530-nm) emission structures are also presented. This method may allow realization of green laser diode on GaN, as well as paving the way to low cost, truly monolithic solid-state white light source.

Arif, Ronald A.; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Tansu, Nelson

2006-03-01

138

Enhancement in photoluminescence from 1 eV GaInNAs epilayers subject to 7 MeV electron irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the influence of 7 MeV electron irradiation (1014-1015 cm-2 range) and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on luminescence efficiency of nearly lattice-matched 1 eV GaInNAs-on-GaAs epilayers, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The study has been done by means of 9 K photoluminescence (PL) and 300 K photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. Electron irradiation was found to directly promote a notable increase in PL intensity. A further PL enhancement, remarkable at the higher annealing temperature, has been seen upon two RTA stages (at 800 and 900 °C) applied to irradiated samples as compared to a non-irradiated sample. This irradiation-promoted PL enhancement upon annealing occurred with a small additional blue-shift of PL for the lower temperature-annealed samples but no additional shift in PL was noted for the higher temperature-annealed sample. The additional annealing-induced PL blue-shift was mainly due to an irradiation-promoted enhancement in In-N bonds formation, whose magnitude does not appear to depend on dose within the studied range.

Pavelescu, E.-M.; Kudrawiec, R.; B?l???eanu, N.; Spânulescu, S.; Dumitrescu, M.; Guina, M.

2013-02-01

139

Nanoanalytical quantification of the nitrogen content in Ga(NAs)/GaAs by using transmission electron microscopy in combination with refined structure factor calculation  

SciTech Connect

We have studied systematically the nitrogen content in Ga(NAs)/GaAs quantum wells by (002) dark-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nitrogen contents derived from this analysis, when assuming that all the atoms occupy their unperturbed positions in a virtual crystal, deviate significantly from the nitrogen contents we derive for the same samples by other methods; for example, high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamical simulation of those XRD patterns. The nitrogen causes a significant local strain in the crystal and can accordingly displace the neighboring atoms dramatically. We show that, if the structure factor of the crystals is recalculated, taking these static displacements of the Ga atoms into account, the composition derived from the TEM analysis with that from XRD is in perfect agreement. It is hence necessary for tetragonally distorted crystals that have mixed sublattices containing atoms with different covalent radii to take these static displacements into account when quantification of the composition from dark-field or high-resolution TEM images is aimed for.

Volz, K.; Rubel, O.; Torunski, T.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Stolz, W. [Material Sciences Center and Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

2006-02-20

140

Detecção de aglomerados espaciais de óbitos por causas violentas em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is of major importance in the health profile of Brazilian metropolitan areas and should be treated as a public health problem. Spatial analysis methods can be highly useful for the surveillance and prevention of violence. This paper analyzes the spatial distribution of victims' place of residence in relation to the main causes of violent death in Porto Alegre (1996)

Simone M. Santos; Christovam Barcellos; Marilia Sá Carvalho; Rui Flôres

2001-01-01

141

Optimization of GaInNAs quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting at 2.33 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, a comprehensive computer simulation is used to determine optimal structure of the InP-based GaInNAs quantum-well (QW) active region and to investigate a possibility of reaching room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) single-fundamental-mode 2.33-?m operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with such an active region. From among various considered InP-based active regions, the one with the Ga0.15In0.85N0.015As0.985/Al0.138Ga0.332In0.530As QW, i.e. with barriers lattice matched to InP, seems to be optimal for the 2.33-?m VCSEL performance. Its QW material is chosen for the required long-wavelength emission whereas its barrier is expected to ensure promising laser performance at room and higher temperatures. The latter is mostly connected with the QW conduction band offset equal in the above active region to as much as 413 meV, which is much larger than those of its possible lattice matched to InP competitors, e.g. 276 meV for the Ga0.47In0.53As barrier and 346 meV for the Ga0.327In0.673As0.71P0.29 one. Our simulation reveals that from among various considered structures, a VCSEL with a 4-?m-diameter tunnel junction and two 6-nm Ga0.15In0.85N0.015As0.985/Al0.138Ga0.332In0.530As QWs exhibits the lowest calculated threshold current of 0.88 mA. Its promising RT CW performance suggests that it may represent a very interesting alternative to GaSb-based VCSELs.

Sarza?a, Robert P.; Piskorski, ?ukasz; Kudrawiec, Robert; Nakwaski, W?odzmierz

2013-08-01

142

Role of Sb in the growth and optical properties of 1.55 {mu}m GaInN(Sb)As/GaNAs quantum-well structures by molecular-beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

High-quality GaInN(Sb)As/GaNAs double quantum wells (QWs) which emit at 1.54 {mu}m wavelength at room temperature with a narrow linewidth of {approx}34 meV (12 meV at 5 K) were fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy were used to study the electronic states and optical properties of these heterostructures. By characterizing samples grown using different fluxes of Sb, the role played by Sb in the growth process and optical properties was elucidated. At low Sb flux, Sb atoms act mainly as a surfactant which improves the microstructure of the QWs and enhances the photoluminescence intensity. With an increase of Sb flux, some of the Sb atoms may incorporate into GaInNAs to form a quinary compound. In the latter case, the incorporation of Sb could also enhance the N composition in the QWs, which may be responsible for the further reduction of the band gap.

Sun, H.D.; Calvez, S.; Dawson, M.D.; Gupta, J.A.; Sproule, G.I.; Wu, X.; Wasilewski, Z.R. [Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2005-10-31

143

Electric Machines with Non-Radially Mounted Rectangular Permanent Magnets / Elektrisk?s Maš?nas Ar Prizmatiskiem Neradi?li Novietotiem Past?v?gajiem Magn?tiem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors analyze the advantages and disadvantages of brushless synchronous electric machines with radially and non-radially mounted rectangular permanent magnets. The results show that the proposed nonradial mounting of permanent magnets considered in the paper, in several cases (e.g. multi-pole brushless generators with tooth windings of the armature) allows achievement of the following advantages: better technology of manufacturing the electric machine owing to simple packing of the stator winding in the stator open slots, which also increases the copper slot fillfactor; reduction in the mass-and-size of permanent magnets at least twice; significantly lower cost of the electric machine; and, finally, its greater specific power. Darb? tiek analiz?tas priekšroc?bas un tr?kumi sinhron?m bezkontaktu maš?n?m ar radi?li un neradi?li novietotiem prizmatiskiem past?v?gajiem magn?tiem. Par?d?ts, ka vair?kos gad?jumos, piem?ram, daudzpolu bezkontaktu sinhronajos ?eneratoros ar zobu tinumiem, neradi?ls past?v?go magn?tu izvietojums nodrošina vair?kas priekšroc?bas: uzlabojas maš?nas izgatavošanas tehnolo?ija, jo statora atv?rtaj?s riev?s viegl?k novietot tinumus un iesp?jams sasniegt augst?ku rievas aizpild?juma koeficientu; samazin?s past?v?go magn?tu masa un izmaksas; palielin?s maš?nas ?patn?ja jauda.

Levin, N.; Pugachev, V.; Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.

2013-04-01

144

Effects of growth temperature on the structural and optical properties of 1.55 {mu}m GaInNAsSb quantum wells grown on GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of growth temperature on the structural and optical properties of GaInNAsSb single quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Peak room-temperature photoluminescence occurred at 1.65 {mu}m as-grown and at 1.55 {mu}m under optimal annealing conditions. Excellent room-temperature optical efficiency was observed from samples grown between 420 and 460 deg. C, with a maximum at 440 deg. C. However, luminescence was degraded approximately two orders of magnitude for a sample grown at 470 deg. C. High-resolution x-ray diffraction showed substantial structural degradation and a reduction in strain for the 470 deg. C sample. Low temperature photoluminescence measurements were also employed to study localization and quenching effects; both became more severe with increasing growth temperature.

Bank, Seth R.; Yuen, Homan B.; Wistey, Mark A.; Lordi, Vincenzo; Bae, Hopil P.; Harris, James S. Jr. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2005-07-11

145

Ecological risk assessment framework -- the NAS perspective  

SciTech Connect

A Workshop on Ecological Risk Assessment was held on February 26--March 1, 1991, at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia. In addition to presentation and discussion of the case study papers, the workshop included breakout sessions to discuss conceptual and technical aspects of ecological risk assessment. A general consensus emerged that an ecological version of the 1983 framework is desirable and feasible. The committee concluded that the 1983 human health framework could be expanded to accomodate both human health and ecological risk assessment. For general applicability to ecological assessments, the 1983 scheme requires augmentation to address some of the interfaces between science and management, primarily because of the need to focus on appropriate questions relevant to applicable environmental law and policy under different circumstances. Specifically, the scheme needs modification to address (1) the influence of legal and regulatory considerations on the initial stages of ecological risk assessment and (2) the importance of characterizing ecological risks in terms that are intelligible to risk managers. The committee`s opinion is that these augmentations are as important for human health risk assessment as they are for ecological risk assessment. This paper briefly describes the framework recommended by the Committee and compares it to EPA`s recently-published Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment.

Barnthouse, L.W.

1993-06-01

146

Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS  

SciTech Connect

Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

Meier, W R

2011-03-17

147

Evolução do desemprego feminino nas áreas metropolitana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of the feminine unemployment in the main Brazilian metropolitan areas between 1982 and 1998. The approach is highly empirical, based on microeconomic data extracted from the monthly employment survey conducted by IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Its focus is on the effects of economic growth and of the association of schooling and

Lena Lavinas; Marcelo Rubens do Amaral; Flávio Barros

1999-01-01

148

A Minnesota Classicist and the NAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author joined the faculty of Macalester College in the fall of 1968. Much to his surprise, he discovered at the first faculty meeting that he could not understand what his new colleagues were talking about. For many years he literally had no one to talk to about subjects that mattered most to him, such as the philosophy of education. Then…

Reedy, Jeremiah

2002-01-01

149

NAS Report Reveals Dangers From SST  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reported are some harmful effects of supersonic travel on humans and other living organisms. Slight decreases in ozone concentration as a result of emissions from the SST aircrafts reduce absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Effects of this may include skin cancer, distort balance of activity in cells and have a deleterious effect on insects and…

Fowler, Jo Ann V.

1973-01-01

150

The NAS perchlorate review: Adverse effects?  

SciTech Connect

To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992), a dose of 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks had no effect on thyroid function. In occupational studies, doses as high as 0.5 mg/kg per day were not associated with adverse effects on thyroid function in workers. In epidemiologic studies, there were no abnormalities in growth or thyroid function in children exposed life-long to 100 to 120 mg of perchlorate per liter of drinking water, or in pregnant women and newborn infants similarly exposed. Given the choice of a non-adverse effect (inhibition of iodide uptake by the thyroid) as the point of departure and the multiple studies in which doses of perchlorate much larger than 0.007 mg/kg per day had no effect on any aspect of thyroid function, the committee did not apply a database uncertainty factor. Finally, Ginsberg and Rice argue that inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is adverse. That conclusion assumes that any acute inhibition would be sustained, so that thyroid hormone production would fall. That is not the case. There is remarkable compensation for even substantial reductions in thyroid iodide uptake – and thyroid hormone production. As noted above, subjects given 0.04 mg/kg per day for 6 months and 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks?doses that certainly would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake for a few weeks?had no fall in serum thyroid hormone or rise in serum thyrotropin concentrations (the hallmark of even minor systemic thyroid deficiency). Short-term inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is not an adverse effect; it has no adverse consequences, because there is rapid compensation mediated by several independent processes. One is upregulation of the thyroid sodium-iodide transport system, as a result of intrathyroidal iodide deficiency. The second, should there be even a very small fall in thyroid hormone production, is an increase in thyrotropin secretion, resulting in overall stimulation of the thyroid gland.

Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Rick A.; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

2005-11-01

151

Multiband GaNAsP Quaternary Alloys  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-y}P{sub y} alloys (x {approx} 0.3-1% and y = 0-0.4) using nitrogen N ion implantation into GaAsP epilayers followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid thermal annealing techniques. As predicted by the band anticrossing model, the incorporation of N splits the conduction band (E{sub M}) of the GaAs{sub 1-y}P{sub y} substrate, and strong optical transitions from the valence band to the lower (E{sub -}) and upper (E{sub +}) conduction subbands are observed. The relative strengths of the E{sub -} and E{sub +} transition change as the localized N level E{sub N} emerges from the conduction band forming narrow intermediate band for y > 0.3. The results show that GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x-y}P{sub y} alloys with y > 0.3 is a three band semiconductor alloy with potential applications for high-efficiency intermediate band solar cells.

Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Bour, D.; Farshchi,R.; Dubon, O.D.; Li, S.X.; Sharp, I.D.; Haller, E.E.

2005-12-08

152

Analise modal dos efeitos espaciais sobre os transientes de potencia num reator nuclear. (Modal analysis of spatial effects on transients in nuclear power reactor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solution of the linearized space dependant reactor kinetics equations with fuel and moderator temperature coefficient feed backs are obtained by modal analysis. The heat transfer from fuel to moderator is explicitly considered through the heat balance...

O. Agueda

1976-01-01

153

Strategic Plans for the Future of Solar Physics: a community discussion of the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Program Roadmap and the NAS Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Solar Astronomy section)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Sun-Earth Connections Program is currently revising its Roadmap, the long-range plan for science goals, technology development, and missions between 2000 and 2040. From the interior dynamics of the Sun, to the interactions of plasma, fields, and radiation in the photosphere and solar atmosphere, to the heating and structure of the corona, to the acceleration, structure, and evolution of the solar wind, to the interactions of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium, to the processes of solar, stellar, and solar system evolution - progress in each of these domains will help us understand how the Sun impacts our home in space. The Roadmap Committee is seeking to refine and extend the SEC's vision and identify the milestone missions for the future. During this session, an outline of the current draft Roadmap will be presented, and further community involvement will be solicited to ensure the strongest possible concensus on the revised Roadmap. The National Academy of Sciences' Space Science Board has appointed a committee to perform a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics, which is surveying the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important new initiatives of the decade 2000-2010. The prioritization delivered by the earlier Decadal Surveys has played an important role in guiding the funding agencies in setting their priorities for astronomy and astrophysics. Therefore it will be of crucial importance for solar physics to contribute a strong case for its own set of future projects to be incorpoprated into the survey. The solar physics of the next decade will be characterized by its increasing societal relevance in the context of the National Space Weather Program and related issues, as well as its classical importance as a ``base" for many astrophysical questions. The presentation and subsequent discussion at the Chicago meeting is intended to solicit further community input, to achieve optimal representation for solar physics in the Decadal Survey. The Roadmap Committee and the Decadal Survey's solar panel encourage the whole solar physics community to contact them prior to the meeting. The list of the committee/panel members and their e-mail addresses, as well as related information, can be accessed via their websites at http://www.lmsal.com/sec/ and http://www.nas.edu/bpa/projects/astrosurvey/solar/ , respectively.

Schrijver, K.; Knoelker, M.

1999-05-01

154

Evaluación de Insatisfacción Corporal en adolescentes: Efecto de la forma de administración de una escala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Assessment of Body Dissatisfaction in adolescents: effect of the way of administration a scale. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discover if the way of administration a subscale of evaluation Body Dissatisfac- tion (BD), coming from a wider questionnaire, affects to the tendency of answer. In the investigation participated 147 students of sec- ondary school, age between

José Ignacio Baile; Rosa María Raich; Emilio Garrido; Ayuntamiento de Pamplona

2003-01-01

155

ESCALA DE ANSIEDAD ANTE EL ENVEJECIMIENTO DE LASHER Y FAULKENDER: PROPIEDADES PSICOMÉTRICAS EN ADULTOS MAYORES MEXICANOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Lifshitz has documented that conceptualization of old age is influ- enced by stereotypes. Milligan, Powell, Harley and Furchtgott, made evident that elderly people with poor health have a tendency to see themselves as the stereotype of an \\

Armando Rivera-Ledesma; María Montero-López Lena; Ana Luisa; González-Celis Rangel; Juan José Sánchez-Sosa

2007-01-01

156

Escala de autoeficacia general: datos psicométricos de la adaptación para población española  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ge n e ral self-effi c a cy scale: psych o m e t ric data from the Spanish adap t ation. The main objective of the present paper is to re p o rt psych o m e t ric pro p e rties (re l i ab i l i t y , validity and nor m

Pilar Sanjuán Suárez; Pérez García; José Bermúdez Moreno

2000-01-01

157

Validación de escala de la seguridad alimentaria doméstica en Antioquia, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To adapt and validate in households of Antio- quia, Colombia, a food security scale previously applied in households of Caracas, Venezuela. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in 44 municipalities in the depar- tment of Antioquia, Colombia, in 2003 and 2004, with a ran- domly selected sample of 1 624 rural and urban households with children under

Marta Cecilia Álvarez; Alejandro Estrada; Elizabeth Cristina Montoya; Hugo Melgar-Quiñónez

2006-01-01

158

ROTURA DE PROBETAS DE FÁBRICA DE LADRILLO A ESCALA BAJO TENSIONES NORMALES Y TANGENCIALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research on the failure of the brickwork masonry under tensile\\/shear loading calls for a detailed experimental testing and numerical modelling development. On the experimental field the effort was devoted to the failure of the masonry under compression and compression\\/shear loading. There are not numerical and analytical models for the brickwork failure easy to apply by the practitioners. This work

E. Reyes; M. J. Casati; J. C. Gálvez

2003-01-01

159

Fabricas de Cemento de Pequena Escala (Small-Scale Cement Plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet examines the criteria which would justify the establishment of mini cement plants in developing countries and specifically compares the situation in India with that in China, where more than 57% of cement is produced by small plants. The quali...

J. Sigurdson

1977-01-01

160

Desarrollo de Modelos a Escala Para Estudios Aeroelasticos (Scale Model Development for Aeroelasticity Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scale models were developed for aeroelastic research, including external stores and flutter active supression areas. The specific design of a C-101 wing model is detailed. The design is based on the application of similitude laws. The list of mass distrib...

R. Gonzalougarte

1987-01-01

161

A ciência nas utopias de Campanella, Bacon, Comenius, e Glanvill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the role that science and technolo- gy plays in the societies described by early modern utopias, making a com- parative analysis of Tommasio Campanella's City of Sun, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Jan Amós Comenius' Panorthosia, and Joseph Glanvill's The summe of my lord Bacon's New Atlantis. Palavras-chave utopias, imaginário social, progresso, ciência moder- na

Bernardo Jefferson de Oliveira

2002-01-01

162

Inovação nas pequenas, médias e grandes empresas: vantagens e desvantagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has as its objective to show the role of the innovation in small, medium and large companies, highlighting which differential factors they carry out in relation to the size of the organization. In relation to the advantages, the PMEs can obtain a great success concerning to the small amount of human resources involved, a greater flexibility, the concentration

Armando Paulo da Silva

163

MARIA MADALENA NOS TEXTOS APÓCRIFOS E NAS SEITAS GNÓSTICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mary Magdalene served and followed Jesus of Nazareth. She is the woman mentioned in the Canonic Gospels. Her participation in the Gospels afforded her the opportunity to become a hybrid character, a combination of two other women. These facts and the apocryphal texts where she is shown as the one who has the knowledge (gnosis), Jesus' companion and other attributes

Wilma Steagall De Tommaso

164

Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware  

SciTech Connect

High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

2010-11-08

165

PM - EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION, FACTORS AND CONTROLS (NAS 12)  

EPA Science Inventory

The program will focus on diesel trucks, prescribed and open burning, construction sites and residential wood combustion. Differences in emission rates due to changes in operating conditions and fuel type will be included in the revised factors. Ammonia research will produce i...

166

Competências Profissionais do Administrador: Mito e Realidade nas Organizações  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abilities management represents an important strategy, it have been incorporated in a different kind of organization, and in a competitive environment marked by an increasing complexity. This paper approaches a set of important abilities for administrator's professional formation, trying to verify if the development of this abilities have been effectively stimulated in the organizations. Administrators from all kind of

Karla Franciene; Martins Tavares; Manuela Sampaio Lana; Jayme Fonseca; Moraes Filho

167

Imagem nas doenças ocupacionais pulmonares* Imaging in occupational lung diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter consists of a review of the literature regarding radiographic and tomographic characteristics of the principal occupational respiratory diseases (silicosis and asbestosis). Special attention is given to the practical relevance of high-resolution computed tomography, which is the most sensitive and specific method of identifying and quantifying the extent of pleural and parenchymal lesions related to such diseases.

GUSTAVO DE SOUZA; PORTES MEIRELLES; JORGE ISSAMU KAVAKAMA; REYNALDO TAVARES RODRIGUES

168

Band Anticrossing in GaInNAs Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence for a strong interaction between the conduction band and a narrow resonant band formed by nitrogen states in Ga 1-xIn xN yAs 1-y alloys. The interaction leads to a splitting of the conduction band into two subbands and a reduction of the fundamental band gap. An anticrossing of the extended states of the conduction band of the

W. Shan; W. Walukiewicz; J. W. Ager III; E. E. Haller; J. F. Geisz; D. J. Friedman; J. M. Olson; S. R. Kurtz

1999-01-01

169

Nas-Walras equilibria of a large economy.  

PubMed

Individuals exchange contracts for the delivery of commodities in competitive markets and, simultaneously, act strategically; actions affect utilities across individuals directly or through the payoffs of contracts. This encompasses economies with asymmetric information. Nash-Walras equilibria exist for large economies, even if utility functions are not quasi-concave and choice sets are not convex, which is the case in standard settings; the separation of the purchase from the sale of contracts and the pooling of the deliveries on contracts guarantee that the markets for commodities clear. PMID:10805818

Minelli, E; Polemarchakis, H M

2000-05-01

170

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: NOVOCS EVALUATION AT NAS NORTH ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a SITE Technology Capsule. The MACTEC, Inc. (MACTEC), NoVOCs(TM) in-well volatile organic compounds (VOC) stripping technology is an in-situ groundwater remediation technology designed for the cleanup of groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The NoVOCs(TM) technology was ev...

171

NAS Associate Works on Environmental Implications of Nanoparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Dr. Manomita Patra joined the EPA's, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division at the Las Vegas, NV location in June 2007. Her research project parallels her previous interests in the genotoxicity of mercury in plants. She is working with Dr. Kim Rogers and Tammy Jones-Lep...

172

Treino prévio reduz o tempo de execução de tarefas visuo-espaciais em ambiente virtual Previous training reduces the execution time of visuo-spacial tasks in virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective. To evaluate the influence of previous adaptation to different computational environments in visuo-spacial tasks performance of healthy individuals. Method. Healthy volun- teers (n = 30), 15 male, mean age 25.3 ± 3.3 years, were di- vided in three groups: the first group, considered control, was not adapted to the proposed environments; the second group was adapted to a

Adriano Conrado Rodrigues; Carla da Silva Santana; Roberta de Medeiros; Sandra Regina Alouche

173

Propuesta de una escala para medir el grado de orientación al mercado de las cooperativas agroalimentarias españolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El interés de este papel reside en el estudio de la orientación al mercado en un sector en el que la búsqueda del beneficio económico no es un factor prioritario: el sector cooperativista español. Como señala la legislación española, su objetivo es fundamentalmente la satisfacción de las necesidades de los socios cooperativistas, justificando de esta forma su pertenencia al sector

Jesús Cambra Fierro; Ana Fuster Mur

2004-01-01

174

Validação de escala de determinação funcional da qualidade de vida na esclerose múltipla para a língua portuguesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to translate, to do cultural equivalence and validation of the Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis quality of life instrument (FAMS) to Portuguese. The database analyzed is longitudinal, with 143 patients with clinically defined multiple sclerosis (MS). The validity of the scale was established by correlating total FAMS scores and sub-scales scores to EDSS

Maria Fernanda Mendes; Silvia Balsimelli; Gabriela Stangehaus; Charles Peter Tilbery

2004-01-01

175

Valoración del prejuicio racial en la infancia: adaptación preliminar de la escala de prejuicio racial sutil y manifiesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study develops the Spanish adaptation for children of Pettigrew and Meertens (1995) Racial Prejudi- ce Scale. Our aim is: 1) to offer an instrument that can discriminate between this type of views during childho- od; 2) to search for data in this population confirming that children differentiate between two forms of racial prejudice that currently seem to have great

ANTONIO FERNÁNDEZ-CASTILLO; JOSÉ-DIONISIO FERNÁNDEZ

176

Características psicométricas de la Escala de Ansiedad ante la Muerte (DAS) en pacientes de VIH\\/SIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychometric properties of the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) among HIV\\/AIDS patients. AIDS patients and HIV carriers who are aware of their condition are under multiple kinds of stress with adverse ef- fects on their emotional state and personal and social activity. This paper reports the psychometric properties of the DAS (Death Anxiety Scale) using the Spanish version in the clinical

Antonio López Castedo; Isabel Calle Santos

2008-01-01

177

Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

2004-04-01

178

Avaliação nutricional do milho com maior teor de óleo, nas formas de grãos secos e silagens, para suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to determine nutritive value and verify performance of growing and finishing swine feed high moisture corn silage (HMCS) and reconstituted silage (RS) of higher oil corn. The digestibility assay was carried twelve cross breed barrow, were allotted in metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design. The values of digestible dry matter (DDM), digestible protein (DP),

Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva; Antonio Claudio Furlan; Ivan Moreira; Diovani Paiano; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Livia Carla Grigoletto Barcellos

2006-01-01

179

Support of Activities of the NAS in Relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

SciTech Connect

The National Academies (NA) provides support for the activities related to the long-term follow up of the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki being conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) laboratories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The NA serves as scientific and administrative liaison between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and RERF, and performs tasks in the areas of scientific oversight, information/public interface, fiscal oversight, and personnel management. The project includes recruitment and support of approximately 10 NA employees who work at RERF in Japan. Specific activities are performed consistent with the cooperative agreement’s Statement of Work between DOE and NA and consistent with an Annual Work Plan developed by DOE and NA.

Douple, Evan B.

2006-05-31

180

Materials reliability. Technical activities, 1990. (NAS-NRC Assessment Panel, January 31-February 1, 1991)  

SciTech Connect

Selected Highlights of the Materials Reliability Division are as follows: Composites NDE: A high resolution ultrasonic system has been developed for inspecting thick polymer-matrix composites; NDE Instruments: Field trials were conducted on two prototype ultrasonic NDE instruments. A formability sensor system was delivered to the Ford Motor Company for evaluation at their Dearborn stamping plant. An ultrasonic system for roll-by inspection of railroad wheels is being evaluated at the American Association of Railroads test track in Pueblo, Colorado; Elastic Waves in Composites: A powerful technique using a time-dependent Green's function method has been developed for studying propagation of elastic waves and their scattering from discontinuities in anisotropic solids; Electronic Packaging: Computer programs have been developed to convert coordinate points on solder joint surfaces obtained by x-ray laminography and optical inspection into finite element meshes for stress analysis; Thermomechanical Processing: The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) characteristics and the high-temperature, high strain-rate flow properties were measured for microalloyed SAE 1141 forging steel; Charpy Standards: Over 1000 industrial customers were supplied with Charpy V-notch reference specimens and calibration services for certification of Charpy impact test machines to ASTM Standard E23; Cryogenic Testing: A 5 MN (1 million pound-force) servohydraulic testing machine was refurbished and equipped with a cryostat and dewar capable of testing specimens 2 m long and 50 cm in diameter in liquid helium; Aluminum-Lithium Alloys: A cooperative program with NASA indicated that aluminum-lithium alloys have sufficient oxygen compatibility for use in cryogenic tankage for the Advanced Launch System; Automated Welding: An intelligent welding program was initiated for the U.S. Navy in conjunction with Babcock and Wilcox and INEL.

McHenry, H.I.

1990-12-01

181

Multiple GaInNAs Quantum Wells for High Power Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In connection with an optical-electronic semiconductor device, improved photoluminescent output is provided at wavelengths approaching and beyond 1.3 .mu.m. According to one aspect, a multiple quantum well strain compensated structure is formed using a Ga...

J. S. Harris V. Gambin W. Ha

2004-01-01

182

Materials Reliability. Technical Activities, 1990. (NAS-NRC Assessment Panel, January 31-February 1, 1991).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected Highlights of the Materials Reliability Division are as follows: Composites NDE: A high resolution ultrasonic system has been developed for inspecting thick polymer-matrix composites; NDE Instruments: Field trials were conducted on two prototype ...

H. I. McHenry

1990-01-01

183

The good, the bad, the ugly: the NAS report on strengthening forensic science in America.  

PubMed

In the long run, the NRC report can only have a salutary effect on forensic science. Although the report is not exhaustive in its review of the relevant literature and the law, and although broad constituencies may never embrace its most radical proposals, the report exposes the soft underbelly of a range of technologies, the organizational problems with the institutions that generate forensic science evidence, and the timidity of the courts in pushing for better science. Even if the full promise of the report is not realized, its publication ultimately should strengthen the good in a system of law and science that has its fair share of the good, the bad, and the ugly. PMID:20408376

Kaye, David H

2010-03-01

184

Coloração verde nas folhas da cultura do alho vernalizado em resposta à adubação nitrogenada  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREEN HUE IN VERNALIZED GARLIC LEAVES IN RESPONSE TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION A field experiment was carried out in order to determine the feasibility of monitoring nitrogen fertilization of vernalized garlic production by means of the correlation between the indirect measurement of the intensity of the green hue of the leaves (SPAD chlorophyll meter) and the plant nutritional condition and bulb

Clarice Backes; Claudinei Paulo de Lima; Leandro José Grava de Godoy; Roberto Lyra Villas Bôas; Isao Imaizumi

2008-01-01

185

O idoso nas instituições gerontológicas: um estudo na perspectiva das representações sociais  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e comparar as representações sociais de velhice entre idosos de Grupos de Convivências (GC's) e de Instituições de Long a Permanência (ILPI's). Participaram 50 idosos (25 dos GC's e 25 das ILPI's), de ambos os sexos (60% feminina e 40% masculina), com média de idade de 82 anos. Utilizou-se Entrevistas Semi-Estruturadas, realizadas de

Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo; Maria da Penha de Lima Coutinho; Maria de Fátima de Souza Santos

2006-01-01

186

Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Program Goal: Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment.Criteria for selection of projects for Integrated Systems Research: a) Technolog...

J. Wolfe

2010-01-01

187

Terrorismo extremo e os tensionamentos nas democracias Extreme terrorism and tensions in democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interprets how democratic institutions are tensioned in a unique way by extreme terrorism. What are the peculiarities of this new extreme terrorism and how are they related to the construction of big cities? How can we relate the conflicts that emerge in the midst of big cities after terrorist attacks and the problems faced by Western democracies? The

Hugo Arend

2005-01-01

188

A full CI treatment of Ne atom - A benchmark calculation performed on the NAS CRAY 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full CI calculations are performed for Ne atom using Gaussian basis sets of up to triple-zeta plus double polarization quality. The total valence correlation energy through double, triple, quadruple and octuple excitations is compared for eight different basis sets. These results are expected to be an important benchmark for calibrating methods for estimating the importance of higher excitations.

C. W. Bauschlicher Jr.; S. R. Langhoff; H. Partridge; P. R. Taylor

1986-01-01

189

Large-scale structural analysis: The structural analyst, the CSM Testbed and the NAS System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) activity is developing advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers. Methods are developed in the framework of the CSM testbed software system and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the CSM testbed methods development environment is presented and some numerical methods developed on a

N. F. Jr. Knight; S. L. Mccleary; S. C. Macy; M. A. Aminpour

1989-01-01

190

Determination of biaxial creep strength of T-111 tantalum alloy. Final report. NAS-CR--72846  

Microsoft Academic Search

One seamless and one welded and reworked biaxial creep test capsules of T-111 alloy tubing were tested at 2200°F for 5000 hours each in a high-vacuum environment. The sealed capsules were half filled with liquid potassium. The stress in the thin wall gauge sections was generated by the potassium vapor pressure generated within the refluxing capsule. Diametral measurements were made

G. P. Brandenburg; L. B. Jr. Engel

1971-01-01

191

A EDUCAÇÃO DA INFÂNCIA NAS DÉCADAS DE 1930 E 1940: REPRESENTAÇÕES NA REVISTA EDUCAÇÃO PHYSICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study analyses the representation of childhood and its schooling in the Educação Physica magazine, a periodic that circulated from 1930 to1940, in Brazil and abroad. The work has as main focus the theme of health and hygiene, and tries to understand how Physical Education acquired shape and importance within the school environment, becoming understood as a fundamental element in

Rosianny Campos Berto; Omar Schneider

192

Implementation of BT, SP, LU, and FT of NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of Java features make it an attractive but a debatable choice for High Performance Computing. We have implemented benchmarks working on single structured grid BT,SP,LU and FT in Java. The performance and scalability of the Java code shows that a ...

M. Schultz M. Frumkin H. Q. Jin J. Yan

2000-01-01

193

Homens adolescentes e vida sexual: heterogeneidades nas motivações que cercam a iniciação sexual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes male adolescents' affective history and reasons for initiating or postpon- ing sexual activity, using interviews with 184 males ages 15 to 19 and residing in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2002. Factors for sexual debut included physical attraction, curiosity, and the desire to lose their virginity, suggesting a profile similar to the male social role.

Ana Luiza Vilela Borges; Néia Schor

2007-01-01

194

Comparison of Origin 2000 and Origin 3000 Using NAS Parallel Benchmarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes results of benchmark tests on the Origin 3000 system currently being installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing facility. This machine will ultimately contain 1024 R14K processors. The first part of the system, insta...

R. D. Turney

2001-01-01

195

ATIVIDADE INOVATIVA NAS EMPRESAS PAULISTAS: UM ESTUDO A PARTIR DA PAEP-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper intends to study the relationship between inputs and outcomes from the technologic innovation. The industrial firms which had innovated in product were the object of this study, by using the Sao Paulo Economic Activity Research from 1999 to 2001 (PAEP-2001). Besides the distinction from the innovative enterprises, which innovated only to the firm and the others that innovated

Beatriz Selan; Sérgio Kannebley Júnior

2006-01-01

196

48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test... 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment...accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

2011-10-01

197

48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...component parts of the contract work. (2) Costs as shown on...the cost of each branch of the work. (5) The cost schedule...purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test... 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5 TV...

2012-10-01

198

48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...component parts of the contract work. (2) Costs as shown on...the cost of each branch of the work. (5) The cost schedule...purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test... 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5 TV...

2011-10-01

199

48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...payments to the contractor for work completed. (1) Costs...purposes, the value of the work to adjust, correct and test... 5 Intercom system 5 Radio system 5 TV (entertainment...accounting of the number of work-hours required to...

2012-10-01

200

NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.  

SciTech Connect

The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

2006-03-01

201

Selective sodium removal from aqueous waste streams with NaS icon ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the synthesis and application of the sodium ion conducting polycrystalline Nasicon ceramics allow for selective removal of sodium from aqueous wastes at ambient temperatures by electrochemical salt splitting. In the presence of an applied electric field, sodium ions are transported through the Nasicon structure. The size and electroneutrality constraints allow for selective transport of sodium ions, and

S Balagopal; T Landro; S Zecevic; D Sutija; S Elangovan; A Khandkar

1999-01-01

202

Picosecond carrier lifetimes in dilute GaInNAs grown on InP substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in Ga1-yIny N0.03As0.97 layers grown on InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. This dilute nitride semiconductor is a potential candidate for ultrafast components such as photoconductive terahertz devices driven at 1.55 ?m wavelength. Carrier lifetimes are measured by pump-probe experiments at 1550 nm wavelength and the shortest carrier lifetime is 2.6 ps under photoexcitation with ~4.2 ?J/cm2. We observe two contributions in the differential transmittance decay. These contributions are discussed in terms of photocarrier recombination processes.

Mangeney, J.; Laurent, T.; Martin, M.; Harmand, J. C.; Travers, L.; Mauguin, O.

2011-10-01

203

United States and available alternative energy sources. [Summary of NAS\\/CONAES study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a summary of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy systems (CONAES) study. The CONAES study emphasized the challenges facing the United States in the medium term, when the country will have to make a transition from major dependence on fossil hydrocarbons to utilization of other available or renewable energy sources. Energy conservation

Maalouf

1980-01-01

204

Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

2003-08-01

205

Severity and Functional Ability Scale for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients: preliminary results Escala de Gravidade e Habilidade Funcional para pacientes com Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica: Resultados Preliminares  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal illness that affects the neurons of the pyramidal tracts and the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Many evaluations methods have been proposed in order to supply better follow-up information of patients as well as improved management of secondary complica- tions. We present, in this study, a new instrument

Clayton Amaral Domingues; José Mauro Brás Lima; Cláudio Heitor Gress; Acary Souza; Bulle Oliveira; Carlos Henrique Melo Reis; Giseli Quintanilha; Eduardo B Cavalcanti; Luciane Bizari; Coin de Carvalho

206

ACTUALIZACIÓN DE LA ESCALA DE DEPRESIÓN DEL CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS (CES-D). ESTUDIO PILOTO EN UNA MUESTRA GERIÁTRICA MEXICANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. Depression is one of the leading causes of disease and disability in the world. Yet, most cases of depression are ignored by the community or even at certain levels of the health care system. Thus, medical care is delayed, a fact that has a negative impact on public health and on socioeconomical conditions. In this context, screening instruments

Mónica Reyes-Ortega; Ana Laura Soto-Hernández; Jessyka G. Milla-Kegel; Adriana García-Ramírez; Lucía Hubard-Vignau; Lydia A. Mejía-Garza; Ma Carmen García-Peña; Fernando A. Wagner-Echeagaray

2003-01-01

207

Validación de escalas de seguridad alimentaria y de apoyo social en una población afro-colombiana: aplicación en el estudio de prevalencia del estado nutricional  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a cross-sectional study on 193 mothers of children 6 to 18 months of age in an African-Colombian community, with the objec- tives: (1) to adapt and validate the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project scale, the DUKE-UNC-11 social support scale, and the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Develop- ment (QLSCD) partner support scale, and (2) to identify any existent

Beatriz Eugenia Alvarado; María Victoria Zunzunegui; Helene Delisle

208

La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

209

TRATAMENTO DE ESGOTO SANITÁRIO UTILIZANDO REATORES ANAERÓBIOS OPERADOS EM BATELADAS SEQUENCIAIS (ESCALA PILOTO) DOMESTIC SEWAGE TREATMENT IN PILOT-SCALE ANAEROBIC SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (1.2 m3) containing biomass immobilized in inert support and as granular sludge in the treatment of domestic sewage from the Campus of São Carlos-University of São Paulo were evaluated. The experimental phase lasted seventy days. During this period, the reactors presented quite similar performances in respect to COD and total suspended solids

ARNALDO SARTI; ISABEL KIMIKO S AKAMOTO; MARCELO Z AIAT

210

First Test Results with a Ccd Camera Developed by INPE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) (Brazilian Space Research Center) developed a prototype of an airborne opto-electronic camera for multispectral imaging. This camera is based entirely on solid-state principles and the earth's surface is imaged ...

M. A. Andradesiqueira A. Lopesfilho J. Diasdematos R. Pereiradacunha

1989-01-01

211

SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT NASA CONTRACT NAS5-31368 FOR MODIS TEAM MEMBER STEVEN W. RUNNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

by climate) chaparral-shrubland, grassland. Discrimination will be based on canopy bi-directional reflectance properties, seasonal phenology and surface climate. (2) develop a simple ecosystem process model for each of these biomes, BIOME-BGC based on the logic of the current FOREST-BGC; (3) relate the seasonal trend of weekly composite NDVI to vegetation phenology and temperature limits to develop a satellite defined growing

E. RAYMOND; RAMAKRISHNA R. NEMANI

212

In situ annealing effect on the structural properties of near-surface GaInNAs\\/GaAs quantum wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-surface Ga1?xInxNyAs1?y\\/GaAs quantum well (QW) structures were grown and in situ annealed in a solid-source molecular beam epitaxy chamber equipped with a radio-frequency nitrogen (N2) plasma source. It was found that the surface desorption and indium out-diffusion from the surface QW took place under annealing condition by atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Ga\\/In atoms interdiffusion across the QW

H. F. Liu; S. Karirinne; C. S. Peng; T. Jouhti; J. Konttinen; M. Pessa

2004-01-01

213

Economics and politics in the assessment of causes of building illness: The NAS/NRC Report on Indoor Pollutants  

SciTech Connect

How do some health scientists manage to avoid obvious antecedents of disease that are centered in the workplace. The 1981 National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAC/NRC) report entitled Indoor Pollutants is analyzed as an example of this avoidance. Although the report contributes to the understanding of technical problems of indoor pollution, its orientation and some of its conclusions are difficult to reconcile with known scientific findings. Reports of investigations done in response to complaints of white-collar workers are largely ignored, as are reports showing hazardously high carbon monoxide levels from cooking in the home and accounts of misuse of gas ranges for supplemental home heating on the part of low-income families. The major blame for indoor pollution is placed on human behavior, especially smoking; however, most investigations of building illness find not tobacco smoke but inadequate ventilation to be the major source of illness. The report demonstrates the limited viewpoint that continues to ignore the productive processes that dominate social relationships, including the economic and political forces that determine workers' activities and their work environment. Continuance of such an approach will hinder future investigations as to the true causes of building illness and detract from efforts to assign the proper social responsibilities for effecting the changes necessary to reduce health risks for white-collar workers.

Sterling, T.D.

1984-01-01

214

76 FR 57690 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...beneficiaries who live within the MTF catchment area for non-emergency inpatient mental...comprehensive regulatory impact analysis be performed on any economically...comment, a regulatory flexibility analysis when the agency issues a...

2011-09-16

215

Accelerations experienced during low-G flight of Black Brant VC (NAS 21.015) on 4 October 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was to determine whether a Black Brant VC (BBVC) sounding rocket equipped with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) rate control system (RCS) would produce g-levels which are satisfactory for space processing. Accelerations measured by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) low-g accelerometer system (LGAS) were compared with accelerations calculated from measured payload RCS gyro data during a

R. Kissel

1975-01-01

216

Ensino de filosofia no ensino médio nas escolas públicas no Distrito Federal: história, práticas e sentidos em construção  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current article intends to socialize some informa- tion and reflection on the teaching of philosophy in public high- schools of the Federal District of Brazil as of its starting point in the educational practices and researches of the authors. The article pre- sents some ideas concerning the presence of philosophy teaching in Brazil and regarding the history and its

Pedro Gontijo; Erasmo Baltazar Valadão

2004-01-01

217

A Biometric Latent Curve Analysis of Memory Decline in Older Men of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown cognitive abilities to have different biometric patterns of age-changes. We examined the variation\\u000a in episodic memory (word recall task) for over 6,000 twin pairs who were initially aged 59–75, and were subsequently re-assessed\\u000a up to three more times over 12 years. In cross-sectional analyses, variation in the number of words recalled independent of\\u000a age was explained largely

John J. McArdle; Brenda L. Plassman

2009-01-01

218

Os Fitólitos em Gramíneas de Dunas do Extremo Sul do Brasil: Variabilidade Morfológica e Importância nas Reconstruções Paleoambientais Costeiras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoliths, produced by monocotiledonous plants and preserved in the Quaternary sediments in the coastal plains are important indicators for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Present day, the using of phytoliths for the Quaternary studies in the coastal areas in Brazil has not been elaborated yet. The persuasive implications of phytoliths will be made on the base of reference collection of phytoliths obtained

2008-01-01

219

Notas sobre Fitólitos em Androtrichum trigynum (Spr.) Pfeiffer no Extremo Sul do Brasil: Tipos Morfológicos e uso nas Paleoreconstruções Costeiras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convincing recognition of dispersed in the quaternary sediments phytoliths could be made using reference collection of phytoliths from the parent extant plants. In this work, phytoliths produced by one psammophylous species of sedge Androtrichum trigynum, an endemic species, in dunes and interdunes in the coastal plains of the South America, were described. The main morphological types of phytoliths for this

220

A influência da ocupação profissional na flexibilidade global e nas amplitudes angulares dos membros inferiores e da lombar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - O desenvolvimento tecnológico no ambiente de trabalho gerou um au- mento no tempo em que os indivíduos permanecem sentados enquanto trabalham em escritórios. Isto pode estar influenciando negativamente capacidades físicas inatas como a flexibilidade da cadeia posterior do corpo, porém poucos são os estudos que avaliaram a influência do trabalho nesta capacidade física. Esta avaliação pode contribuir para

Sandra Aliberti; Bergson Weber; Cabral Queiroz; Denise Pripas; Isadora Kieling; Adriana Elisa Sellmer; Amaro Malvestio; Marcel Tomonori Sera

221

INCLUSÃO NA EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA: POSSIBILIDADES E LIMITAÇÕES NAS ESCOLAS PÚBLICAS DO BAIRRO DO TRAPICHE DO MUNICÍPIO DE MACEIÓ - ALAGOAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research had as objective investigates the possibilities and the child's Bearer of Special Needs limitations in the classes of Physical education of the Public Schools of the Trapiche of the Municipal district of Maceió-Al. The largest challenge of the Education is to propitiate the integration among all. The inclusive School Physical education facilitates the possible difficulties that the

CRISTIANE GAMA DE OLIVEIRA; ROGÉRIO CABRAL DE OLIVEIRA; JOSÉ CABRAL DE ARAÚJO; CASSIO HARTMANN

222

75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...new IRIS process announced in May 2009 (http://www.epa.gov/iris/process...Recent Additions and Publications menus at http://www.epa.gov/ncea. A limited...Comments may be submitted electronically via http://www.regulations.gov, by...

2010-05-21

223

75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SAB expert panel before each meeting should also e- mail their comments separately to Thomas Armitage, the SAB Designated Federal Officer at armitage.thomas@epa.gov, following the procedures in the Federal Register Notice announcing...

2010-06-23

224

75 FR 33615 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (EPA...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...e-mail their comments separately to Thomas Armitage, the SAB Designated Federal Officer at armitage.thomas@epa.gov, following the procedures...7, 2010, or e-mailed separately to Thomas Armitage, the SAB Designated...

2010-06-14

225

Thermal Annealing Behaviour of Several Deep Levels in GaInNAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Deep-Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy (DLTFS) techniques are used to investigate the thermal annealing behaviour of at least 5 deep level in two samples of Ga98.7In1.3N0.43As99.57, one medium doped with Si (2 × 1016cm 3) and the second one heavily doped with Si (1 × 1018cm 3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The thermal annealing

V. T. Rangel-Kuoppa; J. Dekker

2004-01-01

226

A Biometric Latent Curve Analysis of Memory Decline in Older Men of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown cognitive abilities to have different biometric patterns of age-changes. Here we examined the variation in episodic memory (Words Recalled) for over 6,000 twin pairs who were initially aged 59-75, and were subsequently re-assessed up to three more times over 12 years. In cross-sectional analyses, variation in Education was explained by strong additive genetic influences (~43%) together with shared family influences (~35%) that were independent of age. The longitudinal phenotypic analysis of the Word Recall task showed systematic linear declines over age, but with positive influences of Education and Retesting. The longitudinal biometric estimation yielded: (a) A separation of non-shared environmental influences and transient measurement error (~50%): (b) Strong additive genetic components of this latent curve (~70% at age 60) with increases over age that reach about 90% by age 90. (c) The minor influences of shared family environment (~17% at age 60) were effectively eliminated by age 75. (d) Non-shared environmental effects play an important role over most of the life-span (peak of 42% at age 70) but their relative role diminishes after age 75.

McArdle, John J.; Plassman, Brenda L.

2010-01-01

227

78 FR 12951 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard...non-emergency inpatient mental health care for TRICARE Standard...

2013-02-26

228

Modernidade e revolução social: uma digressão sobre os significados da imanência e da transculturação nas sociedades modernas e contemporâneas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a bibliographic review, the article discusses the notions of modernity and modernization. It highlights the configuration of both notions in the bourgeois revolutions and considers the present moment, the \\

Luís Antonio Groppo; Ciências Sociais Unisinos

2007-01-01

229

Aplicación de un cuestionario de sueño y la escala de somnolencia de Epworth en un centro de salud familiar Application of a sleep questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale in a family health center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sleep disorders, especially sleep breathing disorders, have not been well studied in the patients attending a family health center in Chile. Sleep breathing disorders have been linked to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Method: We studied a randomized sample of 180 adult patients (135 women and 45 men, with a mean age

José Luis

230

Brazilian version of the Burden Interview scale for the assessment of burden of care in carers of people with mental illnesses Versão brasileira da escala Burden Interview para avaliação de sobrecarga em cuidadores de indivíduos com doenças mentais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Burden on informal carers of people with mental or physical illnesses has been studied for a long time. Several standardized instruments for the assessment of carer's burden have been developed. The Burden Interview is one of the most frequently used instruments. The aim of the present study is to examine the internal consistency and validity of the Brazilian version

Marcia Scazufca

231

Estudo comparativo entre bicicletas tradicionais e aerodinâmicas utilizando escalas de avaliação de níveis de desconforto corporal - EANDC. Study comparative among traditional and aerodynamic bicycles using scales of evaluation of levels of corporal discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an experiment for application of the Scales of Evaluation of Levels of Corporal Discomfort. It is aimed at to evaluate your efficiency in the rising of the discomfort levels in products. For such, the product bicycle was selected, because it was verified that the more popular national bicycles present a frame size only. The results showed that

Suzi Mariño Pequini; Ana Maria de Moraes; Jorge Boueri; Paolo Cinque Pequini

2009-01-01

232

Reprodutibilidade, validade e responsividade da escala de Medida de Independência Funcional (MIF) na lesão medular: revisão da literatura The Functional Independence Measures (FIM) reliability, validity and responsiveness in spinal cord injury: literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Functional Independence Measures scale is one of the most frequently used tools for the assessment of functional capacity of indi- viduals with spinal cord injuries. Measurements of the functional outcome in these individuals are essential in the rehabilitation process. This study aimed at reviewing the scientific literature regarding the reliability, validity and responsiveness of FIM in individuals with spinal

Daniela de Campos Barbetta; Marcos Renato de Assis

233

Monitoreo de ecosistemas con estrategias geoestadísticas, una aplicación de gran escala en Jalisco, México Ecosystem monitoring through the use of geostatistic strategies, a large scale application in Jalisco, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El proyecto de Inventario y Monitoreo de los Recursos Naturales de Jalisco, México (IMRENAT), es un proceso innovador que propone una aplicación práctica de las herramientas de modelado esta- dístico geoespacial para reportar creíblemente la condición del territorio. Aprovechando las intercone- xiones que existen entre atributos del terreno, la vegetación, las actividades humanas y lo detectable con sensores remotos

José Germán Flores Garnica; Martín Alfonso; Celedonio Aguirre Bravo

234

Changes in concentration of nitrogenous compounds during fermentation of white grape musts at pilot plant scale\\/Cambios en la concentración de compuestos nitrogenados durante la fermentación de mosto a escala piloto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five vinifications were performed in 500 L tanks using two musts of the Malvar white grape variety. Four vinifications were carried out with or without the addition of sulphur dioxide by spontaneous fermentation and by a mixed culture of yeasts (Kloeckera apiculata, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var ellipsoideus). A fifth experiment was performed with the addition of sulphur dioxide

M. Dizy; M. C. Polo

1996-01-01

235

Criterios Para Correcao Planimetrica E Altimetrica de Mapas Restituidos a Partir de Fotografias Aereas Em Escala 1:100000 (Criteria for Planimetric and Altimetric Correction of Maps Restituted from Aerial Photographs in 1:100,000 Scale).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim is to introduce a simple method for correcting the scale of level curve charts restituted from aerial photographs in a 1:100,000 approximate scale used for planning the Pitinga mine facilities. The mine is located some 250 km north of Manaus (AM-B...

F. A. Dupas

1986-01-01

236

Economic evaluation of alternative methods of utilizing available landfill gas to cogenerate power at NAS, Miramar. Technical note August 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Air Station at Miramar, CA, contains the largest active sanitary landfill in San Diego County. It is estimated that the anaerobic decomposition of the organic refuse in this fill is producing sufficient methane to completely satisfy the energy requirements of the base if some means can be found to efficiently utilize this gas as a fuel. An economic

Kodres

1982-01-01

237

Avaliação da microcirculação das bordas do tendão do supra-espinal nas lesões do manguito rotador* Microvascular evaluation of the supraspinatus tendon borders in rotator cuff lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate microvasculature in the borders of the supraspinatus tendon in rotator cuff lesions in order to determine the need to debrid the borders when surgical repair is performed. Methods: From June to December 224, samples were evaluated from 31 patients with full lesion of the supraspinatus tendon that had been submitted to arthroscopic rotator cuff lesion treatment. They

Ikemoto RY; Murachovsky J; Nascimento LGP; Bueno RS; Ueno FH; Akita Júnior J; ROBERTO YUKIO IKEMOTO; LUIS GUSTAVO; PRATA NASCIMENTO; ROGÉRIO SERPONE BUENO; FABRÍCIO HIDETOSHI UENO; JORGE AKITA JÚNIOR

238

A Review of the NAS Manpower Studies Subcontracted by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Health Care Resources in the Veterans Administration. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two volume study was performed by the Human Resources Management, Inc., for the Veterans Administration. The nature of this two volume study is to review and analyze the feasibiity, costs, and expected time frame for implementation of four sub-studies...

1977-01-01

239

Aspectos etiológicos da mordida aberta anterior e suas implicações nas funções orofaciais*** Etiological aspects of anterior open bite and its implications to the oral functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: open bite is a complex anomaly that has a difficult treatment. Frequently, unsatisfactory results and relapse of orthodontic treatment are observed. Aim: to associate orofacial malfunction and deleterious oral habits to anterior open bite. To congregate evidences for the better understanding of the etiology and of the development of anterior open bite and its potential association to myofunctional disorders.

Isabel Cristina; Gonçalves Leite

240

LA gEsTIONE DEL CARCINOMA MAMMARIO IN gRAvIDANzA: CuRARE LA MAMMA TuTELANDO IL NAsCITuRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer disease in pregnancy is a rare disease. the strategy of treatment and the choices of timing (chemotherapy, surgery of the breast and radio - therapy) are dipendent by the presence of the fetus. in this work is discussed the management of thi extremely rare clinical situation and are reported the experiences of the authors.

Saverio Cinieri; Fedro Peccatori; Stefano Burlizzi; Laura Orlando; Palma Fedele

241

Incidências de lesões nas equipes de Ginástica Rítmica da UNOPAR Injury incidences in the Rhythmic Gymnastics teams at UNOPAR (North of Parana University)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhythmic Gymnastics is a sport performed only by female athletes in a competition level. Beauty and elegance are used in the movements, through bodywork elements and usage of gadgets like rope, ball, arc, pins and lace. Because of its complexity and difficulty, to reach a good performance in this sport dedication and long hours of daily training are required, what

Marcelo Moises; Marçal de Oliveira; Márcia Regina; Aversani Lourenço; Denílson de Castro Teixeira

242

Review of the NAS/NRC report: {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. Special report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

There are three basic and serious problems that produce disagreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the Academy report entitled {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. These are: First, the report ignores a considerable body of critical data relating to the ages and nature of hydrothermal alterations at the site; second, many of the strong conclusions expressed in the report are not reasonably supported by the evidence presented and, in some cases, are inconsistent with data and results available to the committee but which are not cited or used by them; and finally, there are statements describing field relationships and data that are not consistent with the facts or are made in such a way as to be misleading.

Archambeau, C.B.

1992-12-01

243

MICOFLORA PREDOMINANTE EN LAS QUESERIAS DE ARZÚA (ESPAÑA) MAJOR MYCOFLORE FOUND IN FARM-CHEESE PRODUCTION UNITS OF ARZÚA (SPAIN) MICOFLORA PREDOMINANTE NAS QUESERIAS DE ARZÚA (ESPAÑA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal contamination in 10 farm-level cheesemaking units from Arzúa (A Coruña, Spain) throughout a year was studied. The greatest number of different genera were found in the air and, although in lesser amounts, in the cheese. The isolation frequency for the most representative genera in cheese were Rhizopus (26,8%), Cladosporium sp. (22,5%), Geotrichum sp. (17,7%), Penicillium sp. (17,1%) and

C. A. Fente-Sampayo; B. Vazquez-Belda; J. L. Rodríguez-Otero; C. Franco-Abuin; E. Quinto-Fernández; A. Cepeda-Saez

2002-01-01

244

Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas propriedades mecanicas e opticas dos policarbonatos. (Gamma radiation effect study in polycarbonate optical and mechanics properties).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polycarbonates (PC) are used in different industrial applications due to their excellent dielectric characteristics, impact resistance, and high temperature resistance. In some of these applications, the polycarbonates are exposed to gamma radiation which...

E. S. Araujo

1991-01-01

245

A AMBIGÜIDADE DA MULHER-FARAÓ: GÊNEROS MASCULINO E FEMININO NAS REPRESENTAÇÕES DA RAINHA-FARAÓ HATSHEPSUT (SÉCULO XV a.C.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article intends to reflect about feminine and masculine aspects in the images of queen\\/pharaoh Hatshepsut, XVth century B.C., Egypt's Eighteenth Dynasty. Palavras-chave: Egito Antigo; Arte; rainha Hatshepsut; gênero. O Egito Antigo sempre despertou grande interesse, não só do meio acadêmico como também do público em geral. Tal atração pode ser em parte explicada pela forma peculiar na qual foi

Aline Fernandes de Sousa

246

O TEMPO GEOLÓGICO NAS AULAS DE HISTÓRIA - UMA EXPERIÊNCIA NO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL THE GEOLOGICAL TIME IN THE CLASSES OF HISTORY - AN EXPERIENCE IN THE FUNDAMENTAL TEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synthesis of a case study developed with students of a public school of 5th level of the funda- mental education in the discipline of History, in that, the teacher, also acting as researcher, observes and interprets, by means of transcriptions of class-debates, the construction of the concept of time - a key-concept extremely important in the

ANDRÉ BETTI; YARA KULAIF

247

BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS NAS FOLHAS E COLMOS DE PLANTAS DE ARROZ IRRIGADO (Oryza sativa L.) DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA IN LEAVES AND STEMS OF WETLAND RICE (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root diazotroph bacteria population associated to the irrigated rice crop has been studied. However, there are little studies in the population of these bacteria in plant leaves and stems. The objective of this work was to study the bacteria population in leaves and stems of flooded rice plants, in two varieties: a modern (IRGA- 419), and a traditional (EEA-406),

Danni Maisa da Silva; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Márcio Voss

248

NAS Report on Technological Feasibility of 1975-76 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards. Feasibility of Meeting the 1975-1976 Exhaust Emission Standards in Actual Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In its examination of feasibility the panel considered the durability of proposed control systems, deterioration of components and adjustments, contamination of catalysts by fuels and labels, adequacy of the service industry, adequacy of replacement parts...

1973-01-01

249

Acute respiratory infections control in the context of the IMCI strategy in the Americas Controle das infecções respiratórias agudas no contexto da estrategia AIDPI nas Américas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As infecções respiratórias agudas (IRA) são importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade em menores de cinco anos. Importantes contrastes são observados em relação a isto nos diferentes países das Américas, e também entre regiões ou estados de um mesmo país. A morbidade está associdada a vários fatores, especialmente com a situação nutri- cional das pacientes e o tempo de aleitamento

Yehuda Benguigui

250

ANÁLISE POR CROMATOGRAFIA GASOSA DE BTEX NAS EMISSÕES DE MOTOR DE COMBUSTÃO INTER NA ALIMENTADO COM DIESEL E MISTURA DIESEL-BIODIESEL (B10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANALYSIS OF BTEX IN THE EMISSIONS FROM AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BURNING DIESEL OIL AND DIESEL-BIODIESEL MIXTURE (B10) BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. This paper describes the procedures for analysing pollutant gases emitted by engines, such as volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene) by using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). For IC engine burning, in a broad sense,

Sérgio L. Ferreira; Antônio M. dos Santos; Gustavo R. de Souza; Wagner L. Polito; Délson L. Módolo; Fundação Hermínio Ometto; Maximiliano Baruto

2008-01-01

251

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de metodologia por cromatografia em camada delgada para determinação do perfil de alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos nas espécies sul-americanas do gênero Uncaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O gênero Uncaria (Rubiaceae) é representado na América do Sul e Central por duas espécies: U. tomentosa (Willd.) DC. e U. guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., conhecidas popularmente como unha-de-gato. Ambas são trepadeiras perenes, sendo empregadas na prevenção e cura de várias doenças. Nessas plantas são encontrados alcalóides oxindólicos e indólicos, triterpenos glicosilados, taninos e fl avonóides. Seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos,

Ligia M. M. Valente; Flaviane F. Alves; Giselle M. Bezerra; Maria Beatriz S. Almeida; Sandra L. Rosario; José L. Mazzei; Luiz A. d'Avila; Antonio C. Siani

2006-01-01

252

Fator de Crescimento Epitelial e Pentoxifilina nas Perfurações Subagudas de Membrana Timpânica Epidermal Growth Factor and Pentoxifylline in Subacute Tympanic Membrane Perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The healing rate of subacute tympanic membrane perforations over a 30-day period showed significant difference between the groups (ANOVA; p < 0.001) and was 30.3% for the epidermal growth factor group, 3.6% for the pentoxifylline group, 16.5% for ears treated with epidermal growth factor and pentoxifylline and 8.7% for untreated controls. Conclusions: Epidermal growth factor helps in the healing of

Jeanne da Rosa; Oiticica Ramalho

253

Health assessment for NAS-Whidbey Island (Seaplane Base), Oak Harbor, Island County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WA6170090058. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Air Station-Whidbey Island Seaplane Base site is on the National Priorities List. The site is one of four major areas of Whidbey Island in Puget Sound belonging to the U.S. Navy. The environmental contamination on-site consists of chromium (75 ppb), and lead (21 ppb) in surface water; cadmium (40 ppb), chromium (31 ppb), and lead (32 ppb) in ground water; polychlorinated biphenyls (9 ppm), fluorene (25 ppm) and lead (280 ppm) in soil; arsenic (170 ppm), cadmium (58 ppm), nickel (200 ppm), lead (1,000 ppm), chromium (88 ppb), zinc (570 ppb), pyrene (2 ppm), and fluoranthene (2.4 ppm) in sediment. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ground water, surface water, soil, sediment, and shellfish.

Not Available

1989-01-19

254

Scientific ballooning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon

R. Corrêa; E. Rinke; J. O. Fernandes; T. Villela

2002-01-01

255

Nebulosas planetárias galácticas: idades e cinemática  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As nebulosas planetárias são formadas a partir de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, formando um conjunto de objetos com idades e populações diferentes. Esse fato torna as nebulosas interessantes ao estudo da rotação galáctica, uma vez que as populações mais jovens devem estar claramente associadas ao disco fino da Galáxia, enquanto que as populações mais velhas estariam associadas ao disco espesso ou mesmo ao halo galáctico. Neste trabalho, utilizamos uma grande amostra de nebulosas com velocidades radiais conhecidas para determinar a curva de rotação da Galáxia. Para minimizar os erros decorrentes das incertezas nas distâncias, usamos quatro diferentes escalas estatísticas. Para a atribuição da idade dos objetos, utilizamos o método proposto recentemente por Maciel et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 397, 667, 2003), em um estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes de abundâncias. Com esse método, é possível obter uma classificação das nebulosas por grupos de idade, totalmente independente de outros sistemas de classificação, uma vez que as idades são estimadas individualmente, a partir das metalicidades das nebulosas. Nossos resultados são comparados com as previsões dos tipos de Peimbert, e mostram que os desvios médios das curvas obtidas são sensivelmente menores nos casos dos objetos mais jovens, associados ao disco fino, com relação aos objetos mais velhos do disco espesso, levando à determinação de uma curva de rotação semelhante à dos objetos de população I jovem. (CNPq)

Lago, L. G.; Maciel, W. J.

2003-08-01

256

Estimación de la Validez de Constructo y Consistencia Interna de la Escala de Impacto de las Imágenes Femeninas Presentadas por los Medios de Comunicación sobre Adolescentes Mujeres. * Construct Validity and Reliability of an Instrument to Assess the Impact of Female Images Presented by the Mass Media on Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed to estimate reliability and construct validity of an instrument to assess the impact of female images presented by the mass media on body image of female adolescents (IMAMIF) of Larraín, Camus, Orellana and Arrieta, in a sample of 662 female adolescents. It is a questionnaire of 45 statements that evaluates the impact that female images presented by

M. Elena; Larraín Sundt

257

Correcao Geometrica de Imagens: Uma Abordagem para o Registro de Imagens Digitais LANDSAT-TM Apoiado em Cartas Topograficas de Grande e Media Escala (Geometric Image Correction: An Approach for the Registration of LANDSAT-TM Digital Images Supported by Topographical Maps of Medium and Great Scales).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Satellite images present geometric distortions that are a function of the sensor systems and of the variations in the platform attitude, speed, and height. The aim is to develop a procedure for the correction of LANDSAT-TM digital images based on data obt...

C. A. Goncalvesdearujo J. C. Limadalge

1986-01-01

258

Caracteristicas DA Drenagem Determinadas Em Fotografias Aerease Do Relevo Determinadas Em Cartas Planialtimetricas de Escalas Diferentes Para Tres Solos Do Estado de Sao Paulo (Characteristics of Drainage Determinations in Aerial Photographs and Relief Determination on Different Scales Planialtimetric Charts for Three Soils in the State of Sao Paulo).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the interpretation of vertical aerial photographs on a 1:35,000 scale, the characterization was made of the drainage standards from three different soils of the State of Sao Paulo (red-yellow latosol, red-yellow podzol, and litosol) and the varia...

R. Angulofilho V. A. Demetrio G. V. Defranca

1986-01-01

259

ESCALA DE MEDIDA SOBRE EL GRADO DE SATISFACCIÓN HABITACIONAL DEL NÚCLEO FAMILIAR EST R A T OS SOCIO - ECONÓM ICOS 3 Y 4 SCALE OF MEASURE ON THE DEGREE OF HABITATIONAL SATISFACTION OF THE FAMILIES STRATA SOCIO - ECONOMIC 3 AND 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marketing research is not restricted to any spe cific type of problem. Its intention is to provide valuable, updated, reliable and valid infor mation, which allows to take the best decisions on having faced a problem or situation to specify. In this wo rk there are in use proper technologies or skills o f the marketing research with the

ANDREA VÉLEZ PEREIRA; MARCELA ZULUAGA DUQUE

2006-01-01

260

REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS DE DST\\/AIDS PARA ADOLESCENTES DE UMA INSTITUIÇÃO ABRIGO COM EXPERIÊNCIA PREGRESSA DE VIDA NAS RUAS DA CIDADE DE GOIÂNIA SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF STD\\/AIDS FOR SHELTERED ADOLESCENTS WITH LIFE EXPERIENCE IN THE STREETS OF GOIÂNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: adolescents in street situation likely exposed to STD\\/AIDS, because the street world is favorable for violence, use and traffic of drugs, sexual exploration. Objective: in this study we sough to identify and to analyze the social representations of prevention DST\\/Aids for a group of ado- lescents with experience of life in the streets, living in a shelter institution in

Ida K Borges; Marcelo Medeiros

261

Convenio-SEMA/ARH Relatorio Technico Sobre Levantamento dos Defensivos Agricolas Aplicados nas Bacias Hidrograficas dos Mananciais que Servem de Abastecimento Publico (Conference Technical Report on Survey of Farmland Protection in Hydrographic Basins of Sources Used for Public Supply).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on a 1975 study conducted by the Water Resources Administration, with the support of the Special Secretariat for Environmental Protection. It describes the types and quantities of farmland protection projects undertaken in the various...

R. P. Streitemberger A. Antunes de Almeida J. O. Picheth Neto

1980-01-01

262

Contribuicao para o Estudo do Effeito dos Graus de Maturidade nas Interaccoes Genotipos Ambientes em Algumas Racas Bovinas Nacionais (Study of the Effect of the Degrees of Maturity on Genotype-Environment Interactions in Some Portuguese Beef Cattle Breeds).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment was performed with four genotypes: Alentejano, Portuguese Friesian, Alentejano x Charollais and Hereford x Portuguese Friesian. Every genotype consisted of 12 bullocks. At the beginning of the trial, in Spring, the animals were grazing in so...

G. L. da Silveira Nunes Barata

1990-01-01

263

Efeitos da radiacao gama nas fases do ciclo evolutivo de Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) em dieta artificial. (Effects of gamma radiation on phases of evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) in artificial diet).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of the increase in the gamma radiation ((sup 60) Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera Pyraliade) are studied. A cobalt 60 source type gamma beam 650 was used and the activi...

J. A. D. Aguilar

1991-01-01

264

A Pos-Graduacao Nas Ciencias Humanas e o Paradigma da Medicina: A Era da Especializacao. (Post-Graduation in the Human Sciences and the Paradigm of Medicine: The Era of Specialization.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reflects on the current tendency in Brazilian higher education for greater and greater specialization, particularly in human sciences and in medicine. Calls for less specialization and a more historic and general preparation, especially in teacher education. (BT)|

Costa, Celio Juvenal

2000-01-01

265

TEMAS LIVRES FREE THEMES A moralidade da prática de pesquisa nas ciências sociais: aspectos epistemológicos e bioéticos The morality of research practice in the social sciences: epistemological and bioethical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes a double perspective - epistemological and bioethical - towards the object of specific study in social sciences research involving human individuals and populations. The author focuses particularly on social sciences research in Brazil, referring to the descriptive, normative, and protective practice in the evalua- tion system developed by research ethics commit- tees and the National Commission on

Fermin Roland Schramm

266

Utilização de suplemento alimentar e anabolizante por praticantes de musculação nas academias de Goiânia-GO Use of alimentary supplement and anabolizante for apprentices of muscular activity in the academies of Goiânia-GO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araújo, L. R., Andreolo, J., Silva, M. S. Use of alimentary supplement and anabolizante for apprentices of muscular activity in the academies of Goiânia-GO. Rev. Bras. Ciên. e Mov. 10(3): 13-18, 2002. This is a survey on the use of supplements and anabolic steroid in muscular activity users of fitness club of Goiânia. The study group was constituted by 10%

Leandro Rodrigues de Araújo; Jesuíno Andreolo; Maria Sebastiana Silva

2002-01-01

267

A Pos-Graduacao Nas Ciencias Humanas e o Paradigma da Medicina: A Era da Especializacao. (Post-Graduation in the Human Sciences and the Paradigm of Medicine: The Era of Specialization.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the current tendency in Brazilian higher education for greater and greater specialization, particularly in human sciences and in medicine. Calls for less specialization and a more historic and general preparation, especially in teacher education. (BT)

Costa, Celio Juvenal

2000-01-01

268

Influência da massa magra corporal nas repercussões cardiopulmonares durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC* Influence of lean body mass on cardiopulmonary repercussions during the six-minute walk test in patients with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although lean body mass (LBM) has been associated with mortality in patients with COPD, its influence on functional limitation is not clear. The objective of this study was to analyze the cardiopulmonary variables in COPD patients with or without LBM depletion, prior to and after the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: We evaluated COPD patients, 32 with LBM depletion

Nilva Regina; Gelamo Pelegrino; Paulo Adolfo Lucheta; Fernanda Figueirôa Sanchez; Márcia Maria Faganello; Renata Ferrari; Irma de Godoy

2009-01-01

269

Influence of lean body mass on cardiopulmonary repercussions during the six-minute walk test in patients with COPD* Influência da massa magra corporal nas repercussões cardiopulmonares durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although lean body mass (LBM) has been associated with mortality in patients with COPD, its influence on functional limitation is not clear. The objective of this study was to analyze the cardiopulmonary variables in COPD patients with or without LBM depletion, prior to and after the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: We evaluated COPD patients, 32 with LBM depletion

Nilva Regina; Gelamo Pelegrino; Paulo Adolfo Lucheta; Fernanda Figueirôa Sanchez; Márcia Maria Faganello; Renata Ferrari; Irma de Godoy

2009-01-01

270

EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA ESCOLAR E INTERDISCIPLINARIDADE NO ENSINO: REFLEXÕES E UM MODELO APLICÁVEL NAS ESCOLAS PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS AND INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN TEACHING-APPRENTICESHIP PROCESS: REFLECTIONS AND AN ACCOMPLISHABLE MODEL TO BE FOLLOWED BY SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work had as its main objective identify aspects related to the interdisciplinary process focused on the Physical Education in the schools through a bibliographical review and evaluate its participation in the educational pedagogy constitution, reflecting the real needs of this area, the role of the interdisciplinarity and its contribution to teaching-apprenticeship process, that uses this strategy as a base

JOAQUIM ROBERTO PICCIGUELLI; ROSINEIDE MARQUES RIBAS; MARINA FERREIRA DE SOUZA ANTUNES

271

Strategic Plans for the Future of Solar Physics: a community discussion of the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Program Roadmap and the NAS Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Solar Astronomy section)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Sun-Earth Connections Program is currently revising its Roadmap, the long-range plan for science goals, technology development, and missions between 2000 and 2040. From the interior dynamics of the Sun, to the interactions of plasma, fields, and radiation in the photosphere and solar atmosphere, to the heating and structure of the corona, to the acceleration, structure, and evolution of

K. Schrijver; M. Knoelker

1999-01-01

272

Efeito da adição de lodo de estação de tratamento de água (ETA) nas propriedades de material cerâmico estrutural (Effect of the addition of sludge from water treatment plants on the properties of structural ceramic material)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residue (sludge) produced in the decantation ponds of Water Treatment Plants (WTP) has variable composition according to the regional WTP localization, the month of collection and the chemical used to flocculation. In this work the sludge was submitted to physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. Also, technological trials were realized on ceramic probes to evaluate the possibility of sludge incorporation

S. R. Teixeira; S. A. de Souza; N. R. de Souza; P. Aléssio; G. T. A. Santos

273

ILEGIBILIDADE E AUSÊNCIA DE INFORMAÇÃO NAS PRESCRIÇÕES MÉDICAS: FATORES DE RISCO RELACIONADOS A ERROS DE MEDICAÇÃO Illegibility and lack of information in medical prescriptions: risk factors related to medication errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Os erros na medicação podem acarretar sérias conseqüências aos pacientes, profissionais e instituições de saúde. Estes resultam de múltiplas causas, dentre elas a ilegibilidade e falta de informações das prescrições. Realizou-se um estudo de prescrições médicas com o objetivo de analisar a freqüência de riscos relacionados a erros de medicação. O estudo teve caráter quantitativo, do tipo descritivo e

Geysa Aguiar; Lourival Alves da Silva; Marco Antônio Magalhães

274

CRESCIMENTO E DEPOSIÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES NAS PENAS, MÚSCULO, OSSOS E PELE DE FRANGOS DE COR TE DE DUAS LINHAGENS COMERCIAIS Growth and nutrient deposition on feathers, muscles, bones, and skin of two broiler chicken strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study the profile of growth and nutrient deposition on muscles, bones and skin of Ross and Cobb male and female broiler chicken from the age of one day to 56 days. We used 1920 chicks raised in experimental boxes. The experimental design was randomized in a factorial model (2 x 2), with 4

Simara Márcia Marcato; Nilva Kazue Sakomura; João Batista; K. Fernandez; Daphinne Cardoso Nagib Nascimento; Renato Luis Furlan; Gustavo Henrique Piva

275

The influence of joint mobilization on tendinopathy of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles A influência da mobilização articular nas tendinopatias dos músculos bíceps braquial e supra-espinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common causes of shoulder pain are related to degeneration of the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles. Objective: To investigate the influence of joint mobilization by means of accessory movements of the shoulder during the early rehabilitation of 14 patients with chronic tendinopathy of the supraspinatus and\\/or biceps brachii muscles. Methods: Two treatment protocols were compared: application of

Barbosa RI; Goes R; Mazzer N; Fonseca MCR

276

O uso de Termos de Consentimento Informado nas áreas assistenciais do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre The use of Informed Consent Forms for medical purposes in the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study evaluate the use of Informed Consent Forms (ICF) for medical purposes in the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). Method: 45 HCPAs medical units were visited searching for ICFs. Those forms were collected and analyzed with Flesch and Flesch-Kinkaid readability index. Result: 48 ICF were used in 15 medical units of HCPA for medical procedures. The

CRISTIAN CHASSOT BENINCASA

277

AnÆlises microbiÛlogicas de protetor solar manipulado nas farmÆcias magistrais do municÌpio de Ipatinga\\/MG * Sunscreenís microbiological test handling in magistral pharmacies from Ipatinga city\\/MG  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ñ The increase and development of cosmetic industry shows the necessity to make microbiological analysis of raw material used in its production, as well as, in the final products, to get good quality products. This study aims to determine the predominant microorganisms in sun block gel manipulated at Magistral Pharmacies of Ipatinga-MG . Thir teen samples was analyzed to

Ferreira Marques; Mary Lucy Moreira

2009-01-01

278

Determination of N-acetylserotonin and Melatonin Activities in the Pineal Gland, Retina, Harderian Gland, Brain and Serum of Rats and Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An N-acetylserotonin\\/melatonin radioimmunoassay (NAS\\/Mel RIA) and a Mel RIA were developed to measure NAS and Mel contents in tissues of rats and chickens. Anti-NAS and anti-Mel sera were produced by immunization of rabbits with NAS-M-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Mel-M-BSA, respectively. Anti-NAS serum used in the NAS\\/Mel RIA reacts equally well with NAS and Mel, while anti-Mel serum used in

S. F. Pang; G. M. Brown; L. J. Grota; J. W. Chambers; R. L. Rodman

1977-01-01

279

Nitrogen Oxyanion-dependent Dissociation of a Two-component Complex That Regulates Bacterial Nitrate Assimilation.  

PubMed

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for growth and is readily available to microbes in many environments in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Both ions are of environmental significance due to sustained use of inorganic fertilizers on agricultural soils. Diverse species of bacteria that have an assimilatory nitrate/nitrite reductase system (NAS) can use nitrate or nitrite as the sole nitrogen source for growth when ammonium is limited. In Paracoccus denitrificans, the pathway-specific two-component regulator for NAS expression is encoded by the nasT and nasS genes. Here, we show that the putative RNA-binding protein NasT is a positive regulator essential for expression of the nas gene cluster (i.e. nasABGHC). By contrast, a nitrogen oxyanion-binding sensor (NasS) is required for nitrate/nitrite-responsive control of nas gene expression. The NasS and NasT proteins co-purify as a stable heterotetrameric regulatory complex, NasS-NasT. This protein-protein interaction is sensitive to nitrate and nitrite, which cause dissociation of the NasS-NasT complex into monomeric NasS and an oligomeric form of NasT. NasT has been shown to bind the leader RNA for nasA. Thus, upon liberation from the complex, the positive regulator NasT is free to up-regulate nas gene expression. PMID:24005668

Luque-Almagro, Victor M; Lyall, Verity J; Ferguson, Stuart J; Roldán, M Dolores; Richardson, David J; Gates, Andrew J

2013-09-04

280

População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

2003-08-01

281

AUTOESTIMA, HABILIDAD FÍSICA PERCIBIDA Y DESEABILIDAD SOCIAL EN CHICAS ADO LESCENTES: RELACIÓN CON LA PRÁCTICA DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objeto del presente estudio es evaluar las diferencias en el gasto energético en la práctica de actividad física durante la jornada escolar y durante los fines de semana, y su relación con la autoestima en chicas adolescentes. Participaron 175 chicas entre 11 y 16 años, que cumplimentaron la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, la Escala de Habilidad Física Percibida

Molinero González; Martínez García; Martín Ardura; M. Bragança; Salguero del Valle; Márquez Rosa

282

Rocket-borne Langmuir Probe response to an applied periodic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Langmuir Probe (LP), payload designed and developed at Instituto de Pesuisas Espaciais (INPE/MCT) was flown on board a SONDA III rocket at 2259 hrs. (LST) on October 31, 1986 from the Centro de Lancamento da Barreira do Inferno in Natal, RN, Brazil, under a collaborative program between INPE and Instituto de Atividades Espaciais (IAE/CTA). The rocket reached an apogee of about 444 km and the LP payload functioned satisfactorily during the ascent as well as descent of the rocket. A sweep voltage varying between -1V and +4V in a period of about 2.6 seconds was applied to the LP sensor. As the applied voltage increased from -1V to +4V, the LP sensor current first showed an increase, reached a saturation level, and then, though the sensor potential increased towards a steady value, the current showed a systematic decrease. This sensor current characteristic also showed a clear dependence on altitude and hence on the ambient plasma parameters. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for these LP response characteristics are analyzed and discussed here.

Muralikrishna, P.; Abdu, M. A.; Kantor, I. J.

1988-10-01

283

Understanding Nursing Assistants' Experiences of Caring for Older People in Pain: The Australian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the experiences of nursing assistants (NAs), who have worked with older people in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) who are in pain, to ascertain the role that NAs play in the pain management process. A descriptive, exploratory qualitative approach was used to examine NAs' experiences. Six NAs employed in three RACFs in regional Western Australia participated in

Kristi Holloway; Ruth McConigley

2009-01-01

284

DUSTY NUCLEAR DISKS AND FILAMENTS IN EARLY TYPE GALAXIESa a BASED ON OBSERVATIONS WITH THE NASA\\/ESA HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, OBTAINED AT THE SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE, WHICH IS OPERATED BY THE ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY, INC. UNDER NASA CONTRACT NO. NAS5-26555  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the dust properties of a nearby distance-limited sample of early type galaxies using the WFPC2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust is detected in 29 out of 67 galaxies (43%), including 12 with small nuclear dusty disks. In a separate sample of 40 galaxies biased for the detection of dust by virtue of their detection in the IRAS

H. D. Tran; Z. Tsvetanov; H. C. Ford; J. Davies; W. Jaffe

285

THE HUBBLE HIGHER-z SUPERNOVA SEARCH: SUPERNOVAE TO z ? 1.6 AND CONSTRAINTS ON TYPE Ia PROGENITOR MODELS a a BASED ON OBSERVATIONS WITH THE NASA\\/ESA HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, OBTAINED AT THE SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE, WHICH IS OPERATED BY AURA, INC., UNDER NASA CONTRACT NAS 5-26555  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the Hubble Higher-z Supernova Search, the first space-based open field survey for supernovae (SNe). In cooperation with the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, we have used the Hubble Space Telescope with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to cover ? 300 square arcmin in the area of the Chandra Deep Field South and the Hubble Deep Field

Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Tomas Dahlen; Mario Livio; Nino Panagia; Peter Challis; John L. Tonry; Alexei V. Filippenko; Ryan Chornock; Henry Ferguson; Anton Koekemoer; Bahram Mobasher; Mark Dickinson; Mauro Giavalisco; Stefano Casertano; Richard Hook; Stephane Blondin; Bruno Leibundgut; Mario Nonino; Piero Rosati; Hyron Spinrad; Charles C. Steidel; Daniel Stern; Peter M. Garnavich; Thomas Matheson; Norman Grogin; Ann Hornschemeier; Claudia Kretchmer; Victoria G. Laidler; Kyoungsoo Lee; Ray Lucas; Duilia de Mello; Leonidas A. Moustakas; Swara Ravindranath; Marin Richardson; Edward Taylor

286

EFECTOS DE LABRANZA Y BIOFERTILIZACIÓN EN PROPIEDADES DEL SUELO QUE AFECTAN A LA SOSTENIBILIDAD DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE FRIJOL EFFECTS OF TILLAGE AND BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE SOIL PROPERTIES AFFECTING SUSTAINABILITY OF THE DRY BEAN PRODUCTION EFECTOS DA LABRANZA E BIOFERTILIZACIÓN NAS PROPIEDADES DO SOLO QUE AFECTAN A SOSTEÑIBILIDADE DE PRODUCCIÓN DE FRIXOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an alternative of production in a cereal-legume crop rotation because improves profitability and fixes atmospheric nitrogen to soil. Different tillage practices that leave crop residues on the surface, and minimally alerts composition, structure and natural biodiversity of soil are used to conserve the agriculture ecosystem. Biological fertilizers using vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) constitutes a

J. R. Salinas-García; A. Díaz-Franco; E. Garza-Cano; I. Garza-Cano

2005-01-01

287

Determinacao da taxa de dose equivalente de neutrons nas imediacoes do acelerador linear de eletrons do Instituto de Fisica da USP. (Neutron equivalent dose rates at the surroundings of the electron linear accelerator operated by the university of Sao Paulo - Physics institute).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the determination of the neutron dose rates at the surroundings of an electron linear accelerators it is necessary the knowledge of the neutron spectrum or its mean energy, because the conversion factor of the flux in equivalent dose rates, is strongl...

L. S. Yanagihara

1984-01-01

288

Estudio de Exámenes de Detección de Cáncer de Próstata, Pulmón, Colorrectal y Ovarios (PLCO): preguntas y respuestas  

Cancer.gov

El estudio de exámenes de detección PLCO es un estudio a gran escala, aleatorizado, para determinar si el uso de ciertos exámenes selectivos de detección disminuirá el riesgo de morir por esos cuatro tipos de cáncer.

289

Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois períodos possíveis: 2,2 ou 3,8 dias, além de variações irregulares superpostas. Foram observados, também, dois eventos súbitos, espaçados de uma hora, com amplitudes de 0,05mag e duração de aproximadamente 30 minutos. Admitindo-se que tal modulação seja originada por acréscimo sobre a superfície estelar, dois cenários são possíveis. No caso do menor período, apenas uma mancha quente seria visível. No outro caso, duas manchas seriam necessárias, explicando assim a presença de dois picos ao se colocar os pontos em fase.

Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

2003-08-01

290

Limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of naphthenic acids in oil sands process water.  

PubMed

Fluorescence spectrophotometry has been proposed as a quick screening technique for the measurement of naphthenic acids (NAs). To evaluate the feasibility of this application, the fluorescence emission spectra of NAs extracted from three oil sands process water sources were compared with that of commercial NAs. The NAs resulting from the bitumen extraction process cannot be differentiated because of the similarity of the fluorescence spectra. Separation of the fluorescent species in NAs using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector proved unsuccessful. The acidic fraction of NAs is fluorescent but the basic fraction of NAs is not fluorescent, implying that aromatic acids in NAs give rise to the fluorescent signals. The concentrations of NAs in oil sands process water were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluorescence spectrophotometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). Commercial Merichem and Kodak NAs are the best standards to use when measuring NAs concentration with FTIR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In addition, the NAs concentrations measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry are about 30 times higher than those measured by FTIR and UPLC-TOF/MS. The findings in this study underscore the limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of NAs. PMID:23379948

Lu, Weibing; Ewanchuk, Andrea; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Sego, Dave; Ulrich, Ania

2013-01-01

291

Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

2003-08-01

292

Fallon Geothermal Exploration Project, Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fallon Geothermal Exploration Project was developed to determine which Navy-controlled lands near the Naval Air Station (NAS), Fallon, Nevada, had the highest potential for geothermal development. The project studies primarily NAS Fallon and Ranges Br...

J. L. Bruce

1980-01-01

293

National Airspace System Interface Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to implement Interface Management for interfacing subsystems of the National Airspace System (NAS) and for external NAS interfaces by establishing a process which assures that: Interface requirements are agreed to by interfacing ...

1986-01-01

294

77 FR 68113 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplement to the 2008 Environmental Impact Statement for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...best meets current requirements. The two potential homebase locations for the P-8A MMA are NAS Jacksonville, located in Duval County, Florida, and NAS Whidbey Island, located in Island County, Washington. Homebasing the P-8A MMA at two...

2012-11-15

295

The Raman signature of H2 in the uv spectra of Uranus and Neptune: Constraints on the haze optical properties and on the para-H2 fraction fn2 fn2 Based on observations made with the NASA?ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under nasa contract nas 5-26555  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric albedos of Uranus and Neptune, inferred from archived Hubble Space Telescope observations and from the ground-based measurements of Karkoschka, 1994, are modeled in the wavelength range 2200–4200 Å. The radiative transfer model, which includes Rayleigh–Raman scattering and Mie scattering by haze particles, aims at reproducing the fine structure of the geometric albedos at a resolution of 2–10 Å.

Régis Courtin

1999-01-01

296

The nature of Neptune’s increasing brightness: evidence for a seasonal response ? ? Based on observations made with the NASA\\/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and on observations obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS 5-26555. Research supported by grants from STScI and NASA’s Planetary Atmospheres Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in August 2002 show that Neptune’s disk-averaged reflectivity increased significantly since 1996, by 3.2 ± 0.3% at 467 nm, 5.6 ± 0.6% at 673 nm, and 40 ± 4% in the 850–1000 nm band, which mainly results from dramatic brightness increases in restricted latitude bands. When 467-nm HST observations from 1994 to 2002 are added

L. A. Sromovsky; P. M. Fry; S. S. Limaye; K. H. Bainesb

2003-01-01

297

PeRCePCIoNeS De LAS PeRSoNAS VIVIeNDo CoN VIH\\/SIDA SoBRe LoS SeRVICIoS De SALUD Y eL TRATAMIeNTo ANTIRReTRoVIRAL De GRAN ACTIVIDAD: UN eSTUDIo TRANSVeRSAL eN CINCo CIUDADeS DeL PeRÚ  

Microsoft Academic Search

National literature on people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA) perceptions on existing health services they receive is scarce. Objectives: To gather the perceptions of PLWHA on specialized health care services and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study with application of an ad-hoc survey, previously validated, in PLWHA users of the main hospitals that provide HAART in

J. Maziel; Girón V; Eddy R. Segura; Rocío Valverde; Ximena Salazar L; Carlos F. Cáceres

2007-01-01

298

OPIÁCEOS: MECANISMOS DE ACCIÓN, METABOLISMO, Y RELACIÓN CON EL SÍNDROME DE ABSTINENCIA NEONATAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants exposed to certain drugs in utero can become physically dependant on them and after birth they suffer the withdrawal symptoms, this is phenomenon is called neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Infants with NAS have multi-system dysfunction involving the central nervous, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The present review analyses the literature related to opiates consumption by pregnant women and NAS.

José Henry Osorio

2009-01-01

299

Intrinsic Job Satisfaction, Overall Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave the Job among Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined predictors of intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants (NAs). Design and Methods: The study focused on NAs who worked 30 or more hours per week in a nursing home. Data on 2,146 NAs meeting this criterion came from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, the…

Decker, Frederic H.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita

2009-01-01

300

Impact of Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) Programs on Aviator Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the U.S. Navy, there are two main bases where fighter squadrons are based Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana and NAS Lemoore. A belief widely held by those familiar with life at NAS Lemoore is that the paucity of local leisure and recreation opportunities ...

M. J. Schwerin

2002-01-01

301

76 FR 26290 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Chartered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments...EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS...

2011-05-06

302

Intrinsic Job Satisfaction, Overall Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave the Job among Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: We examined predictors of intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants (NAs). Design and Methods: The study focused on NAs who worked 30 or more hours per week in a nursing home. Data on 2,146 NAs meeting this criterion came from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, the…

Decker, Frederic H.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita

2009-01-01

303

Assessing the Progress of New American Schools: A Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a data-collection plan for addressing these questions: (1) What were the New American Schools (NAS) like before they implemented their restructuring design efforts? (2) How have these evolved over time? (3) Are the critical components of the NAS designs being implemented across a wide array of schools? (4) Do the NAS designs…

Berends, Mark

304

The impact of novel therapeutic agents before and after frontline autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Background Novel agents (NAs) such as thalidomide and bortezomib have been administered in combination with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) to effectively treat multiple myeloma (MM). However, whether NAs perform better as induction treatments prior to transplantation, or as post-transplant maintenance therapies remains unclear. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 106 consecutive patients with MM who underwent ASCT within 1 year of diagnosis as first-line therapy. Results Eighty-seven (82.1%) patients received NAs before ASCT, whereas 68 (64.2%) received NAs after ASCT. NAs were administered to each patient as follows: before ASCT alone (N=29, 27.4%), after ASCT alone (N=10, 9.4%) or both before and after ASCT (N=58, 54.7%). High-quality rates before and after ASCT were significantly higher for patients who received NAs as induction treatment compared to those who did not receive pre-transplant NAs. At a median follow-up of 37.9 months, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 42.8% and 70.2%, respectively. The PFS and OS were significantly higher in patients with NAs as post-transplant maintenance treatment (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively), but not in those with NAs as pre-transplant induction treatment. The PFS of patients with NAs before and after ASCT was higher than that of the patients with NAs as induction therapy alone (P=0.05). Age, serum ?2-microglobulin level, complete response after ASCT, and NA use post-ASCT independently predicted survival outcomes. Conclusion These findings suggest that integration of NAs post-ASCT could benefit patients with MM undergoing ASCT. Induction therapy using NAs also improves high-quality response rates before and after ASCT.

Lee, Sung-Eun; Yahng, Seung-Ah; Cho, Byung-Sik; Eom, Ki-Seong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Seok; Cho, Seok-Goo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Park, Chong-Won

2013-01-01

305

Lidar observations of sporadic Na layers over Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on lidar measurements between March and September 2001, the characteristics of sporadic Na layers (Nas layers) over Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E) are presented. Nas layers were observed on 29 occasions from 275 h observational data. They tended to show a seasonal variation with a maximum occurrence rate in July. The maximum Na density was 24080 cm-3 which was comparable with those observed at low and high latitudes. Different from the observations at all other sites over the world, most Nas layers over Wuhan tended to occur around the peak altitudes of the normal Na layers (~92 km). However, a Nas layer was observed at 112.9 km altitude. The formation of the Nas layers over Wuhan generally needed a longer time than those at low and high latitudes. The formation processes usually consisted of consecutive density enhancement bursts. The Nas layers often exhibited broader layer widths than those at low and high latitudes.

Yi, Fan; Zhang, Shaodong; Zeng, Haijian; He, Yujin; Yue, Xianchang; Liu, Jingbo; Lv, Hongfang; Xiong, Donghui

2002-05-01

306

Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

Stewart, Valley J.

2001-04-01

307

A Rede Interartística Música-Cinema-Arte Seqüencial- Literatura em The Adventures of Lucky Pierre  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO : Este trabalho examina o romance hiperficcional The Adven- tures of Lucky Pierre, de Robert Coover, como território interartístico no qual a escala musical serve de ponto de partida\\/fuga para o entrecruza- mento de linguagens, convenções e materialidades de outros campos ar- tísticos. Entre eles, o cinema, a arte seqüencial dos quadrinhos e a lite- ratura. A série de

Isabella Vieira de Bem

308

Caracterización de tintas de titanio dopadas con óxidos metálicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se prepararon tintas de Diisopropoxido de titanio bis(acetilacetonato) por el método sol-gel para aplicar en la elaboración de nanoestructuras mediante la técnica de escritura directa. Esta técnica permite estructurar materiales con alto índice de refracción a escala micro y nanométrica en tres dimensiones mediante extrusión, para elaborar cristales fotónicos. El tratamiento de las nanoestructuras extruidas a temperaturas elevadas para transformarlas

C. R. TUBÍO; F. GUITIÁN; A. GIL

309

EL DISCURSO RACIALIZADOR: DISCRIMINACIÓN Y AUTOCTONÍA EN LA ARGENTINA DEL BICENTENARIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

La dinámica del prejuicio y el racismo son fenómenos que no necesariamente deben ser estudiados con grandes y complejas escalas tomando grandes muestras de población o en experimentos de laboratorio controlados. Una perspectiva micro-social y etnográfica precisa de 30 minutos y “no intrusiva” no sólo puede ser suficiente metodológicamente en el estudio de estos problemas sino a veces esclarecedora. El

Maximiliano Korstanje

2009-01-01

310

Análisis del metabolismo energético y de materiales de Brasil, Chile y Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo presenta una aplicación de las metodologías de Análisis de Flujo de Materiales y Análisis Integrado Multi- Escala del Metabolismo Social (MSIASM, siglas en inglés) para la caracterización de modelos de desarrollo económico de Brasil, Chile, y Venezuela, mediante la utilización combinada de datos económicos y de uso de energía y materiales para diferentes sectores y en diversos niveles

Nina Eisenmenger; Jesús Ramos Martín; Heinz Schandl

2007-01-01

311

Síndrome del cuidador de adultos mayores discapacitados y sus implicaciones psicosociales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia del síndrome del cuidador y las características psicosociales de los cuidadores de adultos mayores discapacitados. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio piloto de casos y controles en el Valle del Cauca durante el 2003-2004 para evaluar la funcionalidad familiar (APGAR familiar), la ansiedad y depresión (escala de Goldberg), la presencia de enfermedades (cuidadores y no

ELIANA DUEÑAS; M ARÍA ANGGELINE MARTÍNEZ; B ENJAMÍN MORALES; CLAUDIA MUÑOZ; A NA SOFÍA VIÁFARA; J ULIÁN; A. HERRERA

2006-01-01

312

Estão os Portugueses a ?votar com os pés?? Alguma evidência empírica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como é sabido, os movimentos migratórios à escala regional são fruto de uma diversidade de factores. Sendo entendidos como uma reacção, por parte da população, a desvantagens (inaceitáveis) de natureza económica apresentadas pela região de origem, estes movimentos demográficos constituem um importante exemplo da chamada ?votação com os pés?. Claramente, a inexistência (ou a mera ineficácia) de políticas regionais que

António Caleiro

2005-01-01

313

Liderança, Coesão e Satisfação em Equipas Desportivas: Um Estudo com Atletas Portugueses de Futebol e Futsal Leadership, Cohesion and Satisfaction in Sporting Teams: A Study with Portuguese Football and Futsal Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho foi realizado com 200 atletas de duas modalidades (futebol e futsal) incluídos em vários escalões desportivos e analisa a liderança dos treinadores e a coesão e satisfação dos praticantes. Para tal, utilizámos um protocolo de avaliação, com instrumentos de avaliação da liderança (Escala Multidimensional de Liderança, que avalia seis dimensões), da coesão (Questionário de Coesão em Equipas

A. Rui Gomes; Ana Patricia Pereira; Ana Raquel Pinheiro

314

ImpactTV: Controlling Media With Physical Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are comfortable with the notion of remote controls and have been using them to change the settings of their TV sets for a long time. How- ever, as remote controls become more and more complicated due to the escala- tion in complexity of consumer electronic devices, people increasingly find themselves faced with a formidable challenge every time that they

Florian Mueller; Edison Thomaz Jr

315

Reciclagem de sucata de jóias para a recuperação hidrometalúrgica de prata Jewel scrap recycling for the silver hydrometallurgical recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muitos resíduos valiosos gerados na fabricação de jóias se perdem pela falta de conhecimento técnico para a recuperação dos metais preciosos utilizados na sua elaboração. Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados experimentais do uso de uma rota hidrometalúrgica, em escala de bancada laboratorial, para tratar amostras de sucatas de jóias à base de ouro (Au) com teores de prata (Ag) acima

Carol Elizabeth; Barrientos Rojas; Afonso Henriques Martins

2009-01-01

316

The Politics of Re-Territorialisation: Space, Scale and Teachers as a Professional Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este artigo, utilizando escala, espaço e território como quadro conceitual, busca explorar a mudança das relações de classe social para o professorado como resultado da reestruturação, juntamente com as implicações estratégicas das lutas políticas organizadas pelo magistério e os meios tradicionais de apresentação de seus interesses. Inicia, primeiro, com alguns comentários breves sobre globalização e reestruturação do estado e

Susan L. Robertson

2002-01-01

317

EFICIÊNCIA PRODUTIVA DE EMPRESAS DA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS NO BRASIL Grupo de Pesquisa: Estrutura, Evolução e Dinâmica dos Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A indústria de alimentos no Brasil é um setor de g rande importância para a economia brasileira com poucos estudos publicados quanto ao seu desempenho operacional. Este trabalho avalia a eficiência relativa (técnica e de escala) de uma amostra de empresas de diferentes segmentos desta indústria, utilizando-se para tanto o Método DEA. Os segmentos analisados foram: Conglomerados Alimentícios; Óleos

Apresentação Oral-Estrutura; OSCAR TUPY

318

Colze de tennis (tendinosi epicondília externa): tractament esclerosant ecoguiat amb polidocanol. A propòsit de dos casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dos pacients (2 homes de 42 i 55 anys) amb tendinosi epicondília externa dolorosa van ser tractats mitjançant un tractament innovador que es basa en l'esclerosi amb Polidocanol, un agent esclerosant, ecoguiada amb Power Color (PC) mitjançant Doppler color de polidocanol, un agent esclerosant. Després del tractament va haver-hi una marcada reducció del dolor recollida mitjançant una escala analògica visual

Guillermo Álvarez Rey; Ignacio Álvarez Rey; Guillermo Álvarez Bustos

2006-01-01

319

INCLUSÃO ESCOLAR DO PORTADOR DE PARALISIA CEREBRAL: ATITUDES DE PROFESSORES DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL INCLUSION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY IN SCHOOL: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: as atitudes em relação às pessoas com as necessidades especiais representam um dos mais importantes fatores para o sucesso da escola inclusiva. Para avaliar as atitudes do professor quanto à inclusão de portadores de paralisia cerebral (PPC), um questionário com uma escala de atitude foi aplicado em 68 professores de ensino fundamental. Foi evidenciada discordância com relação à inclusão

Claudia GOMES; Altemir José; Gonçalves BARBOSA

2006-01-01

320

Habilidades Sociais e Problemas de Comportamento de Pré- Escolares: Comparando Avaliações de Mães e de Professoras Preschooler's Social Skills and Behavior Problems: Comparison between Mother and Teacher Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este estudo comparou avaliações de mães e professoras, sobre habilidades sociais e problemas de comportamento de crianças, identificadas pelas professoras, como tendo problemas de comportamento. Participaram mães e professoras de 24 crianças com problemas de comportamento e 24 crianças indicadas como sendo socialmente habilidosas. Foram utilizados o Questionário de Comportamentos Socialmente Adequados e a Escala Comportamental Infantil, versões para

Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva; Edna Maria Marturano; Verônica Aparecida Pereira; Jair Wagner de Souza Manfrinato

321

Álgebra musical  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Desde a mais remota antigüidade já se conhecia a importância dos números como elementos integrantes da natureza dos sons musicais. As relações numéricas entre as freqüências dos tons fundamentais das escalas naturais e temperadas são bem conhecidas. O que se pretende mostrar neste trabalho é a profunda relação que as notas musicais possuem com a teoria dos números. Em

W. M. Pontuschka

2008-01-01

322

Medición del Indice de Precios al Consumidor en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba período 2004-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo ha logrado medir el Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC) en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba en el período 2004-2009, valiéndose de la aplicación de la Teoría de los Números Índices a través del Índice de Precios de Laspeyres. La Investigación se justifica porque en la actualidad a escala internacional se manifiesta con bastante regularidad un

Rosalía Martínez Manrique; Yamilet Sardinas Guardarrama; Carlos Manuel Hernández Oro

2011-01-01

323

National airspace system air-ground communications operational concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A requirement for the National Airspace System (NAS) is to provide for air-ground communications, as identified in the NAS System Requirement Specification, NAS-SR-1000. A concept of operations for air-ground communications is presented. Air-ground communications capabilities are described and the relationships are shown between subsystems, facilities, information, and operators\\/users. A common perspective is provided for personnel involved in air-ground communication activities.

William Trent; Rodney Kuhn; Thomas Pickerell

1990-01-01

324

A derivatisation and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry method for the characterisation of naphthenic acids.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are partially uncharacterised complex mixtures of carboxylic acids, resulting from the microbial oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons. They are associated with the fouling of pipelines and process equipment in oil production and with corrosion in oil refineries. As by-products of the rapidly expanding oil (tar) sands industries, NAs are also pollutants and have proved to be toxic to a range of organisms. They also have important beneficial uses as fungicides, tyre additives and, paradoxically, also in the manufacture of corrosion inhibitors. These features make the characterisation of NAs an important goal for analytical chemists. Here we describe the synthesis of amide derivatives of NAs for characterisation by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS(n)). The method was applied to commercially available carboxylic acids, novel synthetic NAs, commercial NAs refined from crude oils, crude oil NAs and Athabasca oil sands NAs. In addition to confirming the number of alicyclic rings and length of alkyl side chain substituents (confirming information from existing methods), the MS(n) results provided further structural information. Most important of these was the finding that bi- to polycyclic acids containing ethanoate side chains, in addition to alkyl substituents, were widespread amongst the oil and oil sands NAs. The latter NAs are known end members of the beta-oxidation of NAs with even carbon number alkanoate chains. Since such NA mixtures are toxic, they should be targets for bioremediation. Bioremediation of NAs can also be monitored better by application of the methods described herein. PMID:18988206

Smith, B E; Rowland, S J

2008-12-01

325

A comparison of job satisfaction among nursing assistants in nursing homes and the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE).  

PubMed

Three hundred forty-nine full-time nursing assistants (NAs) in 5 PACE programs and their neighboring nursing homes were surveyed to assess job satisfaction. There were no significant differences between NAs in the two models of care with respect to demographics, job description, or importance placed on job elements. Job satisfaction, however, was higher among the PACE NAs. PACE NAs reported a significantly higher prevalence of the chance to form close relationships with patients, variety, respect for suggestions by people who make decisions about patient care, the chance to use one's own judgment, the chance to discuss patients with other team members, and respect for choices in assignment type. PMID:10495581

Friedman, S M; Daub, C; Cresci, K; Keyser, R

1999-08-01

326

Growth and characterization of dilute nitride antimonides for long-wavelength optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing data transmission speed can satisfy the high internet bandwidth demand. Although high speeds are utilized in the fiber backbone, the cost of InP-based lasers is too expensive for the home user. The addition of nitrogen to InGaAs, forming GaInNAs, reduces the bandgap and lattice parameter simultaneously, enabling low-cost optoelectronic devices on GaAs operating at 1.3 and 1.55 mum. High-quality GaInNAs growth by molecular beam epitaxy has many challenges. Antimony was added as a surfactant and an incorporated species during growth, forming GaInNAsSb, and a dramatic increase in quality was obtained. GaInNAsSb quantum wells (QWs) have three possible barrier materials. GaAs and GaNAs barriers were used for GaInNAs devices, but GaNAsSb was a new option since antimony was thought to improve all dilute nitrides. Further investigation into the growth parameters, resultant material and optical properties, and band offsets revealed the difficulties of utilizing GaNAsSb for the QW barriers. GaInNAsSb QWs with the three barrier materials were analyzed to determine the advantages and shortcomings of each option. We determined GaAs barriers to be optimal but are more difficult to implement. GaNAs barriers, though not ideal, are the best compromise. Although antimony was considered a panacea for dilute nitride growth, it did not always improve material, as with GaNAsSb. Investigation of antimony's role and proper utilization was performed. GaInNAs, with lower indium content, has garnered attention for solar cell applications, but high concentrations of defects hinder efficiency. Antimony was added to low-indium GaInNAs in hopes of improving the optical quality. Surprisingly, antimony degraded the optical quality. The different behaviors of antimony with high and low indium concentrations were studied and the role of antimony as a reactive surfactant was confirmed. Although antimony is beneficial in certain situations, minimization of antimony incorporation in GaInNAsSb is a key parameter in improving optical quality. In conjunction with these findings and several other discoveries, GaInNAsSb (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers) VCSELs at 1.53 mum were grown. These are the longest wavelength, monolithic, GaAs-based VCSELs to our knowledge. In addition, world-record low-threshold and high-power GaInNAsSb edge emitting lasers operating at 1.55 mum were developed.

Yuen, Homan Bernard

327

Radiometric estimation of water vapor content over Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-channel microwave radiometre (make: Radiometrics Corporation) is installed at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Brazil (22°S). The radiometric output of two channels of the radiometer in the form of brightness temperature at 23.834 GHz and 30 GHz, initially, were used to find out the ambient water vapor content and the non-precipitable cloud liquid water content. The necessary algorithm was developed for the purpose. The best results were obtained using the hinge frequency 23.834 GHz and 30 GHz pair having an r.m.s. error of only 2.64. The same methodology was then adopted exploiting 23.034 GHz and 30 GHz pair. In that case the r.m.s. error was 3.42. These results were then compared with those obtained over Kolkata (22°N), India, by using 22.234 GHz and 31.4 GHz radiometric data. This work conclusively suggests the use of a frequency should not be at the water vapor resonance line. Instead, while measuring the vapor content for separation of vapor and cloud liquid, one of them should be a few GHz left or right from the resonance line i.e., at 23.834 GHz and the other one should be around 30 GHz.

Karmakar, P. K.; Maiti, M.; Sett, S.; Angelis, C. F.; Machado, L. A. T.

2011-11-01

328

Climatic shift in patterns of shallow clouds over the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon rain forest has experienced dramatic changes in the past 50 years due to active deforestation. As of 2001, 15% of the 4,000,000 km2 Brazilian Amazon has been deforested [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), 2003]; each year, agricultural exploitation claims an estimated 13,000 km2 of tropical forest [Achard et al., 2002]. In this paper we investigate the climatic effects caused by the observed change of the physical characteristics of the land surface (i.e., increased surface albedo, decreased root-zone depth, decreased surface roughness and decreased leaf-area index). More precisely, we examine the spatial correspondence of shallow cumulus clouds with deforestation. Through the creation of an 8-year record of thrice daily shallow cumulus cloud cover at 1 km resolution from multi-spectral satellite imagery, we quantitatively show the existence of a significant climatic shift in shallow cloudiness patterns associated with deforestation. This shift manifests itself as an enhancement of shallow cumuli over deforested patches, and has potentially important climatic, hydrologic and ecological implications.

Chagnon, F. J. F.; Bras, R. L.; Wang, J.

2004-12-01

329

Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

2003-08-01

330

An Analysis of the Effects of Net-Centric Operations Using Multi-Agent Adaptive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Airspace System (NAS) is a resource managed in the public good. Equity in NAS access, and use for private, commercial and government purposes is coordinated by regulations and made possible by procedures, and technology. Researchers have documented scenarios in which the introduction of new concepts-of-operations and technologies has…

Calderon-Meza, Guillermo

2011-01-01

331

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This

D. A. Brownson; D. J. Hanson; H. S. Blackman

1993-01-01

332

Evaluation of weapons-grade plutonium disposition options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving high levels of plutonium annihilation. Evaluations were performed

D. A. Brownson; D. J. Hanson

1993-01-01

333

77 FR 48469 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seals with Part Number (P/N) MS28775-XXX or a Part Number That Cannot Be Identified...the seals installed have P/N MS28775-XXX or a part number that cannot be identified...using a new O- ring seal P/N NAS1611-XXX or P/N NAS1611-XXXA, in...

2012-08-14

334

78 FR 27015 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seals with Part Number (P/N) MS28775-XXX or a Part Number that Cannot Be Identified...the seals installed have P/N MS28775-XXX or a part number that cannot be identified...using a new O- ring seal P/N NAS1611-XXX or P/N NAS1611-XXXA, in...

2013-05-09

335

GUIDANCE ON IDENTIFYING THE APPROPRIATE AGE GROUPS FOR ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE AND RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1993 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report "Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children" highlights important differences between children and adults with respect to risks posed by pesticides. Some of the principles in the NAS report provided the foundation for the Fo...

336

A randomised controlled trial of morphine versus phenobarbitone for neonatal abstinence syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has increased 10-fold over the last decade in Glasgow. In the Princess Royal Maternity Hospital, it now accounts for 17% of special care baby unit (SCBU) admissions. Objective: To compare opiate replacement therapy (morphine sulphate) with the present standard treatment (phenobarbitone) for management of NAS. The primary study end point was duration

L Jackson; A Ting; S Mckay; P Galea; C Skeoch

2005-01-01

337

Future vision of globally harmonized national airspace system with concepts of operations beyond year 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

As laid out in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Operational Evolution Plan (EOP), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community are planning to make significant investment in NAS improvements over the next ten years. These enhancements involve implementation of communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) technologies, and automation of ground systems in order to improve efficiency, safety, capacity and

Satish C. Mohleji; Paul A. Ostwald

2003-01-01

338

Cost–utility analysis in educational needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational needs assessments (hereafter NAs) are inattentive to cost considerations and are frequently dominated by elite stakeholder groups. In this article I make a case for adopting a cost–utility approach, illustrating the argument with data generated in a NA of central library services in a Canadian school district. Using survey data from eight stakeholder groups, I found that (1) NAs

John A. Ross

2008-01-01

339

Geoengineering to reduce global warning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a possible course of action to offset global warming and its side effects, the National Academy of Sciences recommends more research and development projects to better understand the potential of geoengineering options. The recommendations are part of ``Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming,'' by the NAS released on April 10. The report is one of the products of the NAS

Susan Bush

1991-01-01

340

Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Argument for National Research Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recently published voluntary guidelines for human embryonic stem (hES) cell research. The NAS guidelines propose two levels of oversight. At the local level, research institutions are to create Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight (ESCRO) committees with a mandate to assess the scientific merit and ethical acceptability of hES cell research. At the national

FRANÇOISE BAYLIS; JASON SCOTT ROBERT

2006-01-01

341

Shifts in Root-Associated Microbial Communities of Typha Latifolia Growing in Naphthenic Acids and Relationship to Plant Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of organic acid compounds released during the extraction of crude oil from oil sands operations. The accumulation of toxic NAs in tailings pond water (TPW) is of significant environmental concern, and phytoremediation using constructed wetlands is one remediation option being assessed. Since root-associated microorganisms are an important factor during phytoremediation of organic compounds,

Lori A. Phillips; Sarah A. Armstrong; John V. Headley; Charles W. Greer; James J. Germida

2010-01-01

342

The Predictive Validity of Infant Assessments in Rural Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavioral development of rural Guatemalan infants was assessed shortly after birth on a Neonatal Assessment Scale (NAS) and at 6-, 15-, and 24-months-of-age on a Composite Infant Scale (CIS). Summary variables based on NAS performance poorly predicted later assessed performance even as recently as six months after birth. The CIS modestly…

Lasky, Robert E.; And Others

1981-01-01

343

System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) Demonstration Security Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

System-wide information management (SWIM) is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) network-centric environment that facilitates software application integration in the National Airspace System (NAS). Built on a set of five core service types - interfaces, registries, message brokers, information assurance and system management - SWIM accelerates NAS evolution by defining a secure common infrastructure for application integration and a framework for

Bob Stephens

2006-01-01

344

Bold Plans for School Restructuring: The New American Schools Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1991, the New American Schools (NAS) Development Corporation was founded by a group of business and foundation leaders interested in investing in innovative designs for school transformation. This book describes the first 3 years of development and evaluation of 9 NAS whole-school restructuring designs. The designs were very diverse, as were…

Stringfield, Sam, Ed.; Ross, Steven, M., Ed.; Smith, Lana, Ed.

345

Piecewise Network Awareness Service for Wireless\\/Mobile Pervasive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a piecewise framework for network awareness service (NAS) for wireless\\/mobile pervasive computing. We investigate how piecewise consideration of wired and wireless elements of the framework architecture benefits service advertisement and discovery and network-awareness techniques. We also discuss scalability of the NAS framework with respect to platform computing capabilities. The framework is suitable for a wide range of

Liang Cheng; Ivan Marsic

2002-01-01

346

Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone, an indicator of parasympathetic neuroregulation, provides a marker for autonomic dysregulation subsequently expressed as NAS in prenatally opioid-exposed newborns. Methods Heart period (HP) and cardiac vagal tone (V) were derived from electrocardiogram data collected from 64 methadone-exposed infants on postnatal days 1 and 3. The postpartum NAS course was assessed serially. Results Infants with lower V on day 1 had significantly higher NAS symptomatology on day 3. Boys had more severe NAS symptoms than girls through the first 4 days of life and, among infants receiving pharmacologic treatment for NAS, boys required longer treatment course and hospitalizations. Greater poly-drug exposure, detected through toxicology screening throughout pregnancy, and cocaine use in particular, were associated with lower V and shorter HP (faster heart rate) in newborns. Multiple regression models accounted for 25 to 35% of the variance in NAS symptoms and duration of hospitalization in methadone-exposed infants. Significant predictors included infant sex, SSRI/SNRI use, and cigarette smoking. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis of a biologic vulnerability of autonomic regulatory functioning in methadone-exposed infants and greater male infant vulnerability to maternal methadone use.

Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Elko, Andrea; Velez, Martha

2010-01-01

347

Genetic regulation of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al.  

PubMed Central

We isolated Mu dI1734 insertion mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that were unable to assimilate nitrate or nitrite as the sole nitrogen source during aerobic growth (Nas- phenotype). The mutants were not altered in respiratory (anaerobic) nitrate and nitrite reduction or in general nitrogen control. The mutations were linked and thus defined a single locus (nas) containing genes required for nitrate assimilation. beta-Galactosidase synthesis in nas+/phi(nas-lacZ) merodiploid strains was induced by nitrate or nitrite and was inhibited by exogenous ammonia or by anaerobiosis. beta-Galactosidase synthesis in phi(nas-lacZ) haploid (Nas-) strains was nearly constitutive during nitrogen-limited aerobic growth and uninducible during anaerobic growth. A general nitrogen control regulatory mutation (ntrB4) allowed nitrate induction of phi(nas-lacZ) expression during anaerobic growth. This and other results suggest that the apparent anaerobic inhibition of phi(nas-lacZ) expression was due to general nitrogen control, exerted in response to ammonia generated by anaerobic (respiratory) nitrate reduction.

Cali, B M; Micca, J L; Stewart, V

1989-01-01

348

Use of the National Airspace System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of our audit of the use of the National Airspace System (NAS). The House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure requested this audit to provide policymakers with a common understanding of who uses the NAS as they c...

2008-01-01

349

Estudo-piloto com clozapina em hospital público: resultados de um ano de acompanhamento Clozapine pilot study in a public hospital: one-year follow-up results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Estudo-piloto prospectivo e naturalístico para avaliação da efetividade e segurança do uso da clozapina em pacientes esquizofrênicos crônicos resistentes, em tratamento num hospital psiquiátrico público - Instituto Municipal Nise da Silveira, localizado no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Método: Foram tratados com clozapina, por um período de um ano, monitorados com hemogramas semanais nas 18 primeiras semanas e mensais nas

Carlos Eduardo da Rocha

350

Shifts in root-associated microbial communities of Typha latifolia growing in naphthenic acids and relationship to plant health.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of organic acid compounds released during the extraction of crude oil from oil sands operations. The accumulation of toxic NAs in tailings pond water (TPW) is of significant environmental concern, and phytoremediation using constructed wetlands is one remediation option being assessed. Since root-associated microorganisms are an important factor during phytoremediation of organic compounds, this study investigated the impact of NAs on the microbial communities associated with the macrophyte Typha latifolia (cattail). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the impact of NAs on microbial communities was niche dependent, with endophytic communities being the most stable and bulk water communities being the least stable. The type of NA used was significant to microbial response, with commercial NAs causing greater adverse changes than TPW NAs. In general, plant beneficial bacteria such as diazotrophs were favoured in cattails grown in TPW NAs, while potentially deleterious bacteria such as denitrifying Dechlorospirillum species increased in commercial NA treatments. These findings suggest that NAs may affect plant health by impacting root-associated microbial communities. A better understanding of these impacts may allow researchers to optimize those microbial communities that support plant health, and thus further optimize wetland treatment systems. PMID:21166345

Phillips, Lori A; Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Greer, Charles W; Germida, James J

351

Communication and the future of air traffic management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of the United States' National Airspace System (NAS) must grow to handle the passenger demands that are projected over the next 25 years. Today the NAS is constrained by a host of operational and technical issues. The FAA's operational evolution plan (OEP) addresses a 10-year horizon and identifies modernization activities that will yield a 30% increase in capacity

Mary Ellen Miller; Steven P Dougherty

2004-01-01

352

Balancing Air Traffic Control workload across dual area navigation arrival procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Area navigation (RNAV) is a key component for improving the efficiency and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). As such, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been implementing RNAV standard instrument departures (SIDs) and standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) at airports throughout the NAS. An increasingly more common aspect of the implementation process involves a Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation of

Justin Ferrante; C. Johnson

2009-01-01

353

Re-analysis of the nuclear winter phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An analysis of the report of the (U.S.) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on atmospheric effects of a nuclear exchange leads to conclusions that differ from those of the NAS and of the earlier “TTAPS” and “AMBIO” studies. Any cooling of the earth's surface is likely to beshort-lived because of rapid removal of the smoke clouds originating from nuclear

S. F. Singer

1988-01-01

354

Factors that affect the degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands wastewater by indigenous microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of wastewater generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands is believed to be due to naphthenic acids (NAs). To determine the factors that affect the rate of degradation of representative NAs in microcosms containing wastewater and the acute toxicity of treated and untreated wastewater, the effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and phosphate addition on

June W. S. Lai; Linda J. Pinto; Eberhard Kiehlmann; Leah I. Bendell-Young

1996-01-01

355

Spiritual Wellness as an Issue in Navy Education and Training: A Literature Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This literature review was conducted as part of a development research project for a poster presentation on Religion and Health for the NAS Whiting Field Health Fair in May 1996. This presentation was prepared by the NAS Whiting Field chaplains. In conduc...

J. C. Duncan

1996-01-01

356

Wake turbulence avoidance automation: Evaluation of feasibility and impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wake turbulence encounters are a significant concern to pilots flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) has worked with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to increase efficiency and capacity in the NAS that will come with the FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). By increasing efficiency and capacity, there

Steven L. Estes; Marshall E. Koch; Clark R. Lunsford; Andrew S. Mendolia

2011-01-01

357

Infrared reflectivity spectra of gas-source molecular beam epitaxy grown dilute InNxAs1-x/InP (001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational spectra of gas-source molecular beam epitaxy grown dilute InNxAs1-x/InP (001) alloys are obtained using a Fourier-transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. A triply degenerate NAs local vibrational mode of Td-symmetry is observed near 438 cm-1 corresponding to the In-N bond energy. The analysis of composition dependent infrared reflectivity spectra in InNAs has predicted a two-phonon-mode behavior. In In(Ga)-rich GaInNAs alloys the observed splitting of the NAs local mode into a doublet for the NAs-Ga1(In1)In3(Ga3) pair-defect of C3v-symmetry is consistent with our simulated results based on a sophisticated Green's function theory.

Talwar, Devki N.; Yang, Tzuen-Rong; Hsiung Lin, Hao; Chuan Feng, Zhe

2013-02-01

358

A model for the band gap energy of the N-rich GaN1-xAsx (0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a model for the band gap energy of the N-rich GaNAs (0NAs (0.95NAs, The parameters describing the variation of the CBM and the VBM in the N-rich GaNAs are obtained by fitting the experimental data. For the As-rich GaNAs, the parameters in the model are obtained by fitting the experimental data of the band gap energy. It is found that the band gap evolution of the N-rich energy is different from that of the As-rich band gap energy. The model may be used to calculate the band gap energy of other dilute group III-N-V nitrides.

Zhao, Chuan-zhen; Li, Na-Na; Wei, Tong; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lu, Ke-Qing; Xie, Zi-Li

2012-12-01

359

Órbitas caóticas en satelites galácticos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En trabajos anteriores investigamos las órbitas de estrellas que forman los satelites galácticos utilizando análisis de frecuencias. Su uso estaba plenamente justificado por su velocidad y la gran información que brinda, amén de haber dado resultados muy concordantes con los exponentes de Liapunov. Sin embargo, más recientemente, encontramos algunos problemas en la utilización del análisis de frecuencias en sistemas de referencia rotantes (como se utilizan para los satélites), por lo que en este trabajo rehicimos nuestras investigaciones previas utilizando exclusivamente exponentes de Liapunov. Algunas conclusiones anteriores se han confirmado, en tanto que otras deben modificarse. Además, los nuevos resultados muestran que las escalas de tiempo de los procesos caóticos en los satélites galácticos son comparables a, o más cortas que, las escalas de tiempo de otros procesos dinámicos característicos de estos objetos.

Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.

360

DESCRIPCIÓN DE LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN ESTUDIANTES DE PSICOLOGÍA DE UNA INSTITUCIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation consists describes the social skills (codes as HHSS) in students of Psychology of an institution of higher education.The measurement of the same ones was made with the Escalas Multidimensionales de la Expresión Social, motor part (EMES-M) and cognitive part (EMES-C) (Caballo, 1987, 1999) in its version adapted for Colombian college students population developed by Gutiérrez (2000). The

ÓSCAR MAURICIO; GALLEGO VILLA

361

Phase I Clinical Trial of Oral Curcumin: Biomarkers of Systemic Activity and Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant derived from a dietary spice, exhibits anticancer activity in rodents and in humans. Its efficacy appears to be related to induction of glutathione S-transferase enzymes, inhibition of prostag- landin E2 (PGE2) production, or suppression of oxidative DNA adduct (M1G) formation. We designed a dose-escala- tion study to explore the pharmacology of curcumin in humans. Fifteen patients

Ricky A. Sharma; Stephanie A. Euden; Sharon L. Platton; Darren N. Cooke; Aisha Shafayat; Heather R. Hewitt; Timothy H. Marczylo; Bruno Morgan; David Hemingway; Simon M. Plummer; Munir Pirmohamed; Andreas J. Gescher; William P. Steward

2004-01-01

362

Simulación numérica del transporte iónico en electrodeposición en condiciones más realísticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El fenómeno de deposición electroquímica ramificada (ECD) en celdas delgadas presenta dos escalas que\\u000adifieren notablemente: una zona de casi neutralidad que ocupa la mayor parte del espacio y una capa límite\\u000ade carga varios órdenes de magnitud menor a aquélla. En la capa límite se produce la mayor parte de la\\u000acaída de potencial y de las variaciones de

Guillermo Santiago; Alejandro Peuriot; Guillermo Marshall; Fernando Molina

1970-01-01

363

Amelioration of binge eating by nucleus accumbens shell deep brain stimulation in mice involves D2 receptor modulation  

PubMed Central

Hedonic over-consumption contributing to obesity involves altered activation within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) has been implicated in reward-seeking behaviors, such as binge eating, which contributes to treatment resistance in obesity (Wise, 2012). Direct modulation of the NAS with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure currently under investigation in humans for the treatment of major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction, may also be effective in ameliorating binge eating. Therefore, we examined the ability of DBS of the NAS to block this behavior in mice. c-Fos immunoreactivity was assessed as a marker of DBS-mediated neuronal activation. NAS DBS was found to reduce binge eating, and increased c-Fos levels in this region. DBS of the dorsal striatum had no influence on this behavior, demonstrating anatomical specificity for this effect. The dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, attenuated the action of DBS, while the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH-23390, was ineffective, suggesting that dopamine signaling involving D2 receptors underlies the effect of NAS DBS. To determine the potential translational relevance to the obese state, chronic NAS DBS was also examined in diet-induced obese mice, and was found to acutely reduce caloric intake and induce weight loss. Taken together, these findings support the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine pathways in the hedonic mechanisms contributing to obesity, and the efficacy of NAS DBS to modulate this system.

Halpern, Casey H.; Tekriwal, Anand; Santollo, Jessica; Keating, Jeffrey G.; Wolf, John A.; Daniels, Derek; Bale, Tracy L.

2013-01-01

364

Impact of ozonation on naphthenic acids speciation and toxicity of oil sands process-affected water to Vibrio fischeri and mammalian immune system.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is the water contained in tailings impoundment structures in oil sands operations. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. In this study, ozonation followed by biodegradation was used to remediate OSPW. The impacts of the ozone process evolution on the naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation and acute toxicity were evaluated. Ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used to preliminarily separate isomeric and homologous species. The results showed limited effects of the ozone reactor size on the treatment performance in terms of contaminant removal. In terms of NAs speciation, high reactivity of NAs with higher number of carbons and rings was only observed in a region of high reactivity (i.e., utilized ozone dose lower than 50 mg/L). It was also found that nearly 0.5 mg/L total NAs was oxidized per mg/L of utilized ozone dose, at utilized ozone doses lower than 50 mg/L. IMS showed that ozonation was able to degrade NAs, oxidized NAs, and sulfur/nitrogenated NAs. Complete removal of toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri was achieved after ozonation followed by 28-day biodegradation period. In vitro and in vivo assays indicated that ozonation reduced the OSPW toxicity to mice. PMID:23683033

Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Pun, Jonathan; Martin, Jonathan W; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2013-05-31

365

Effect of molecular structure on the relative reactivity of naphthenic acids in the UV/H?O? advanced oxidation process.  

PubMed

The large volume of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) produced by the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada, is an environmental concern. The toxicity of OSPW has been attributed to a complex mixture of naturally occurring acids, including naphthenic acids (NAs). Highly cyclic or branched NAs are highly biopersistent in tailings ponds, thus understanding structure-reactivity relationship for NAs is very important for OSPW reclamation. In this study, we hypothesized that large, branched and cyclic NAs may be better oxidized in the UV/H(2)O(2) process than small, linear and acyclic NAs. Relative rate measurements using binary mixtures of model NA compounds confirmed that reactivity favored compounds with more carbons, and also favored NAs with one saturated ring, relative to the corresponding linear NA. However, for model compound with three rings, no increased reactivity was observed relative to monocyclic NA. UV/H(2)O(2) treatment of OSPW confirmed our findings with model compounds, indicating that the compounds with more carbons are favored for degradation. However, increasing the number of rings (or double bond equivalents) in OSPW NAs did not show any clear structure-reactivity. Microbial degradation studies of the UV/H(2)O(2) treated OSPW should be conducted to examine the overall benefit of this treatment for the real applications. PMID:22934634

Afzal, Atefeh; Drzewicz, Przemys?aw; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Chen, Yuan; Martin, Jonathan W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-09-12

366

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

Corbus, D.

1992-09-01

367

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 2, Battery recycling and disposal  

SciTech Connect

Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

Corbus, D.

1992-09-01

368

Commercial naphthenic acids and the organic fraction of oil sands process water induce different effects on pro-inflammatory gene expression and macrophage phagocytosis in mice.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are believed to be the major toxic component of oil sands process water (OSPW). Different OSPW preparations have distinct NA compositions, and additional organics, that differ from the commercial NAs (C-NAs) often used for toxicology studies. To evaluate whether C-NAs are an adequate model to study OSPW toxicity in complex organisms, we compared the effects of C-NAs and the extractable organic fraction of OSPW (OSPW-OF) on mice immune mechanisms. Mice were orally exposed to different C-NA doses, or OSPW-OF at the same NA dose, for up to 8 weeks, and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in different organs was determined using quantitative PCR. C-NAs and OSPW-OF altered the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, inducing either expression down-regulation or up-regulation, depending on the organ examined and time after exposure. The time at which gene expression alterations occurred, and the specific sets of genes whose expression was altered, were very different between animals exposed to C-NAs or to OSPW-OF. We evaluated the ability of mouse peritoneal macrophages to phagocytose yeast cell wall, as a measure of the ability of mice to mount a central function of the innate immune response. Phagocytosis was significantly reduced in animals exposed to C-NAs, but enhanced in mice exposed to OSPW-OF. Our results indicate that studies using C-NAs may not necessarily reflect the possible effects induced in animals by process water from tailing ponds. PMID:21607992

Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Pun, Jonathan; Hodgkinson, Jordan; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas A; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Smith, Daniel W; Martin, Jonathan W; Belosevic, Miodrag

2011-05-24

369

The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.  

PubMed

Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

2011-07-27

370

LISA 8 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee LISA 8 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Organising Committee (SOC) Tom Abel, Stanford University Odylio Aguiar, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Tal Alexander, Wizemann Institute Peter Bender, University of Colorado Pierre Binetruy, APC - College de France Sasha Buchman, Stanford University Robert Byer, Stanford University Manuela Campanelli, University of Texas Joan Centrella, NASA/Goddard Massimo Cerdonio, University of Padova Eugenio Coccia, University of Roma-2 Neil Cornish, Montana State University Michael Cruise, University of Birmingham Curt Cutler, NASA/JPL Karsten Danzmann, University of Hannover Sam Finn, Penn State University Jens Gundlach, NPL Gerhard Heinzel, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik Craig Hogan, University of Washington Jim Hough, University of Glasgow Scott Hughes, MIT Oliver Jennrich, ESTEC Philippe Jetzer, University Zurich Seiji Kawamura, National Observatory, Japan Alberto Lobo, ICE-CSIC and IEEC Avi Loeb, Harvard University Piero Madau, Lick Observatory Yannick Mellier, IAP, Paris Peter Michelson, Stanford University Guido Mueller, University of Florida Sterl Phinney, Caltech Tom Prince, NASA/JPL Doug Richstone, University of Michigan Bernard Schutz, AEI Potsdam Tuck Stebbins, NASA/Goddard Tim Sumner, Imperial College, London Ke-Xun Sun, Stanford University Kip Thorne, Caltech Michele Vallisneri, NASA/JPL Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham Jean-Yves Vinet, OCA, Nice Stefano Vitale, University of Trento Rai Weiss, MIT Nick White, NASA/Goddard Local Organising Committee (LOC) Sasha Buchman (Stanford University) Robert Byer (Stanford University) Sara Charbonneau-Lefort (Stanford University) Nancy Christianson (Stanford University) John Conklin (Stanford University) Dan DeBra (Stanford University) Jan Goebel (Stanford University) Vivian Drew (Stanford University) Ke-Xun Sun (Stanford University) Lucy Zhou (Stanford University) Andrea Zoellner (Stanford University)

2011-05-01

371

An early freeze in southern Brazil in April 1999 and its NWP guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold air outbreak occurred in the third week of April 1999 in southern Brazil. A synoptic study of this rare event is undertaken. A surface high pressure cell in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile slowly built up and moved eastward on 14 April. It started crossing the Andes, acquiring the characteristic shape of a bean on 15th, and separated into two cells later in the day. The cell on the lee side of the mountains moved gradually northwards over central South America affecting northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and southern Brazil. The temperature fell 15°C in the state of Mato Grosso (about 15°S). In southern Brazil temperatures below freezing were registered in some places on the 17th and 18th and frost occurred in many states. There was snowfall in the uplands of Santa Catarina on the 17th, and such an early snow had not been recorded for 30 years. Baroclinic synoptic wave intensification followed by surface low development in association with a cut-off low formation in the middle and upper troposphere were responsible for strong surface southerlies over Argentina on the 16th and 17th. Cold air advection by the southerlies in the eastern sector of the high-pressure centre was responsible for the northward projection of the high pressure cell east of the Andes. The whole event was well predicted by the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (CPTEC/INPE) operational global and regional models with lead times of 120 and 60 hours respectively

Satyamurty, Prakki; Ferreira Bustamante Fonseca, Josiane; Bottino, Marcus Jorge; Seluchi, Marcelo E.; Maciel Lourenço, Maria Crstina; Gonçalves de Gonçalves, Luis Gustavo

2002-03-01

372

Needs-Capabilities Assessment of the Nashua Corporation Planning Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is one element of a structured group effort directed towards researching the planning methodologies of approximately thirty corporations of varied size structure, and industry. In particular, this study examines the planning approach of the Nas...

H. D. Ramm

1977-01-01

373

41 CFR 102-3.40 - What types of committees or groups are not covered by the Act and this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION GENERAL...3-FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT What Policies Apply...Federal Advisory Committee Management part: (a) Committees...the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) or the...

2013-01-01

374

AWOS Data Acquisition System (ADAS) Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) Integration and OTE Operational Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) Data Acquisition System (ADAS) is a planned element of the National Airspace System (NAS) modernization program. The objective of the ADAS is to provide collection, processing, archiving, and distribution of...

M. Greco E. Hoover J. Stratton P. Sweeney E. Schlain

1994-01-01

375

NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has ...

A. Jessup C. Joyce C. T. Howell F. Jones H. Verstynen J. Mielnik P. Sugden

2010-01-01

376

76 FR 21099 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed In National Academy of Sciences Reports on Gulf War...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...committee established to provide research recommendations to VA, indicated...unclear, and recommended further research. These findings support the...post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and...Gulf War is causally related to PTSD. The NAS update committee...

2011-04-14

377

75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fuel efficiency study and literature review.\\33\\ The NAS was to assess the feasibility...preamble discussed at length why NHTSA was considering it important...final rule an explanation why that alternative was not adopted. This...

2010-03-30

378

Risk Assessment Method to Support Modification of Airfield Separation Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modernization and complexity of the National Airspace System (NAS) have increased considerably in the last four decades, and its components require continuous improvements to increase capacity and safety. Airports are one of the main components of thi...

H. Shirazi J. W. Hall M. Ayres R. Carvalho R. David R. Speir Y. R. Huang

2011-01-01

379

Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study. Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report...

E. M. Hunter

1986-01-01

380

Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study. Volume 2. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Volume 2 (Technical Report) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report ...

E. M. Hunter T. Driggers R. Jorasch

1986-01-01

381

Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study. Volume 3. Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Volume 3 (Addendum) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study Program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents...

E. M. Hunter T. Driggers R. Jorasch

1986-01-01

382

21 CFR 524.1580e - Nitrofurazone ointment with butacaine sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indications for use. For prevention or treatment of surface bacterial infections of ears, wounds, burns, and cutaneous ulcers of dogs, cats, and horses.1 1 These conditions are NAS/NRC reviewed and deemed effective. Applications for...

2013-04-01

383

41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - 3-Key Points and Principles  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? Pt. 102-3, Subpt. E, App. A Appendix...of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) to adopt separate procedures for...

2010-07-01

384

41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? § 102-3.180 What does this subpart cover...of Sciences (NAS) or the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA), if such advice or recommendations...

2009-07-01

385

41 CFR 102-3.185 - What does this subpart require agencies to do?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? § 102-3.185 What does this subpart require...of Sciences (NAS) or the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) under an agreement between the...

2010-07-01

386

41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? § 102-3.180 What does this subpart cover...of Sciences (NAS) or the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA), if such advice or recommendations...

2010-07-01

387

41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - 3-Key Points and Principles  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? Pt. 102-3, Subpt. E, App. A Appendix...of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) to adopt separate procedures for...

2009-07-01

388

41 CFR 102-3.185 - What does this subpart require agencies to do?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? § 102-3.185 What does this subpart require...of Sciences (NAS) or the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) under an agreement between the...

2009-07-01

389

BK020032 Review Memo  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... To: File BK020032 Device: NGTL Automation System (NAS) Sponsor: American Red Cross Blood Services Contact: Stephen Kassapian, Director ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

390

21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...caused by organisms susceptible to neomycin and to reduce smooth muscle contractions.1 1 These conditions are NAS/NRC...

2013-04-01

391

Collision Avoidance Operational Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An operational concept is presented for collision avoidance services which will be in place upon implementation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Airspace System (NAS) Plan. This operational concept only discusses the ground-base porti...

M. Sharma

1989-01-01

392

Improved Magnetic Particle Inspection of Small Threaded Fasteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic particle inspection is required for over 100 types of threaded fasteners used at Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied Corporation. Most are purchased screws and bolts made to AN, MS, and NAS specifications. These specifications invariably requir...

J. A. Brunk

1986-01-01

393

Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1991-11-01

394

14 CFR 234.4 - Reporting of on-time performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Minutes of delay attributed to extreme weather, if any. (19) Minutes of delay attributed... Code AâAir Carrier BâExtreme Weather CâNational Aviation System (NAS...maintenance, etc.). (2) Extreme weather cancellations are caused by...

2013-01-01

395

The Pedogogy of Conciliation in the Bh?gavata Pur?na A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the eighteen traditionally recognized Pur?nas in Indian religious literature, the Bh?gavata is indisputably the most famous. Scholarly consensus (van Buitenen, T.J. Hopkins, Winternitz, Farquhar, et. al.) regards the text as being a \\

Judith G. Martin

1975-01-01

396

Hazardous-waste reduction: Naval Air Station Oceana  

SciTech Connect

This is a project to research Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana's present operations in the area of hazardous waste controls from processing to disposal. The research project was generated in response to NAS Oceana's requirement to meet and implement OPNAVINST 4110.2 (dated 20 June 89). Areas of concern include waste management, regulatory compliance, and waste reduction. Waste reduction is seen as one key way to help NAS Oceana (and other naval bases) improve waste management by reducing liability, operational cost, disposal costs and environmental, health, and safety issues. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act places strict controls on the storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. Presently, NAS Oceana has a disposal plan that is operational and complies with all associated regulations. This study addresses hazardous waste minimization through hazardous material reduction.

Clarkson, E.A.

1991-06-01

397

Roadmap for Weather Integration into Traffic Flow Management Modernization (TFM-M).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides recommendations for aligning new Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies (CATM-T) with evolving aviation weather products to improve NAS efficiency during adverse (especially severe) weather conditions. Key gaps indentified ...

D. A. Clark J. E. Evans M. E. Weber M. M. Wolfson O. J. Newell

2009-01-01

398

21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with, or within 2 weeks before or after treatment with or exposure to neuromuscular depolarizing agents (i.e., succinylcholine) or to cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of...

2009-04-01

399

21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or within 2 weeks, before or after treatment with or exposure to, neuromuscular depolarizing agents (i.e., succinylcholine) or to cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of...

2009-04-01

400

Naval Air Station Lemoore (Operations): Network Infrastructure Documentation and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is a consolidated documentation of Naval Air Station Lemoore's (Operations) networking infrastructure. Altennatives regarding the age of the equipment in use at NAS Lemoore and considerations that may be given to reorganizing the acquisition, ...

G. G. Sears

1995-01-01

401

Progress Toward Future Runway Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of ...

D. Long G. W. Lohr S. Atkins S. Hasan S. A. Brown S. W. Eisenhawer T. F. Bott

2011-01-01

402

Overcoming Barriers to Innovation in the Home Building Industry. Volume I: Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developments (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) has completed the research reported in this document in response to the National Academy of Sciences' (NAS) evaluation of PATHs treatment of...

2005-01-01

403

Advanced Transportation System Study: Manned Launch Vehicle Concepts for Two Way Transportation System Payloads to Leo. Program Cost Estimates Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced tran...

J. B. Duffy

1993-01-01

404

75 FR 63438 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...individual because it could: (1) Significantly impair the individual's objectivity; or (2) create an unfair competitive advantage for any person or organization. NOAA has adapted the NAS policy and developed three confidential conflict...

2010-10-15

405

Prenatal methadone exposure and neonatal neurobehavioral functioning  

PubMed Central

Opioid-exposed infants display a wide and variable range of dysregulated neurobehavioral functioning, but the regulatory difficulties experienced by these infants outside the defined clusters of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have not been well described, and may have implications for the infant’s developmental course. This study describes the neurobehavioral functioning of neonates prenatally exposed to methadone using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) and explores the relationships between maternal factors and infant functioning. The relationship between NNNS measures, NAS severity and need for pharmacotherapy for NAS were also evaluated. Infants who required pharmacological treatment for NAS showed more dysregulated behavior and signs of stress/abstinence as indicated by NNNS scores, but NNNS scores were not significantly correlated with maternal methadone dose. The determination of the range of the methadone exposed infant’s neurobehavioral repertoire could guide the optimal treatment of all such infants, particularly those requiring only non-pharmacological care.

Velez, Martha L.; Jansson, Lauren M.; Schroeder, Jennifer; Williams, Erica

2009-01-01

406

41 CFR 102-3.185 - What does this subpart require agencies to do?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Public Administration? § 102-3.185 What does this subpart require...of Sciences (NAS) or the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) under an agreement between the...

2013-01-01

407

Nutrient Content Claims Notification for Choline Containing ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1997, the National Research Council (NRC) Governing Board of NAS approved a policy statement regarding authoritative statements made by ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

408

77 FR 70140 - Emerging Technology and Research Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Provision 5. 3D Bio-printing 6. NAS study on Nanotech Initiative ``tentative'' 7. Rare Earths Study 8. Additive Manufacturing ``tentative'' The open sessions will be accessible via teleconference to 40 participants on a first...

2012-11-23

409

Development and Testing of the Sunkeeper Control Corporation Integrated Programmable Electronic Controller and Hydronics Package. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the final results of contract NAS8-32257 with Sunkeeper Control Corporation (now Andover Controls) of Andover, Massachusetts for the additional development work on their existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic pac...

J. D . Hankins

1979-01-01

410

Development and Testing of the Solar Control Corporation Modular Controller and Solarstat Subsystem. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the final results of contract NAS8-32258 Solar Control Corporation, for the additional development work on their existing Controller and Solarstat Subsystem for use with solar heating and cooling systems. It discusses the intended...

J. D. Hankins

1979-01-01

411

Enhancing relationships in long-term care: through story sharing.  

PubMed

Relationships between staff and residents in long-term care (LTC) are foundational to quality of life and high standards of care. Although nurse aides (NAs) provide more than 80% of personal care to nursing home residents, little research has focused on the NA-resident relationship or how NAs come to know and connect with their residents. This interpretive phenomenological study explored how a Story Sharing intervention initiates and enhances this relationship. Following the Story Sharing intervention, 84 volunteer NAs and 54 residents in six nursing homes were interviewed over a 6-month period. Analysis of these interviews revealed 9 patterns and 25 themes that describe how NAs and residents interact every day, along with innovative NA best practices. One theme, exemplifying a best practice, Restoring the Reciprocity of Care, is given. The findings have been incorporated into an extended Story Sharing Program for all LTC staff. PMID:19537294

Heliker, Diane

2009-05-22

412

Measurement of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds over the Tropical Pacific.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the Tropospheric Trace Gas and Airborne Measurement Group's (TTGAMG) participation in the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory Mission: Tropics A (PEM-TA) field measurement program. With other university and NAS...

S. Sandholm

1996-01-01

413

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Monohydrochloride Monopotassium L -glutamate L-Tyrosine L-Valine (2) As found in âSpecifications and Criteria for Biochemical Compounds,â NAS/NRC Publication, 3rd Ed. (1972), which is incorporated by reference (Copies are...

2013-04-01

414

Medical and Dental Patient Issues  

MedlinePLUS

What's New? . IRPA2014 Poster Abstracts Re-Opened . IAEA Fukushima Meeting - IEM6 . National Radiation Protection Professionals Week 3- ... PDS . October Newsletter . NAS Cancer Risk Pilot Study . Fukushima FAQs on Radiation . African IRPA Congress Upcoming Events . ...

415

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to prolonged use of antibiotic-containing preparations resulting in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, particularly Monilia.1 1 These conditions are NAS/NRC reviewed and deemed effective. Applications for these uses need not include...

2009-04-01

416

Capital Investment Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Federal Aviation Administrations (FAA) first annual aviation system capital investment plan (CIP). The CIP describes the policies and strategies that the FAA will pursue in addressing key concerns of the National Airspace System (NAS). The pla...

1990-01-01

417

59 FR- Disease Associated with Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Multiple Myeloma and Respiratory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agents (Multiple Myeloma and Respiratory Cancers) AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...development of multiple myeloma and respiratory cancers. The intended effect of this proposed...exists for multiple myeloma and respiratory cancers. The NAS report found...

1994-02-03

418

Reliability and validity assessment of the job attitude scale.  

PubMed

Job satisfaction among nursing assistants (NAs) is associated with NA retention, resident satisfaction, and residents' quality of care. The purpose of this study was to provide psychometric support for a measure of job satisfaction, the Job Attitude Scale (JAS), used with NAs that work in long-term care facilities. We performed a secondary data analysis and used traditional test theory and Rasch analysis to assess the reliability and validity of the JAS. The sample consisted of 508 NAs from 12 nursing homes and 96 NAs from 4 assisted living communities. We found evidence of reliability, validity, and generalizability when the measure was used in both settings and evidence that the JAS has the ability to assess variability in job satisfaction. PMID:22695249

Flannery, Kelly; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Jane; McPhaul, Kathleen

2012-06-12

419

Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System  

NASA Website

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is supporting NASA's Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System aeronautics initiative. Also known as UAS in the NAS, this research project is designed to address operational ...

420

Cooperative Human-Adaptive Traffic Simulation (CHATS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA is considering the development of a Cooperative Human-Adaptive Traffic Simulation (CHATS), to examine and evaluate performance of the National Airspace System (NAS) as the aviation community moves toward free flight. CHATS will be specifically orient...

C. T. Phillips M. G. Ballin

2004-01-01

421

75 FR 26739 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Airfield Operations at...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Williams Theater at Florida Keys Community College, 5901 College Road, Key West (Stock Island), Florida. Each meeting will occur...squadrons homebased throughout the United States. NAS Key West's weather/climate support year-round Fleet training, and its...

2010-05-12

422

Letter Regarding a Health Claim for Folic Acid And Neural ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, the Pan ... of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences (IOM/NAS). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

423

Enroute Performance Assurance from User Aircraft Tracks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of using the NAS Enroute Stage A equipment to assure enroute navigation facility alignment is described. Frequent and continued updating of the alignment is accomplished by this technique without the use of special aircraft or flights, distractio...

J. Lovell F. Perz

1973-01-01

424

Engineering and Development Program Plan - Performance Assurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program plan describes the development activities that are being pursued to enhance overall performance assurance of all air traffic control and navigation facilities within the National Airspace System (NAS). The plan provides detailed information on...

1973-01-01

425

Do We Understand the Environmental Impacts of an H2 Economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of a clean, hydrogen (H2)-fueled transportation sector has been waved in front of the nation by the current administration, the governor of California, and the technologists. A 2004 NAS report on \\

M. J. Prather

2004-01-01

426

Analysis of Cancer Risks in Populations Near Nuclear Facilities: Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requested that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) provide an assessment of cancer risks in populations near USNRC-licensed nuclear facilities that utilize or process uranium for the production of electric...

2012-01-01

427

Pregnant heroin addict: what about the baby?  

PubMed

Heroin misuse in pregnancy is a significant health and social problem, and it can have an adverse effect on the mother and the baby. Although heroin and methadone have no specific teratogenic potential, 48-94% of children exposed in utero will have neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The primary aim of this case report is to raise awareness of NAS among clinicians and to remind them that although very common, it is not inevitable. The risk of NAS can be further minimised by offering comprehensive and co-ordinated antenatal care that addresses the various biopsychosocial needs of the pregnant woman. Further, a brief description of NAS and a review of evidence in the field of management of opioid misuse in pregnancy, as relevant to this case, are provided. We have also included the patient's own reflections on her pregnancy and treatment. PMID:22328902

Namboodiri, Vasudevan; George, Sanju; Boulay, Sylvie; Fair, Mandy

2010-02-11

428

Cell cycle effect on the activity of deoxynucleoside analogue metabolising enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Deoxynucleoside analogues (dNAs) are cytotoxic towards both replicating and indolent malignancies. The impact of fluctuations in the metabolism of dNAs in relation to cell cycle could have strong implications regarding the activity of dNAs. Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) are important enzymes for phosphorylation/activation of dNAs. These drugs can be dephosphorylated/deactivated by 5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTs) and elevated activities of 5'-NTs and decreased dCK and/or dGK activities represent resistance mechanisms towards dNAs. The activities of dCK, dGK, and three 5'-NTs were investigated in four human leukemic cell lines in relationship to cell cycle progression and cytotoxicity of dNAs. Synchronization of cell cultures to arrest in G0/G1 by serum-deprivation was performed followed by serum-supplementation for cell cycle progression. The activities of dCK and dGK increased up to 3-fold in CEM, HL60, and MOLT-4 cells as they started to proliferate, while the activity of cytosolic nucleotidase I was reduced in proliferating cells. CEM, HL60, and MOLT-4 cells were also more sensitive to cladribine, cytarabine, 9-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylguanine and clofarabine than K562 cells which demonstrated lower levels and less alteration of these enzymes and were least susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of most dNAs. The results suggest that, in the cell lines studied, the proliferation process is associated with a general shift in the direction of activation of dNAs by inducing activities of dCK/dGK and reducing the activity of cN-I which is favourable for the cytotoxic effects of cladribine, cytarabine and, 9-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylguanine. These results emphasize the importance of cellular proliferation and dNA metabolism by both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation for susceptibility to dNAs. It underscores the need to understand the mechanisms of action and resistance to dNAs in order to increase efficacy of dNAs treatment by new rational.

Fyrberg, Anna [Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Albertioni, Freidoun [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital and Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Lotfi, Kourosh [Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Department of Haematology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: koulo@imv.liu.se

2007-06-15

429

Synthesis of N-acryloxysuccinimide copolymers by RAFT polymerization, as reactive building blocks with full control of composition and molecular weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization process was used to synthesize well-defined N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS) based copolymers, very useful reactive building blocks for various applications. Kinetic studies of RAFT copolymerization of NAS with a bi-substituted acrylamide derivative, N-acryloylmorpholine (NAM), were performed in the presence of tert-butyl dithiobenzoate (tBDB). An excellent control was reached with very high conversions (>95%), molecular weights

Arnaud Favier; Franck D'Agosto; Marie-Thérèse Charreyre; Christian Pichot

2004-01-01

430

Evidence for sugar signalling in the regulation of asparagine synthetase gene expressed in Phaseolus vulgaris roots and nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone, designated as PvNAS2, encoding asparagine amidotransferase (asparagine synthetase) was isolated from nodule tissue of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa). Southern blot analysis indicated that asparagine synthetase in bean is encoded by a small gene family. Northern analysis of RNAs from various plant organs demonstrated that PvNAS2 is highly expressed in roots, followed by nodules in

Sonia Silvente; Pallavolu M. Reddy; Sanghamitra Khandual; Lourdes Blanco; Xochitl Alvarado; Federico Sanchez; Miguel Lara-Flores

2010-01-01

431

Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi and olfactory tubercle on feeding, locomotor activity, and amphetamine anorexia in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Exp I with 24 male albino Wistar rats, bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) and olfactory tubercle (OT) caused enhanced intake of wet mash in 23-hr-food-deprived Ss tested in photocell activity cages during restricted 30-min sessions. This mild hyperphagia was accompanied by a significant hypoactivity in the group with NAS\\/OT lesions. No hyperphagia was observed during

George F. Koob; Susan J. Riley; S. Christine Smith; Trevor W. Robbins

1978-01-01

432

Diversity and Abundance of Nitrate Assimilation Genes in the Northern South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine heterotrophic microorganisms that assimilate nitrate play an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycling in the water\\u000a column. The nasA gene, encoding the nitrate assimilation enzyme, was selected as a functional marker to examine the nitrate assimilation community\\u000a in the South China Sea (SCS). PCR amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) screening, and phylogenetic\\u000a analysis of nasA gene sequences

Haiyuan Cai; Nianzhi Jiao

2008-01-01

433

ATM concept integrating trajectory-orientation and airborne separation assistance in the presence of time-based traffic flow management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a concept for improving National Airspace System (NAS) operations through the adoption of a flexible, combination of time-based traffic flow management, trajectory-orientation, and airborne separation assistance elements. Time-based traffic flow management on a NAS-wide and local level assures that local airspace areas are not overloaded at any given time. Trajectory-based operations are used to plan and execute

Thomas Prevot; Stephen Shelden; Joey Mercer; Parimal Kopardekar; Everett Palmer; Vemol Battiste

2003-01-01

434

Integrated aviation security for defense-in-depth of next generation air transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the significant increase in civil air traffic demand in the National Airspace System (NAS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is cooperating with other departments to develop Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen will greatly increase the NAS capacity, efficiency, safety, flexibility, and environmental protection. Aviation Security is one of the core components in NextGen. Without security protection,

Pan Kamal

2011-01-01

435

Hart Receives 2006 Edward A. Flinn III Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few years after completing his doctorate at Harvard University Cambridge, Mass., Pembroke Hart joined the staff of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) U.S. Committee for the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY). He embarked on a highly productive career of more than 30 years of staff support for major initiatives in the geophysical sciences within the NAS/NRC.

Brett, Robin

2006-06-01

436

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na\\/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and

Ohi

1992-01-01

437

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na\\/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and

Ohi

1992-01-01

438

ADS-B space-oriented message set design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper designs, simulates, and tests a potential Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) space-oriented message set to improve situational awareness of commercial space vehicles inside the National Airspace System (NAS), and to minimize their impacts and potential hazards on the NAS. ADS-B is considered as the solution to integrate the future commercial space transportation system with the air transportation system. To

Pengfei Duan; James Rankin

2011-01-01

439

Colloidal properties of single component naphthenic acids and complex naphthenic acid mixtures.  

PubMed

Tensiometry was used to provide estimates of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) values for three sources of naphthenic acids (NAs) and three examples of single component NAs (S1-S3) in aqueous solution at pH 10.5 and 295 K. Two commercially available mixtures of NAs and an industrially derived mixture of NAs obtained from Alberta oil sands process water (OSPW) were investigated. The three examples of single component NAs (C(n)H(2n+z)O2) were chosen with variable z-series to represent chemical structures with 0-2 rings, as follows: 2-hexyldecanoic acid (z=0; S1), trans-4-pentylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z=-2; S2) and dicyclohexylacetic acid (z=-4; S3). The estimated cmc values for S1 (35.6 ?M), S2 (0.545 mM), and S3 (4.71 mM) vary over a wide range according to their relative lipophile characteristics of each carboxylate anion. The cmc values for the three complex mixtures of NAs were evaluated. Two disctinct cmc values were observed (second listed in brackets) as follows: Commercial sample 1; 50.9 ?M (109 ?M), Commercial sample 2; 22.3 ?M (52.2 ?M), and Alberta derived OSPW; 154 ?M (417 ?M). These results provide strong support favouring two general classes of NAs in the mixtures investigated with distinct cmc values. We propose that the two groups may be linked to a recalcitrant fraction with a relatively large range of cmc values (52.2-417 ?M) and a readily biodegradable fraction with a relatively low range of cmc values (22.3-154 ?M) depending on the source of NAs in a given mixture. PMID:23374435

Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

2013-01-05

440

High-power (>1 W) dilute nitride semiconductor disk laser emitting at 1240 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a high-power GaInNAs\\/GaAs optically pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at a wavelength of 1240 nm. The laser structure consisted of 12 dilute nitride (GaInNAs) quantum wells placed on top of a GaAs\\/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector, the whole structure being grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A diamond heat spreader was bonded onto the sample for improved heat dissipation.

J. Konttinen; A. Härkönen; P. Tuomisto; M. Guina; J. Rautiainen; M. Pessa; O. Okhotnikov

2007-01-01

441

Reconsidering Classifi cations of Depression Syndromes: Lessons from Neuroactive Steroids and Evolutionary Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurosteroids (NS) refers to steroids synthesized by the brain, neuroactive steroids (NAS) refers to steroids that, independent\\u000a of their origin, are capable of modifying neural activities. NAS bind to and modulate different types of neurotransmitter\\u000a receptors at the membrane level. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and sigma receptor complexes have been the most extensively\\u000a studied.\\u000a \\u000a After intracellular oxidation, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP) to

Bernardo Dubrovsky

442

Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase entrapped in nano gold particles-ionic liquid- N, N-dimethylformamide composite film on glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) entrapped in nano gold particles (NAs)-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluophosphate (BMIMPF6) composite film on a glassy carbon electrode (NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6)\\/GC) has been investigated for first time. The immobilized GOD exhibits a pair of well-defined reversible peaks in 0.050M pH 5 phosphate solutions (PS), resulting from the redox of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in GOD. The

Jiangwen Li; Jingjing Yu; Faqiong Zhao; Baizhao Zeng

2007-01-01

443

Naphthenic acids degradation and toxicity mitigation in tailings wastewater systems and aquatic environments: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthenic acids, NAs (classical formula CnH2n+zO2, where n is the carbon numbers, z represents zero or negative even integers), found in oil sands process waters (OSPWs), are toxic to aquatic environments depending upon several factors such as pH, salinity, molecular size and chemical structure of NAs. Among various available methods, biodegradation seems to be generally the most cost-effective method for

Prakash R. Kannel; Thian Y. Gan

2012-01-01

444

The effects of salinity on naphthenic acid toxicity to yellow perch: Gill and liver histopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are naturally occurring saturated linear and cyclic carboxylic acids found in petroleum,including the bitumen contained in the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit in Alberta,Canada. The processing of these oil sands leads to elevated concentrations of NAs,as well as increased salinity from produced waters as a result of ions leaching from the ores,the process aids, and the water associated

V. Neroa; A. Farwell; L. E. J. Lee; T. Van Meer; M. D. MacKinnon; D. G. Dixon

2005-01-01

445

Normalizing motor cortex representations in focal hand dystonia.  

PubMed

Task-specific focal dystonia is thought to have a neurological basis where stereotypical synchronous inputs and maladaptive plasticity play a role. As afferent input is a powerful driver of cortical reorganization, we propose that a period of asynchronous afferent stimulation may reverse maladaptive cortical changes and alleviate symptoms. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 3 hand muscles were mapped in 10 dystonics and 10 healthy controls. Mapping occurred before and after 1 h of nonassociative stimulation (NAS) to first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB). Participants performed grip lift, handwriting, and cyclic drawing before and after NAS. Prior to NAS, dystonics had larger maps, and the centers of gravity (CoGs) of the FDI and APB maps were closer together. Dystonics demonstrated impairments in grip-lift, handwriting, and cyclic drawing tasks. Following NAS, map size was reduced in all muscles in dystonic participants and FDI and APB CoGs moved further apart. Among dystonics, NAS produced a reduction in movement variability during cyclic drawing. Thus, 1 h of NAS can reduce the magnitude, and increase the separation, of TMS representational maps. We suggest that these changes reflect some normalization of the representational abnormalities seen in focal dystonia and provide initial, limited evidence that such changes are associated with improvements in circle drawing. PMID:19074753

Schabrun, Siobhan M; Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ridding, Michael C

2008-12-12

446

The next accreditation system: stakeholder expectations and dialogue with the community.  

PubMed

In February 2012, in an article in the New England Journal of Medicine,1 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) provided an initial description and the rationale for the Next Accreditation System (NAS). We follow up with this piece, which reflects on questions about the NAS, as a starting point for a dialogue with the community, and as the first in a series of articles that will describe key attributes of the NAS, offer practical guidance to programs and sponsoring institutions, and solicit stakeholder input. Dialogue with the community will be helpful in answering questions and in allowing the ACGME to clarify and refine certain elements of the NAS. This dialogue needs to be mindful that many details of the NAS are yet to be finalized. In communicating about the NAS, ACGME, thus, must balance a timely response to the community's desire to learn more and the need to have details well established to avoid a need to make changes after details have been released to stakeholders and the public. PMID:23730461

Philibert, Ingrid; Nasca, Thomas J

2012-06-01

447

An RNA end tied to the cell cycle: new ties to apoptosis and microRNA formation?  

PubMed

Animal replication-dependent histone pre-mrNAs encoding all five histone proteins are co-transcriptionally cleaved 4 to 5 nucleotides after a conserved stem-loop structure located less than 100 nucleotides 3' of the stop codon. This single 3' end processing reaction is active only during S phase of the cell cycle and is carried out by a poorly characterized nuclear complex. The reaction generates mature histone mrNAs that end with the stem-loop rather than a poly(A) tail and supply the bulk of histone proteins for replicating DNA. A recent study identified FLASH, a pro-apoptotic protein involved in activation of caspase 8, as an essential 3' end processing factor in both vertebrates and invertebrates. FLASH is likely positioned in the core of the processing complex assembled on histone pre-mrNAs. A detailed analysis of this versatile protein may ultimately help to better understand the mechanism of the cleavage reaction and its links to DNA replication, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. in the meantime, FLASH was shown to interact with Ars2, a protein involved in generation of microrNAs. This finding may uncover important and unanticipated links between the biogenesis of replication-dependent histone mrNAs and microrNAs. PMID:20234174

Dominski, Zbigniew

2010-04-01

448

Neurosteroids, neuroactive steroids, and symptoms of affective disorders.  

PubMed

Neurosteroids (NS) are steroids synthesized by the brain. Neuroactive steroids (NAS) refers to steroids that, independent of their origin, are capable of modifying neural activities. NAS bind and modulate different types of membrane receptors. The gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and sigma receptor complexes have been the most extensively studied. Oxidized ring A reduced pregnanes, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) bind to the progesterone intracellular receptor (PR), and in this way can also regulate gene expression. Animal experimentation showed that salient symptoms of depression, viz., anxiety, sleep disturbances, and memory and sexual dysfunctions, are modulated by NAS. In turn, psychotropic drugs modulate NS and NAS levels. NS levels as well as NAS plasma concentrations change in patients with depression syndromes, the levels return to normal baseline with recovery, but normalization is not necessary for successful therapy. Results from current studies on the evolution of nervous systems, including evolutionary developmental biology as well as anatomical and physiological findings, almost preclude a categorical classification of the psychiatric ailments the human brain succumbs to. The persistence in maintaining such essentialist classifications may help to explain why up to now the search for biological markers in psychiatry has been an unrewarding effort. It is proposed that it would be more fruitful to focus on relationships between NAS and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, rather than with typologically defined disorders. PMID:16962651

Dubrovsky, Bernardo

2006-09-07

449

The Next Accreditation System: Stakeholder Expectations and Dialogue with the Community  

PubMed Central

In February 2012, in an article in the New England Journal of Medicine,1 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) provided an initial description and the rationale for the Next Accreditation System (NAS). We follow up with this piece, which reflects on questions about the NAS, as a starting point for a dialogue with the community, and as the first in a series of articles that will describe key attributes of the NAS, offer practical guidance to programs and sponsoring institutions, and solicit stakeholder input. Dialogue with the community will be helpful in answering questions and in allowing the ACGME to clarify and refine certain elements of the NAS. This dialogue needs to be mindful that many details of the NAS are yet to be finalized. In communicating about the NAS, ACGME, thus, must balance a timely response to the community's desire to learn more and the need to have details well established to avoid a need to make changes after details have been released to stakeholders and the public.

Philibert, Ingrid; Nasca, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

450

Synthesis of ZnO@TiO2 core–shell long nanowire arrays and their application on dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long ZnO nanowire arrays (NAs) grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method without refreshing the reaction solution and applied as the precursor. By adjusting growth conditions, ZnO NAs with tunable lengths can be achieved. A nanocomposite made of ZnO nanowire core and TiO2 shell was further realized by a novel “fast-dip-coating” method conducted in a Ti(OC4H9)4-dissolved ethanol solution. The formed ZnO@TiO2 core–shell NAs on FTO substrates were applied as electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that both the TiO2 coating and NAs length play important roles in the enhancement of photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs. When the length of ZnO@TiO2 NAs reaches up to 14 ?m, the electrode can exhibit a maximum PCE as high as 3.80%, which is 2.6 times higher than that of pure ZnO NAs.

Feng, Yamin; Ji, Xiaoxu; Duan, Jinxia; Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Ding, Hao; Meng, Gaoxiang; Ding, Ruimin; Liu, Jinping; Hu, Anzheng; Huang, Xintang

2012-06-01

451

Characterization of the astacin family of metalloproteases in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Astacins are a large family of zinc metalloproteases found in bacteria and animals. They have diverse roles ranging from digestion of food to processing of extracellular matrix components. The C. elegans genome contains an unusually large number of astacins, of which the majority have not been functionally characterized yet. Results We analyzed the expression pattern of previously uncharacterized members of the astacin family to try and obtain clues to potential functions. Prominent sites of expression for many members of this family are the hypodermis, the alimentary system and several specialized cells including sensory sheath and sockets cells, which are located at openings in the body wall. We isolated mutants affecting representative members of the various subfamilies. Mutants in nas-5, nas-21 and nas-39 (the BMP-1/Tolloid homologue) are viable and have no apparent phenotypic defects. Mutants in nas-6 and nas-6; nas-7 double mutants are slow growing and have defects in the grinder of the pharynx, a cuticular structure important for food processing. Conclusions Expression data and phenotypic characterization of selected family members suggest a diversity of functions for members of the astacin family in nematodes. In part this might be due to extracellular structures unique to nematodes.

2010-01-01

452

In situ bioremediation of naphthenic acids contaminated tailing pond waters in the athabasca oil sands region--demonstrated field studies and plausible options: a review.  

PubMed

Currently, there are three industrial plants that recover oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area, and there are plans in the future for several additional mines. The extraction procedures produce large volumes of slurry wastes contaminated with naphthenic acids (NAs). Because of a "zero discharge" policy the oil sands companies do not release any extraction wastes from their leases. The process-affected waters and fluid tailings contaminated with NAs are contained on-site primarily in large settling ponds. These fluid wastes from the tailing ponds can be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms, and NAs have been associated with this toxicity. The huge tailings containment area must ultimately be reclaimed, and this is of major concern to the oil sands industry. Some reclamation options have been investigated by both pioneering industries (Syncrude Energy Inc. and Suncor Inc.) with mixed results. The bioremediation techniques have limited success to date in biodegrading NAs to levels below 19 mg/L. Some tailing pond waters have been stored for more than 10 years, and it appears that the remaining high molecular weight NAs are refractory to the natural biodegradation process in the ponds. Some plausible options to further degrade the NAs in the tailings pond water include: bioaugmentation with bacteria selected to degrade the more refractory classes of NAs; the use of attachment materials such as clays to concentrate both the NA and the NA-degrading bacteria in their surfaces and/or pores; synergistic association between algae and bacteria consortia to promote efficient aerobic degradation; and biostimulation with nutrients to promote the growth and activity of the microorganisms. PMID:15756978

Quagraine, E K; Peterson, H G; Headley, J V

2005-01-01

453

The effect of oil sands process-affected water and naphthenic acids on the germination and development of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Oil sands mining in the Athabasca region of northern Alberta results in the production of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). We have evaluated the effects of OSPW, the acid extractable organic (AEO) fraction of OSPW, and individual naphthenic acids (NAs) on the germination and development of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). The surrogate NAs that were selected for this study were petroleum NAs that have been used in previous toxicology studies and may not represent OSPW NAs. A tricyclic diamondoid NA that was recently identified as a component of OSPW served as a model NA in this study. Germination of Arabidopsis seeds was not inhibited when grown on medium containing up to 75% OSPW or by 50mgL(-1) AEO. However, simultaneous exposure to three simple, single-ringed surrogate NAs or a double-ringed surrogate NA had an inhibitory effect on germination at a concentration of 10mgL(-1), whereas inhibition of germination by the diamondoid model NA was observed only at 50mgL(-1). Seedling root growth was impaired by treatment with low concentrations of OSPW, and exposure to higher concentrations of OSPW resulted in increased growth inhibition of roots and primary leaves, and caused bleaching of cotyledons. Treatment with single- or double-ringed surrogate NAs at 10mgL(-1) severely impaired seedling growth. AEO or diamondoid NA treatment was less toxic, but resulted in severely impaired growth at 50mgL(-1). At low NA concentrations there was occasionally a stimulatory effect on root and shoot growth, possibly owing to the broad structural similarity of some NAs to known plant growth regulators such as auxins. This report provides a foundation for future studies aimed at using Arabidopsis as a biosensor for toxicity and to identify genes with possible roles in NA phytoremediation. PMID:23746390

Leishman, Chelsea; Widdup, Ellen E; Quesnel, Dean M; Chua, Gordon; Gieg, Lisa M; Samuel, Marcus A; Muench, Douglas G

2013-06-06

454

Impact of peroxydisulfate in the presence of zero valent iron on the oxidation of cyclohexanoic acid and naphthenic acids from oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands in Alberta, Canada. The degradation of a model naphthenic acid, cyclohexanoic acid (CHA), and real naphthenic acids (NAs) from OSPW were investigated in the presence of peroxydisulfate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) and zerovalent iron (ZVI). For the model compound CHA (50 mg/L), in the presence of ZVI and 500 mg/L S(2)O(8)(2-), the concentration decreased by 45% after 6 days of treatment at 20 °C, whereas at 40, 60, and 80 °C the concentration decreased by 20, 45 and 90%, respectively, after 2 h of treatment. The formation of chloro-CHA was observed during ZVI/S(2)O(8)(2-) treatment of CHA in the presence of chloride. For OSPW NAs, in the presence of ZVI alone, a 50% removal of NAs was observed after 6 days of exposure at 20 °C. The addition of 100 mg/L S(2)O(8)(2-) to the solution increased the removal of OSPW NAs from 50 to 90%. In absence of ZVI, a complete NAs removal from OSPW was observed in presence of 2000 mg/L S(2)O(8)(2-) at 80 °C. The addition of ZVI increased the efficiency of NAs oxidation by S(2)O(8)(2-) near room temperature. Thus, ZVI/S(2)O(8)(2-) process was found to be a viable option for accelerating the degradation of NAs present in OSPW. PMID:22799739

Drzewicz, Przemys?aw; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Alpatova, Alla; Martin, Jonathan W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-08-08

455

Colonization of Wheat Roots by an Exopolysaccharide-Producing Pantoea agglomerans Strain and Its Effect on Rhizosphere Soil Aggregation  

PubMed Central

The effect of bacterial secretion of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) on rhizosphere soil physical properties was investigated by inoculating strain NAS206, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum durum L.) growing in a Moroccan vertisol and was identified as Pantoea aglomerans. Phenotypic identification of this strain with the Biotype-100 system was confirmed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. After inoculation of wheat seedlings with strain NAS206, colonization increased at the rhizoplane and in root-adhering soil (RAS) but not in bulk soil. Colonization further increased under relatively dry conditions (20% soil water content; matric potential, ?0.55 MPa). By means of genetic fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, we were able to verify that colonies counted as strain NAS206 on agar plates descended from inoculated strain NAS206. The intense colonization of the wheat rhizosphere by these EPS-producing bacteria was associated with significant soil aggregation, as shown by increased ratios of RAS dry mass to root tissue (RT) dry mass (RAS/RT) and the improved water stability of adhering soil aggregates. The maximum effect of strain NAS206 on both the RAS/RT ratio and aggregate stability was measured at 24% average soil water content (matric potential, ?0.20 MPa). Inoculated strain NAS206 improved RAS macroporosity (pore diameter, 10 to 30 ?m) compared to the noninoculated control, particularly when the soil was nearly water saturated (matric potential, ?0.05 MPa). Our results suggest that P. agglomerans NAS206 can play an important role in the regulation of the water content (excess or deficit) of the rhizosphere of wheat by improving soil aggregation.

Amellal, N.; Burtin, G.; Bartoli, F.; Heulin, T.

1998-01-01

456

Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups. Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oración, también estuvieron más altas en el grupo Latino. La identificación con la cultura Latina fue el único vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados específicos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermería que involucran la conceptualización y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multiétnicos.

Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

2010-01-01

457

Electrophysiological effects of basolateral [Na+] in Necturus gallbladder epithelium.  

PubMed

In Necturus gallbladder epithelium, lowering serosal [Na+] ([Na+]s) reversibly hyperpolarized the basolateral cell membrane voltage (Vcs) and reduced the fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fRa). Previous results have suggested that there is no sizable basolateral Na+ conductance and that there are apical Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels. Here, we studied the mechanisms of the electrophysiological effects of lowering [Na+]s, in particular the possibility that an elevation in intracellular free [Ca2+] hyperpolarizes Vcs by increasing gK+. When [Na+]s was reduced from 100.5 to 10.5 mM (tetramethylammonium substitution), Vcs hyperpolarized from -68 +/- 2 to a peak value of -82 +/- 2 mV (P less than 0.001), and fRa decreased from 0.84 +/- 0.02 to 0.62 +/- 0.02 (P less than 0.001). Addition of 5 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA+) to the mucosal solution reduced both the hyperpolarization of Vcs and the change in fRa, whereas serosal addition of TEA+ had no effect. Ouabain (10(-4) M, serosal side) produced a small depolarization of Vcs and reduced the hyperpolarization upon lowering [Na+]s, without affecting the decrease in fRa. The effects of mucosal TEA+ and serosal ouabain were additive. Neither amiloride (10(-5) or 10(-3) M) nor tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) had any effects on Vcs or fRa or on their responses to lowering [Na+]s, suggesting that basolateral Na+ channels do not contribute to the control membrane voltage or to the hyperpolarization upon lowering [Na+]s. The basolateral membrane depolarization upon elevating [K+]s was increased transiently during the hyperpolarization of Vcs upon lowering [Na+]s. Since cable analysis experiments show that basolateral membrane resistance increased, a decrease in basolateral Cl- conductance (gCl-) is the main cause of the increased K+ selectivity. Lowering [Na+]s increases intracellular free [Ca2+], which may be responsible for the increase in the apical membrane TEA(+)-sensitive gK+. We conclude that the decrease in fRa by lowering [Na+]s is mainly caused by an increase in intracellular free [Ca2+], which activates TEA(+)-sensitive maxi K+ channels at the apical membrane and decreases apical membrane resistance. The hyperpolarization of Vcs is due to increase in: (a) apical membrane gK+, (b) the contribution of the Na+ pump to Vcs, (c) basolateral membrane K+ selectivity (decreased gCl-), and (d) intraepithelial current flow brought about by a paracellular diffusion potential. PMID:1613485

Altenberg, G A; Stoddard, J S; Reuss, L

1992-02-01

458

Characterization of Uranium Solids Precipitated with Aluminosilicates  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tank Farms store and process high-level liquid radioactive wastes from the Canyons and recycle water from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The waste is concentrated using evaporators to minimize the volume of space required for HLW storage. Recently, the 2H Evaporator was shutdown due to the crystallization of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) solids (such as cancrinite and sodalite) that contained close to 10 weight percent of elementally-enriched uranium (U). Prior to extensive cleaning,the evaporator deposits resided on the evaporator walls and other exposed internal surfaces within the evaporator pot. Our goal is to support the basis for the continued safe operation of SRS evaporators and to gain more information that could be used to help mitigate U accumulation during evaporator operation. To learn more about the interaction between U(VI) and NAS in HLW salt solutions, we performed several fundamental studies to examine the mechanisms of U accumulation with NAS in highly caustic solutions. This larger group of studies focused on the following processes: co-precipitation/structural incorporation, sorption, and precipitation (with or without NAS), which will be reviewed in this presentation. We will present and discuss local atomic structural characterization data about U that has been co-precipitated with NAS solids (such as amorphous zeolite precursor material and sodalite) using X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopic techniques.

DUFF, MC

2004-01-09

459

Caring labour, intersectionality and worker satisfaction: an analysis of the National Nursing Assistant Study (NNAS).  

PubMed

Caring labour in long-term care settings is increasingly important as the US population ages. Ethnographic research on nursing assistants (NAs) portrays nursing home care as routine and fast paced in facilities that emphasise life maintenance more than care. Recent interview-based and small quantitative studies describe a mix of positive and negative aspects of NA work, including the rewards of caring, despite shortcomings in working conditions and pay. The current study continues this research but, for the first time, using national data. The 2004 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Nursing Assistant Study (NNAS) provides survey data from 3,017 NAs working in long-term care facilities across the US. The NNAS results confirm the importance and centrality of caring to NAs' work. NAs motivated by caring for others were significantly more satisfied with their jobs than those motivated by other reasons, such as convenience or salary. Overall, NAs report surprisingly high job satisfaction, particularly with learning new skills, doing challenging work, and organisational support for caring labour. Areas of dissatisfaction were salary, time for reproductive labour, and turnover. Intersectional analysis revealed race and citizenship played a stronger role than gender in worker satisfaction. PMID:19891615

Rakovski, Carter C; Price-Glynn, Kim

2009-11-04

460

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J.

1992-11-01

461

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

462

Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca Strains with Improved Efficiency in Removal of High Nitrate Loads  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, we cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase (Lin et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:2551–2559, 1994). The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli Plac promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type.

Pinar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Juan L.

1998-01-01

463

Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strains with improved efficiency in removal of high nitrate loads  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, the authors cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase. The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli P{sub lac} promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type.

Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L. [Estacion Experimental del Zaidin--Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology of Plants

1998-12-01

464

SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SOLIDS AFFINITY FOR CESIUM AND ACTINIDES  

SciTech Connect

Washed sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) solids at initial concentrations of 3.55 and 5.4 g/L sorb or uptake virtually no cesium over 288 hours, nor do any NAS solids generated during that time. These concentrations of solids are believed to conservatively bound current and near-term operations. Hence, the NAS solids should not have affected measurements of the cesium during the mass transfer tests and there is minimal risk of accumulating cesium during routine operations (and hence posing a gamma radiation exposure risk in maintenance). With respect to actinide uptake, it appears that NAS solids sorb minimal quantities of uranium - up to 58 mg U per kg NAS solid. The behavior with plutonium is less well understood. Additional study may be needed for radioactive operations relative to plutonium or other fissile component sorption or trapping by the solids. We recommend this testing be incorporated in the planned tests using samples from Tank 25F and Tank 49H to extend the duration to bound expected inventory time for solution.

Peters, T; Bill Wilmarth, B; Samuel Fink, S

2007-07-31

465

Development of an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of an ADP-ribosylating toxin, exo A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A free radical copolymerization of Styrene (Sty) and acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NAS) has been done in a range of 10:90 to 90:10 (Sty:NAS) molar ratios. The FT-IR spectra for all seven copolymers showed the absorption peaks for the carbonyl signals of the ester and the amide in NAS (1773 cm-1 and 1727 cm-1 respectively), the styrene aromatic signal (1494 cm-1) and the disappearance of the absorption peak for the vinyl group in both monomers (1629 cm-1). HPLC-UV results showed an increment in the average molecular weight with an increase in the molar ratio of the styrene monomer, from 1528.51 g/mol for 10:90 Sty:NAS to 7141.67 g/mol for 90:10 Sty:NAS. These copolymers will be used to generate films on carbon surfaces to anchor a ?-NAD+ electroactive analog. Also, a Ferrocene-labeled NAAD (Fc-NAAD) was prepared by attaching Ferrocene Succinimide (Fc-NHS) to the primary amine in the adenine moiety of the cofactor. Osteryoung Squatre Wave Voltammetry (OSWV) of the new Fc-NAAD showed an anodic peak in 320 mV and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed chemical reversibility and electrochemical quasi-reversibility.

Enríquez, Y.; Negrón, Y.; Navarreto, M.; Guadalupe, A. R.

2013-03-01

466

Autonomous Orbit Navigator Development, Using GPS, Applied to Autonomous Orbit Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of modem global positioning systems motivated the study and development of precise and robust systems for autonomous orbit determination of artificial satellites. These systems maintain, independently from human intervention from the ground, a precise knowledge of the satellite orbital state, through the processing of the information, autonomously generated on-board, by a receiver of the positioning system used. One of the major motivations for the research and development of autonomous navigators, is the availability of real time information about the position and velocity of the satellite, required, for instance, in earth observation missions, for interpretation and analysis of the generated images. The appearance of global positioning systems and the consequent development of autonomous navigators, by making available onboard space vehicles, updated orbit estimations, with good accuracy level, made feasible the research and development of orbit autonomous control procedures. It allowed the orbital maneuvers execution process to be performed in a way totally independent from ground human intervention. Whereas the satellite attitude control reached a high level of autonomy, due to the fact that the attitude measurements are, in general, naturally generated on-board the spacecraft, the orbit control is still now almost totally planned and executed from ground commanded actions. The proposed work consists of the study, development, simulation and analysis of a simplified navigator coupled to an autonomous orbit control system, applied to the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS). At first, an autonomous orbit determination procedure is developed and analyzed. Its objective is to improve the coarse geometric solution provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. This will be done by directly using this solution as input (observation) for a real time Kalman filtering process. The orbital state vector will be extended in order to include the systematic error imposed to the GPS geometric solution due to changes in the set of satellites which are visible to the receiver. The improved outputs of this process will then be used in the implementation of an autonomous control system for the Longitude Phase Drift of the spacecraft orbit (parameter which presents the higher frequency of corrective maneuvers application for heliosynchronous orbits in phase with the earth's rotation, as is the case for the CBERS series satellites. Finally, the performance of the proposed autonomous control procedure will be analyzed and compared with the other results achieved by autonomous control systems previously studied at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), that directly use the coarse GPS navigation solution

Galski, Roberto Luiz

2002-01-01

467

Life cycle testing of sodium-sulfur satellite battery cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance characteristics of sodium-beta double prime alumina-sulfur (Na/S) cells are being investigated under quiescent conditions (with the only variables being charge/discharge rates and the depth-of-discharge) with the purpose of establishing a basis for predicting the cycle life of the Na/S cells. All Na/S cells demonstrated a cycle life useful for certain Air Force applications, with no cycle life dependence on the depth-of-discharge values. The failures of two cells (of a total of eight tested) after extended cycling seems to be best explained by internal short circuiting, indicating the importance of cell matching when building batteries.

Allen, D. M.; Dueber, R. E.; Fritts, D. H.

1985-12-01

468

Amino acid determinants conferring stable sialidase activity at low pH for H5N1 influenza A virus neuraminidase  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) and human 1918, 1957, and 1968 pandemic IAVs all have neuraminidases (NAs) that are stable at low pH sialidase activity, yet most human epidemic IAVs do not. We examined the pH stability of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian IAV (HPAI) NAs and identified amino acids responsible for conferring stability at low pH. We found that, unlike other avian viruses, most H5N1 IAVs isolated since 2003 had NAs that were unstable at low pH, similar to human epidemic IAVs. These H5N1 viruses are thus already human virus-like and, therefore, have the frequent infections of humans.

Takahashi, Tadanobu; Nidom, Chairul A.; Quynh Le, Mai thi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

469

Sodium-Sulfur Cell Technology flight experiment (SSCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium-sulfur battery is emerging as a prime high-temperature energy storage technology for space flight applications. A Na-S cell demonstration is planned for a 1995-96 NASA Space Shuttle flight which focuses on the microgravity effects on individual cells. The experiment is not optimized for battery performance as such. Rather, it maximizes the variety of operating conditions which the Na-S cell is capable of in a relatively short 5-day flight. The demonstration is designed to reveal the effects of microgravity by comparison with ground test control cells experiencing identical test conditions but with gravity. Specifically, limitations of transport dynamics and associated cell performance characteristics should be revealed. The Na-S Cell Technology Flight Experiment consists of three separate experiments designed to determine cell operating characteristics, detailed electrode kinetics and reactant distributions.

Halbach, Carl R.

470

Effects of bacterial activity on estrogen removal in nitrifying activated sludge.  

PubMed

The effects of bacterial activity on the degradation of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) were studied with different substrates and organic loading rates (OLRs) and low temperature conditions. Heterotroph was shown to have utilized glucose prior to E1 for metabolism. The co-metabolism of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) dominated the degradation of E1, E2 and EE2 in NAS. The higher the organic loading, the higher the rate of organic matter transformation, with less ammonia oxidation and less degradation of E1, E2 and EE2. The degradation of E3 in NAS was shown to be largely due to heterotroph metabolism. On the basis of the difference of apparent activity between heterotroph and AOB at 4 degrees C, the process of estrogen degradation via the co-metabolism of AOB was able to be identified. PMID:17544475

Ren, Yong-Xiang; Nakano, Kazunori; Nomura, Munehiro; Chiba, Nobuo; Nishimura, Osamu

2007-05-08

471

Knowledge of Rural Nurses' Aides About End-of-Life Care  

PubMed Central

Currently, little is known about the role of nurses' aides (NAs) in rural long-term care facilities or their impact on the process of death and dying in rural healthcare environments. Focus groups with NAs were held in 6 rural counties located in 5 states to assess attitudes and perceptions about end-of-life care and training needs. Key informants from 8 states and the District of Columbia added to the understandings. Nurses' aides (N = 63) and key informans (N = 21) worked in a variety of rural settings that provide end-of-life care (ie, nursing homes, hospitals, hospices, home healthcare agencies). Five themes about the needs of rural NAs around end-of-life care were identified in the focus groups, and 4 themes emerged from key informant interviews. A prototype computer-based training module on communication about end-of-life issues was developed, tested, and found useful and compelling.

Denham, Sharon A.; Meyer, Michael G.; Rathbun, Ann; Toborg, Mary A.; Thornton, Leslie

2006-01-01

472

OpenSHMEM Performance and Potential: A NPB Experimental Study  

SciTech Connect

OpenSHMEM is a recently introduced open stan- dard for all SHMEM libraries. In this paper we discuss the dif- ferent aspects of porting the NAS parallel benchmarks from their MPI 1 implementations to those that use the new OpenSHMEM library API. We compare performance and scalability of these unoptimized OpenSHMEM NAS benchmarks with their MPI 1, and in some cases, MPI 2 counter parts. Through the perfor- mance results of the OpenSHMEM NAS parallel benchmarks on three different platforms that use different OpenSHMEM library implementations we show that even without optimizations these benchmarks have performance comparable to MPI 1 and better than MPI 2 on more mature library implementations. We also do an in-depth analysis of the performance and expect that with hardware support and better implementation of collectives the OpenSHMEM implementations can outperform MPI.

Pophale, Swaroop [University of Houston, Houston; Nanjegowda, Ramachandra [University of Houston, Houston; Curtis, Anthony R [ORNL; Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston, Houston; Jin, Haoqiang [NASA Ames Research Center; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL

2012-01-01

473

Homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia sappan displaying viral neuraminidases inhibition.  

PubMed

In this study, twelve neuraminidase (NA) inhibitory compounds 1-12 were isolated from heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan on the basis of their biological activities against three types of viral NAs. Of isolated homoisoflavonoids, sappanone A (2) showed the most potent NAs inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 0.7 µM [H1N1], 1.1 µM [H3N2], and 1.0 µM [H9N2], respectively, whereas saturated homoisoflavonoid (3) did not show significantly inhibition. This result revealed that ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl group in A-ring was the key requirements for viral NAs inhibitory activity. In our enzyme kinetic study, all NA inhibitors screened were found to be reversible noncompetitive types. PMID:22687418

Jeong, Hyung Jae; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jang Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji-Young; Park, Su-Jin; Ryu, Young Bae; Lee, Woo Song

2012-01-01

474

Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales), a Pantropical Insecticide-Producing Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Background Nodulisporic acids (NAs) are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. Methods and Results Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. Conclusions and Significance Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether from environmental sequences, vegetative mycelia or field specimens, resulting in holistic species concepts critical to the assessment of the dimensions of fungal diversity.

Bills, Gerald F.; Gonzalez-Menendez, Victor; Martin, Jesus; Platas, Gonzalo; Fournier, Jacques; Persoh, Derek; Stadler, Marc

2012-01-01

475

Selective multivariate analysis of blood glucose with near infrared spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of whole bovine blood are examined under conditions of different glucose loadings. Partial least-squares (PLS) is used to compute calibration models for glucose from spectra collected over the combination spectral region (5000 - 4000 cm- 1) and first overtone - short wavelength spectral regions (9000 - 5400 cm-1). These models achieve a prediction accuracy of approximately 1mM. Calibration models built for specific glucose absorption regions perform better than models generated strictly from the short wavelength region in which light scattering effects dominate. Net analyte signal (NAS) analysis is employed to investigate the spectral information that forms the basis for the models. The NAS reveals the portion of the glucose spectrum that is orthogonal to the spectral variance induced by the blood matrix. To investigate the selectivity of the spectral measurements, the glucose NAS is compared to residual absorbance spectra formed after subtraction of the non-glucose variance (estimated by application of principal component analysis to a set of blood samples with endogenous glucose concentrations). A match between the NAS and the residual spectra reveals that direct information associated with absorption of light by the glucose molecule is present in the measured data. A similar comparison is made with the regression vector associated with the PLS model. A match between the NAS and regression vector confirms that the correlations encoded in the calibration model do, in fact, arise from glucose absorption information. The results obtained through this work demonstrate that NAS analysis is a valuable tool for use in investigating the selectivity of multivariate calibration models.

Amerov, Airat K.; Small, Gary W.; Arnold, Mark A.

2005-11-01

476

Perceived Barriers to Effective Job Performance Among Nursing Assistants in Long-Term Care  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This research explored perceived barriers to job performance among a national sample of nursing assistants (NAs). Specific objectives were (a) to clarify which of the problems identified by previous research are most troublesome for NAs, (b) to develop a reliable quantitative measure of perceived barriers to job performance, and (c) to test construct validity of the measure vis-à-vis work-related psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Methods: Nursing assistants attending the 2006 national conference of the National Association of Health Care Assistants completed a paper-and-pencil survey including 33 barriers to job performance and standardized measures of empowerment and job satisfaction. The barries were also rated by a small sample of NAs at a single Georgia nursing home. Results: Factor analysis of barriers items yielded a 30-item Nursing Assistants Barriers Scale (NABS) comprising 6 subscales: Teamwork, Exclusion, Respect, Workload, Work Stress, and New NAs. Lack of teamwork and exclusion from communication processes were rated as most problematic by both samples. The 6 NABS subscales were significantly and independently associated with empowerment and satisfaction; different barriers predicted the two constructs. Discussion: This study is a first step toward quantitative assessment of NAs' perceptions of barriers to doing their jobs. Primary limitations are the select sample and use of a job satisfaction measure that may have artificially inflated correlations with the NABS. Nonetheless, results confirm the validity of the new scale as an operationalization of the barriers construct. Conclusion: The concept of barriers to job performance is a unique construct from work empowerment and satisfaction with one's job. Nursing assistants clearly differentiate various barriers, converging on workload and lack of teamwork as most problematic. Further work is needed to substantiate validity and reliability of the NABS, particularly with respect to NAs' actual job performance, intent to stay on the job versus leave, absenteeism and turnover.

Parmelee, Patricia A.; Laszlo, Mary C.; Taylor, Jo A.

2009-01-01

477

Utility of numerical and visual analog scales for evaluating the post-operative pain in rural patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Visual analog scales (VAS) and numeric analog scales (NAS) are used to assess post-operative pain, but few studies indicate their usefulness in rural illiterate population in India. Aims: This study was designed to 1) Compare the impact of literacy on the ability to indicate pain rating on VAS and NAS in post-operative rural patients. 2) Assess the level of agreement between the pain scales. Setting and Design: Cross sectional, hospital based study. Methods: Informed consent was obtained from patients prior to undergoing surgical procedures in a teaching hospital. Post surgery, patients who were conscious and coherent, were asked to rate pain on both VAS and NAS. The pain ratings were obtained within 24 hours of surgery and within 5 minutes of each other. Statistical Methods: Percentages, chi square test, regression analysis. Results: A total of 105 patients participated in the study. 43 (41%) of the sample was illiterate. 82 (78.1%) were able to rate pain on VAS while 81 (77.1%) were able to rate pain on NAS. There was no significant association between pain ratings and type of surgery, duration of surgery and nature of anaesthesia. In multivariate analysis, age, sex and literacy had no significant association with the ability to rate pain on VAS (P value 0.652, 0.967, 0.328 respectively). Similarly, no significant association was obtained between age, sex and literacy and ability to rate pain on NAS (P value 0.713, 0.405, 0.875 respectively). Correlation coefficient between the scales was 0.693. Conclusion: VAS and NAS can be used interchangeably in Indian rural population as post-operative pain assessment tools irrespective of literacy status.

Mudgalkar, Nikhil; Bele, Samir D; Valsangkar, Sameer; Bodhare, Trupti N; Gorre, Mahipal

2012-01-01

478

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning.

2012-01-01

479

Extracellular and intracellular effects of polyamines on smooth muscle contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine, and their metabolic products N1-acetylspermine (N-AS) and 5?-deoxi-5?-methylthioadenosine (DMT), but not N?-acetylspermidine nor N-acetylputrescine, relax the KCl-induced contraction in rat uterus in a dose-dependent way. This relaxing effect is counteracted by CaCl2 (0.1–6 mM) but not by Bay K 8644. Spermine, N-AS and DMT also inhibit the contraction induced by methacholine and PGF2?.

A. I. Fernández; B. Cantabrana; M. Sánchez; A. Hidalgo

1995-01-01

480

Effects of AMPA\\/kainate receptor blockade on responses to dopamine receptor agonists in the core and shell of the rat nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments were conducted to investigate effects of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleprionic acid (AMPA)\\/kainate\\u000a receptor blockade (CNQX, NBQX) on locomotor responses to D2\\/3 (7-OH-DPAT) and D1 [(+)-SKF 38393] dopamine receptor agonists\\u000a in the nucleus accumbens (NAS) core and shell. CNQX (0.25–0.5 ?g) microinjected into the NAS core or shell did not affect\\u000a baseline locomotor activity. 7-OH-DPAT (2.5–5 ?g) decreased locomotor activity. Co-

K. H. Choi; B. Zarandi; K. G. Todd; A. M. Biondo; A. J. Greenshaw

2000-01-01

481

Changes in subsarcolemmal sodium concentration measured by NaCa exchanger activity during Na-pump inhibition and ?-adrenergic stimulation in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of Na-Ca exchange activity was used to examine subsarcolemmal sodium levels ([Na+]s) in single, voltage-clamped guinea-pig cardiac myocytes while Na-K pump activity was modulated pharmacologically. Changes\\u000a in Nas were evaluated from phase-plane analysis of the changes in intracellular calcium, measured using the fluorescent indicators\\u000a Fura-red and Fluo-3. Activation of ?-adrenoceptors with 1 ?M isoprenaline resulted in activation of the cAMP-dependent

M. J. Main; C. J. Grantham; M. B. Cannell

1997-01-01

482

Neonatal abstinence syndrome—postnatal ward versus neonatal unit management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this cohort study was to test the hypothesis that caring for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) with\\u000a their mothers on the postnatal ward rather than admit them to the neonatal unit would reduce treatment duration and length\\u000a of hospital stay.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The outcomes of infants with NAS cared for in 2002–2005 (Group A, n?=?42) and 2006–2007 (Group

Tolulope Saiki; Silke Lee; Simon Hannam; Anne Greenough

2010-01-01

483

The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate research aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for

Charles T. Howell; Artie Jessup; Frank Jones; C. Joyce; P. Sugden; H. Verstynen; J. Mielnik

2010-01-01

484

Current state, scales of variability, and trends of biogeochemical properties in the northern Adriatic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the main results of a statistical analysis performed on a data set obtained by integrating experimental observations collected during many oceanographic research projects on the northern Adriatic Sea (NAS). The observations cover the last 20 years and provide a robust base for the assessment of the current state and scales of variability for temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved

Cosimo Solidoro; Mauro Bastianini; Vinko Bandelj; Raffaella Codermatz; Gianpiero Cossarini; Donata Melaku Canu; Elisa Ravagnan; Stefano Salon; Sebastiano Trevisani

2009-01-01

485

BREVE HISTÓRICO DO USO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÕES GERENCIAIS APLICADOS A EMPRESAS RURAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nas últimas décadas o Brasil tem confirmado seu importante papel na produção agrícola mundial. Apoiando esta posição encontra-se a utilização da informática pelas empresas rurais e o destaque para a utilização dos sistemas de informações gerenciais (SIGs). O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir e discutir informações sobre alguns fatos da história do desenvolvimento da agroinformática no Brasil enfocando-se a participação

Henri Cocaro; Jose Carlos dos Santos Jesus

2008-01-01

486

Una transición en edades avanzadas: cambios en los arreglos residenciales de adultos mayores en siete ciudades latinoamericanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presenta una visión preliminar y descriptiva de los cambios en los arreglos residenciales en la población de 60 años y más en siete ciudades latinoamerica- nas. Se exploran la intensidad del cambio, sus razones, la estructura familiar inicial, y el cambio de vivienda física. Los datos utilizados en este estudio provienen de las encues- tas de

Julieta Pérez Amador; Gilbert Brenes

2006-01-01

487

EVALUATION /APPLICATION OF VARIOUS DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agency has not established a formal methodology to assess the risk for microbial contaminants. In 1991, a joint EPA/AWWARF conference evaluating drinking water and health proposed the application of the NAS risk paradigm for microbial contaminants. A risk assessment model was...

488

¿Víbora ou cobra?  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As mordeduras por serpe teñen un prognóstico distinto en función da familia do ofidio responsábel. Distinguir a fami- lia das cobras da das víboras, presentes as dúas en Galiza, pode axudar a tomar a decisión clínica máis axei- tada. Os criterios máis seguros para distinguir as dúas fami- lias de réptiles baséanse na forma da pupila, nas escamas supralabiais,

Martínez Rodríguez; Víbora de Seoane; Vipera Seoanei

489

Reducing firearm violence: a research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, firearms are involved in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. The magnitude of this problem prompted the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to issue a report in 2004 detailing the strengths and limitations of existing research on the relationship between firearms and violence. In response, a multidisciplinary group of experts in the field

Janet Weiner; Douglas J Wiebe; Therese S Richmond; Kristen Beam; Alan L Berman; Charles C Branas; Rose A Cheney; Tamera Coyne-Beasley; John Firman; Martin Fishbein; Stephen Hargarten; David Hemenway; Robert Jeffcoat; David Kennedy; Christopher S Koper; Jean Lemaire; Matthew Miller; Jeffrey A Roth; C William Schwab; Robert Spitzer; Stephen Teret; Jon Vernick; Daniel Webster

2007-01-01

490

Agrotóxicos e seus efeitos sócio-culturais: Zona Rural doValão de São Lourenço, Santa Teresa, ES, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Neste trabalho, foram investigados fatores sócio- culturais dos trabalhadores rurais da região do Valão de São Lourenço que provavelmente poderiam influenciar na incidência de doenças relacionadas ao uso inadequado de agrotóxicos. A amostra populacional foi de 10 famílias, nas quais 25 indivíduos foram entrevistados e aos quais foram aplicados questionários individuais. Entre os homens maiores de 25 anos, apenas

Lorena CC Fehlberg; Leonardo V Lutz; Adriana H Moreira

491

UAV and the Current and Future Regulatory Construction for Integration into the National Airspace System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ('UAV') have been a part of aviation from the infancy manned aviation; yet, have not reached their fullest potential as they are not integrated into the national airspace system ('NAS'). However, we are at the edge of regulatory c...

M. E. Peterson

2005-01-01

492

A Inserção Feminina no Mercado de Trabalho do Agronegócio: Uma Estudo Comparativo da Sadia e da Perdigão  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O estudo apresenta uma visão comparativa das práticas de evidenciação, no Balanço Social, dos indicadores sociais relacionados à inserção da mulher nas Empresas Sadia e Perdigão. A análise dos indicadores laborais pode oferecer informações relevantes para investidores e para a sociedade em geral quanto à proteção e ao estímulo do trabalho feminino. O estudo utiliza o banco de dados

Antonio Nunes Pereira; Vandresa Lucia Machado; Fabricio Carvalho Cipola; Claudio Jose Pinheiro; Ana Alice Vilas Boas

2008-01-01

493

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" copy of an 8" x 10" negative; 1989 original architectural drawing located at Building No. 458, NAS Pensacola, Florida) Interior renovation, Navy recruiting orientation unit, Building No. 45, Architectural second floor plan, Sheet 4 of 29 - U.S. Naval Air Station, Equipment Shops & Offices, 206 South Avenue, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

494

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" copy of an 8" x 10" negative; 1989 original architectural drawing located at Building No. 458, NAS Pensacola, Florida) Interior renovation, Navy recruiting orientation unit, Building No. 45, Architectural third floor plan, Sheet 5 of 29 - U.S. Naval Air Station, Equipment Shops & Offices, 206 South Avenue, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

495

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" copy of an 8" x 10" negative; 1989 original architectural drawing located at Building No. 458, NAS Pensacola, Florida) Interior renovation, Navy recruiting orientation unit, Building No. 45, Architectural floor plan and general notes, Sheet 2 of 29 - U.S. Naval Air Station, Equipment Shops & Offices, 206 South Avenue, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

496

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" copy of an 8" x 10" negative; 1989 original architectural drawing located at Building No. 458, NAS Pensacola, Florida) Interior renovation, Navy recruiting orientation unit, Building No. 45, Architectural floor plan and window details, Sheet 3 of 29 - U.S. Naval Air Station, Equipment Shops & Offices, 206 South Avenue, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

497

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" copy of an 8" x 10" negative; 1944 architectural drawing located at NAS Pensacola, Florida, Building No. 458) ALTERATIONS TO FIRST FLOOR PLAN FOR MOTION PICTURE CAMERA AND CAMERA REPAIR SCHOOL, BUILDING NO. 52, SHEET 1 OF 3. - U.S. Naval Air Station, Paint Shop, 222 East Avenue, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

498

New Earth Science Research Opportunities: Committee Seeks Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences, which helped define the priorities for the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Earth Sciences (EAR) over the past decade. Motivated by this report, EAR funded key components of the EarthScope initiative, established a network of Critical Zone Observatories, and expanded its post-doctoral fellowship

Mark Lange

2010-01-01

499

Desafinado... ou o meu primeiro amor: A construção das representações sociais da Matemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A disciplina de Matemática continua a ter, em Portugal, uma taxa de insucesso elevada, apesar dos esforços desenvolvidos por professores e investigadores durante as últimas décadas. No entanto, esta disciplina assume um papel preponderante nas escolhas vocacionais que os alunos podem fazer no 10º ano de escolaridade, condicionando as suas opções de escolha e o seu percurso escolar e

Sara Piscarreta; Margarida César

500

Abordagem etnobotânica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em dermatologia na cidade de João Pessoa-Paraíba, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: As doenças de pele são muito comuns acometendo cerca de 1\\/3 da população mundial e as plantas medicinais, em especial as suas associações, são comumente usadas nas comunidades para o tratamento de micoses, erisipela e outras dermatoses. Todavia, um dos problemas enfrentados pelos profissionais da área de saúde atualmente é justamente a questão do uso concomitante de plantas medicinais

E. O. Lima; R. A. G. Oliveira; M. S. Toledo; João Pessoa