Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.
The Seventh Geodynamics Program report summarizes program activities and achievements during 1988 and 1989. Included is a 115 page bibliography of the publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program since its initiation in 1979.
The history and development of the geodynamics program are described, in addition to accomplishments and plans for the future years activities. Extramural grant titles are listed for general research, Lageos investigations, and Magsat investigations.
This NASA Geodynamics Program overview collectively examines the history, scientific basis, status, and results of the NASA Program and outlines plans for the next five to eight years. It is intended as an informative nontechnical discussion of geodynamics research.
The activities of the NASA Geodynamics Program in 1981 both in achieving improved measurement precision and in establishing the foundation for the acquisition and analysis of scientific data are discussed.
Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)
This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.
Mueller, I. I.
The current technical objectives for the geodynamics program consist of (1) optimal utilization of laser and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations for reference frames for geodynamics; (2) utilization of range difference observations in geodynamics; and (3) estimation techniques in crustal deformation analysis.
Some objectives of this geodynamic program are: (1) optimal utilization of laser and VLBI observations as reference frames for geodynamics, (2) utilization of range difference observations in geodynamics, and (3) estimation techniques in crustal deformation analysis. The determination of Earth rotation parameters from different space geodetic systems is studied. Also reported on is the utilization of simultaneous laser range differences for the determination of baseline variation. An algorithm for the analysis of regional or local crustal deformation measurements is proposed along with other techniques and testing procedures. Some results of the reference from comparisons in terms of the pole coordinates from different techniques are presented.
Further development of utility program software for analyzing final results of Earth rotation parameter determination from different space geodetic systems was completed. Main simulation experiments were performed. Results and conclusions were compiled. The utilization of range-difference observations in geodynamics is also examined. A method based on the Bayesian philosophy and entropy measure of information is given for the elucidation of time-dependent models of crustal motions as part of a proposed algorithm. The strategy of model discrimination and design of measurements is illustrated in an example for the case of crustal deformation models.
Mueller, I. I.
Work performed and data obtained in geodynamic research is reported. The purpose was to obtain utilization of: (1) laser and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI); (2) range difference observation in geodynamics; (3) development of models for ice sheet and crustal deformations. The effects of adopting new precession, nutation and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame are investigated.
Brown, Robert W.
The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.
Zebulum, Ricardo S.
NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.
An overview is given of the field of geodynamics and its major scientific questions. The NASA geodynamics program is described as well as its status and accomplishments projected by 1988. Federal coordination and international cooperation in monitoring tectonic plate motion, polar motion, and Earth rotation are mentioned. The development of a GPS receiver for civilian geodesy and results obtained using satellite laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry in measuring crustal dynamics, global dynamics, and the geopotential field are reported.
NASA's current education programs, which will be examined under its Strategic Plan for Education are presented. It is NASA's first goal to maintain this base - revising, expanding, or eliminating programs as necessary. Through NASA's second goal, new education reform initiatives will be added which specifically address NASA mission requirements, national educational reform, and Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) priorities. The chapters in this publication are divided by educational levels, with additional sections on programs to improve the technological competence of students and on an array of NASA published materials to supplement programs. The resource section lists NASA's national and regional Teacher Resource Centers and introduces the reader to NASA's Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE), which distributes materials in audiovisual format.
NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...
Farley, C. F.
NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.
Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)
The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.
An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.
The development of a time series of global atmospheric motion and mass fields through April 1984 to compare with changes in length of day and polar motion was investigated. Earth rotation was studied and the following topics are discussed: (1) computation of atmospheric angular momentum through April 1984; (2) comparisons of psi sub values with variations in length of day obtained by several groups utilizing B.I.H., lunar laser ranging, VLBI, or Lageos measurements; (3) computation of atmospheric excitation of polar motion using daily fields of atmospheric winds and pressures for a short test period. Daily calculations may be extended over a longer period to examine the forcing of the annual and Chandler wobbles, in addition to higher frequency nutations.
The Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1998 and highlights of the ground- and-flight-based research are provided.
Woodard, Dan R. (Editor); Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)
The Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1999 and highlights of the ground-and-flight research are provided.
Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.
NASA's strategic Goals: a) Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. b) Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. NASA's partnership efforts in global modeling and data assimilation over the next decade will shorten the distance from observations to answers for important, leading-edge science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences program will continue the Agency's efforts in benchmarking the assimilation of NASA research results into policy and management decision-support tools that are vital for the Nation's environment, economy, safety, and security. NASA also is working with NOAH and inter-agency forums to transition mature research capabilities to operational systems, primarily the polar and geostationary operational environmental satellites, and to utilize fully those assets for research purposes.
Dasch, E. Julius
Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.
Braunstein, D. R.
The goals, membership, and organizational structure of the NASA Productivity Steering Committee are described as well as steps taken to make NASA a leader in the development and application of productivity and quality concepts at every level of agency management. The overall strategy for the Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Program is through employee involvement, both civil servant and contractor, in all phases of agency-wide activity. Elements of the PIQE program and initial thrusts are examined.
Libby, W. F.
A summary of the scientific NASA grants and achievements accomplished by the University of California, Los Angles, is presented. The development of planetary and space sciences as a major curriculum of the University, and statistical data on graduate programs in aerospace sciences are discussed. An interdisciplinary approach to aerospace science education is emphasized. Various research programs and scientific publications that are a direct result of NASA grants are listed.
Hasan, Hashima; Smith, D.
NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) has embraced the opportunity presented by the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009, to take the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics to students, educators and the public worldwide. NASA is an Organizational Associate of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) IYA 2009 program, and as an integral component of national U.S. IYA team, is aligning its activities to the overarching themes outlined by the team. A website was launched in May 2008 to guide visitors to NASA resources and enable participation in special events. The website includes science themes, celestial objects to observe, and mission milestones for each month of 2009. Existing programs will be expanded to provide a variety of IYA-themed educational materials, while new programs are being initiated. Sun-Earth Day 2009 celebrates Galileo's first telescope observations by extending IYA activities to day-time astronomy. The program "Are We Alone?" is a series of special one-hour SETI Institute radio and podcast programs linked to the NASA monthly highlights throughout 2009. The NASA IYA Student Ambassador program will help spread the excitement of NASA's astronomy discoveries into local communities through the efforts of College and University students. Two of these students will represent NASA at the IYA Opening Ceremony in Paris in January 2009. These and other special programs being developed will be described in this talk. The philosophy behind the IYA programs is to make them exciting and sustainable beyond 2009. IYA is viewed as the beginning of a journey into the world of astronomy by the uninitiated and the continue of a quest by those already enraptured by the wonders of the sky.
Rummel, John D.; Harper, Lynn; Andersen, Dale
The goal of NASA's Exobiology Program is to understand the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe. To do this, the Exobiology Program seeks to provide a critical framework and some key research to allow NASA to bear the combined talents and capabilities of the agency and the scientific community, and the unique opportunities afforded by space exploration. To provide structure and direction to the quest for answers, the Exobiology Program has instituted a comprehensive research program divided into four elements which are being implemented at several of NASA's research centers and in the university community. These program elements correspond to the four major epochs in the evolution of living systems: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life. The overall research program is designed to trace the pathways leading from the origin of the universe through the major epochs in the story of life.
Hasan, Hashima; Smith, D.
NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) launched a variety of programs to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009. A few examples will be presented to demonstrate how the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics has been given an IYA2009 flavor and made available to students, educators and the public worldwide. NASA participated in the official kickoff of US IYA activities by giving a sneak preview of a multi-wavelength image of M101, and of other images from NASA's space science missions that are now traveling to 40 public libraries around the country. NASA IYA Student Ambassadors represented the USA at the international Opening Ceremony in Paris, and have made strides in connecting with local communities throughout the USA. NASA's Object of the Month activities have generated great interest in the public through IYA Discovery Guides. Images from NASA's Great Observatories are included in the From Earth to the Universe (FETTU) exhibition, which was inaugurated both in the US and internationally. The Hubble Space Telescope Project had a tremendous response to its 100 Days of Astronomy "You Decide” competition. NASA's IYA programs have started a journey into the world of astronomy by the uninitiated and cultivated the continuation of a quest by those already enraptured by the wonders of the sky.
This presentation highlights the NASA Applied Sciences Program. The goal of the program is to extend the results of scientific research and knowledge beyond the science community to contribute to NASA's partners' applications of national priority, such as agricultural efficiency, energy management and Homeland Security. Another purpose of the program's scientific research is to increase knowledge of the Earth-Sun system to enable improved predictions of climate, weather, and natural hazards. The program primarily optimizes benefits for citizens by contributing to partnering on applications that are used by state, local and tribal governments.
The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.
Toll, David L.
With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its
This fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program (MRP) as conducted by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) within NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity, Sciences and Applications. The program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. All snapshots of the program's status at the end of FY 1997 and a review of highlights and progress in grounds and flights based research are provided. Also described are major space missions that flew during FY 1997, plans for utilization of the research potential of the International Space Station, the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, and various educational/outreach activities. The MRP supports investigators from academia, industry, and government research communities needing a space environment to study phenomena directly or indirectly affected by gravity.
Kicza, Mary; Bruegge, Richard Vorder
NASA's Discovery Program represents an new era in planetary exploration. Discovery's primary goal: to maintain U.S. scientific leadership in planetary research by conducting a series of highly focused, cost effective missions to answer critical questions in solar system science. The Program will stimulate the development of innovative management approaches by encouraging new teaming arrangements among industry, universities and the government. The program encourages the prudent use of new technologies to enable/enhance science return and to reduce life cycle cost, and it supports the transfer of these technologies to the private sector for secondary applications. The Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous and Mars Pathfinder missions have been selected as the first two Discovery missions. Both will be launched in 1996. Subsequent, competitively selected missions will be conceived and proposed to NASA by teams of scientists and engineers from industry, academia, and government organizations. This paper summarizes the status of Discovery Program planning.
Devincenzi, D. L.
The goal of NASA's Exobiology Program is to understand the origin, evolution, and distribution of life, and life-related molecules, on earth and throughout the universe. Emphasis is focused on determining how the rate and direction of these processes were affected by the chemical and physical environment of the evolving planet, as well as by planetary, solar, and astrophysical phenomena. This is accomplished by a multi-disciplinary program of research conducted by over 60 principal investigators in both NASA and university laboratories. Major program thrusts are in the following research areas: biogenic elements; chemical evolution; origin of life; organic geochemistry; evolution of higher life forms; solar system exploration; and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).
Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) contracted with NASA to manufacture and deliver thirteen small scale Solid Rocket Motors (SRM). These motors, containing five distinct propellant formulations, will be used for plume induced radiation studies. The information contained herein summarizes and documents the program accomplishments and results. Several modifications were made to the scope of work during the course of the program. The effort was on hold from late 1991 through August, 1992 while propellant formulation changes were developed. Modifications to the baseline program were completed in late-August and Modification No. 6 was received by ARC on September 14, 1992. The modifications include changes to the propellant formulation and the nozzle design. The required motor deliveries were completed in late-December, 1992. However, ARC agreed to perform an additional mix and cast effort at no cost to NASA and another motor was delivered in March, 1993.
Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.
The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.
Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)
The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.
September 24, 2008 NASA has established the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) to conduct scientific investigations in one of the most exciting new fields of astronomy, the exploration and characterization of planets around other stars in search of those that might show signs of harboring life. In this paper, we will describe that program and how it is expected to work. Key to success in this field is the advancement of optical capabilities to unprecedented levels of precision and stability. The technology program conducted by ExEP will strive to achieve these advancements to enable near-term moderate scale missions and eventually lead to large flagship-class missions that will deeply probe the most promising earth-like planets for signs of biogenic activity. Significant opportunities for community participation in technology development will be available through NASA research solicitations that will call for technology advancements in specific areas. These developments will focus on challenges posed by a strategy for the progression of scientific investigations developed by the science community through bodies such as the Exoplanet Task Force, the Exoplanet Science Forum and ultimately the NRC Decadal Survey. ExEP will be advised in its tactical implementation of this strategy by Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG), which will engage a broad segment of the community in deliberation and then focus its reports through a core group appointed by NASA HQ. The coming decade offers opportunities for continued exoplanet investigations through ground observations, sub-orbital platforms and moderate scale space missions, and the anticipated process and timing of these opportunities will be described. The Exoplanet Exploration Program is managed for NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
NASA has been interacting with the Tribal College and University (TCU) Community for over ten years. During this time, we have worked with TCU faculty, students, and administrators to build relationships and develop mutually beneficial programs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. We have found learning about native perspectives and approaches to education and science to be enriching and of great value to our science community. NASA scientists, engineers, and educators have been very receptive to Tribal culture's traditional wisdom in its approach to the study of the earth and the cosmos. In this session we will share some of the lessons we have learned over the last decade and discuss past and present partnership programs with Tribal Colleges and Native serving institutions.
Lovell, R. R.; Cuccia, C. L.
NASA's communications program was restructured in 1979 to develop selective high risk technology forced on relief of the orbit and frequency congestion and on developing new and affordable service. The central theme of the current technology thrust is one of developing interconnectivity technology and architecture to convert the present era of bent pipe satellite utilization to one using nodal points in space for both space and earth based information gateways and interfaces to terrestrial communication systems.
This, the Sixth Annual Report for NASA's Oceanic Processes Program, provides an overview of recent accomplishments, present activities, and future plans. Although the report was prepared for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1, 1984 to September 30, 1985), the period covered by the Introduction extends into June 1986. Sections following the Introduction provide summaries of current flight projects and definition studies, brief descriptions of individual research activities, and a bibliography of refereed journal articles appearing within the past two years.
Morse, Jon A.
NASA's Suborbital Programs are the primary engines generating new scientists with the hardware and project management skills needed to lead new space missions. They also allow hands-on student participation in hardware development that is crucial to recruiting and training the next generation of scientists and engineers. They play important roles in the difficult process of migrating bench top technologies to space flight readiness levels, as well as quick migration of cutting-edge technologies to enable a space flight instruments. Initial steps already taken to reinvigorate these programs will be discussed, along with some options for maintaining technical and scientific momentum during times of funding stress.
The purpose of the workshop was to review concepts for Discover-class missions that would follow the first two missions (MESUR-Pathfinder and NEAR) of this new program. The concepts had been generated by scientists involved in NASA's Solar System Exploration Program to carry out scientifically important investigations within strict guidelines -- $150 million cap on development cost and 3 year cap on development schedule. Like the Astrophysics Small Explorers (SMEX), such 'faster and cheaper' missions could provide vitality to solar system exploration research by returning high quality data more frequently and regularly and by involving many more young researchers than normally participate directly in larger missions. An announcement of opportunity (AO) to propose a Discovery mission to NASA is expected to be released in about two years time. One purpose of the workshop was to assist Code SL in deciding how to allocate its advanced programs resources. A second, complimentary purpose was to provide the concept proposers with feedback to allow them to better prepare for the AO.
Averner, Maurice M.
The NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program was initiated with the premise that NASA's goal would eventually include extended duration missions with sizable crews requiring capabilities beyond the ability of conventional life support technology. Currently, as mission duration and crew size increase, the mass and volume required for consumable life support supplies also increase linearly. Under these circumstances the logistics arrangements and associated costs for life support resupply will adversely affect the ability of NASA to conduct long duration missions. A solution to the problem is to develop technology for the recycling of life support supplies from wastes. The CELSS concept is based upon the integration of biological and physico-chemical processes to construct a system which will produce food, potable water, and a breathable atmosphere from metabolic and other wastes, in a stable and reliable manner. A central feature of a CELSS is the use of green plant photosynthesis to produce food, with the resulting production of oxygen and potable water, and the removal of carbon dioxide.
Major facts are given for NASA'S planned FY-1981 through FY-1985 programs in aeronautics, space science, space and terrestrial applications, energy technology, space technology, space transportation systems, space tracking and data systems, and construction of facilities. Competition and cooperation, reimbursable launchings, schedules and milestones, supporting research and technology, mission coverage, and required funding are considered. Tables and graphs summarize new initiatives, significant events, estimates of space shuttle flights, and major missions in astrophysics, planetary exploration, life sciences, environmental and resources observation, and solar terrestrial investigations. The growth in tracking and data systems capabilities is also depicted.
Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Mason, Lee S.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.
NASA's Hall thruster program has base research and focused development efforts in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program, Space-Based Program, and various other programs. The objective of the base research is to gain an improved understanding of the physical processes and engineering constraints of Hall thrusters to enable development of advanced Hall thruster designs. Specific technical questions that are current priorities of the base effort are: (1) How does thruster life vary with operating point? (2) How can thruster lifetime and wear rate be most efficiently evaluated? (3) What are the practical limitations for discharge voltage as it pertains to high specific impulse operation (high discharge voltage) and high thrust operation (low discharge voltage)? (4) What are the practical limits for extending Hall thrusters to very high input powers? and (5) What can be done during thruster design to reduce cost and integration concerns? The objective of the focused development effort is to develop a 50 kW-class Hall propulsion system, with a milestone of a 50 kW engineering model thruster/system by the end of program year 2006. Specific program wear 2001 efforts, along with the corporate and academic participation, are described.
Kilroy, Patrick L.
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: NASA Parts Program Office responsibilities; NASA Parts Project Office responsibilities; development priorities; and candidate functions for EPIMS baseline.
Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.
Billingham, J.; Brocker, D. H.
In 1959, it was proposed that a sensible way to conduct interstellar communication would be to use radio at or near the frequency of hydrogen. In 1960, the first Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) was conducted using a radiotelescope at Green Bank in West Virginia. Since 1970, NASA has systematically developed a definitive program to conduct a sophisticated search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. The basic hypothesis is that life may be widespread in the univers, and that in many instances extraterrestrial life may have evolved into technological civilizations. The underlying scientific arguments are based on the continuously improving knowledge of astronomy and astrophysics, especially star system formation, and of planetary science, chemical evolution, and biological evolution. If only one in a million sun-like stars in our galaxy harbors species with cognitive intelligence, then there are 100,000 civilizations in the Milky Way alone. The fields of radioastronomy digital electronic engineering, spectrum analysis, and signal detection have advanced rapidly in the last twenty years and now allow for sophisticated systems to be built in order to attempt the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence signals. In concert with the scientific and engineering communities, NASA has developed, over the last several years, a Microwave Observing Project whose goal is to design, build, and operate SETI systems during the decade of the nineties in pursuit of the goal signal detection. The Microwave Observing Project is now approved and underway. There are two major components in the project: the Target Search Element and the Sky Survey Element.
Neeck, Steven P.; Hammer, Theodore F.
The purpose of NASA's Science Mission Directorate's Earth Science Division (ESD) is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. ESD conducts and sponsors research, collects new observations from space, develops technologies and extends science and technology education to learners of all ages. We work closely with our global partners in government, industry, and the public to enhance economic security, and environmental stewardship, benefiting society in many tangible ways. We conduct and sponsor research to answer fundamental science questions about the changes we see in climate, weather, and natural hazards, and deliver sound science that helps decision-makers make informed decisions. Using the view from space to study the Earth, researchers can better predict critical changes to Earth and its space environment. ESD has a critical role in implementing three major national directives: •Climate Change Research through the Climate Change Science Program •Global Earth Observation System of Systems through the Interagency Working Group on Earth Observations (IWGEO) •U.S Ocean Action Plan. NASA's ESD currently has a system of spacecraft collecting observations of the Earth system and in the months and years ahead will deploy new satellites and constellations with advanced measurement capabilities.
This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.
A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) Solar System Exploration with Highlights and Status of Programs; 2) Technology Drivers and Plans; and 3) Summary
Curry, Robert E.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts a wide variety of remote sensing projects using several unique aircraft platforms. These vehicles have been selected and modified to provide capabilities that are particularly important for geophysical research, in particular, routine access to very high altitudes, long range, long endurance, precise trajectory control, and the payload capacity to operate multiple, diverse instruments concurrently. While the NASA program has been in operation for over 30 years, new aircraft and technological advances that will expand the capabilities for airborne observation are continually being assessed and implemented. This presentation will review the current state of NASA's science platforms, recent improvements and new missions concepts as well as provide a survey of emerging technologies unmanned aerial vehicles for long duration observations (Global Hawk and Predator). Applications of information technology that allow more efficient use of flight time and the ability to rapidly reconfigure systems for different mission objectives are addressed.
Nichols, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Bartolone, L. M.; Walker, A.
NASA's Heliophysics Educator Ambassador (HEA) program focuses on in-depth learning experiences around Earth, Space, and Physical Science topics for educators teaching in middle school grades. Program coordinators include education and public outreach professionals from several NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) heliophysics spacecraft missions. The goal of the HEA program is to develop the capacity and provide the opportunity for educators to a) implement the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8 in their own classrooms, b) incorporate NASA SMD-funded spacecraft mission education resources into classroom activities, and c) train other teachers on the NASA heliophysics science and educational resources listed above at local and regional professional development conferences or meetings. We will discuss the goals, outcomes, and lessons learned through three years of program implementation, including benefits and challenges for program stakeholders, results of program evaluation, and plans for the future.
Gillies, Donald C.
Materials Science research programs are funded by NASA through the Microgravity Research Division. Such programs are normally designated as flight definition or ground based and can be awarded initially for up to four years. Selection is through a peer review process in response to a biennial NASA Research Announcement (NRA). The next announcement is due in November 1998 with proposals due in March 1999. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the guidelines for proposal writing within the NRA. NASA's interest in materials is wide and covers a range which includes metals and alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, non-linear optics, aerogels and nanostructures. With increasing interest in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program, the materials research funded will not be exclusively devoted to processes dependent on microgravity, but will also support materials of strategic interest in meeting NASA's long range plans of interplanetary travel.
Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.
The NASA Hall thruster program currently supports a number of tasks related to high power thruster development for a number of customers including the Energetics Program (formerly called the Space-based Program), the Space Solar Power Program, and the In-space Propulsion Program. In program year 2002, two tasks were central to the NASA Hall thruster program: 1) the development of a laboratory Hall thruster capable of providing high thrust at high power-, and 2) investigations into operation of Hall thrusters at high specific impulse. In addition to these two primary thruster development activities, there are a number of other on-going activities supported by the NASA Hall thruster program. These additional activities are related to issues such as high-power power processor architecture, thruster lifetime, and spacecraft integration.
Guyenne, T. Duc (Editor); Hunt, James J. (Editor)
The NASA geodynamics program; spaceborne magnetometry; spaceborne gravity gradiometry (characterizing the data type); terrestrial gravity data and comparisons with satellite data; GRADIO three-axis electrostatic accelerometers; gradiometer accommodation on board a drag-free satellite; gradiometer mission spectral analysis and simulation studies; and an opto-electronic accelerometer system were discussed.
Crawford, J. Larry; Weinstock, Robert
The four main areas of the NASA trend analysis program (problem/reliability, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending) are defined and illustrated with examples from Space Shuttle applications. Emphasis is on the programmatic-trending component of the program and several of the statistical techniques used. Also described is the NASA safety, reliability, maintainability, and quality assurance management information center, used to focus management attention on key near-term launch concerns and long-range mission trend issues.
Bagwell, James W.
Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.
Liang, Anita D.
We will dedicate ourselves to the mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies of Aeronautics for the Nation in all flight regimes. We will focus our research in areas that are appropriate to NASA's unique capabilities. we will directly address the R&D needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) in partnership with the member agencies of the Joint Planning and development Office (JPDO).
Lavery, David; Bedard, Roger J., Jr.
The NASA Planetary Rover Project was initiated in 1989. The emphasis of the work to date has been on development of autonomous navigation technology within the context of a high mobility wheeled vehicle at the JPL and an innovative legged locomotion concept at Carnegie Mellon University. The status and accomplishments of these two efforts are discussed. First, however, background information is given on the three rover types required for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) whose objective is a manned mission to Mars.
Larsen, R. L.
Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.
Schulze, Norman R.
The Office of Safety and Mission Quality initiated a Pyrotechnically Actuated Systems (PAS) Program in FY-92 to address problems experienced with pyrotechnically actuated systems and devices used both on the ground and in flight. The PAS Program will provide the technical basis for NASA's projects to incorporate new technological developments in operational systems. The program will accomplish that objective by developing/testing current and new hardware designs for flight applications and by providing a pyrotechnic data base. This marks the first applied pyrotechnic technology program funded by NASA to address pyrotechnic issues. The PAS Program has been structured to address the results of a survey of pyrotechnic device and system problems with the goal of alleviating or minimizing their risks. Major program initiatives include the development of a Laser Initiated Ordnance System, a pyrotechnic systems data base, NASA Standard Initiator model, a NASA Standard Linear Separation System and a NASA Standard Gas Generator. The PAS Program sponsors annual aerospace pyrotechnic systems workshops.
White, Nicholas E.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is part of NASA s Beyond Einstein program. This program seeks to answer the questions What Powered the Big Bang?, What happens at the edge of a Black Hole?, and What is Dark Energy?. LISA IS the first mission to be launched in this new program. This paper will give an overview of the Beyond Einstein program, its current status and where LISA fits in.
Stofel, E. J.
A long duration test has been conducted for comparing various methods of attaching electrical interconnects to solar cells for near Earth orbit spacecraft. Representative solar array modules have been thermally cycled for 36,000 cycles between -80 and +80 C on this JPL and NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored work. This test simulates the environmental stress of more than 6 years on a near Earth spacecraft as it cycles in and out of the Earth's shadow. Evaluations of the integrity of these modules were made by visual and by electrical examinations before starting the cycling and then at periodic intervals during the cycling tests. Modules included examples of parallel gap and of ultrasonic welding, as well as soldering. The materials and fabrication processes are state of the art, suitable for forming large solar arrays of spacecraft quality. The modules survived his extensive cycling without detectable degradation in their ability to generate power under sunlight illumination.
Gillies, Donald C.
The Microgravity Research Division of NASA funds materials science research through biannual research programs known as NASA Research Announcements (NRA). Selection is via external peer review with proposals being categorized for ground based research or flight definition status. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the NRAs and guidelines for successful proposals are outlined. The procedure for progressing from selection to a manifested flight experiment will involve further reviews of the science and also of the engineering needed to complete the experiment successfully. The topics of interest to NASA within the NRAs cover a comprehensive range of subjects, but with the common denominator that the proposed work must necessitate access to the microgravity environment for successful completion. Understanding of the fundamental nature of microstructure and its effects on properties is a major part of the program because it applies to almost all fields of materials science. Other important aspects of the program include non-linear optical materials, glasses and ceramics, metal and alloys and the need to develop materials science specifically to support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The transition to the International Space Station (ISS) represents the next stage of the Materials Science program.
NASA has established 6 Themes for Exploration: 1) USE THE MOON: Reduce risks and cost and increase productivity of future missions by testing technologies, systems, and operations in a planetary environment other than the Earth. 2) PURSUE SCIENTIFIC: Engage in scientific investigations of the Moon (solar system processes), on the Moon (use the unique environment), and from the Moon (to study other celestial phenomena). 3) EXTEND PERMANENT HUMAN PRESENCE: Develop the capabilities and infrastructure required to expand the number of people, the duration, the self-sufficiency, and the degree of non-governmental activity. 4) EXPAND EARTH S ECONOMIC SPHERE: Create new markets based on lunar activity that will return economic, technological, and quality-of-life benefits. 5) ENHANCE GLOBAL SECURTIY: Provide a challenging, shared, and peaceful global vision that unites nations in pursuit of common objectives. 6) ENGAGE, INSPIRE: Excite the public about space, encourage students to pursue careers in high technology fields, ensure that individuals enter the workforce with the scientific and technical knowledge necessary to sustain exploration.
The biomedical research program has been established to investigate the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes spaceflight. The program seeks to obtain a better definition of each problem, an understanding of its underlying mechanism, and ultimately a means of prevention. In pursuing these goals the program also includes a major effort to develop the research tools and procedures it needs where these are not being developed elsewhere. After almost twenty years of manned spaceflight activities and after a much longer period of space related ground-based research, the program now recognizes two characteristics of spaceflight which are truly unique to space. These are weightlessness and one specific form of radiation. In its present stage of maturity much of the research focuses on mechanisms underlying the basic responses of man and animals to weightlessness. The program consists of nine elements. Eight of these are referable to specific physiological problems that have either been encountered in previous manned spaceflight or which are anticipated to occur as spaceflights last longer, traverse steeper orbital inclinations, or are otherwise different from previous missions. The ninth addresses problems that have neither arisen nor can be reasonably predicted but are suspected on the basis of theoretical models, ground-based animal research, or for other reasons. The program's current emphasis is directed toward the motion sickness problem because of its relevance to Space Shuttle operations. Increased awareness and understanding of the radiation hazard has resulted in more emphasis being placed on the biological effects of high energy, high mass number particulate radiation and upon radiation protection . Cardiovascular and musculoskeleta1 studies are pursued in recognition of the considerable fundamental knowledge that must be acquired in these areas before effective countermeasures to the effects of repetitive or long
Generazio, Ed; Burke, Eric
The current activities in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program are presented. The topics covered include organizational communications, orbital weld inspection, electric field imaging, fracture critical probability of detection validation, monitoring of thermal protection systems, physical and document standards, image quality indicators, integrity of composite pressure vessels, and NDE for additively manufactured components.
Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim
The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.; Miller, Thomas L.
The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available icing technology to support the needs and requirements of industry for all weather aircraft designs. While a majority of the technology being developed is viewed to be generic (i.e., appropriate to all vehicle classes), vehicle specific emphasis is being placed on the helicopter due to its unique icing problems. In particular, some of the considerations for rotorcraft icing are indicated. The NASA icing research program emphasizes technology development in two key areas: ice protection concepts and icing simulation (analytical and experimental). The NASA research efforts related to rotorcraft icing in these two technology areas will be reviewed.
Byers, David C.; Wasel, Robert A.
The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power and Energy Division supports electric propulsion for a broad class of missions. Concepts with potential to significantly benefit or enable space exploration and exploitation are identified and advanced toward applications in the near to far term. Recent program progress in mission/system analyses and in electrothermal, ion, and electromagnetic technologies are summarized.
Flood, Dennis J.
Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.
The NASA aerospace technology transfer process is examined with attention given to the activities of the Technology Utilization Office. Industrial applications centers at universities, a center for the dissemination of computer programs, technology and biomedical application teams, and publications are considered.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has need to procure a variety of launch vehicles and services for its unmanned spacecraft. The Launch Services Program (LSP) provides the Agency with a single focus for the acquisition and management of Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launch services. This presentation will provide an overview of the LSP and its organization, approach, and activities.
Winblade, R. L.
This paper describes the status of the current NASA programs that are aimed at providing new technology for aircraft designs that will improve both safety and utility while reducing the environmental impact of general aviation to acceptable levels. Safety related areas that are discussed include the full scale crash test program and the stall/spin research effort. Among the programs addressing increased utility and performance, advanced airfoil developments and engine cooling drag reduction are discussed. Noise and emission reduction is a subject that is receiving significant emphasis within the NASA programs. Also included is a description of the current status of the hydrogen injection concept as a means of both lowering emissions and increasing fuel economy.
Stone, James R.; Byers, David C.; King, David Q.
The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power, and Energy Division supports an electric propulsion program aimed at providing benefits to a broad class of missions. Concepts which have the potential to enable or significantly benefit space exploration and exploitation are identified and advanced toward application in the near and far term. This paper summarizes recent program progress in mission/system analysis; in electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion technologies; and in propulsion/spacecraft integration.
Curran, Francis M.; Brophy, John R.; Bennett, Gary L.
NASA has defined and undertaken an evolutionary technology program for high performance electric propulsion systems, which could greatly affect the logistics weight requirements for such large space structures as Space Station Freedom. Attention is presently given to the development status of hydrazine and high power arcjets, resistojets, the characterization of rocket flows and plumes, electrostatic and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and development programs aimed at the determination of opportune technology-insertion activities.
Stevens, Christopher M.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the New Millennium Program (NMP) which was established in 1994 to revolutionize NASA's Space and Earth science programs to achieve more capable, less costly missions in th e 2lst Century by: 1. Developing and flight-validating revolutionary technologies; 2. Reducing development times and life cycle missi0n cost; 3. Enabling highly autonomous spacecraft and 4. Promoting nat ionwide teaming and coordination
Hudgins, Douglas M.; Blackwood, Gary H.; Gagosian, John S.
The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) is chartered to implement the NASA space science goals of detecting and characterizing exoplanets and to search for signs of life. The ExEP manages space missions, future studies, technology investments, and ground-based science that either enables future missions or completes mission science. The exoplanet science community is engaged by the Program through Science Definition Teams and through the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG). The ExEP includes the space science missions of Kepler, K2 , and the proposed WFIRST-AFTA that includes dark energy science, a widefield infrared survey, a microlensing survey for outer-exoplanet demographics, and a coronagraph for direct imaging of cool outer gas- and ice-giants around nearby stars. Studies of probe-scale (medium class) missions for a coronagraph (internal occulter) and starshade (external occulter) explore the trades of cost and science and provide motivation for a technology investment program to enable consideration of missions at the next decadal survey for NASA Astrophysics. Program elements include follow-up observations using the Keck Observatory, which contribute to the science yield of Kepler and K2, and include mid-infrared observations of exo-zodiacal dust by the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer which provide parameters critical to the design and predicted science yield of the next generation of direct imaging missions. ExEP includes the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute which provides archives, tools, and professional education for the exoplanet community. Each of these program elements contribute to the goal of detecting and characterizing earth-like planets orbiting other stars, and seeks to respond to rapid evolution in this discovery-driven field and to ongoing programmatic challenges through engagement of the scientific and technical communities.
Hudgins, Douglas M.; Blackwood, Gary; Gagosian, John
The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) is chartered to implement the NASA space science goals of detecting and characterizing exoplanets and to search for signs of life. The ExEP manages space missions, future studies, technology investments, and ground-based science that either enables future missions or completes mission science. The exoplanet science community is engaged by the Program through Science Definition Teams and through the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group. The ExEP includes the space science missions of Kepler, K2, and the proposed WFIRST-AFTA that includes dark energy science, a widefield infrared survey, a microlensing survey for outer-exoplanet demographics, and a coronagraph for direct imaging of cool outer gas- and ice-giants around nearby stars. Studies of probe-scale (medium class) missions for a coronagraph (internal occulter) and starshade (external occulter) explore the trades of cost and science and provide motivation for a technology investment program to enable consideration of missions at the next decadal survey for NASA Astrophysics. Program elements include follow-up observations using the Keck Observatory which contribute to the science yield of Kepler and K2, and include mid-infrared observations of exo-zodiacal dust by the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer which provide parameters critical to the design and predicted science yield of the next generation of direct imaging missions. ExEP includes the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute which provides archives, tools, and professional education for the exoplanet community. Each of these program elements contribute to the goal of detecting and characterizing earth-like planets orbiting other stars, and seeks to respond to rapid evolution in this discovery-driven field and to ongoing programmatic challenges through engagement of the scientific and technical communities.
Halstead, T. W.
A discussion is presented of the research conducted under the auspices of the NASA Space Biology Program. The objectives of this Program include the determination of how gravity affects and how it has shaped life on earth, the use of gravity as a tool to investigate relevant biological questions, and obtaining an understanding of how near-weightlessness affects both plants and animals in order to enhance the capability to use and explore space. Several areas of current developmental research are discussed and the future focus of the Program is considered.
Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.
The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.
The objectives of the NASA radiowave Propagation Program are to enable new satellite communication applications and to enhance existing satellite communication networks. These objectives are achieved by supporting radio wave propagation studies and disseminating the study results in a timely fashion. Studies initiated by this program in the 1980s enabled the infant concept of conducting mobile communications via satellite to reach a state of relative maturity in 1990. The program also supported the satellite communications community by publishing and revising two handbooks dealing with radio wave propagation effects for frequencies below and above 10 GHz, respectively. The program has served the international community through its support of the International Telecommunications Union. It supports state of the art work at universities. Currently, the program is focusing on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and its propagation needs. An overview of the program's involvement in the ACTS project is given.
Charles, Leslie Bermann
NASA's Earth science program is a scientific endeavor whose goal is to provide long-term understanding of the Earth as an integrated system of land, water, air and life. A highly developed scientific knowledge of the Earth system is necessary to understand how the environment affects humanity, and how humanity may be affecting the environment. The remote sensing technologies used to gather the global environmental data used in such research also have numerous practical applications. Current applications of remote sensing data demonstrate their practical benefits in areas such as the monitoring of crop conditions and yields, natural disasters and forest fires; hazardous waste clean up; and tracking of vector-borne diseases. The long-term availability of environmental data is essential for the continuity of important research and applications efforts. NASA's Earth observation program has undergone many changes in the recent past.
The ongoing challenge faced by NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program is to work with the scientific and engineering communities to secure the maximum return from our Nation's investments by: assuring that the best possible science emerges from the science community for microgravity investigations; ensuring the maximum scientific return from each investigation in the most timely and cost-effective manner; and enhancing the distribution of data and applications of results acquired through completed investigations to maximize their benefits.
The motivation for this paper is to present to the scientific community the current status of research in Astrophysics being funded by NASA in support of its strategic objectives, in order to foster a dialog with the international space science community. Research investigations selected by NASA via a peer review process, are conducted at universities, NASA centers, other U.S. Government institutions, and private institutions. Non U.S. participation is permitted. The research program is an incubator for new ideas. A major component is technology development in the area of astronomical detectors; instruments flown on rockets, balloons and other suborbital platforms; supporting technology such as development of gratings, mirror coatings, mission concepts; laboratory experiments to produce atomic and molecular data to support spectroscopic observations from space missions; study if ice and dust in a space environment to understand planet formation. There is also a data analysis program which is complemented by a robust theory program. The poster paper will give an overview and present specific examples of research in each of the areas listed above. Areas of international collaboration will be highlighted.
Contents include the following: Executive Summary; Introduction; Scientific Goals for the Exploration of Mars; Overview of Mars Surveyor and Others Mars Missions; Key Issues for NASA's Mars Exploration Program; and Assessment of the Scientific Potential of NASA's Mars Exploration Program.
Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.
An overview of NASA's Hall thruster research and development tasks conducted during fiscal year 2004 is presented. These tasks focus on: raising the technology readiness level of high power Hall thrusters, developing a moderate-power/ moderate specific impulse Hall thruster, demonstrating high-power/high specific impulse Hall thruster operation, and addressing the fundamental technical challenges of emerging Hall thruster concepts. Programmatic background information, technical accomplishments and out year plans for each program element performed under the sponsorship of the In-Space Transportation Program, Project Prometheus, and the Energetics Project are provided.
White, Nicholas E.
Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.
Harris, Charles E.
NASA initiated a research program with the long-term objective of supporting the aerospace industry in addressing issues related to the aging of the commercial transport fleet. The program combines advanced fatigue crack growth prediction methodology with innovative nondestructive examination technology with the focus on multi-stage damage (MSD) at rivited connections. A fracture mechanics evaluation of the concept of pressure proof testing the fuselage to screen for MSD was completed. A successful laboratory demonstration of the ability of the thermal flux method to detect disbonds at rivited lap splice joints was conducted. All long-term program elements were initiated, and the plans for the methodology verification program are being coordinated with the airframe manufacturers.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)
This volume is the ninth in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover evolution of NASA cost estimating; SAM 2; National Space Science Program: strategies to maximize science return; and human needs, motivation, and results of the NASA culture surveys. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)
This volume is the sixth in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover evolution of NASA cost estimating; SAM 2; National Space Science Program: strategies to maximize science return; and human needs, motivation, and results of the NASA culture surveys. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.
Whitefield, Phillip D.; Hagen, Donald E.; Wormhoudt, Jody C.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Brundish, Kevin; Wilson, Christopher W.; Wey, Chowen (Technical Monitor)
This report is an interim report. The work reported are the results from the combustor testing, the first phase of testing in the DERA/NASA collaborative program. A program of work was developed by DERA and NASA utilizing specialist facilities within the UK, and specialist measurement techniques developed within the U.S. Under a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the UK and U.S. governments, the joint UK/U.S. funded program commenced. The objective of the program was to make combustor and engine exit plane emissions measurements, including particulate and sulphur measurements, for kerosene fuels with different sulphur levels. The combustor test program was performed in August/September 2000. Although probe issues complicated the test program, a consistent set of data, including CO, NO(x), NO, NO2, CO2, O2, smoke number, particulate number density and size distribution, SO2, SO3 and HONO were collected at the exit plane of the DERA TRACE engine combustor. A second probe was utilized to measure spatial location of CO, NO(x), NO, NO2 and CO2 concentrations. Data are therefore available for development of aerosol, particulate and aerosol precursor chemistry sub-models for inclusion into CFD. Inlet boundary conditions have been derived at the exit of the combustion system for the modelling of the DERA TRACE engine. The second phase of the program is to perform identical measurements at the engine exit, to allow a full data set to be available. This will be performed in July 2001 at the Glenn test facility, DERA Pyestock.
Callahan, Lisa Wood; Curran, Francis M.
Nearly all space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems typically have a major impact on spacecraft mass and cost. Electric propulsion systems offer major performance advantages over conventional chemical systems for many mission functions and the NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) supports an extensive effort to develop the technology for high-performance, on-board electric propulsion system options to enhance and enable near- and far-term US space missions. This program includes research and development efforts on electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion system technologies to cover a wide range of potential applications. To maximize expectations of technology transfer, the program emphasizes strong interaction with the user community through a variety of cooperative and contracted approaches. This paper provides an overview of the OSAT electric propulsion program with an emphasis on recent progress and future directions.
Millis, Marc G.
In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.
Lebo, George R.
It is widely known that the average American citizen has either no idea or the wrong impression of what NASA is doing. The most common impression is that NASA's sole mission is to build and launch spacecraft and that the everyday experience of the common citizen would be impacted very little if NASA failed to exist altogether. Some feel that most of NASA's efforts are much too expensive and that the money would be better used on other efforts. Others feel that most of NASA's efforts either fail altogether or fail to meet their original objectives. Yet others feel that NASA is so mired in bureaucracy that it is no longer able to function. The goal of the NASA Ambassadors Program (NAP) is to educate the general populace as to what NASA's mission and goals actually are, to re-excite the "man on the street" with NASA's discoveries and technologies, and to convince him that NASA really does impact his everyday experience and that the economy of the U.S. is very dependent on NASA-type research. Each of the NASA centers currently run a speakers bureau through its Public Affairs Office (PAO). The speakers, NASA employees, are scheduled on an "as available" status and their travel is paid by NASA. However, there are only a limited number of them and their message may be regarded as being somewhat biased as they are paid by NASA. On the other hand, there are many members of NASA's summer programs which come from all areas of the country. Most of them not only believe that NASA's mission is important but are willing and able to articulate it to others. Furthermore, in the eyes of the public, they are probably more effective as ambassadors for NASA than are the NASA employees, as they do not derive their primary funding from it. Therefore it was decided to organize materials for them to use in presentations to general audiences in their home areas. Each person who accepted these materials was to be called a "NASA Ambassador".
Rafferty, William; Dessouky, Khaled; Sue, Miles
A Mobile Satellite System (MSS) will provide data and voice communications over a vast geographical area to a large population of mobile users. A technical overview is given of the extensive research and development studies and development performed under NASA's mobile satellite program (MSAT-X) in support of the introduction of a U.S. MSS. The critical technologies necessary to enable such a system are emphasized: vehicle antennas, modulation and coding, speech coders, networking and propagation characterization. Also proposed is a first, and future generation MSS architecture based upon realized ground segment equipment and advanced space segment studies.
Smith, H. D.
The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing
Gaffney, G. P.
Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.
The NASA Procurement Career Development Program establishes an agency-wide framework for the management of career development activity in the procurement field. Within this framework, installations are encouraged to modify the various components to meet installation-specific mission and organization requirements. This program provides a systematic process for the assessment of and planning for the development, training, and education required to increase the employees' competence in the procurement work functions. It includes the agency-wide basic knowledge and skills by career field and level upon which individual and organizational development plans are developed. Also, it provides a system that is compatible with other human resource management and development systems, processes, and activities. The compatibility and linkage are important in fostering the dual responsibility of the individual and the organization in the career development process.
Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.
The NASA Office of Aeronautical and Space Technology OAST Program in space photovoltaics is reviewed. From the perspective of national landmark mission requirements and five year and 25-year long range plans, the texture of the program is revealed. Planar silicon and concentrator GaAs array technology advances are discussed. Advances in lightweight (50 micro cell) arrays and radiation tolerance research are presented. Recent progress in cascade cells and ultralightweight GaAs planar cells is noted. Progress in raising silicon cell voltage to its theoretical maximum is detailed. Advanced concepts such as plasmon converters and the Long Duration Exposure Facility LDEF flight experiments pertaining to solar cell and array technology are also shown.
Pruscha, Stephen L.; Levine, Jack; Russo, Samuel C.
In addition to its scientific and life sciences experimental programs, NASA conducts flight experiments directed at development of space systems technologies. The experiments are conducted to obtain research data, to evaluate the performance or operation of experimental hardware in the space environment, or to validate components, subsystems, or systems prior to application in future spacecraft or missions. The requirements for specific technology experiments, and the priority assigned to them, vary significantly depending on the maturity of the technology. Some of the flight experiments address technologies still in the early research stage, while others are conducted to validate technology at relatively advanced levels of maturity. This paper discusses the overall technology flight experiments program and reports in some detail on four current or recently flown experiments ranging from research to technology validation at the system prototype level.
Raney, W. P.
In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.
Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William; Swift, Wesley; Hollon, Nicholas
NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office nas implemented a program to monitor the Moon for meteoroid impacts from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Using off-the-shelf telescopes and video equipment, the moon is monitored for as many as 10 nights per month, depending on weather. Custom software automatically detects flashes which are confirmed by a second telescope, photometrically calibrated using background stars, and published on a website for correlation with other observations, Hypervelocity impact tests at the Ames Vertical Gun Facility have been performed to determine the luminous efficiency ana ejecta characteristics. The purpose of this research is to define the impact ejecta environment for use by lunar spacecraft designers of the Constellation (manned lunar) Program. The observational techniques and preliminary results will be discussed.
Johnson, Roger (Editor); Buckingham, Gregg (Editor)
This document is a collection of technical reports on research conducted by the participants in the 1996 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This was the twelfth year that a NASA/ASEE program has been conducted at KSC. The 1996 program was administered by the University of Central Florida in cooperation with KSC. The program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) with sponsorship and funding from the Office of Educational Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC and KSC. The KSC Program was one of nine such Aeronautics and Space Research Program funded by NASA in 1996. The NASA/ASEE Program is intended to be a two-year program to allow in-depth research by the University faculty member. The editors of this document were responsible for selecting appropriately qualified faculty to address some of the many problems of current interest to NASA/KSC.
McDonald, Malcolm W.
The work done on this project this summer has been geared toward setting up the necessary infrastructure and planning to support the operation of an effective speaker outreach program. The program has been given the name, NASA AMBASSADORS. Also, individuals who become participants in the program will be known as "NASA AMBASSADORS". This summer project has been conducted by the joint efforts of this author and those of Professor George Lebo who will be issuing a separate report. The description in this report will indicate that the NASA AMBASSADOR program operates largely on the contributions of volunteers, with the assistance of persons at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The volunteers include participants in the various summer programs hosted by MSFC as well as members of the NASA Alumni League. The MSFC summer participation programs include: the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program for college and university professors, the Science Teacher Enrichment Program for middle- and high-school teachers, and the NASA ACADEMY program for college and university students. The NASA Alumni League members are retired NASA employees, scientists, and engineers. The MSFC offices which will have roles in the operation of the NASA AMBASSADORS include the Educational Programs Office and the Public Affairs Office. It is possible that still other MSFC offices may become integrated into the operation of the program. The remainder of this report will establish the operational procedures which will be necessary to sustain the NASA AMBASSADOR speaker outreach program.
Schulze, Norman R.
This technical report discusses the NASA Pyrotechnically Actuated Systems (PAS) Program. It contains the following three sections: program origin, program description, and summary. The first section, program origin, contains an introduction to pyrotechnic systems and devices and discusses some examples. Section two focuses on the PAS program goals, program flow, and PAS programs organization. And section three gives a overall summary of the program.
McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.
The NASA Astrophysics Educator Ambassador (EA) Program began in 2001 as part of the GLAST (now Fermi) EPO effort at Sonoma State University. The program currently supports 15 EAs, sponsored by either Fermi (10), Swift (3), XMM-Newton (1) or NuSTAR (1). This group of master educators work with mission scientists and EPO personnel to develop curricula and train teachers; they also do workshops for students and outreach events with the general public. Every other year since 2002 the EAs assemble for a week of training at SSU. Each training has had a different focus. Additionally, time is given for the EAs to share ideas from their own workshops. In the dozen years of the program, the total number of teachers attending EA-run workshops is over 60,000, and EA workshops have received outstanding positive reviews from participants according to surveys conducted by our external evaluator, WestEd. This poster gives an overview of the program and its nationwide impact.
Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)
A broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography are discussed. The NASA programs, include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX), and the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.
Lilly, William E.
NASA has successfully managed some of this country's most complex technology and development programs. These successes have included the application of sound program control processes. The impetus for this study arose from the NASA Management Study Group findings that over time, some program control tools and disciplined procedures and processes had weakened. The Study Group recommended that steps be taken to establish a comprehensive training approach in program management, and specifically, in program control functions. This study looks at program control processes within NASA currently in use, defines a 'model' of program control functions, and provides recommendations on program control training needs and opportunities.
Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.
A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.
Byers, D. C.
It is pointed out that the NASA Electric Propulsion program is aimed at providing technology for auxiliary and primary propulsion functions for earth-orbital and planetary space missions. Efforts in electrostatic propulsion include analyses of ion propulsion for Geosynchronous (GEO) and planetary spacecraft, continued preflight efforts associated with the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), and research and technology for advanced and simplified ion thruster systems. In the area of electromagnetic propulsion, studies were conducted regarding the feasibility and impacts of the use of electromagnetic launchers. Research on magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, electromagnetic launchers, and Hall current thrusters was also performed. Studies in the electrothermal sector included an evaluation of electric propulsion options for the Space Station, taking into account also resistojets, a pulsed electrothermal thruster, and arc jets.
Hunter, Judy F.; Shockley, Cynthia W.
Results are presented of an intensive user requirements survey conducted by NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program with the goal of improving the foundation for the user outreach program. The survey was carried out by interviewing 550 NASA scientists, engineers, and contractors and by analyzing 650 individual responses to a mailed out questionnaire. To analyze the user demographic data, a data base was built and used, and will be applied to ongoing analysis by the NASA STI Program.
Hunter, Judy F.; Shockley, Cynthia W.
Results are presented of an intensive user requirements survey conducted by NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program with the goal of improving the foundation for the user outreach program. The survey was carried out by interviewing 550 NASA scientists, engineers, and contractors and by analyzing 650 individual responses to a mailed out questionnaire. To analyze the user demographic data, a data base was built and used, and will be applied to ongoing analysis by the NASA STI Program.
In 1988, the Education Division produced an inventory of NASA-supported education programs. Since then, mathematics, science, and technology education has taken on a more visible role, not only as part of NASA's mission, but as part of the National Education Goals and other Federal initiatives. Therefore, it became important to update the 1988 inventory in order to achieve a more accurate and comprehensive look at NASA's educational programs. The data collected is summarized and descriptions of each program are provided.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)
This new collection of papers on aerospace management issues contains a history of NASA program and project management, some lessons learned in the areas of management and budget from the Space Shuttle Program, an analysis of tools needed to keep large multilayer programs organized and on track, and an update of resources for NASA managers. A wide variety of opinions and techniques are presented.
The NASA Ambassadors Program is designed to present the excitement and importance of NASA's programs to its customers, the general public. Those customers, which are identified in the "Science Communications Strategy" developed by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the MSFC, are divided into three categories: (1) Not interested and not knowledgeable; (2) Interested but not knowledgeable; and (3) Science attentive. In it they recognize that it makes the most sense to attempt to communicate with those described in the last two categories. However, their plan suggests that the media and the educational institutions are the only means of outreach. The NASA Ambassadors Program allows NASA to reach its target audience directly. Steps to be taken in order for the program to commence: (1) MSFC chooses to support the NASA Ambassadors Program - decision point; (2) Designate an "Office In Charge". (3) Assign the "Operation" phase to in-house MSFC personnel or to a contractor - decision point; (4) Name a point of contact; (5) Identify partners in the program and enlist their assistance; (6) Process an unsolicited proposal from an outside source to accomplish those tasks which MSFC chooses to out-source.
Adams, M. L.
The relationship between NASA and the planetarium community is an important one. Indeed, NASA's Office of Space Science has invested in a study of the Space Science Media Needs of Science Center Professionals. Some of the findings indicate a need for exposure to space science researchers, workshops for museum educators, 'canned' programs, and access to a speakers bureau. We will discuss some of the programs of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, distribute sample multimedia products, explain the role of NASA's Educator Resource Center, and review our contributions to NASA's Education and Public Outreach effort.
Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.
The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris surveys. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m are both employed to acquire filter photometry data as well as synchronously observe targets in selected optical filters. Obtaining data synchronously yields data for material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. Observations of GEO orbital debris using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) began in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris has been detected that reaches approx. 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the spectral data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and sourcetarget- sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a modified
As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA's objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well-being. NASA field codes and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. Although NASA has no predetermined amount of money to devote to university activities, the effort funded each year is substantial. (See the bar chart on the next page). This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.
Anderson, Loren A (Editor); Valdes, Carol (Editor)
This document is a collection of technical reports on research conducted by the participants in the 1992 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This was the eighth year that a NASA/ASEE program has been conducted at KSC. The 1992 program was administered by the University of Central Florida in cooperation with KSC. The program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) with sponsorship and funding from the Office of Educational Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The KSC program was one of nine such Aeronautics and Space Research Programs funded by NASA Headquarters in 1992. The basic common objectives are to further the professional knowledge, to stimulate an exchange of ideas, to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities, and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)
This volume is the third in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover the attitude of the program manager, program control and performance measurement, risk management, cost plus award fee contracting, lessons learned from the development of the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrometer (FIRAS), small projects management, and age distribution of NASA scientists and engineers. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)
This volume is the third in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover the attitude of the program manager, program control and performance measurement, risk management, cost plus award fee contracting, lessons learned from the development of the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrometer (FIRAS), small projects management, and age distribution of NASA scientists and engineers. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)
This volume is the fifth in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover: an overview of the project cycle; SE&I management for manned space flight programs; shared experiences from NASA Programs and Projects - 1975; cost control for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973; and the Space Shuttle - a balancing of design and politics. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.
Trosits, D.; Horvath, F.; Katona, T.; Gerstenkorn, A.
Preparation of a new nuclear power plant project is going on in Hungary at Paks site. Although there is an operating plant at the site, comprehensive geological, geophysical investigation has to be implemented in accordance with Hungarian nuclear safety regulation and international norms for confirming the site acceptability and providing a neotectonic basis for site seismic hazard assessment. The scope, techniques and methods of investigations have to be adapted to the geotectonic environment of the site and Pannonian Basin as a whole. The poster presents a brief summary of the program and provides a detailed description of the seismic survey focusing on the 3D subsurface imaging that is the most important task of planned geophysical investigations. The 3D geophysical imaging provides essential geodynamic information to assess the capability of near site faults and for the seismic hazard analysis, as well as for the hydrogeological modeling. The planned seismic survey gives a unique dataset for understanding the spatial relationship between individual fault segments. The 3D survey allows predicting and characterization of deformations induced by recent lithospheric stresses that is crucial for assessing the tectonic stability of the area. 3D seismic survey has to be combined with appropriate 2D and 3D shallow seismic profiling. The obtained 3D seismic data are also used for numerical geodynamic modeling. Rheology of rocks fundamentally influences the frequency of seismic activity, i.e. the accumulation and release of seismic energy. Regarding this the Pannonian Basin has specific features: the crust is thin and thermal gradients are high. This implies the whole lithosphere can be considered rheologically weak and its behavior is mostly plastic. It is suspected that most of the fault zones in the Pannonian basin are restricted to the sedimentary fill and the uppermost crust, and rest of the lithosphere experiences aseismic deformation.
The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.
As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA:s objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well-being. NASA field codes and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. Although NASA has no predetermined amount of money to devote to university activities, the effort funded each year is substantial. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA:s Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.* This report was prepared by the Education Division/FE, Office of Human Resources and Education, using a management information system which was modernized during FY 1993.
Schulze, Norman R.
The NASA Aerospace Pyrotechnically Actuated Systems (PAS) Program, a focused technology program, is being initiated to enhance the reliability, safety, and performance of pyrotechnically actuated systems. In broad terms, this Program Plan presents the approach that helps to resolve concerns raised by the NASA/DOD/DOE Aerospace Pyrotechnic Steering Committee. This Plan reflects key efforts needed in PAS technology. The resources committed to implement the Program will be identified in the Program Implementation Plan (PIP). A top level schedule is included along with major Program milestones and products. Responsibilities are defined in the PIP. The Plan identifies the goals and detailed objectives which define how those goals are to be accomplished. The Program will improve NASA's capabilities to design, develop, manufacture, and test pyrotechnically actuated systems for NASA's programs. Program benefits include the following: advanced pyrotechnic systems technology developed for NASA programs; hands-on pyrotechnic systems expertise; quick response capability to investigate and resolve pyrotechnic problems; enhanced communications and intercenter support among the technical staff; and government-industry PAS technical interchange. The PAS Program produces useful products that are of a broad-based technology nature rather than activities intended to meet specific technology objectives for individual programs. Serious problems have occurred with pyrotechnic devices although near perfect performance is demanded by users. The lack of a program to address those problems in the past is considered a serious omission. The nature of problems experienced as revealed by a survey are discussed and the origin of the program is explained.
Cohen, Jarrett S.
If you are a NASA-sponsored scientist or engineer. computing time is available to you at the High-End Computing (HEC) Program's NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Facility and NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). The Science Mission Directorate will select from requests NCCS Portals submitted to the e-Books online system for awards beginning on May 1. Current projects set to explore on April 30 must have a request in e-Books to be considered for renewal
This slide presentation reviews the human system integration (HSI) process in achieving human ratings for NASA Constellation Program (CxP). The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) document that defines the Human Ratings Requirements is NPR 8705.2B. An example of the human rating requirements flow down is given in the handling qualities for space craft control.
Freeman, A.; O'Leary, E.; Chapman, B.; Trimble, J.
In order to build a user community for future NASA imaging radar products and programs, outreach activities have been implemented by JPL. These include: education outreach, public awareness outreach, and outreach to areas of the scientific and applications community who are not traditional imaging radar users. A key component is the NASA/JPL Imaging Radar Home Page on the World Wide Web.
Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise Anne; Hertz, Paul; Meinke, Bonnie
An overview will be given of the rich programs developed by NASA to inject the science from it's Astrophysics missions into STEM activities targeted to diverse audiences. For example, Astro4Girls was started as a pilot program during IYA2009. This program partners NASA astrophysics education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families, and has been executed across the country. School curricula and NASA websites have been translated in Spanish; Braille books have been developed for the visually impaired; programs have been developed for the hearing impaired. Special effort has been made to reach underrepresented minorities. Audiences include students, teachers, and the general public through formal and informal education settings, social media and other outlets. NASA Astrophysics education providers include teams embedded in its space flight missions; professionals selected though peer reviewed programs; as well as the Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Education forum. Representative examples will be presented to demonstrate the reach of NASA education programs, as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs.
Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia
The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.
As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA's objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well-being. NASA field codes and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. Although NASA has no predetermined amount of money to devote to university activities, the effort funded each year is substantial. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data. This report was prepared by the Education Division/FE, Office of Human Resources and Education, using a management information system which was modernized during FY 1993.
Hasan, H.; Smith, D. A.
NASA's Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) celebration of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 was kicked off in January 2009 with a sneak preview of a multi-wavelength image of M101, and of other images from NASA's space science missions. Since then some of the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics, which has been given an IYA2009 flavor, has been made available to students, educators and the public worldwide. Some examples of the progress of NASA's programs are presented. The Visions of the Universe traveling exhibit of NASA images to public libraries around the country has been a spectacular success and is being extended to include more libraries. NASA IYA Student Ambassadors met at summer workshop and presented their projects. NASA's Afterschool Universe has provided IYA training to community-based organizations, while pre-launch teacher workshops associated with the Kepler and WISE missions have been designed to engage educators in the science of these missions. IYA activities have been associated with several missions launched this year. These include the Hubble Servicing Mission 4, Kepler, Herschel/Planck, and LCROSS. The NASA IYA website continues to be popular, getting visitors spanning a wide spectrum. NASA's IYA programs have captured the imagination of the public and continue to keep it engaged in the scientific exploration of the universe.
Sadin, Stanley R.
The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.
Boyle, R. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)
Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises, as well as augmenting existing capabilities in space exploration. An over-view is presented of on-going efforts at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development.
Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.
The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.
The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.
Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.
The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.
Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor)
This volume is the eighth in an ongoing series addressing current topics and lessons learned in NASA program and project management. Articles in this volume cover the following topics: (1) power sources for the Galileo and Ulysses Missions; (2) managing requirements; (3) program control of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; (4) project management method; (5) career development for project managers; and (6) resources for NASA managers.
The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems - Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 years lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operation as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.
LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.
This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission needs. The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. Three principal aspects to this reliability: (1) lifetime, (2) effects of space radiation and the space environment, and (3) creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for success.
Pierce, David L.
The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program conducts a total of 16 to 20 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. The NASA Balloon Program continues a long tradition for support and advancement of scientific ballooning for attitudes up to 49 h. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The long duration (weeks currently; with the real possibility of multi-month) and large area/mass payloads able to fly in near-space conditions offer exciting opportunities for both development and actual science for many of NASA's highest priority areas for current and future missions. These can typically be carried out at less than ten percent of the cost of a corresponding satellite mission, and on much shorter timescales. The Balloon Program is arguably the most scientifically compelling of the various NASA sub-orbital programs and provides the most complete and effective springboard for both scientists and engineers to go on to carry out the space-science missions of the future - as demonstrated by numerous successful missions and their Principal Investigators, as well as leaders in NASA space science, over the past three decades. Progress continues toward the development of the super pressure balloon and support systems for support of ultra-long duration, constant altitude missions from any latitude.
Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.
The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.
Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.
The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.
Leath, Audrey T.
As NASA gears up for another attempt at redesigning Space Station Freedom, some in Congress are wondering whether the space agency has learned any lessons from a number of costly past mistakes. Louis Stokes (D-Ohio), the new chairman of the House Appropriations Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Subcommittee, held a hearing on March 17 to examine unanticipated cost growth in a variety of projects, including the space toilet, the advanced turbo pump for the shuttle, and the Mars Observer, as well as the space station. Stokes seemed well-suited to this oversight role, asking well-informed and probing questions rather than accusatory ones. The witnesses, NASA head Daniel Goldin and many of his top managers (most of whom were not in their present positions when the projects were initiated), analyzed past errors and offered useful measures for avoiding similar problems in the future.
Marrazzo, R. M.
The NASA policy on environmental health uses medical and environmental concepts to: (1) Determine the health status of employees; (2) prevent illness and promote good health among employees; and (3) identify and control factors that affect the health of personnel and quality of environment. Evaluation and control of physical, chemical, radiological and biological factors surrounding personnel and which represent physiological and psychological stresses and impairment are considered.
Koppers, A. A.; Yamazaki, T.; Geldmacher, J.; Scientific Party, E. 3; IODP Expedition 330 Scientific Party
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 330 drilled five different guyots in the Louisville Seamount Trail ranging in age between 80 and 50 Ma. The primary goals of this expedition were to drill a sufficiently large number of in situ lava flows at each seamount for high-quality estimates of their paleolatitudes using paleomagnetic measurements, for improving the overall age progression using high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and for detailed geochemical studies of the volcanic evolution of these seamounts. With these data we can provide the unique record of the paleolatitude shift (or lack thereof) of the Louisville mantle plume and compare it with the ~15° paleolatitude shift observed for seamounts in the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Trail over the same time period. These comparisons are of fundamental importance to determine whether these two primary hotspots have moved coherently or not, to understand the nature of hotspots and convection in the Earth's mantle, and to evaluate the possibility of true polar wander. We will present new 40Ar/39Ar age data for Sites U1372, U1373, U1374 and U1376 in conjunction with Expedition 330 shipboard paleomagnetic inclination data to discuss the geodynamic inferences from the resulting paleolatitude history of the Louisville hotspot between 80 and 65 Ma.
An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.
Hasan, Hashima; Sheth, Kartik J.
NASA has recently re-structured its Science Education program with the competitive selection of twenty-seven programs. Of these, ~60% are relevant to Astrophysics, and three have primarily Astrophysics content. A brief overview of the rationale for re-structuring will be presented. We have taken a strategic approach, building on our science-discipline based legacy and looking at new approaches given Stakeholder priorities. We plan to achieve our education goals with the selection of organizations that utilize NASA data, products, or processes to meet NASA's education objectives; and by enabling our scientists and engineers with education professionals, tools, and processes to better meet user needs. Highlights of the selected programs will be presented, and how they enable the vision going forward of achieving the goal of enabling NASA scientists and engineers to engage more effectively with learners of all ages.
Williams, D. A.
NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.
Winter, Jerry M.
The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems: Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability, and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operations as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.
DePriest, Douglas J. (Compiler); Murray, Deborah B. (Compiler); Berg, Jennifer J. (Compiler)
Since 1964, NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering and science faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. NASA HQs and the American Society for Engineering Education supervise the program. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Center. Program Description: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program consisting of lectures and seminars relevant to the Fellows' research.
Drake, Charles L.
Describes activities of Geodynamics Project of the Federal Council on Science and Technology, such as the application of multichannel seismic-reflection techniques to study the nature of the deep crust and upper mantle. (MLH)
Eberspeaker, P. J.
Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NASA Sounding Rocket Program engages in a host of student flight projects providing unique and exciting hands-on student space flight experiences. These projects include single stage Orion missions carrying "active" high school experiments and "passive" Explorer School modules, university level Orion and Terrier-Orion flights, and small hybrid rocket flights as part of the Small-scale Educational Rocketry Initiative (SERI) currently under development. Efforts also include educational programs conducted as part of major campaigns. The student flight projects are designed to reach students ranging from Kindergarteners to university undergraduates. The programs are also designed to accommodate student teams with varying levels of technical capabilities - from teams that can fabricate their own payloads to groups that are barely capable of drilling and tapping their own holes. The program also conducts a hands-on student flight project for blind students in collaboration with the National Federation of the Blind. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is proud of its role in inspiring the "next generation of explorers" and is working to expand its reach to all regions of the United States and the international community as well.
Teeter, R.; Reynolds, B.
The status of the NASA suborbital program is reviewed and its importance to astrophysical and geophysical programs is assessed. A survey of past scientific and developmental accomplishments, an examination of the trends in program costs, and an analysis of current and future program roles are included. The technical disciplines examined are primarily those of astronomy/astrophysics/solar physics and magnetospheric/ionospheric/ atmospheric physics.
McCleese, D.; Garvin, J.
Exploration of Mars is currently a high priority for all space-faring nations. NASA has received initial Presidential approval for an aggressive program of Mars exploration extending until at least 2030. Among the central elements of this program are frequent visits by robotic missions. Following the Viking missions, NASA's robotic exploration of Mars was restarted in the mid-1990s with the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder. Today, six spacecraft in that program are operating at Mars. This paper describes NASA's plan for a discovery-driven program of robotic exploration in the next decade (2010 -- 2020). New opportunities are described for the worldwide science community to utilize orbiters, rovers and sample return missions for Mars research,
NEPP program objectives are to: (1) Access the reliability of newly available electronic parts and packaging technologies for usage on NASA projects through validations, assessments, and characterizations, and the development of test methods/tools; (2)Expedite infusion paths for advanced (emerging) electronic parts and packaging technologies by evaluations of readiness for manufacturability and project usage consideration; (3) Provide NASA projects with technology selection, application, and validation guidelines for electronic parts and packaging hardware and processes; nd (4) Retain and disseminate electronic parts and packaging quality assurance, reliability validations, tools, and availability information to the NASA community.
Zaretsky, E. V.
The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.
Wood, W. B.
Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.
Johnson, Harry W.
NASA activities in the framework of the 11-agency federal Small Business Innovation Research program are outlined in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Statistics on the program are given; the technical topics covered are listed; and the procedures involved in evaluating applications for support are discussed. A number of typical defects in proposals are indicated, and recommendations for avoiding them are provided.
Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.
NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and currently there are a suite of five distance-learning programs. This paper presents the major…
Edmunson, J.; Betts, W.; Rickman, D.; McLemore, C.; Fikes, J.; Stoeser, D.; Wilson, S.; Schrader, C.
Lunar regolith simulant production is absolutely critical to returning man to the Moon. Regolith simulant is used to test hardware exposed to the lunar surface environment, simulate health risks to astronauts, practice in situ resource utilization (ISRU) techniques, and evaluate dust mitigation strategies. Lunar regolith simulant design, production process, and management is a cooperative venture between members of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The MSFC simulant team is a satellite of the Dust group based at Glenn Research Center. The goals of the cooperative group are to (1) reproduce characteristics of lunar regolith using simulants, (2) produce simulants as cheaply as possible, (3) produce simulants in the amount needed, and (4) produce simulants to meet users? schedules.
Sanders, Wilton T.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Perez, Mario R.; Hudgins, Douglas M.
NASA Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) are responsible for facilitating and coordinating community input into the development and execution of NASAs three astrophysics science themes: Cosmic Origins (COPAG), Exoplanet Exploration (ExoPAG), and Physics of the Cosmos (PhysPAG). The PAGs provide a community-based, interdisciplinary forum for analyses that support and inform planning and prioritization of activities within the Astrophysics Division programs. Operations and structure of the PAGs are described in their Terms of Reference (TOR), which can be found on the three science theme Program Office web pages. The Astrophysics PAGs report their input and findings to NASA through the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, of which all the PAG Chairs are members. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the ongoing activities of NASAs Astrophysics PAGs in the context of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the Astrophysics Division. NASA Headquarters representatives for the COPAG, ExoPAG, and PhysPAG will all be present and available to answer questions about the programmatic role of the Astrophysics PAGs.
Garcia, Michael R.; Hudgins, D. M.; Sambruna, R. M.
NASA Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) are responsible for facilitating and coordinating community input into the developmentand execution of NASAs three astrophysics science themes: Cosmic Origins (COPAG), Exoplanet Exploration (ExoPAG), and Physics of the Cosmos (PhysPAG). The PAGs provide a community-based, interdisciplinary forum for analyses that support and inform planning and prioritization of activities within the Astrophysics Division programs. Operations and structure of the PAGs are described in the Terms of Reference (TOR) which can be found on the three science theme Program Office web pages. The Astrophysics PAGs report their input and findings to NASA through the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, of which all the PAG Chairs are members. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the ongoing activities of NASAs Astrophysics PAGs in the context of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the Astrophysics Division. NASA Headquarters representatives for the COPAG, ExoPAG, and PhysPAG will all be present and available to answer questions about the programmatic role of the Astrophysics PAGs.
Cucinotta, Francis A.
We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.
Keith, Theo G., Jr.
The intent of this activity was the development of a cooperative program between the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Lewis Research Center with the objective of better preparing recent university graduates for careers in government aerospace research laboratories. The selected individuals were given the title of research associate. To accomplish the aims of this effort: (1) the research associates were introduced to the NASA Lewis Research Center and its mission/programs, (2) the research associates directly participated in NASA research and development programs, and (3) the research associates were given continuing educational opportunities in specialized areas. A number of individuals participated in this project during the discourse of this cooperative agreement. Attached are the research summaries of eight of the research associates. These reports give a very good picture of the research activities that were conducted by the associates.
Stephenson, R. Rhoads
NASA has a broad technology program in the field of space power. This paper describes that program, including the roles and responsibilities of the various NASA field centers and major contractors. In the power source area, the paper discusses the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Project, which has been under way for about seven years and is making substantial progress toward development of components for a 100-kilowatt power system that can be scaled to other sizes. This system is a candidate power source for nuclear electric propulsion, as well as for a power plant for a lunar base. In the energy storage area, the paper describes NASA's battery- and fuel-cell development programs. NASA is actively working on NiCd, NiH2, and lithium batteries. A status update is also given on a U.S. Air Force-sponsored program to develop a large (150 ampere-hour) lithium-thionyl chloride battery for the Centaur upper-stage launch vehicle. Finally, the area of power management and distribution (PMAD) is addressed, including power system components such as solid-state switches and power integrated circuits. Automated load management and other computer-controlled functions offer considerable payoffs. The state of the art in space power is described, along with NASA's medium- and long-term goals in the area.
Hall, D. L.; Wilson, W. M.
A committee of experienced managers representing each major NASA organization guides a major development effort which seeks to ensure the acquisition of economical and reliable software for more complex future programs. The primary, near-term development objectives of the NASA Software Management and Assurance Program are: (1) to provide the best management and technical guidance available; (2) to facilitate the use of proven tools, techniques, and information; and (3) to maintain a pool of highly qualified software personnel. The software development tasks addressed involve such problems as satellite end-to-end architecture and advanced aircraft guidance and control systems.
For the years beyond FY 1986, the plan consists of activities that are technologically possible and considered to be in the national interest. Its implementation will ensure logical and continued progress in reaching the Nation's goals in aeronautics and space, consistent with the responsibilities assigned NASA by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended. The major features of the programs are described in detail and the nature of the aeronautics and space programs beyond the year 2000 are projected. The abbreviations and acronyms that appear in this report are listed. The status of NASA's plans are summarized at the time of its preparation.
Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard
NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.
Schulze, Norman R.
Preflight and flight battery system problems in flight programs at NASA created high-level concern and interest in the current battery technology status. As a result, NASA conducted an in-house review of problems experienced both internally and by other government users. The derived issues which encompassed the programmatic scope from cell manufacturing to in-flight operations of the system are discussed. From the identified deficiencies, a modestly scaled battery program was established to alleviate or minimize the risks of future occurrences.
Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.
The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two key areas: advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation (analytical and experimental). The computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts which were conducted to support the icing technology development are reviewed.
Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.
Throughout 2005 and beyond, NASA will be faced with great challenges and even greater opportunities. Following a period of reevaluation, reinvention, and transformation, we will move rapidly forward to leverage new partnerships, approaches, and technologies that will enhance the way we do business. NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program, which functions under the auspices of the Agency's Chief Information Officer (CIO), is an integral part of NASA's future. The program supports the Agency's missions to communicate scientific knowledge and understanding and to help transfer NASA's research and development (R&D) information to the aerospace and academic communities and to the public. The STI Program helps ensure that the Agency will remain at the leading edge of R&D by quickly and efficiently capturing and sharing NASA and worldwide STI to use for problem solving, awareness, and knowledge management and transfer.
Recognizing the importance of distributed observations of all elements of the Sun-to-Earth system and the synergies between observation and theory and between basic and targeted research, the National Research Council's 2003 solar and space physics decadal survey laid out an integrated research strategy that sought to extend and augment what has now become the Heliophysics Great Observatory as well as to enhance NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOD's other solar and space physics research activities. The Integrated Research Strategy provided a prioritized list of flight missions and theory and modeling programs that would advance the relevant physical theories, incorporate those theories in models that describe a system of interactions between the Sun and the space environment, obtain data on the system, and analyze and test the adequacy of the theories and models. As directed by Congress in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, the purpose of this report is to assess the progress of NASA's Heliophysics Division at the 5-year mark against the NASA goals and priorities laid out in the decadal survey. In addition to the Integrated Research Strategy, the decadal survey also considered non-mission-specific initiatives to foster a robust solar and space physics program. The decadal survey set forth driving science challenges as well as recommendations devoted to the need for technology development, collaborations and cooperation with other disciplines, understanding the effects of the space environment on technology and society, education and public outreach, and steps that could strengthen and enhance the research enterprise. Unfortunately, very little of the recommended NASA program priorities from the decadal survey s Integrated Research Strategy will be realized during the period (2004-2013) covered by the survey. Mission cost growth, reordering of survey mission priorities, and unrealized budget assumptions have delayed or deferred nearly all of the NASA spacecraft missions
Hosler, E. Ramon (Editor); Valdes, Carol (Editor); Brown, Tom (Editor)
This document is a collection of technical reports on research conducted by the participants in the 1993 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at KSC. The basic common objectives of the Program are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. 1993 topics include wide band fiber optic communications, a prototype expert/information system for examining environmental risks of KSC activities, alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies, rack insertion end effector (RIEE) automation, FTIR quantification of industrial hydraulic fluids in perchloroethylene, switch configuration for migration to optical fiber network, and more.
Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda
NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.
NASA's Small Explorer Program is a level of effort program within the Office of Space Science (OSS). Solicitations for proposals are issued through Announcements of Opportunity. OSS intends to launch a Small Explorer mission every twelve months within the Small Explorer funding profile (\\$69M in FY97 dollars.) All proposals go through an extensive review process before a final selection is made. This paper summarizes various steps in the review process which consists of peer review of proposals for scientific and technical excellence, feasibility of mission execution, cost, and education and public outreach activities. The peer reviews are followed by categorization of proposals within NASA Headquarters. An oversight committee consisting of senior NASA officials reviews the entire process, before the proposals are presented to the Board of Directors for final selection by the Associate Administrator.
This slide presentation reviews the requirements for electrical power for future NASA exploration missions to the lunar surface. A review of the Constellation program is included as an introduction to the review of the batteries required for safe and reliable power for the ascent stage of the Altair Lunar Lander module.
The theme of this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Seminar was electronic documents. Topics covered included Electronic Documents Management at the CASI, the Impact of Electronic Publishing on User Expectations and Searching Image Record Management, Secondary Publisher Considerations for Electronic Journal Literature, and the Technical Manual Publishing On Demand System (TMPODS).
Wardrip, S. C.; Hocking, W. M.
Current and future Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) programs at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the evolution of frequency and time requirements over past years within the various NASA satellite tracking networks are described. A brief history of the network development is also given.
A taxonomy of computer science is included, one state of the art of each of the major computer science categories is summarized. A functional breakdown of NASA programs under Aeronautics R and D, space R and T, and institutional support is also included. These areas were assessed against the computer science categories. Concurrent processing, highly reliable computing, and information management are identified.
NASA made use of the analytical outputs of reliability people to make management decisions on the Apollo program. Such decisions affected the amount of the incentive fees, how much acceptance testing was necessary, how to optimize development testing, whether to approve engineering changes, and certification of flight readiness. Examples of such analysis are discussed and related to programmatic decisions.-
Nelson, R. M. (Editor); Pieri, D. C. (Editor)
Accomplishments, activities, and plans are highlighted for studies of ocean circulation, air sea interaction, ocean productivity, and sea ice. Flight projects discussed include TOPEX, the ocean color imager, the advanced RF tracking system, the NASA scatterometer, and the pilot ocean data system. Over 200 papers generated by the program are listed.
Rausch, Vincent L.; McClinton, Charles R.; Sitz, Joel; Reukauf, Paul
This paper provides an overview of the objectives and status of the Hyper-X program which is tailored to move hypersonic, airbreathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment, the last stage preceding prototype development. The first Hyper-X research vehicle (HXRV), designated X-43, is being prepared at the Dryden Flight Research Center for flight at Mach 7 in the near future. In addition, the associated booster and vehicle-to-booster adapter are being prepared for flight and flight test preparations are well underway. Extensive risk reduction activities for the first flight and non-recurring design for the Mach 10 X-43 (3rd flight) are nearing completion. The Mach 7 flight of the X-43 will be the first flight of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered vehicle.
The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is defined in terms of motivation and methodology with specific reference given to the impacts of HZE particles and solar energetic particles. The biological hazards are mentioned that can be associated with the two particle types and ionizing radiation in general. The lack of data on the impact of such radiation and effective shielding countermeasures is identified as the primary motivation for worst-case assumptions. However, the resulting shielding designs can potentially overestimate the thickness by a factor of 10 and add unnecessarily to vehicle take-off mass. A space-based validation system is proposed to complement ground-based investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation in interplanetary space. The Lifesat satellite is proposed as a part of the SRHP effort to determine the requirements for protection and future shielding specifications.
This report is a Year 1 interim report of the progress on the NASA multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program covering the period, January 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. It summarizes progress in establishing the MDA Fellowship Program at Georgia Tech during the initial year. Progress in the advertisement of the program, recruiting results for the 1995-96 academic year, placement of the Fellows in industry during Summer 1995, program development at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, and collaboration and dissemination of results are summarized in this report. Further details of the first year's progress will be included in the report from the Year 1 Workshop to be held at NASA Langley on December 7-8, 1995.
NASA produces vast amounts of information about the Earth from satellites, supercomputer models, and other sources. These data are most useful when made easily accessible to NASA researchers and scientists, to NASA's partner Federal Agencies, and to society as a whole. A NASA goal is to apply its data for knowledge gain, decision support and understanding of Earth, and other planetary systems. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Geospatial Interoperability Office (GIO) Program leads the development, promotion and implementation of information technology standards that accelerate and expand the delivery of NASA's Earth system science research through integrated systems solutions. Our overarching goal is to make it easy for decision-makers, scientists and citizens to use NASA's science information. NASA's Federal partners currently participate with NASA and one another in the development and implementation of geospatial standards to ensure the most efficient and effective access to one another's data. Through the GIO, NASA participates with its Federal partners in implementing interoperability standards in support of E-Gov and the associated President's Management Agenda initiatives by collaborating on standards development. Through partnerships with government, private industry, education and communities the GIO works towards enhancing the ESE Applications Division in the area of National Applications and decision support systems. The GIO provides geospatial standards leadership within NASA, represents NASA on the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Coordination Working Group and chairs the FGDC's Geospatial Applications and Interoperability Working Group (GAI) and supports development and implementation efforts such as Earth Science Gateway (ESG), Space Time Tool Kit and Web Map Services (WMS) Global Mosaic. The GIO supports NASA in the collection and dissemination of geospatial interoperability standards needs and progress throughout the agency including
Gillies, Donald C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
Recently, NASA's Microgravity Research Division was re-aligned to match the Agency's increasing awareness of the importance of biological and nano-structural sciences. The Division has become the Physical Sciences Research section within the newly created Office of Biological and Physical Research. Within materials science and in the last few years, new programs aimed at biomaterials have been initiated. Results from these programs and also new research pertaining to materials for radiation protection will be discussed.
Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)
This collection of papers and resources on aerospace management issues is inspired by a desire to benefit from the lessons learned from past projects and programs. Inherent in the NASA culture is a respect for divergent viewpoints and innovative ways of doing things. This publication presents a wide variety of views and opinions. Good management is enhanced when program and project managers examine the methods of veteran managers, considering the lessons they have learned and reflected on their own guiding principles.
Riebling, R. W.
Highlights of NASA's technology program in batteries for space applications are presented. Program elements include: (1) advanced ambient temperature alkaline secondaries, which are primarily nickel-cadmium cells in batteries; (2) a toroidal nickel cadmium secondaries with multi-kilowatt-hour storage capacity primarily for lower orbital applications; (3) ambient temperature lithium batteries, both primary and secondaries, primarily silver hydrogen and high-capacity nickel hydrogen.
Ratvasky, Thomas P.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Riley, James T.
The effects of tailplane icing were investigated in a four-year NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing, Program (TIP). This research program was developed to improve the understanding, of iced tailplane aeroperformance and aircraft aerodynamics, and to develop design and training aides to help reduce the number of incidents and accidents caused by tailplane icing. To do this, the TIP was constructed with elements that included icing, wind tunnel testing, dry-air aerodynamic wind tunnel testing, flight tests, and analytical code development. This paper provides an overview of the entire program demonstrating the interconnectivity of the program elements and reports on current accomplishments.
Holcomb, Lee B.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.
The development and objectives of the NASA automation and robotics technology program are reviewed. The objectives of the program are to utilize AI and robotics to increase the probability of mission success; decrease the cost of ground control; and increase the capability and flexibility of space operations. There is a need for real-time computational capability; an effective man-machine interface; and techniques to validate automated systems. Current programs in the areas of sensing and perception, task planning and reasoning, control execution, operator interface, and system architecture and integration are described. Programs aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of telerobotics and system autonomy are discussed.
Eisenberg, Martin A.
The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10) budget introduced a new strategic plan that placed renewed emphasis on advanced missions beyond Earth orbit. This supports NASA s 2011 strategic goal to create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. As a result of this focus on undertaking many and more complex missions, NASA placed its attention on a greater investment in technology development, and this shift resulted in the establishment of the Technology Demonstrations Missions (TDM) Program. The TDM Program, within the newly formed NASA Office of the Chief Technologist, supports NASA s grand challenges by providing a steady cadence of advanced space technology demonstrations (Figure 1), allowing the infusion of flexible path capabilities for future exploration. The TDM Program's goal is to mature crosscutting capabilities to flight readiness in support of multiple future space missions, including flight test projects where demonstration is needed before the capability can transition to direct mission The TDM Program has several unique criteria that set it apart from other NASA program offices. For instance, the TDM Office matures a small number of technologies that are of benefit to multiple customers to flight technology readiness level (TRL) 6 through relevant environment testing on a 3-year development schedule. These technologies must be crosscutting, which is defined as technology with potential to benefit multiple mission directorates, other government agencies, or the aerospace industry, and they must capture significant public interest and awareness. These projects will rely heavily on industry partner collaboration, and funding is capped for all elements of the flight test demonstration including planning, hardware development, software development, launch costs, ground operations, and post-test assessments. In order to inspire collaboration across government and industry
In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.
King, Merrill K.
Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused
Gans, Gary (Technical Monitor)
As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA's objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well being. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data. This report was prepared by the Office of Education/N.
Waleed, Abdalati; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)
Much of NASA's Arctic Research is run through its Cryospheric Sciences Program. Arctic research efforts to date have focused primarily on investigations of the mass balance of the largest Arctic land-ice masses and the mechanisms that control it, interactions among sea ice, polar oceans, and the polar atmosphere, atmospheric processes in the polar regions, energy exchanges in the Arctic. All of these efforts have been focused on characterizing, understanding, and predicting, changes in the Arctic. NASA's unique vantage from space provides an important perspective for the study of these large scale processes, while detailed process information is obtained through targeted in situ field and airborne campaigns and models. An overview of NASA investigations in the Arctic will be presented demonstrating how the synthesis of space-based technology, and these complementary components have advanced our understanding of physical processes in the Arctic.
Kessler, Jason L.
Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.
Schimmerling, W.; Sulzman, F. M.
The NASA Space Radiation Health Program is a part of the Life Sciences Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The goal of the Space Radiation Health Program is development of scientific bases for assuring adequate radiation protection in space. A proposed research program will determine long-term health risks from exposure to cosmic rays and other radiation. Ground-based animal models will be used to predict risk of exposures at varying levels from various sources and the safe levels for manned space flight.
Ross, R. G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.
Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 4 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.
Johnson, L.; Robinson, J.
NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, ``propellantless" because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the \\$60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. Solar sails and aerocapture are candidates for flight validation as early as 2008 in partnership with NASA's New Millennium Program.
Thome, P. G.
During the last several years, the NASA space program entered a new era. With the completion of the Apollo and Skylab programs, NASA places emphasis within its space effort on three main objectives: (1) improving the access to space and the ability to capitalize on this new capability; (2) developing the space and ground systems that will collect and interpret data related to the changing nature of the earth's natural and cultural resources to aid in solving resource and environmental problems facing the entire world; and (3) adding to the storehouse of knowledge through the continued exploration of our solar system and the universe. The paper discusses the importance of the joint USA/USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), describes the capability and status of the Space Shuttle, and outlines the important role that these two programs played in extending our ability to make more effective use of this space environment. It also summarizes the capability and the plans for satellites to monitor the earth's natural and cultural resources and to assess environmental quality. The NASA programs for exploring the solar system and the universe is reviewed.
Erickson, Edwin F.
Airborne astronomy was pioneered and has evolved at NASA Ames Research Center near San Francisco, California, since 1965. Nowhere else in the world has a similar program been implemented. Its many unique features deserve description, especially for the benefit of planning the operation of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and in particular since NASA Headquarters’ recent decision to base SOFIA operations at Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California instead of at Ames. The history of Ames’ airborne astronomy program is briefly summarized. Discussed in more detail are the operations and organization of the 21-year Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) program, which provide important lessons for SOFIA. The KAO program is our best prototype for planning effective SOFIA operations. Principal features of the KAO program which should be retained on SOFIA are: unique science, innovative new science instruments and technologies, training of young scientists, an effective education and public outreach program, flexibility, continuous improvement, and efficient operations with a lean, well integrated team. KAO program features which should be improved upon with SOFIA are: (1) a management structure that is dedicated primarily to safely maximizing scientific productivity for the resources available, headed by a scientist who is the observatory director, and (2) stimuli to assure prompt distribution and accessibility of data to the scientific community. These and other recommendations were recorded by the SOFIA Science Working Group in 1995, when the KAO was decommissioned to start work on SOFIA. Further operational and organizational factors contributing to the success of the KAO program are described. Their incorporation into SOFIA operations will help assure the success of this new airborne observatory. SOFIA is supported by NASA in the U.S. and DLR (the German Aerospace Center) in Germany.
Lembeck, Michael F.; Prussing, John
The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program for the 1988 to 1989 academic year is reviewed. The University's design project was the Logistics Resupply and Emergency Crew Return System for Space Station Freedom. Sixty-one students divided into eight groups, participated in the spring 1989 semester. A presentation prepared by three students and a graduate teaching assistant for the program's summer conference summarized the project results. Teamed with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the University received support in the form of remote telecon lectures, reference material, and previously acquired applications software. In addition, a graduate teaching assistant was awarded a summer 1989 internship at MSFC.
Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.
Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP Project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.
Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.
Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.
Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.
NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and we currently have a suite of five distance-learning programs. We have around 450,000 registered educators and 12.5 million registered students in 60 countries. Partners and affiliates include the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the Aerospace Education Coordinating Committee (AECC), the Alliance for Community Media, the National Educational Telecommunications Association, Public Broadcasting System (PBS) affiliates, the NASA Learning Technologies Channel, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), the Council of the Great City Schools, Hampton City Public Schools, Sea World Adventure Parks, Busch Gardens, ePALS.com, and Riverdeep. Our mission is based on the "Horizon of Learning," a vision for inspiring learning across a continuum of educational experiences. The programs form a continuum of educational experiences for elementary youth through adult learners. The strategic plan for the programs will evolve to reflect evolving national educational needs, changes within NASA, and emerging system initiatives. Plans for each program component include goals, objectives, learning outcomes, and rely on sound business models. It is well documented that if technology is used properly it can be a powerful partner in education. Our programs employ both advances in information technology and in effective pedagogy to produce a broad range of materials to complement and enhance other educational efforts. Collectively, the goals of the five programs are to increase educational excellence; enhance and enrich the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology; increase scientific and technological literacy; and communicate the results of NASA discovery, exploration, innovation and research
Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.
NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program began formal implementation in December 2010. The RPS Program's goal is to make available RPS for the exploration of the solar system in environments where conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS system development and RPS technologies. The current keystone of the RPS Program is the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This generator will be about four times more efficient than the more traditional thermoelectric generators, while providing a similar amount of power. This paper provides the status of the RPS Program and its related projects. Opportunities for RPS generator development and targeted research into RPS component performance enhancements, as well as constraints dealing with the supply of radioisotope fuel, are also discussed in the context of the next ten years of planetary science mission plans.
Key elements of the microgravity research program as conducted by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) within the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) during fiscal year (FY) 1992 are described. This NASA funded program supported investigators from the university, industry, and government research communities. The program's goals, the approach taken to achieve those goals, and the resources that were available are summarized. It provides a 'snapshot' of the Program's status at the end of FY 1992 and reviews highlights and progress in the ground and flight-based research during the year. It also describes four major space missions that flew during FY 1992, the advanced technology development (ATD) activities, and the plans to use the research potential of Space Station Freedom and other advanced carriers. The MSAD program structure encompassed five research areas: (1) Biotechnology, (2) Combustion Science, (3) Fluid Physics, (4) Materials Science, and (5) Benchmark Physics.
Reinmann, John J.; Shaw, Robert J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.
NASA's program in aircraft icing research and technology is reviewed. The program relies heavily on computer codes and modern applied physics technology in seeking icing solutions on a finer scale than those offered in earlier programs. Three major goals of this program are to offer new approaches to ice protection, to improve our ability to model the response of an aircraft to an icing encounter, and to provide improved techniques and facilities for ground and flight testing. This paper reviews the following program elements: (1) new approaches to ice protection; (2) numerical codes for deicer analysis; (3) measurement and prediction of ice accretion and its effect on aircraft and aircraft components; (4) special wind tunnel test techniques for rotorcraft icing; (5) improvements of icing wind tunnels and research aircraft; (6) ground de-icing fluids used in winter operation; (7) fundamental studies in icing; and (8) droplet sizing instruments for icing clouds.
Jeevarajan, Judith A.
Exciting Future Programs ahead for NASA. Power is needed for all Exploration vehicles and for the missions. For long term missions as in Lunar and Mars programs, safe, high energy/ultra high energy batteries are required. Safety is top priority for human-rated missions. Two-fault tolerance to catastrophic failures is required for human-rated safety To meet power safety goals -inherent cell safety may be required; it can lessen complexity of external protective electronics and prevents dependency on hardware that may also have limitations. Inherent cell safety will eliminate the need to carry out screening of all cells (X-rays, vibration, etc.)
Klineberg, J. M.
The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.
Oliver, Bernard M.
The development and objectives of the NASA SETI program are reviewed. The search strategy for the program is two phase, an all-sky survey and a targeted search; the capabilities and hardware for the searches are discussed. The use of a spectrum analyzer to search the GHz of the spectrum, and of a multichannel spectrum analyzer to detect pulses are examined; the designs and functions of the analyzers are described. A new method for detecting a drifting CW signal is proposed. A diagram of the automated SETI system is presented.
Durrani, S. H.
About two years ago, NASA decided to reactivate its communications R&D Program, which had been phased down in 1973. The new program focuses on three major areas: (1) technology development in the 30 and 20 GHz bands for wideband communications; (2) system definition for an integrated terrestrial and satellite-aided system for land mobile communications in the 860 MHz band; and (3) development of system concepts and pilot networks for applications data services. The paper summarizes the new activities in the three areas and describes their status and plans.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA Ombudsman Program... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Ombudsman 1815.7001 NASA Ombudsman Program. NASA's implementation of an ombudsman program is in NPR 5101.33, Procurement...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA Ombudsman Program... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Ombudsman 1815.7001 NASA Ombudsman Program. NASA's implementation of an ombudsman program is in NPR 5101.33, Procurement...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA Ombudsman Program... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Ombudsman 1815.7001 NASA Ombudsman Program. NASA's implementation of an ombudsman program is in NPR 5101.33, Procurement...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA Ombudsman Program... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Ombudsman 1815.7001 NASA Ombudsman Program. NASA's implementation of an ombudsman program is in NPR 5101.33, Procurement...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA Ombudsman Program... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Ombudsman 1815.7001 NASA Ombudsman Program. NASA's implementation of an ombudsman program is in NPR 5101.33, Procurement...
This report describes the research opportunities and accomplishments of NASA's agency wide history program. It also offers a concise guide to the historical documentary resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C., at NASA facilities located around the country, and through the federal records system. In addition, this report contains expanded contributions by Lee D. Saegessor and other members of the NASA Headquarters History Division and by those responsible for historical documents and records at some NASA centers.
Phillips, Robert G.; Wang, Lui
NASA has used procedures to describe activities to be performed onboard vehicles by astronaut crew and on the ground by flight controllers since Apollo. Starting with later Space Shuttle missions and the International Space Station, NASA moved forward to electronic presentation of procedures. For the Constellation Program, another large step forward is being taken - to make procedures more interactive with the vehicle and to assist the crew in controlling the vehicle more efficiently and with less error. The overall name for the project is the Constellation Procedure Applications Software System (CxPASS). This paper describes some of the history behind this effort, the key concepts and operational paradigms that the work is based upon, and the actual products being developed to implement procedures for Constellation
The exploration of Mars has long been a prime scientific objective of the U.S. planetary exploration program. Yet no U.S. spacecraft has successfully made measurements at Mars since the Viking missions of the late 1970s. Mars Observer, which was designed to conduct global observations from orbit, failed just before orbit insertion in 1993. The Russian spacecraft Phobos 2 did succeed in making some observations of the planet in 1989, but it was designed primarily to observe Phobos, the innermost satellite of Mars; the spacecraft failed 2 months after insertion into Mars orbit during the complex maneuvers required to rendezvous with the martian satellite. In fall 1996 NASA plans to launch Mars Pathfinder for a landing on the martian surface in mid-1997. This spacecraft is one of the first two missions in NASA's Discovery program that inaugurates a new style of planetary exploration in which missions are low-cost (less than $150 million) and have very focused science objectives. As can be seen in the comparative data presented in Box 1, this mission is considerably smaller in terms of cost, mass, and scope than NASA's previous Mars missions. NASA's FY 1995 budget initiated a continuing Mars exploration program, called Mars Surveyor, that involves multiple launches of spacecraft as small as or smaller than Mars Pathfinder to Mars over the next several launch opportunities, which recur roughly every 26 months. The first mission in the program, Mars Global Surveyor, set for launch late in 1996, is intended to accomplish many of the objectives of the failed Mars Observer. Like the Discovery program, Mars Surveyor is a continuing series of low-cost missions, each of which has highly focused science objectives. See Box 1 for comparative details of those Surveyor missions currently defined. Around the same time that the Mars Surveyor series was chosen as the centerpiece of NASA's solar system exploration program, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX
McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Horta, Lucas G.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Raney, David L.
In the last decade, smart technologies have become important enabling technologies that cut across traditional boundaries in science and engineering. Here smart is defined as the ability to respond to a stimulus in a predictable and reproducible manner. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart technologies to actual aircraft and spacecraft. The NASA Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff applications on aircraft and spacecraft. The program bridges research in several technical disciplines and combines the effort into applications that include active aerodynamic control, active aeroelastic control, and vehicle performance improvement. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft and spacecraft. This paper will discuss the overall goals of NASA's Morphing program, highlight some of the recent research efforts and discuss the multidisciplinary studies that support that research and some of the challenges associated with bringing the smart technologies to real applications on flight vehicles.
Holcomb, Lee; Smith, Paul; Hunter, Paul
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's HPCC program is part of a new Presidential initiative aimed at producing a 1000-fold increase in supercomputing speed and a 1(X)-fold improvement in available communications capability by 1997. As more advanced technologies are developed under the HPCC program, they will be used to solve NASA's 'Grand Challenge' problems, which include improving the design and simulation of advanced aerospace vehicles, allowing people at remote locations to communicate more effectively and share information, increasing scientists' abilities to model the Earth's climate and forecast global environmental trends, and improving the development of advanced spacecraft. NASA's HPCC program is organized into three projects which are unique to the agency's mission: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) project, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project. An additional project, the Basic Research and Human Resources (BRHR) project, exists to promote long term research in computer science and engineering and to increase the pool of trained personnel in a variety of scientific disciplines. This document presents an overview of the objectives and organization of these projects, as well as summaries of early accomplishments and the significance, status, and plans for individual research and development programs within each project. Areas of emphasis include benchmarking, testbeds, software and simulation methods.
Holcomb, Lee; Smith, Paul; Hunter, Paul
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's HPCC program is part of a new Presidential initiative aimed at producing a 1000-fold increase in supercomputing speed and a 100-fold improvement in available communications capability by 1997. As more advanced technologies are developed under the HPCC program, they will be used to solve NASA's 'Grand Challenge' problems, which include improving the design and simulation of advanced aerospace vehicles, allowing people at remote locations to communicate more effectively and share information, increasing scientist's abilities to model the Earth's climate and forecast global environmental trends, and improving the development of advanced spacecraft. NASA's HPCC program is organized into three projects which are unique to the agency's mission: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) project, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project. An additional project, the Basic Research and Human Resources (BRHR) project exists to promote long term research in computer science and engineering and to increase the pool of trained personnel in a variety of scientific disciplines. This document presents an overview of the objectives and organization of these projects as well as summaries of individual research and development programs within each project.
Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.
The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. 1221.105 Section 1221.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. 1221.105 Section 1221.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. 1221.105 Section 1221.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. 1221.105 Section 1221.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia,...
The University Program Report provides current information and related statistics for approximately 4300 grants/contracts/cooperative agreements active during the report period. NASA Field centers and certain Headquarters Program Offices provide funds for those R&D activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program.
The University Program Report, Fiscal Year 1995, provides current information and related statistics for grants/contracts/cooperative agreements active during the report period. NASA field centers and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those R&D activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program.
The University Program report, Fiscal Year 1994, provides current information and related statistics for 7841 grants/contracts/cooperative agreements active during the reporting period. NASA field centers and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program.
The University Program Report, Fiscal Year 1993, provides current information and related statistics for 7682 grants/contracts/cooperative agreements active during the report period. NASA field centers and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those R&D activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program.
The University Program Report provides current information and related statistics for approximately 4200 grants/contracts/cooperative agreements active during the reporting period. NASA Field Centers and certain Headquarters Program Offices provide funds for those research and development activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-University relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program.
Rouse, J. W., Jr.
The applications area of the Texas A&M University remote sensing program consists of a series of coactive projects with NASA/MSC personnel. In each case, the Remote Sensing Center has served to complement and enhance the research capability within the Manned Spacecraft Center. In addition to the applications study area, the Texas A&M University program includes coordinated projects in sensors and data analysis. Under the sensors area, an extensive experimental study of microwave radiometry for soil moisture determination established the effect of soil moisture on the measured brightness temperature for several different soil types. The data analysis area included a project which ERTS-A and Skylab data were simulated using aircraft multispectral scanner measurements at two altitudes. This effort resulted in development of a library of computer programs which provides an operational capability in classification analysis of multispectral data.
Beam, Sherilee F.
Since its inception, one of NASA's commitments has been to develop the technology to advance aeronautics. As such, a new High-Speed Research Program was activated to develop the technology for industry to build a High-Speed Civil Transport - a second generation Supersonic Transport (SST). The baseline for this program is the British Concorde, a major technological achievement for its time, but an aircraft which is now both technologically and economically outdated. Therefore, a second generation SST must satisfy environmental concerns and still be economically viable. In order to do this, it must have no significant effect on the ozone layer, meet Federal Air Regulation 36, Stage 3 for community noise, and have no perceptible sonic boom over populated areas. These three concerns are the focus of the research efforts in Phase 1 of the program and are the specific areas covered in the technical video report.
Freeman, Delman C., Jr.; Reubush, Daivd E.; McClinton, Charles R.; Rausch, Vincent L.; Crawford, J. Larry
This paper provides an overview of NASA's Hyper-X Program; a focused hypersonic technology effort designed to move hypersonic, airbreathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment. This paper presents an overview of the flight test program, research objectives, approach, schedule and status. Substantial experimental database and concept validation have been completed. The program is currently concentrating on the first, Mach 7, vehicle development, verification and validation in preparation for wind-tunnel testing in 1998 and flight testing in 1999. Parallel to this effort the Mach 5 and 10 vehicle designs are being finalized. Detailed analytical and experimental evaluation of the Mach 7 vehicle at the flight conditions is nearing completion, and will provide a database for validation of design methods once flight test data are available.
Research has been underway for several years to develop valid and reliable measures and predictors of workload as a function of operator state, task requirements, and system resources. Although the initial focus of this research was on aeronautics, the underlying principles and methodologies are equally applicable to space, and provide a set of tools that NASA and its contractors can use to evaluate design alternatives from the perspective of the astronauts. Objectives and approach of the research program are described, as well as the resources used in conducting research and the conceptual framework around which the program evolved. Next, standardized tasks are described, in addition to predictive models and assessment techniques and their application to the space program. Finally, some of the operational applications of these tasks and measures are reviewed.
Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.
Earth's changing environment impacts every aspect of life on our planet and climate change has profound implications on society. Studying Earth as a single complex system is essential to understanding the causes and consequences of climate change and other global environmental concerns. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) shapes an interdisciplinary view of Earth, exploring interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself. This enables scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by Government, other organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The data collected and results generated are accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster prediction and response, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 17 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). The ESD has 18 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key climate data sets, and small competitively selected orbital and instrument missions of opportunity belonging to the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The International Space Station (ISS) is being used to host a variety of NASA Earth science instruments. An overview of plans and current status will be presented.
Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.
From 2009-2014, NASA's Mars Public Engagement (MPE) Program developed and implemented project-level logic models and associated impacts and indicators tables using the NSF's "Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects" (Friedman, 2008) as a key guiding document. This Framework was selected given the national-expert-level evaluation committee who synthesized evaluation in a way that allows project-to-project comparisons in key areas of measurable change, while also allowing variation for appropriate project-specific measures and outcomes. These logic models, revisited and refined annually, provide guidance for all measures developed, tested, and implemented with MPE projects, including the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP), the Imagine Mars Project, and Mars Educator Professional Development. Project questionnaires were developed, tested, refined, retested, and finalized following standard procedures outlined in Converse & Presser (1986), Dillman, Smyth, & Christian (2009), Krosnick & Presser (2010), and Presser, et al. (2004). Interview questions were drafted, reviewed by project staff, and revised following established interview question development guidelines (e.g., Kvale, 1996; Maxwell, 2005; Maykut & Morehouse, 1994; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). For MSIP final projects, a rubric guided by Lantz (2004) was developed to evaluate systematically the quality and completeness of the final projects. We will discuss our instruments as well as the important issue of nonresponse error, which is relevant to a wide range of NASA programs because most data is collected from customers who are voluntary participants, as opposed to grantees who must report as a condition of their grant. NASA programs that consider data and report results from voluntary samples must be cautious about claims or decisions based on those data. We will discuss the ways in which we consider and address this challenge.
In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. NASA's In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Program is investing in technologies to meet these needs. The ISP technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5-10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, propellantless because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar and plasma sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aeroassist and aerocapture. An overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them, will be provided.
This report contains numerous color illustrations to describe the NASA programs in aeronautics. The basic ideas involved are explained in brief paragraphs. The seven chapters deal with Subsonic aircraft, High-speed transport, High-performance military aircraft, Hypersonic/Transatmospheric vehicles, Critical disciplines, National facilities and Organizations & installations. Some individual aircraft discussed are : the SR-71 aircraft, aerospace planes, the high-speed civil transport (HSCT), the X-29 forward-swept wing research aircraft, and the X-31 aircraft. Critical disciplines discussed are numerical aerodynamic simulation, computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics and new experimental testing techniques.
NASA initiated the Year 2000 (Y2K) program in August 1996 to address the challenges imposed on Agency software, hardware, and firmware systems by the new millennium. The Agency program is centrally managed by the NASA Chief Information Officer, with decentralized execution of program requirements at each of the nine NASA Centers, Headquarters and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The purpose of this Program Plan is to establish Program objectives and performance goals; identify Program requirements; describe the management structure; and detail Program resources, schedules, and controls. Project plans are established for each NASA Center, Headquarters, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.
The NASA Atomic Oxygen Effects Test Program was established to compare the low earth orbital simulation characteristics of existing atomic oxygen test facilities and utilize the collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote understanding of mechanisms and erosion yield dependence upon energy, flux, metastables, charge, and environmental species. Four materials chosen for this evaluation include Kapton HN polyimide, FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and graphite single crystals. The conditions and results of atomic oxygen exposure of these materials is reported by the participating organizations and then assembled to identify degrees of dependency of erosion yields that may not be observable from any single atomic oxygen low earth orbital simulation facility. To date, the program includes 30 test facilities. Characteristics of the participating test facilities and results to date are reported.