Sample records for nasa planetary exploration

  1. Proceedings of the 2004 NASA/JPL Workshop on Physics for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, Donald M. (Editor); Banerdt, Bruce; Barmatz, M.; Chung, Sang; Chui, Talso; Hamell, R.; Israelsson, Ulf; Jerebets, Sergei; Le, Thanh; Litchen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The conference was held April 20-22, 2004, the NASA/JPL Workshop on Physics for Planetary Exploration focused on NASA's new concentration on sending crewed missions to the Moon by 2020 and then to Mars and beyond. However, our ground-based physics experiments are continuing to be funded, and it will be possible to compete for $80-90 million in new money from the NASA exploration programs. Papers presented at the workshop related how physics research can help NASA to prepare for and accomplish this grand scheme of exploration. From sensors for water on the Moon and Mars, to fundamental research on those bodies, and to aids for navigating precisely to landing sites on distant planets, diverse topics were addressed by the Workshop speakers.

  2. NASA's Planetary Science Program Overview

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA's Planetary Science Program Overview James L. Green, Director Planetary's FY14 Planetary Science Budget Plus an Approved FY13 Budget · President's FY14/yr support of DoE PU-238 infrastructure support 3 * * Notional #12;Planetary Science

  3. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one of these color coded markers are clicked, it downloads the full image and displays it in the full context of its location on Earth. MODIS images are publication quality material at resolutions up to 250-meters-per-pixel. NASA World Wind provides a full catalog of countries, capitals, counties, cities, towns, and even historical references. The names appear dynamically, increasing in number as the user zooms in. World Wind is capable of browsing through and displaying GLOBE data based on any date one wishes planetary data for. That means one can download today's (or any previous day's) temperature across the world, or rainfall, barometric pressure, cloud cover, or even the GLOBE students' global distribution of collected data. This program is free and available for further development via the NASA Open Source Agreement guidelines.

  4. TASTER: Trojan ASteroid Tour, Exploration and Rendezvous, a NASA Planetary Science Summer School Mission Design Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-silva, R.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Gil, S.; Diniega, S.; Balcerski, J.; Benneke, B.; Carande, B.; Fraeman, A. A.; Hudson, J. S.; Guzewich, S. D.; Livi, R.; Nahm, A.; Potter, S.; Route, M.; Urban, K. D.; Vasisht, S.; Williams, B.; Budney, C. J.; Lowes, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    A detailed investigation of the Trojan asteroids occupying Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrangian points has been identified as a priority for future missions by the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observing these asteroids and getting clear measurements of their physical characteristics and composition may yield answers to fundamental questions relating to the early Solar System. In particular, Trojan asteroids are believed to harbor primordial material dating from the time of its formation. The source region for Trojans is still unknown; the Nice model predicts that some bodies may have originated in the primordial Kuiper belt and were subsequently scattered inward during the migration of Neptune and Uranus and settled in their current location. In alternative models, less radial scattering of small bodies would imply Trojans formed from material at a similar orbital distance to Jupiter. Determination of Trojan composition and structure will help identify their birth location, provide information about the impact history and subsequent evolution. Earth-based observations of size and surface characteristics are sparse; spectral measurements are unable to resolve composition (and show a puzzling lack of volatile signatures), indicating that close-range observation is needed. We present a mission design for a Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission that is consistent with NASA's New Frontiers candidate recommended by the Decadal Survey, and which is the final result of the 2011 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School Mission Design Exercise. Our proposed mission includes a tour phase that features a 500 km altitude fly-by of 1999 XS143. The spacecraft will then orbit and make detailed observations of 1919FD Agamemnon, a 167 km diameter asteroid located in the leading Lagrangian point (L4), from orbital altitudes of 1000 - 100 km over a 12 month nominal science data capture period. The mission's planned primary observations aim to (1) detect and identify volatile species and rock-forming elements on or just below the surface, (2) map the surface geology, and (3) determine size, shape, and rotational state. Our payload will provide unprecedented high-resolution, global dataset for the target bodies, yielding crucial information about the early history and evolution of the Solar System.

  5. Monitoring Floods with NASA's ST6 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment: Implications on Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, Felipe; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Castano, B.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A. G.; Doggett, T.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) [1-3] has been successfully demonstrated in Earth-orbit. NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The versatile ASE spacecraft command and control, image formation, and science processing software was uploaded to the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in early 2004 and has been undergoing onboard testing since May 2004 for the near real-time detection of surface modification related to transient geological and hydrological processes such as volcanism [4], ice formation and retreat [5], and flooding [6]. Space autonomy technology developed as part of ASE creates the new capability to autonomously detect, assess, react to, and monitor dynamic events such as flooding. Part of the challenge has been the difficulty to observe flooding in real time at sufficient temporal resolutions; more importantly, it is the large spatial extent of most drainage networks coupled with the size of the data sets necessary to be downlinked from satellites that make it difficult to monitor flooding from space. Below is a description of the algorithms (referred to as ASE Flood water Classifiers) used in tandem with the Hyperion spectrometer instrument on EO-1 to identify flooding and some of the test results.

  6. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  7. Sharing Planetary Exploration: The Education and Public Outreach Program for the NASA MESSENGER Mission to Orbit Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Stockman, S.; Chapman, C. R.; Leary, J. C.; McNutt, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Program of the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury, supported by the NASA Discovery Program, is a full partnership between the project's science and engineering teams and a team of professionals from the EPO community. The Challenger Center for Space Science Education (CCSSE) and the Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE) are developing sets of MESSENGER Education Modules targeting grade-specific education levels across K-12. These modules are being disseminated through a MESSENGER EPO Website developed at Montana State University, an Educator Fellowship Program managed by CCSSE to train Fellows to conduct educator workshops, additional workshops planned for NASA educators and members of the Minority University - SPace Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN), and existing inner-city science education programs (e.g., the CASE Summer Science Institute in Washington, D.C.). All lessons are mapped to national standards and benchmarks by MESSENGER EPO team members trained by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061, all involve user input and feedback and quality control by the EPO team, and all are thoroughly screened by members of the project science and engineering teams. At the college level, internships in science and engineering are provided to students at minority institutions through a program managed by MU-SPIN, and additional opportunities for student participation across the country are planned as the mission proceeds. Outreach efforts include radio spots (AAAS), museum displays (National Air and Space Museum), posters and traveling exhibits (CASE), general language books (AAAS), programs targeting underserved communities (AAAS, CCSSE, and MU-SPIN), and a documentary highlighting the scientific and technical challenges involved in exploring Mercury and how the MESSENGER team has been meeting these challenges. As with the educational elements, science and engineering team members are active partners in each of the public outreach efforts. MESSENGER fully leverages other NASA EPO programs, including the Solar System Exploration EPO Forum and the Solar System Ambassadors. The overarching goal of the MESSENGER EPO program is to convey the excitement of planetary exploration to students and the lay public throughout the nation.

  8. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. In addition, the material surrounding the boulder can be collected from the surface, thus providing geological contextual information and additional samples of NEA regolith. The robotic manipulators used for capturing the boulder will ensure some of the surface remains undisturbed and that the boulder will retain its structural integrity, which will preserve the context of any samples collected by the astronauts and ensure a high level of science return. Human Exploration: Due to the coherent nature of the boulder that will be collected, entire encapsulation of the asteroid material is not required. This facilitates exploration and sample collection of the boulder by astronauts in a variety of ways. The total time for EVA during the crew portion of the mission is very limited. Current estimates are that each of the two EVAs will only last four hours. The RBC option will allow crew members to have good situational awareness of the work site and quickly identify sample sites of interest. In addition, the samples to be collected can be readily accessed without having to deal with removal of an encapsulation system, which adds extra complexity and risk for the astronauts during EVA. Resource Utilization: One of the most crucial aspects for resource utilization is the identification and collection of appropriate materials (e.g., volatiles, organics, metals, etc.) that contain components of interest. Prior characterization of NEAs is required in order to increase the likelihood that appropriate materials will be returned. Ground-based observations of small (<10 m) NEAs are challenging, but characterization efforts of larger targets have demonstrated that NEAs with volatiles and organics have been identified. Two potential targets for the RBC option (Bennu and 1999 JU3) have been previously identified as potentially rich in resources, and both are already targets of currently planned robotic missions that will characterize their physical properties in great detail. Planetary Defense: The RBC option involves interaction wi

  9. Planetary exploration through year 2000: An augmented program. Part two of a report by the Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    In 1982, the NASA Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) published a report on a Core Program of planetary missions, representing the minimum-level program that could be carried out in a cost effective manner, and would yield a continuing return of basic scientific results. This is the second part of the SSEC report, describing missions of the highest scientific merit that lie outside the scope of the previously recommended Core Program because of their cost and technical challenge. These missions include the autonomous operation of a mobile scientific rover on the surface of Mars, the automated collection and return of samples from that planet, the return to Earth of samples from asteroids and comets, projects needed to lay the groundwork for the eventual utilization of near-Earth resources, outer planet missions, observation programs for extra-solar planets, and technological developments essential to make these missions possible.

  10. NASA's Planetary Photojournal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, hosted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), contains NASA's best solar system images. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and other objects all have entries sorted by the spacecraft that took the photo. The site is searchable by date, feature name, ID number, or spacecraft. Each image contains a small description and credits.

  11. Physics in NASA Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Callaghan, Fred

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of the workshop was NASA's new concentration on sending crewed missions to the Moon by 2020, and then on to Mars and beyond. Several speakers, including JPL s Fred O Callaghan and NASA's Mark Lee, broached the problem that there is now a serious reduction of capability to perform experiments in the ISS, or to fly significant mass in microgravity by other means. By 2010, the shuttle fleet will be discontinued and Russian craft will provide the only access to the ISS. O Callaghan stated that the Fundamental Physics budget is being reduced by 70%. LTMPF and LCAP are slated for termination. However, ground-based experiments are continuing to be funded at present, and it will be possible to compete for $80-90 million in new money from the Human Research Initiative (HRI). The new program thrust is for exploration, not fundamental physics. Fundamental, we were told by Lee, does not ring well in Washington these days. Investigators were advised to consider how their work can benefit missions to the Moon and Mars. Work such as that regarding atomic clocks is looked upon with favor, for example, because it is considered important to navigation and planetary GPS. Mark Lee stressed that physicists must convey to NASA senior management that they are able and willing to contribute to the new exploration research programs. The new mentality must be we deliver products, not do research. This program needs to be able to say that it is doing at least 50% exploration-related research. JPL s Ulf Israelsson discussed the implications to OBPR, which will deliver methods and technology to assure human health and performance in extraterrestrial settings. The enterprise will provide advanced life-support systems and technology that are reliable, capable, simpler, less massive, smaller, and energy-efficient, and it may offer other necessary expertise in areas such as low-gravity behavior. Like Dr. Lee, he stated that the focus must be on products, not research. While there is not yet a formal direction, he said, LTMPF and PARCS ISS flight projects are slated to terminate in October 2004. All flight investigations are being returned to ground programs and phased out by the end of FY07. Physics ground programs are intact for now, but to survive we must shift about 50% of research to supporting exploration. Basic research programs in other disciplines are being cancelled. Product lines will support human health, safety and life-support, including countermeasures against radiation and other hazards, as well as advances in time-keeping, navigation and communications technologies. Israelsson said that the new Fundamental Physics for Exploration Roadmap points to how fundamental physics research can and does support exploration. JPL will use the roadmap to argue for support for fundamental physics research under several codes. Nicholas Bigelow of the University of Rochester encouraged attendees not to become discouraged, but rather to embrace the opportunities presented by NASA's new direction.

  12. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  13. A vision for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

    A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

  14. To: Jim Green, Jonathan Rall, Janet Luhmann & Planetary Science Subcommittee From: NASA Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), Lori S. Glaze (Chair)

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    To: Jim Green, Jonathan Rall, Janet Luhmann & Planetary Science Subcommittee From: NASA Venus of the Planetary Science Subcommittee, VEXAG solicited feedback from the Venus science community in response to the proposed restructuring of the Planetary Science Division R&A Program. Questions and Comments were solicited

  15. NASA: Solar System Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore NASA's space missions by target, letter, year, and program. Individuals can learn about the history and future of robotic exploration of space through a pictorial timeline. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, science goals, and information on NASA scientists. Kids will enjoy the Roadtrip to Mars interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

  16. Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Beyer; M. D. Hancher; M. Broxton; M. Weiss-Malik; N. Gorelick; E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. As a 3D geospatial browser, the Google Earth client is one way to visualize planetary data. KML imagery super-overlays enable us to create a non-Earth planetary globe within Google Earth, and conversion of planetary meta-data allows display of

  17. NASA Explorer School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Explorer School-East Oktibbeha County School District team recently celebrated the start of its three-year partnership with NASA during a two-part kickoff event Nov. 7 and 8. Pictured from left are, Oktibbeha County School District Superintendent Dr. Walter Conley; NES Team Administrator James Covington; Stennis Space Center Deputy Director Gene Goldman; Sharon Bonner; NES Team Lead Yolanda Magee; Andrea Temple; Carolyn Rice; and special guest astronaut Roger Crouch.

  18. Planetary Exploration Rebooted! New Ways of Exploring the Moon, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence W.

    2010-01-01

    In this talk, I will summarize how the NASA Ames Intelligent Robotics Group has been developing and field testing planetary robots for human exploration, creating automated planetary mapping systems, and engaging the public as citizen scientists.

  19. NASA's Mars Exploration Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from NASA contains an overview of the Mars Exploration program and features the Latest Rover and Orbiter Updates. Resources for kids, students, educators, and the press are provided along with numerous images, press releases, and multimedia resources like the Rover Road Trip Slideshow. The site supplies a variety of resources and numerous web links.

  20. Aerobots and Hydrobots for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Chris

    2000-01-01

    In this new Millennium, NASA will expand its presence in space. Many new planetary bodies have been discovered, and some previously known bodies are now believed to have oceans. We now know of 66 moons in our own Solar System, one with an atmosphere, 16 with water ice or oceans, and 5 with both. In addition, we now know of 20 extra-solar planets. In order to expand our presence in space and explore in a cost effective manner, we need a repertoire of new types of planetary exploration vehicles to explore both atmospheres and oceans. To address this need a spectrum of new classes of vehicles are being developed. These include aerobots and hydrobots, and incorporate Department of Defense miniaturization developments and smart materials. This paper outlines: the remarkable miniaturization developments applicable to robotic vehicles for the exploration of planetary atmospheres and oceans; Aerobots, the vehicles designed for planetary atmospheric exploration; Hydrobots, those designed for planetary ocean exploration; planetary atmospheric data; and Europa ocean exploration missions.

  1. Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet; Sen, Ranjan K.

    1989-01-01

    The Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) project is essentially research oriented towards technology insertion issues for NASA's unmanned planetary probes. It was initiated to complement and augment the long-term efforts for space exploration with particular reference to NASA/LaRC's (NASA Langley Research Center) research needs for planetary exploration missions of the mid and late 1990s. The requirements for space missions as given in the somewhat dated Advanced Information Processing Systems (AIPS) requirements document are contrasted with the new requirements from JPL/Caltech involving sensor data capture and scene analysis. It is shown that more stringent requirements have arisen as a result of technological advancements. Two possible architectures, the AIPS Proof of Concept (POC) configuration and the MAX Fault-tolerant dataflow multiprocessor, were evaluated. The main observation was that the AIPS design is biased towards fault tolerance and may not be an ideal architecture for planetary and deep space probes due to high cost and complexity. The MAX concepts appears to be a promising candidate, except that more detailed information is required. The feasibility for adding neural computation capability to this architecture needs to be studied. Key impact issues for architectural design of computing systems meant for planetary missions were also identified.

  2. Optical information processing for NASA's space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Ochoa, Ellen; Juday, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The development status of optical processing techniques under development at NASA-JPL, NASA-Ames, and NASA-Johnson, is evaluated with a view to their potential applications in future NASA planetary exploration missions. It is projected that such optical processing systems can yield major reductions in mass, volume, and power requirements relative to exclusively electronic systems of comparable processing capabilities. Attention is given to high-order neural networks for distortion-invariant classification and pattern recognition, multispectral imaging using an acoustooptic tunable filter, and an optical matrix processor for control problems.

  3. NASA: Solar System Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore space missions by name, decade, target, and nation. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, as well as information about astrobiology and power and propulsion. Kids will enjoy the Alien Safari interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

  4. The NASA planetary biology internship experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, G.; Margulis, L.

    1991-01-01

    By providing students from around the world with the opportunity to work with established scientists in the fields of biogeochemistry, remote sensing, and origins of life, among others, the NASA Planetary Biology Internship (PBI) Program has successfully launched many scientific careers. Each year approximately ten interns participate in research related to planetary biology at NASA Centers, NASA-sponsored research in university laboratories, and private institutions. The PBI program also sponsors three students every year in both the Microbiology and Marine Ecology summer courses at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Other information about the PBI Program is presented including application procedure.

  5. NASA's Exploration for Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    NASA's Exploration for Life is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about kingdoms of life, environments on Earth and Mars, landforms, and the Mars Surveyor Program. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  6. Sharing Planetary Exploration: The Education and Public Outreach Program for the NASA MESSENGER Mission to Orbit Mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Solomon; S. Stockman; C. R. Chapman; J. C. Leary; R. L. McNutt

    2003-01-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Program of the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury, supported by the NASA Discovery Program, is a full partnership between the project's science and engineering teams and a team of professionals from the EPO community. The Challenger Center for Space Science Education (CCSSE) and the Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE) are developing sets

  7. Effective planetary exploration at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of possibilities being explored by NASA for effective planetary exploration at low cost is presented. The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) has been examining this issue, with particular attention given to the areas of observing scientific objectives using derivative designs and hardware, and limiting modifications. The Venus Radar Mapper has been endorsed by the SSEC in terms of using existing space hardware, and has proven to be cost effective. In addition, hardware developed for Galileo missions must be used. Finally, the development of a spacecraft design which can be cost-effectively reconfigured from mission to mission is underway with the Mariner Mark II Concept. It is anticipated that low cost planetary exploration methods will be the focus of study at the SSEC.

  8. Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    1 REPORT of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Washington, DC 2-3 October 2008 Introduction The Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) of the NASA Advisory day began with a briefing by James Green, Director of the Planetary Science Division (PSD) of NASA

  9. Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    1 REPORT of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Orlando, Florida 7 October 2007 Introduction The Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) of the NASA Advisory, Director of the Planetary Science Division (PSD) of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), briefed

  10. Robot Manipulator Technologies for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bonitz, R.; Lindemann, R.; Maimone, M.; Nesnas, I.; Voorhees, C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA exploration missions to Mars, initiated by the Mars Pathfinder mission in July 1997, will continue over the next decade. The missions require challenging innovations in robot design and improvements in autonomy to meet ambitious objectives under tight budget and time constraints. The authors are developing design tools, component technologies and capabilities to address these needs for manipulation with robots for planetary exploration. The specific developments are: 1) a software analysis tool to reduce robot design iteration cycles and optimize on design solutions, 2) new piezoelectric ultrasonic motors (USM) for light-weight and high torque actuation in planetary environments, 3) use of advanced materials and structures for strong and light-weight robot arms and 4) intelligent camera-image coordinated autonomous control of robot arms for instrument placement and sample acquisition from a rover vehicle.

  11. NASA'S Mars Exploration Homepage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This extensive site from NASA hosts a collection of science and news articles, images and animations, and resources for teachers and students. Information about various Martian missions and observational technologies are included as well as links to other NASA sites that relate to Mars.

  12. Enabling Exploration: NASA's Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.

    2012-01-01

    Deputy Director of Science, Carol W. Carroll has been invited by University of Oregon's Materials Science Institute to give a presentation. Carol's Speech explains NASA's Technologies that are needed where NASA was, what NASA's current capabilities are. Carol will highlight many of NASA's high profile projects and she will explain what NASA needs for its future by focusing on the next steps in space exploration. Carol's audience will be University of Oregon's future scientists and engineer's and their professor's along with various other faculty members.

  13. Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Hancher, M. D.; Broxton, M.; Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. As a 3D geospatial browser, the Google Earth client is one way to visualize planetary data. KML imagery super-overlays enable us to create a non-Earth planetary globe within Google Earth, and conversion of planetary meta-data allows display of the footprint locations of various higher-resolution data sets. Once our group, or any group, performs these data conversions the KML can be made available on the Web, where anyone can download it and begin using it in Google Earth (or any other geospatial browser), just like a Web page. Lucian Plesea at JPL offers several KML basemaps (MDIM, colorized MDIM, MOC composite, THEMIS day time infrared, and both grayscale and colorized MOLA). We have created TES Thermal Inertia maps, and a THEMIS night time infrared overlay, as well. Many data sets for Mars have already been converted to KML. We provide coverage polygons overlaid on the globe, whose icons can be clicked on and lead to the full PDS data URL. We have built coverage maps for the following data sets: MOC narrow angle, HRSC imagery and DTMs, SHARAD tracks, CTX, and HiRISE. The CRISM team is working on providing their coverage data via publicly-accessible KML. The MSL landing site process is also providing data for potential landing sites via KML. The Google Earth client and KML allow anyone to contribute data for everyone to see via the Web. The Earth sciences community is already utilizing KML and Google Earth in a variety of ways as a geospatial browser, and we hope that the planetary sciences community will do the same. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data. Our presentation will demonstrate how to leverage the latest Google Earth and KML features to visualize planetary data. In the future we hope to make additional planetary KML data available for Mars, the Moon, and other planets in the solar system. This will vastly increase the public's ability to easily access NASA's store of planetary geospatial information.

  14. Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    REPORT of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Washington, D.C. 7-8 June 2007 Introduction The Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) of the NASA Advisory the Planetary Science Division's Government Performance Reporting Act (GPRA) progress. Phil Crane first

  15. Exploring Planetary Moons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a collection of mathematics problems relating to the moons of the solar system. Learners will use simple proportional relationships and work with fractions to study the relative sizes of the larger moons in our solar system, and explore how temperatures change from place to place using the Celsius and Kelvin scales.

  16. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-12-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers both at the technical and policy level to assure the efficiency and ultimate utility of these efforts to derive educational benefits from the space science and exploration program as a whole.

  17. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers both at the technical and policy level to assure the efficiency and ultimate utility of these efforts to derive educational benefits from the space science and exploration program as a whole.

  18. NASA establishes office of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.

  19. Planetary Protection Technologies: Technical Challenges for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system, using either in situ analysis or sample return, brings with it special technical challenges in the area of planetary protection. Planetary protection (PP) requires planetary explorers to preserve biological and organic conditions for future exploration and to protect the Earth from potential extraterrestrial contamination that could occur as a result of sample return to the Earth-Moon system. In view of the exploration plans before us, the NASA Solar System Exploration Program Roadmap published in May 2003 identified planetary protection as one of 13 technologies for "high priority technology investments." Recent discoveries at Mars and Jupiter, coupled with new policies, have made this planning for planetary protection technology particularly challenging and relevant.New missions to Mars have been formulated, which present significantly greater forward contamination potential. New policies, including the introduction by COSPAR of a Category IVc for planetary protection, have been adopted by COSPAR in response. Some missions may not be feasible without the introduction of new planetary protection technologies. Other missions may be technically possible but planetary protection requirements may be so costly to implement with current technology that they are not affordable. A strategic investment strategy will be needed to focus on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce the costs of future missions. This presentation will describe some of the potential technological pathways that may be most protective.

  20. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  1. Evolving directions in NASA's planetary rover requirements and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Montemerlo, Mel; Whittaker, W.

    1993-10-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of NASA's planning for planetary rovers (i.e. robotic vehicles which may be deployed on planetary bodies for exploration, science analysis, and construction) and some of the technology that has been developed to achieve the desired capabilities. The program is comprised of a variety of vehicle sizes and types in order to accommodate a range of potential user needs. This includes vehicles whose weight spans a few kilograms to several thousand kilograms; whose locomotion is implemented using wheels, tracks, and legs; and whose payloads vary from microinstruments to large scale assemblies for construction. We first describe robotic vehicles, and their associated control systems, developed by NASA in the late 1980's as part of a proposed Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission. Suggested goals at that time for such an MRSR mission included navigating for one to two years across hundreds of kilometers of Martian surface; traversing a diversity of rugged, unknown terrain; collecting and analyzing a variety of samples; and bringing back selected samples to the lander for return to Earth. Subsequently, we present the current plans (considerably more modest) which have evolved both from technological 'lessons learned' in the previous period, and modified aspirations of NASA missions. This paper describes some of the demonstrated capabilities of the developed machines and the technologies which made these capabilities possible.

  2. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  3. NASA planetary data: applying planetary satellite remote sensing data in the classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, P.; Dobinson, E.; Sword, B.; Hughes, D.; Martin, M.; Martin, D.

    2002-01-01

    NASA supports several data archiving and distribution mechanisms that provide a means whereby scientists can participate in education and outreach through the use of technology for data and information dissemination. The Planetary Data System (PDS) is sponsored by NASA's Office of Space Science. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. In addition, the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF), an international system of planetary image libraries, maintains photographic and digital data as well as mission documentation and cartographic data.

  4. 76 FR 58303 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...11-081)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

  5. 76 FR 62456 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...11-089] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

  6. Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Landis, Geoffrey A

    2004-12-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments. PMID:15795977

  7. Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

  8. Terrain identification methods for planetary exploration rovers

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Christopher Allen, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous mobility in rough terrain is becoming increasingly important for planetary exploration rovers. Increased knowledge of local terrain properties is critical to ensure a rover's safety, especially when driving on ...

  9. Aerobots and Hydrobots for Planetary Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Barrett

    2000-01-01

    In this new Millennium, NASA will expand its presence in space. Many new planetary bodies have been discovered, and some previously known bodies are now believed to have oceans. We now know of 66 moons in our own Solar System, one with an atmosphere, 16 with water ice or oceans, and 5 with both. In addition, we now know of

  10. Jim Green, Kristen Erickson, Stephen Edberg NASA, Planetary Science

    E-print Network

    Laboratory (Curiosity Rover) launch to Mars * December 31 ­ GRAIL A (Ebb) orbit insertion at Earth's Moon 2012 * January 1 ­ GRAIL B (Flow) orbit insertion at Earth's Moon * June 6 ­ Venus transits Sun (last Exploration @50 Conference 1 #12;The Revolution in Planetary SciencePlanetary Science 2 #12;"Flyby, Orbit

  11. 75 FR 57520 - NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...10-112)] NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working Group; Meeting AGENCY...and Technology Working Group of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council....

  12. 78 FR 64024 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update...

  13. 75 FR 80851 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...following topics: --Update on the Planetary Science Division. --Update from...

  14. 75 FR 36445 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Group --Update on Progress of Planetary Science Technology Review...

  15. 76 FR 31641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...following topics: --Review of the Planetary Science Division Response to the...

  16. 76 FR 10626 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...Administration announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Discussion and Formulation of the Planetary Science Division's Response to...

  17. NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

  18. From: The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility Network (corresponding author: Justin Hagerty, jhagerty@usgs.gov)

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    From: The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility Network (corresponding author: Justin Hagerty by the directors and data managers of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network. For those who may, jhagerty@usgs.gov) To: CAPTEM, VEXAG, LEAG, MEPAG, SBAG, OPAG Re: Proposed changes to the NASA Planetary

  19. Future NASA solar system exploration activities: A framework for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Bevan M.; Ramlose, Terri; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primary missions comprising the program are described.

  20. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  1. Information architecture for a planetary 'exploration web'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamarra, N.; McVittie, T.

    2002-01-01

    'Web services' is a common way of deploying distributed applications whose software components and data sources may be in different locations, formats, languages, etc. Although such collaboration is not utilized significantly in planetary exploration, we believe there is significant benefit in developing an architecture in which missions could leverage each others capabilities. We believe that an incremental deployment of such an architecture could significantly contribute to the evolution of increasingly capable, efficient, and even autonomous remote exploration.

  2. Data Management in Planetary Exploration and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.; King, T. A.

    2003-12-01

    Planetary exploration and space physics approach data management in very different ways. In this talk we will compare the approaches in these two disciplines with emphasis on how each has dealt with the problems of locating and accessing distributed data. We also will outline the data management challenges each will face in the next decade. Sixteen years ago the NASA Solar System Exploration Division founded the Planetary Data System (PDS) to coordinate the data activities of planetary missions, provide the scientific community with access to planetary data and preserve the data from planetary missions for future analysis. PDS is organized into "nodes" by scientific sub-disciplines (Atmospheres, Geoscience, Plasma Interactions, Rings and Small Bodies) and experimental technique (Imaging and Radio Science). In addition the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) addresses data issues involving navigation and instrument pointing. All planetary data from NASA missions are prepared to the same metadata standards that include a common data dictionary. Initially access to the data was by sub-discipline although within a sub-discipline the access was to all missions and instrument types. More recently planetary science has become more interdisciplinary and now PDS is moving toward a system that supports cross discipline access. Data are available either on online or on hard media (CDROM or DVD). In recent years space physics data access has been organized by missions. Some missions support data systems through which all of the data from the mission can be accessed while for others the data are available from individual principal investigator sites. In general the space physics missions support an open data policy and much of the data is available online. There are no discipline wide metadata standards. Different missions support different data dictionaries, schemas and interfaces. The data come in a variety of formats. In the near future both planetary science and space physics will be challenged with massive volumes of data from new missions (approximately 1015 bytes). In both disciplines the need for comparative research across missions or sub-disciplines is becoming more common. Both will have to support data structures that allow users to readily locate, access, and use data from distributed and diverse sources. Both disciplines must address the issue of how to distribute these massive data sets to the science community. Distributable media (DVD) are too expensive due to their limited storage capacity and the network bandwidth is unlikely to be able to support online distribution.

  3. Advanced Sensors for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Ravindra B.; Clinton, R. G.; Frazier, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of advanced sensors needed for NASA's space exploration. The topics include: 1) The vision of the President of the United States of America for Space Exploration; 2) The report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy; 3) Exploration Systems Interim Report; 4) Major areas of sensor needs; 5) Classes of material; and 6) Variety of Sensors for Space Exploration.

  4. Planetary Protection for Human Exploration Missions: A Flight Surgeon's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, J.

    2015-03-01

    Planetary protection will be a challenge for human exploration missions. A collaborative approach that takes into context all the challenges facing human space exploration will benefit both the space medical and planetary protection communities.

  5. Analysis of planetary exploration spacesuit systems and evaluation of a modified partial-gravity simulation technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Patrick Chappell

    2006-01-01

    Building on prior experience during Apollo, NASA now plans to send humans back to the Moon and then on to Mars as part of its Vision for Space Exploration. An integral component for enabling this plan is the development of advanced spacesuit systems. A planetary exploration spacesuit system consists of an astronaut, a spacesuit, and the associated surface systems designed

  6. Archiving lightcurve data in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark V. Sykes; David Tarico; Rose Early

    2005-01-01

    Groundbased obervers may submit data to the NASA Planetary Data System using a new web-based interface, the PDS On-Line Archiving Facility (OLAF). The PDS is a peer-reviewed data archive in which data are sufficiently characterized so as to be useful beyond the lifetime of the submitter. PDS data are given citations for reference in publications, and are widely distributed electronically.

  7. NASA's Missions for Exoplanet Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Exoplanets are detected and characterized using a range of observational techniques - including direct imaging, astrometry, transits, microlensing, and radial velocities. Each technique illuminates a different aspect of exoplanet properties and statistics. This diversity of approach has contributed to the rapid growth of the field into a major research area in only two decades. In parallel with exoplanet observations, major efforts are now underway to interpret the physical and atmospheric properties of exoplanets for which spectroscopy is now possible. In addition, comparative planetology probes questions of interest to both exoplanets and solar system studies. In this talk I describe NASA's activities in exoplanet research, and discuss plans for near-future missions that have reflected-light spectroscopy as a key goal. The WFIRST-AFTA concept currently under active study includes a major microlensing survey, and now includes a visible light coronagraph for exoplanet spectroscopy and debris disk imaging. Two NASA-selected community-led teams are studying probe-scale (< 1B) mission concepts for imaging and spectroscopy. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development (survey of nearby transiting exoplanets with TESS, and followup of the most important targets with transit spectroscopy on JWST), and build on the work of ground-based instruments such as LBTI and observing with HIRES on Keck. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2014. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  8. 75 FR 15743 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...10-034)] NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National...Administration announces a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council...INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jane Parham, Exploration, Exploration Systems Mission...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE NASA PLANETARY SCIENCE DIVISION'S MISSION-ENABLING ACTIVITIES

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    i ASSESSMENT OF THE NASA PLANETARY SCIENCE DIVISION'S MISSION-ENABLING ACTIVITIES By Planetary Sciences Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee 29 August 2011 #12; ii Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) Ronald Greeley, Chair Arizona State University Jim Bell Arizona State

  10. NASA ADMINISTRATOR'S SYMPOSIUM Risk and Exploration

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    NASA ADMINISTRATOR'S SYMPOSIUM Risk and Exploration E A R T H , S E A A N D T H E S TA R S STEVEN J. DICK AND KEITH L. COWING, EDITORS #12;#12;Risk and Exploration E A R T H , S E A A N D T H E S TA R S #12;Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Risk and exploration: Earth, sea and the stars

  11. The Role of Planetary Dust and Regolith Mechanics in Technology Developments at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASA's long term goals continues to be the exploration of other planets and orbital bodies in our solar system. Our sustained presence through the installation of stations or bases on these planetary surfaces will depend on developing properly designed habitation modules, mobility systems and supporting infrastructure. NASA Glenn Research Center is involved in several technology developments in support of this overarching goal. Two key developments are in the area of advanced filtration and excavation systems. The first addresses the issues posed by the accumulation of particulate matter over long duration missions and the intrusion of planetary dust into spacecraft and habitat pressurized cabins. The latter supports the operation and infrastructure of insitu resource utilization (ISRU) processes to derive consumables and construction materials from the planetary regolith. These two developments require a basic understanding of the lunar regolith at the micro (particle) to macro (bulk) level. Investigation of the relevant properties of the lunar regolith and characterization of the standard simulant materials used in. testing were important first steps in these developments. The fundamentals and operational concepts of these technologies as well as descriptions of new NASA facilities, including the Particulate Filtration Testing and the NASA Excavation and Traction Testing facilities, and their capabilities for testing and advancing these technologies will be presented. The test data also serves to validate and anchor computational simulation models.

  12. Planetary protection technologies: technical challenges for Mars exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Buxbaum

    2005-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system, using either in situ analysis or sample return, brings with it special technical challenges in the area of planetary protection. Planetary protection (PP) requires planetary explorers to preserve biological and organic conditions for future exploration and to protect the Earth from potential extraterrestrial contamination that could occur as a result of sample

  13. 2014 NASA Planetary Science Summer School Applications Open NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post-docs,

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    2014 NASA Planetary Science Summer School Applications Open NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students for its 26th Annual Planetary Science Summer School, which will be held in three separate sessions in summer 2014 (June 16-20, July 14

  14. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  15. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  16. 78 FR 77719 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Delo, Science Mission Directorate, NASA...following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update --Planetary Science Division Research and Analysis...202) 358-2779. U.S. citizens and Permanent Residents...

  17. 75 FR 80081 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...10-167)] NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National...Administration announces a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council...INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Bette Siegel, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate,...

  18. 75 FR 52375 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...10-094)] NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration announces a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council...INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jane Parham, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate,...

  19. Power Goals for the NASA Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirements for electrical power for future NASA exploration missions to the lunar surface. A review of the Constellation program is included as an introduction to the review of the batteries required for safe and reliable power for the ascent stage of the Altair Lunar Lander module.

  20. Advanced flight computers for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning flight computers for use on interplanetary probes is reviewed. The history of these computers from the Viking mission to the present is outlined. The differences between ground commercial computers and computers for planetary exploration are listed. The development of a computer for the Mariner Mark II comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission is described. Various aspects of recently developed computer systems are examined, including the Max real time, embedded computer, a hypercube distributed supercomputer, a SAR data processor, a processor for the High Resolution IR Imaging Spectrometer, and a robotic vision multiresolution pyramid machine for processsing images obtained by a Mars Rover.

  1. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, C. J.; Lowes, L. L.; Sohus, A. M.; Wessen, A. S.; Stelzner, T. D.; Urban, A.

    2012-03-01

    NASA’s PSSS prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists for solar system exploration missions. Each summer, PhD candidates and post-doctoral students work with JPL’s Team X to develop a mission concept and present it to a review board.

  2. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, C. J.; Lowes, L. L.; Sohus, A. M.; Wheeler, T. D.; Wessen, A. S.; Scalice, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    NASA’s PSSS prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists for solar system exploration missions. Each summer, PhD candidates and post-doctoral students work with JPL’s Team X to develop a mission concept and present it to a review board.

  3. Solar discrepancies: Mars exploration and the curious problem of inter-planetary time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zara Lenora Mirmalek

    2008-01-01

    The inter-planetary work system for the NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission entailed coordinating work between two corporally diverse workgroups, human beings and solar-powered robots, and between two planets with asynchronous axial rotations. The rotation of Mars takes approximately 24 hours and 40 minutes while for Earth the duration is 24 hours, a differential that was synchronized on Earth by

  4. 77 FR 71641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection...Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC. The...CONTACT: Ms. Marian Norris, Science Mission Directorate, NASA...202) 358- 1377. U.S. citizens and green card holders...

  5. 77 FR 20851 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection...Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC. The...CONTACT: Ms. Marian Norris, Science Mission Directorate, NASA...202) 358-1377. U.S. citizens and green card holders...

  6. ANTS: Applying A New Paradigm for Lunar and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano- Technology Swarm), a mission architecture consisting of a large (1000 member) swarm of picoclass (1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft with both adaptable and evolvable heuristic systems, is being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept, and is here examined as a paradigm for lunar surface exploration. As the capacity and complexity of hardware and software, demands for bandwidth, and the sophistication of goals for lunar and planetary exploration have increased, greater cost constraints have led to fewer resources and thus, the need to operate spacecraft with less frequent human contact. At present, autonomous operation of spacecraft systems allows great capability of spacecraft to 'safe' themselves and survive when conditions threaten spacecraft safety. To further develop spacecraft capability, NASA is at the forefront of development of new mission architectures which involve the use of Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), performing experiments in space and on the ground to advance deliberative and collaborative autonomous control techniques. Selected missions in current planning stages require small groups of spacecraft weighing tens, instead of hundreds, of kilograms to cooperate at a tactical level to select and schedule measurements to be made by appropriate instruments onboard. Such missions will be characterizing rapidly unfolding real-time events on a routine basis. The next level of development, which we are considering here, is in the use of autonomous systems at the strategic level, to explore the remote terranes, potentially involving large surveys or detailed reconnaissance.

  7. MEMS-Based Micro Instruments for In-Situ Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Thomas; Urgiles, Eduardo R; Toda, Risaku; Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Douglas, Susanne; Lee, C-S.; Son, Kyung-Ah; Miller, D.; Myung, N.; Madsen, L.; Leskowitz, G.; El-Gammal, R.; Weitekamp, D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's planetary exploration strategy is primarily targeted to the detection of extant or extinct signs of life. Thus, the agency is moving towards more in-situ landed missions as evidenced by the recent, successful demonstration of twin Mars Exploration Rovers. Also, future robotic exploration platforms are expected to evolve towards sophisticated analytical laboratories composed of multi-instrument suites. MEMS technology is very attractive for in-situ planetary exploration because of the promise of a diverse and capable set of advanced, low mass and low-power devices and instruments. At JPL, we are exploiting this diversity of MEMS for the development of a new class of miniaturized instruments for planetary exploration. In particular, two examples of this approach are the development of an Electron Luminescence X-ray Spectrometer (ELXS), and a Force-Detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FDNMR) Spectrometer.

  8. Space Networking Demonstrated for Distributed Human-Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, Thomas P.; Seibert, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Communications and networking experts from the NASA Glenn Research Center designed and implemented an innovative communications infrastructure for a simulated human-robotic planetary mission. The mission, which was executed in the Arizona desert during the first 2 weeks of September 2002, involved a diverse team of researchers from several NASA centers and academic institutions.

  9. Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: A Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Four Antarctic explorers were invited to a workshop at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide expert assessments of NASA's current understanding of future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. These explorers had been on relatively sophisticated, extensive Antarctic expeditions with sparse or nonexistent support infrastructure in the period following World War II through the end of the International Geophysical Year. Their experience was similar to that predicted for early Mars or other planetary exploration missions. For example: one Antarctic a expedition lasted two years with only one planned resupply mission and contingency plans for no resupply missions should sea ice prevent a ship from reaching them; several traverses across Antarctica measured more than 1000 total miles, required several months to complete, and were made without maps (because they did not exist) and with only a few aerial photos of the route; and the crews of six to 15 were often international in composition. At JSC, the explorers were given tours of development, training, and scientific facilities, as well as documentation at operational scenarios for future planetary exploration. This report records their observations about these facilities and plans in answers to a series of questions provided to them before the workshop.

  10. FINAL: April 14, 2010 NASA Advisory Council Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    FINAL: April 14, 2010 NASA Advisory Council Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense Thursday. Schweickart/T. Jones 11:40 Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense Terms of Reference - Charter, schedule Council Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense Thursday/Friday, April 15-16, 2010 Boston Marriot Cambridge

  11. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved from field school alone. This will enhance their ability to execute, explore and adapt as in-field situations require.

  12. Use and sizing of rocket hoppers for planetary surface exploration

    E-print Network

    Michel, Wendelin X

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of rocket hoppers can provide a valuable means of obtaining enhanced mobility for planetary surface exploration missions. Hoppers offer higher exploration versatility than landers, rovers, or other surface ...

  13. An Integrated Traverse Planner and Analysis Tool for Planetary Exploration

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Aaron William

    Future planetary explorations will require surface traverses of unprecedented frequency, length, and duration. As a result, there is need for exploration support tools to maximize productivity, scientific return, and safety. ...

  14. The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

  15. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a common currency for decision making and the allocation of funding. A high level assessment is made of both the knowledge gaps and the system performance gaps across the program s technical project portfolio. This allows decision making that assures proper emphasis areas and provides a key measure of annual technological progress, as exploration mission plans continue to mature.

  16. Magnetotelluric Sensor Development for Planetary Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuqua, H.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.; Grimm, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) Sounding is a powerful geophysical investigation technique capable of constraining planetary subsurface structure, including core size, mantle and crustal temperature profiles, and the distribution of electrical conductivity at depth. Natural sources of EM activity, including solar wind turbulence and plasma waves, can induce electric and magnetic fields in the Moon and other small bodies. These induced fields respond according to the electrical conductivity as a function of skin depth of the body in question. In a branch of EM Sounding known as Magnetotellurics (MT), measurements of the horizontal electric and magnetic fields at the planetary surface are inverted to produce constraints on the interior. MT is particularly worthwhile in that geophysically meaningful results can be obtained from a single station, thus avoiding network mission architectures. While surface magnetic field measurements were taken on the Moon during the Apollo era, to date no measurements of the surface horizontal electric field have been attempted. However electric field measurements on the lunar surface should be feasible given their long successful history on spacecraft missions in similar environments. Building upon the heritage of electric field sensor technology at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, we describe a development plan for this instrument from component level to a fully functional instrument assembly for use in EM sounding, highlighting operational requirements, science capabilities, required testing, anticipated results and challenges to overcome. Upon development, this lander electric field sensor will enable future MT surveys on the Moon, and will provide a new exploration method for other small airless bodies from a single station.

  17. Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carlé Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners include: Canada, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. Discussions are ongoing to bring several more partners into the fold. These partnerships have impacted lunar science in a number of ways, resulting in such efforts and groups as the Pan-European Lunar Science Consortium and the Canadian Sudbury Field School. For more information visit sservi.nasa.gov

  18. Antenna Technologies for Future NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s plans for the manned exploration of the moon and Mars will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure on the surface and back to Earth. Future missions will thus focus not only on gathering scientific data, but also on the formation of the communications network. In either case, unique requirements become imposed on the antenna technologies necessary to accomplish these tasks. For example, surface activity applications such as robotic rovers, human extravehicular activities (EVA), and probes will require small size, lightweight, low power, multi-functionality, and robustness for the antenna elements being considered. Trunk-line communications to a centralized habitat on the surface and back to Earth (e.g., surface relays, satellites, landers) will necessitate wide-area coverage, high gain, low mass, deployable antennas. Likewise, the plethora of low to high data rate services desired to guarantee the safety and quality of mission data for robotic and human exploration will place additional demands on the technology. Over the past year, NASA Glenn Research Center has been heavily involved in the development of candidate antenna technologies with the potential for meeting these strict requirements. This technology ranges from electrically small antennas to phased array and large inflatable structures. A summary of this overall effort is provided, with particular attention being paid to small antenna designs and applications. A discussion of the Agency-wide activities of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in forthcoming NASA missions, as they pertain to the communications architecture for the lunar and Martian networks is performed, with an emphasis on the desirable qualities of potential antenna element designs for envisioned communications assets. Identified frequency allocations for the lunar and Martian surfaces, as well as asset-specific data services will be described to develop a foundation for viable antenna technologies which might address these requirements and help guide future technology development decisions.

  19. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA’s Kepler Mission

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Natalie M.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85–90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

  20. Planetary surface exploration: MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Lentz, Dale; Laux, Richard; Nance, Preston

    1992-06-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray instruments (APX). The system is to be launched with the sixteen MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker was developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian surface. While on Mars the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar-terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation which NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. A detailed description of the designs, methods, and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs are included.

  1. Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

  2. Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

    1992-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

  3. Planetary surface exploration: MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Lentz, Dale; Laux, Richard; Nance, Preston

    1992-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray instruments (APX). The system is to be launched with the sixteen MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker was developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian surface. While on Mars the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar-terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation which NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. A detailed description of the designs, methods, and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs are included.

  4. Power Goals for NASA's Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Exciting Future Programs ahead for NASA. Power is needed for all Exploration vehicles and for the missions. For long term missions as in Lunar and Mars programs, safe, high energy/ultra high energy batteries are required. Safety is top priority for human-rated missions. Two-fault tolerance to catastrophic failures is required for human-rated safety To meet power safety goals -inherent cell safety may be required; it can lessen complexity of external protective electronics and prevents dependency on hardware that may also have limitations. Inherent cell safety will eliminate the need to carry out screening of all cells (X-rays, vibration, etc.)

  5. United States and Western Europe cooperation in planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Hunten, Donald M.; Masursky, Harold; Scarf, Frederick L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wilkening, Laurel L.; Fechtig, Hugo; Balsiger, Hans; Blamont, Jacques; Fulchignoni, Marcello

    1989-01-01

    A framework was sought for U.S.-European cooperation in planetary exploration. Specific issues addressed include: types and levels of possible cooperative activities in the planetary sciences; specific or general scientific areas that seem most promising as the main focus of cooperative efforts; potential mission candidates for cooperative ventures; identification of special issues or problems for resolution by negotiation between the agencies, and possible suggestions for their resolutions; and identification of coordinated technological and instrumental developments for planetary missions.

  6. Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx) for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwin, Lionel Ernest

    All planetary surface exploration missions thus far have employed traditional rovers with a rocker-bogie suspension. These rovers can navigate moderately rough and flat terrain, but are not designed to traverse rugged terrain with steep slopes. The fact is, however, that many scientifically interesting missions require exploration platforms with capabilities for navigating such types of chaotic terrain. This issue motivates the development of new kinds of rovers that take advantage of the latest advances in robotic technologies to traverse rugged terrain efficiently. This dissertation proposes and analyses one such rover concept called the Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx) that is principally aimed at addressing the above issue. Biologically inspired by the way the armadillo curls up into a ball when threatened, and the way the golden wheel spider uses the dynamic advantages of a sphere to roll down hills when escaping danger, the novel TRREx rover can traverse like a traditional 6-wheeled rover over conventional terrain, but can also transform itself into a sphere, when necessary, to travel down steep inclines, or navigate rough terrain. This work presents the proposed design architecture and capabilities followed by the development of mathematical models and experiments that facilitate the mobility analysis of the TRREx in the rolling mode. The ability of the rover to self-propel in the rolling mode in the absence of a negative gradient increases its versatility and concept value. Therefore, a dynamic model of a planar version of the problem is first used to investigate the feasibility and value of such self-propelled locomotion - 'actuated rolling'. Construction and testing of a prototype Planar/Cylindrical TRREx that is capable of demonstrating actuated rolling is presented, and the results from the planar dynamic model are experimentally validated. This planar model is then built upon to develop a mathematical model of the spherical TRREx in the rolling mode, i.e. when the rover is a sphere and can steer itself through actuations that shift its center of mass to achieve the desired direction of roll. Case studies that demonstrate the capabilities of the rover in rolling mode and parametric analyses that investigate the dependence of the rover's mobility on its design are presented. This work highlights the contribution of the spherical rolling mode to the enhanced mobility of the TRREx rover and how it could enable challenging surface exploration missions in the future. It represents an important step toward developing a rover capable of traversing a variety of terrains that are impassible by the current fleet of rover designs, and thus has the potential to revolutionize planetary surface exploration.

  7. Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

    2006-01-01

    Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

  8. Exploring Martian Planetary Images C++ Exercises for CS1

    E-print Network

    Proulx, Viera K.

    the Internet from the NASA depository. They contain original unenhanced grayscale image data preceded to the NASA Web site [3] to explore additional images from the Viking Orbiter. Description of Exercises. Students display an image of Mars by reading and interpreting an original NASA data file. They then use

  9. Tradespace model for planetary surface exploration hopping vehicles

    E-print Network

    Cunio, Phillip M

    2012-01-01

    Robotic planetary surface exploration, which has greatly benefited humankind's scientific knowledge of the solar system, has to date been conducted by sedentary landers or by slow, terrain-limited rovers. However, there ...

  10. NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

  11. Planetary exploration - Earth's new horizon \\/12th von Karman Lecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Schurmeier

    1975-01-01

    The article gives an account of the history of unmanned exploration of the planets of the solar system, including both earthbound exploration and exploration with spacecraft. Examples of images of the Martian surface are presented along with images obtained in Jupiter and Mercury flybys. Data are presented on the growth of US launch vehicle performance capability, navigation performance, and planetary

  12. Multimodal Platform Control for Robotic Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions pose unique problems for astronauts seeking to coordinate and control exploration vehicles. These include working in an environment filled with abrasive dust (e.g., regolith compositions), a desire to have effective hands-free communication, and a desire to have effective analog control of robotic platforms or end effectors. Requirements to operate in pressurized suits are particularly problematic due to the increased bulk and stiffness of gloves. As a result, researchers are considering alternative methods to perform fine movement control, for example capitalizing on higher-order voice actuation commands to perform control tasks. This paper presents current research at NASA s Neuro Engineering Laboratory that explores one method-direct bioelectric interpretation-for handling some of these problems. In this type of control system, electromyographic (EMG) signals are used both to facilitate understanding of acoustic speech in pressure-regulated suits 2nd to provide smooth analog control of a robotic platform, all without requiring fine-gained hand movement. This is accomplished through the use of non-invasive silver silver-chloride electrodes located on the forearm, throat, and lower chin, positioned so as to receive electrical activity originating from the muscles during contraction. For direct analog platform control, a small Personal Exploration Rover (PER) built by Carnegie Mellon University Robotics is controlled using forearm contraction duration and magnitudes, measured using several EMG channels. Signal processing is used to translate these signals into directional platform rotation rates and translational velocities. higher order commands were generated by differential contraction patterns called "clench codes."

  13. What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? The University of Western Ontario's Centre for Planetary Science

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? The University of Western Ontario's Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX) was formed to address numerous questions planetary science and exploration by creating a research-intensive learning environment and developing

  14. Use of Space Station for Earth and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth and Planetary Exploration program attempts to develop an understanding of the earth as a planet by utilizing the capability of instruments in space to explore the earth. Studies of the solar system are conducted to gain an understanding of its origin and evolution. The facilities for planetary observations will be greatly extended by making use of a Space Station. Special demands related to the appropriate utilization of a Space Station observatory are discussed, taking into account the employment of ultraviolet spectroscopy for the study of planetary atmospheres and comets, advantages provided by infrared spectroscopy, far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy and radiometery, and the search for other planetary systems. The capabilities provided by the Space Station for an investigation of earth resources are explored. Attention is given to vegetation research and observations, land cover dynamics, hydrologic cycle research, geological research, suitable instruments, and a study of crustal dynamics.

  15. Exploring Exoplanet Populations with NASA's Kepler Mission

    E-print Network

    Batalha, Natalie M

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star-type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first three years of data, 100 of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane) which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g. velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting wit...

  16. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Natalie M

    2014-09-01

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

  17. An Overview of Wind-Driven Rovers for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajos, Gregory A.; Jones, Jack A.; Behar, Alberto; Dodd, Micheal

    2005-01-01

    The use of in-situ propulsion is considered enabling technology for long duration planetary surface missions. Most studies have focused on stored energy from chemicals extracted from the soil or the use of soil chemicals to produce photovoltaic arrays. An older form of in-situ propulsion is the use of wind power. Recent studies have shown potential for wind driven craft for exploration of Mars, Titan and Venus. The power of the wind, used for centuries to power wind mills and sailing ships, is now being applied to modern land craft. Efforts are now underway to use the wind to push exploration vehicles on other planets and moons in extended survey missions. Tumbleweed rovers are emerging as a new type of wind-driven science platform concept. Recent investigations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) indicate that these light-weight, mostly spherical or quasi-spherical devices have potential for long distance surface exploration missions. As a power boat has unique capabilities, but relies on stored energy (fuel) to move the vessel, the Tumbleweed, like the sailing ships of the early explorers on earth, uses an unlimited resource the wind to move around the surface of Mars. This has the potential to reduce the major mass drivers of robotic rovers as well as the power generation and storage systems. Jacques Blamont of JPL and the University of Paris conceived the first documented Mars wind-blown ball in 1977, shortly after the Viking landers discovered that Mars has a thin CO2 atmosphere with relatively strong winds. In 1995, Jack Jones, et al, of JPL conceived of a large wind-blown inflated ball for Mars that could also be driven and steered by means of a motorized mass hanging beneath the rolling axis of the ball. A team at NASA Langley Research Center started a biomimetic Tumbleweed design study in 1998. Wind tunnel and CFD analysis were applied to a variety of concepts to optimize the aerodynamic characteristics of the Tumbleweed Rovers. Bare structures, structures carrying sails and a tumbleweed plant (of the Salsola genus) were tested in Langley's wind tunnels. Thomas Estier of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology developed a memory metal collapsible structure, the Windball. Numerous other researchers have also suggested spherical rovers.

  18. Solid state lasers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Ben; Taubman, Matthew; Watts, Jeffrey W.; Gaither, Gary L.

    1991-09-01

    Design and performance data on two laser transmitters for spaceborne laser ranging are presented. The first laser uses a master oscillator/power amplifier configuration consisting of a diode pumped Nd:YAG slab ring and a multipass diode pumped slab amplifier which can operate at 40 Hz for > 109 shots. The other laser is a diode pumped Nd:YAG slab standing wave oscillator which operates at 10 Hz for > 0.6 X 109 shots. For submillimeter laser ranging, one laser operates in a mode-locked cavity-dumped mode to produce 180 mJ, 40 psec pulses at 1.064 micrometers . For altimetry, the same laser operates in a Q-switched mode to produce 700 mJ, 3.5 nsec pulses at 1.064 micrometers . Second and third harmonic generators generate 0.532 micrometers and 0.355 micrometers for ranging at 2 wavelengths to terrestrial targets with inherent atmospheric correction. The oscillator utilizes a ring resonator configuration with active mode locking, active Q-switching, active pre-lase stabilization, and active cavity dumping. The mode-locked output pulsewidth is 40 psec. A second oscillator mode, remotely selectable, produces 3.5 nsec pulses. Stabilization and alignment is done with real-time feedback during the mission. The amplifier is a multipass slab. Parasitic (ASE) oscillations are suppressed despite very high stored energy in the amplifier medium. The second laser transmitter is a linearly polarized Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser cavity. The Nd:YAG is pumped by a 44-bar array of AlGaAs laser diodes. It produces 45 mJ, 10 nsec, pulses at 1064 nm and will operate at 10 Hz for the two-earth-year on-orbit lifetime. The expected operation will produce 6 X 108 shots during the mission. The laser transmitter will consume 15 watts, which represents a 3% wall plug efficiency. The laser transmitter has a beam divergence of 0.25 mrad and will maintain boresight to the receiver within 100 (mu) rad. The lasers have been specifically developed for ultra-high reliability for use in space exploration of the earth and nearby planets. Applications include planetary altimetry of Mars (MOLA) and earth (GLRS), as well as space geodesy, navigation, and tracking.

  19. Mission operations systems for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.; Wolff, Donna M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to present an overview of the processes comprising planetary mission operations as conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and (2) to present a project-specific and historical context within which this evolving process functions. In order to accomplish these objectives, the generic uplink and downlink functions are described along with their specialization to current flight projects. Also, new multimission capabilities are outlined, including prototyping of advanced-capability software for subsequent incorporation into more automated future operations. Finally, a specific historical ground is provided by listing some major operations software plus a genealogy of planetary missions beginning with Mariner 2 in 1962.

  20. Overview of the Planetary Data System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active archive that provides high quality, usable planetary science data products to the science community. This system evolved in response to scientists' requests for improved availability of planetary data from NASA missions, with increased scientific involvement and oversight. It is sponsored by the NASA Solar System Exploration Division, and includes seven university\\/research

  1. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU With Power Bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Streibech; Mario Urdaneta; Patricia Chapman; Roberto Furfaro; Kumar Ramohalli

    2000-01-01

    The concept of generating power bursts upon demand in space exploration is presented. As acknowledged by two NASA Novel Technology Report (NTR) awards, the concept is new and innovative. As a general background, it must be recalled that power has always been a major limiting factor in exploration, especially in the exploration of far off sites like Mars (contrasted with

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! Exploration Precursor Robotic Program (xPRP) and Exploration Scout (xScout): Two Elements of ESMDs Preparation to Explore Near Earth Objects! Michael J. Wargo, ScD! Chief Lunar Scientist

  3. NASA's Planetary Science Summer School: Training Future Mission Leaders in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) is an intensive program for postdocs and advanced graduate students in science and engineering fields with a keen interest in planetary exploration. The goal is to train the next generation of planetary science mission leaders in a hands-on environment involving a wide range of engineers and scientists. It was established in 1989, and has undergone several incarnations. Initially a series of seminars, it became a more formal mission design experience in 1999. Admission is competitive, with participants given financial support. The competitively selected trainees develop an early mission concept study in teams of 15-17, responsive to a typical NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity. They select the mission concept from options presented by the course sponsors, based on high-priority missions as defined by the Decadal Survey, prepare a presentation for a proposal authorization review, present it to a senior review board and receive critical feedback. Each participant assumes multiple roles, on science, instrument and project teams. They develop an understanding of top-level science requirements and instrument priorities in advance through a series of reading assignments and webinars help trainees. Then, during the five day session at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they work closely with concurrent engineers including JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X"), a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. All are mentored and assisted directly by Team X members and course tutors in their assigned project roles. There is a strong emphasis on making difficult trades, simulating a real mission design process as accurately as possible. The process is intense and at times dramatic, with fast-paced design sessions and late evening study sessions. A survey of PSSS alumni administered in 2013 provides information on the program's impact on trainees' career choices and leadership roles as they pursue their employment in planetary science and related fields. Results will be presented during the session, along with highlights of topics and missions covered since the program's inception.

  4. Micro-technology for planetary exploration and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.; Varsi, Giulio

    1991-01-01

    The use of combined miniaturization technology and distributed information systems in planetary exploration is discussed. Missions in which teams of microrovers collect samples from planetary surfaces are addressed, emphasizing the ability of rovers to provide coverage of large areas, reliability through redundancy, and participation of a large group of investigators. The latter could involve people from a variety of institutions, increasing the opportunity for wide education and the increased interest of society in general in space exploration. A three-phase program to develop the present approach is suggested.

  5. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  6. Analysis of planetary exploration spacesuit systems and evaluation of a modified partial-gravity simulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Steven Patrick

    Building on prior experience during Apollo, NASA now plans to send humans back to the Moon and then on to Mars as part of its Vision for Space Exploration. An integral component for enabling this plan is the development of advanced spacesuit systems. A planetary exploration spacesuit system consists of an astronaut, a spacesuit, and the associated surface systems designed to enable completion of mission objectives. This thesis addresses all three aspects, beginning with an examination of the effects of locomotion stability in lunar and Mars gravity from a metabolic energy expenditure standpoint. An experiment to determine the effects of stability on running in reduced gravity was performed with a modified vertical offload partial gravity device. Operations scenarios were also developed, along with engineering analysis to understand the forces and moments involved in partial gravity locomotion. Analysis is presented to assess the applicability of terrestrial exploration systems and to adapt them for planetary exploration. Access systems for partial gravity planetary explorations are described that may allow humans in spacesuits to safely access scientifically significant terrain on the Moon and Mars. Contingency scenarios for effective rescue of astronauts from flat and sloped terrain were also analyzed. Conclusions and recommendations are offered regarding the effectiveness of the simulation technique developed. An Earth-based field testing program plan is presented with the intent of including access systems in the lunar surface system architecture requirements early enough to allow synergies in component design.

  7. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Ĺke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies. PMID:25679962

  8. Everybody Dreams: Preparing a New Generation. NASA Explorer Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    NASA Explorer Schools provides unique opportunities for students and teachers by offering access to technology and resources that are seemingly beyond reach. Combining new technologies with NASA content, lesson plans, and real-world experiments enables teachers to enhance inquiry-based learning and augment student engagement. This publication…

  9. Software architecture of sensor data distribution in planetary exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Lee; Richard L. Alena; Thom Stone; John Ossenfort; Ed Walker; Hugo Notario

    2006-01-01

    Data from mobile and stationary sensors will be vital in planetary surface exploration. The distribution and collection of sensor data in an ad-hoc wireless network presents unique challenges. Some of the conditions encountered in the field include: irregular terrain, mobile nodes, routing loops from clients associating with the wrong access point or repeater, network routing reconfigurations caused by moving repeaters,

  10. A stereo vision system for support of planetary surface exploration

    E-print Network

    Pollefeys, Marc

    A stereo vision system for support of planetary surface exploration Maarten Vergauwen, Marc contains a stereo head equipped with a pan-tilt mechanism. This vision system is used both for model- ing to the stress that occurs during the flight a recalibra- tion of the stereo vision system is required once

  11. QUADRUPED OPTIMUM GAITS ANALYSIS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION Ioannis Kontolatis (1)

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Evangelos

    QUADRUPED OPTIMUM GAITS ANALYSIS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION Ioannis Kontolatis (1) , Dimitrios on the performance and gait characteristics of a quadruped robot. This paper presents results obtained using a planar quadruped robot gaits. In addition, an optimization procedure using either MathWorks fmincon

  12. NASA Explorer Schools: School Recognition Opportunities - Duration: 107 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Explorer Schools not only provides access to high-quality STEM classroom resources and professional development but also recognizes teachers, schools and students who become highly engaged wit...

  13. Exploring Photosynthesis with NASA Remote Sensing Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students will use NASA Satellite data to analyze and understand ways of studying photosynthesis from space. They will assume the role of a park ranger at Shenandoah National Park and determine when the plants and trees at their top efficiency by analyzing when the plants are absorbing a majority of the light hitting them (within the photosynthetic range.)

  14. Middle School Adventures in Planetary Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Limaye; R. A. Pertzborn

    1998-01-01

    During the summer of 1998 the UW-Madison Office of Space Science Education (OSSE) developed and implemented a pilot summer school program to improve the math and science performance of middle school students. The program focused on the subject of solar system exploration for the summer school offered by the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for middle school students. OSSE staff collaborated

  15. Planetary Exploration Panel PEX: Support for lunar exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Ehrenfreund

    2010-01-01

    The new era of space exploration will be international, human-centric, transdisciplinary and participatory. It will also provide an opportunity to inspire, motivate, and involve an ever increasing number of countries. The objective of the COSPAR Panel on Space Exploration (PEX) is to provide the best, independent, input to support the development of worldwide space exploration programs and to safeguard the

  16. Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

    2012-11-01

    With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

  17. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  18. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  19. AI coming of age: NASA uses AI for autonomous space exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, S. R.

    1997-06-01

    At the end of the 20th Century, many organizations are rethinking the way they do business and are retooling with the ever-moving target of "new technologies". NASA is no exception. To reduce the cost of space-exploration missions while increasing their number, NASA began the revolutionary New Millennium Program (NMP) in early 1995. At the NMP's center is a push for self-guiding and self-regulating spacecraft. This will change the ground-control staff requirements from the hundreds required now for a major planetary science mission to a mere handful. The vision is to be able to "fire and forget" a whole series of missions that will go about their business of exploring, contacting home only when they find something of scientific interest or need help. Each spacecraft would manage its own travel, malfunctions, and much of the science.

  20. Planetary protection and humans missions to Mars: summary results from two workshops sponsored by NASA and NASA/ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Kminek, G.; Rummel, J. D.; Nasa; Nasa/Esa Workshop Participants

    Planetary Protection PP requirements will strongly influence mission and spacecraft designs for future human missions to Mars particularly those related to the operation of advanced life support systems ALS extravehicular activities EVA laboratory and in situ sampling operations and systems for environmental monitoring and control EMC In order to initiate communication understanding and working relations between the ALS EVA EMC and PP communities in both NASA and ESA two separate workshops were held to focus on mission-specific PP issues during future human missions to Mars The NASA Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop was held in Houston TX Center for Advanced Space Studies April 2005 and The Mars PP and Human Systems Research and Technology Joint NASA ESA Workshop was held at ESA ESTEC Noordwijk Netherlands May 2005 This poster presentation summarizes the findings of both workshops and their associated recommendations which are summarized as follows The NASA workshop developed a tentative conceptual approach consistent with current PP requirements to provide preliminary guidance in the assessment of EVA ALS EMC and other aspects of human missions The workshop report identified the need for development of a comprehensive classification and zoning system for Mars to minimize contamination and guide operations particularly in relation to COSPAR Special Region and protection of science and environmental conditions Critical research and technology

  1. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Davis, W L

    1989-01-01

    Current planetary quarantine considerations focus on robotic missions and attempt a policy of no biological contamination. The presence of humans on Mars, however, will inevitably result in biological contamination and physical alteration of the local environment. The focus of planetary quarantine must therefore shift toward defining and minimizing the inevitable contamination associated with humans. This will involve first determining those areas that will be affected by the presence of a human base, then verifying that these environments do not harbor indigenous life nor provide sites for Earth bacteria to grow. Precursor missions can provide salient information that can make more efficient the planning and design of human exploration missions. In particular, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate the concern about returning samples with humans or the return of humans themselves from a planetary quarantine perspective. Without a robotic return the cost of quarantine that would have to be added to a human mission may well exceed the cost of a robotic return mission. Even if the preponderance of scientific evidence argues against the presence of indigenous life, it must be considered as part of any serious planetary quarantine analysis for missions to Mars. If there is life on Mars, the question of human exploration assumes an ethical dimension. PMID:11537372

  2. Commission Fleshes Out Bush Administration's Space Exploration Agenda for NASA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Showstack

    2004-01-01

    A commission appointed by President George W. Bush has unanimously endorsed his plan to dramatically re-orient NASA to focus on space exploration and manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The 16 June report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy finds that the new space agenda announced by Bush on

  3. Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Lee, Pascal C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate methodology and data requirements for remotely-assisted robotic traverse of extraterrestrial planetary surface to support human exploration program, assess opportunities for in-transit science operations, and validate landing site survey and selection techniques during planetary surface exploration mission analog demonstration at Haughton Crater on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada. Additionally, 1) identify quality of remote observation data sets (i.e., surface imagery from orbit) required for effective pre-traverse route planning and determine if surface level data (i.e., onboard robotic imagery or other sensor data) is required for a successful traverse, and if additional surface level data can improve traverse efficiency or probability of success (TRPF Experiment). 2) Evaluate feasibility and techniques for conducting opportunistic science investigations during this type of traverse. (OSP Experiment). 3) Assess utility of remotely-assisted robotic vehicle for landing site validation survey. (LSV Experiment).

  4. Galileo Avionica's technologies and instruments for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, E; Falciani, P; Magnani, P; Midollini, B; Preti, G; Re, E

    2006-12-01

    Several missions for planetary exploration, including comets and asteroids, are ongoing or planned by the European Space Agencies: Rosetta, Venus Express, Bepi Colombo, Dawn, Aurora and all Mars Programme (in its past and next missions) are good examples. The satisfaction of the scientific request for the mentioned programmes calls for the development of new instruments and facilities devoted to investigate the body (planet, asteroid or comet) both remotely and by in situ measurements. The paper is an overview of some instruments for remote sensing and in situ planetary exploration already developed or under study by Galileo Avionica Space & Electro-Optics B.U. (in the following shortened as Galileo Avionica) for both the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and for the European Space Agency (ESA). Main technologies and specifications are outlined; for more detailed information please refer to Galileo Avionica's web-site at: http://www.galileoavionica.com . PMID:17120125

  5. VIPER: Virtual Intelligent Planetary Exploration Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Nguyen, Laurent; Washington, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Simulation and visualization of rover behavior are critical capabilities for scientists and rover operators to construct, test, and validate plans for commanding a remote rover. The VIPER system links these capabilities. using a high-fidelity virtual-reality (VR) environment. a kinematically accurate simulator, and a flexible plan executive to allow users to simulate and visualize possible execution outcomes of a plan under development. This work is part of a larger vision of a science-centered rover control environment, where a scientist may inspect and explore the environment via VR tools, specify science goals, and visualize the expected and actual behavior of the remote rover. The VIPER system is constructed from three generic systems, linked together via a minimal amount of customization into the integrated system. The complete system points out the power of combining plan execution, simulation, and visualization for envisioning rover behavior; it also demonstrates the utility of developing generic technologies. which can be combined in novel and useful ways.

  6. Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Osenfort, John; Stone, Thom

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses the continuing work of the Mobile Exploration System Project, which has been performing studies toward the design of hybrid communication networks for future exploratory missions to remote planets. A typical network could include stationary radio transceivers on a remote planet, mobile radio transceivers carried by humans and robots on the planet, terrestrial units connected via the Internet to an interplanetary communication system, and radio relay transceivers aboard spacecraft in orbit about the planet. Prior studies have included tests on prototypes of these networks deployed in Arctic and desert regions chosen to approximate environmental conditions on Mars. Starting from the findings of the prior studies, the paper discusses methods of analysis, design, and testing of the hybrid communication networks. It identifies key radio-frequency (RF) and network engineering issues. Notable among these issues is the study of wireless LAN throughput loss due to repeater use, RF signal strength, and network latency variations. Another major issue is that of using RF-link analysis to ensure adequate link margin in the face of statistical variations in signal strengths.

  7. Micro Scanning Laser Range Sensor for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Saito, Hirobumi; Kubota, Takashi; Mizuno, Takahide; Katoh, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Satoru; Kasamura, Kenji; Goto, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a new type of scanning laser range sensor for planetary exploration. The proposed sensor has advantages of small size, light weight, and low power consumption with the help of micro electrical mechanical systems technology. We are in the process of developing a miniature two dimensional optical sensor which is driven by a piezoelectric actuator. In this paper, we present the mechanisms and system concept of a micro scanning laser range sensor.

  8. VISION BASED MODELING AND LOCALIZATION FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION ROVERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Se; Ho-Kong Ng; Piotr Jasiobedzki; Tai-Jing Moyung

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of large unknown planetary environments will rely on rovers that can autonomously cover distances of kilometres and maintain precise information about their location with respect to local features. During such traversals, the rovers will create photo-realistic three dimensional (3D) models of visited sites for autonomous operations on-site and mission planning on Earth. Currently rover position is estimated using wheel

  9. Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

  10. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  11. Stereo vision and rover navigation software for planetary exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Goldberg; Mark W. Maimone; Lany Matthies

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions will land twin rovers on the surface of Mars in 2004. These rovers will have the ability to navigate safely through unknown and potentially hazardous terrain, using autonomous passive stereo vision to detect potential terrain hazards before driving into them. Unfortunately, the computational power of currently available radiation hardened processors limits the amount of

  12. IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) through at least 2020, there is an international need. Introduction and Background While we expect productive utilization of the International Space Station (ISS by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). An initial evaluation of different mission options

  13. Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration?

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? · Formed and space · Aims to lead Canadian planetary science and exploration efforts by creating a research in space systems design and makes it the focus for planetary science research in Canada · Its members

  14. Evaluation of multi-vehicle architectures for the exploration of planetary bodies in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Alibay, Farah

    2014-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions are becoming increasingly complex and expensive due to ever more ambitious scientific and technical goals. On the other hand, budgets in planetary science have suffered from dramatic cuts ...

  15. Towards terrain interaction prediction for bioinspired planetary exploration rovers.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Brian; Saaj, Chakravathini M

    2014-03-01

    Deployment of a small legged vehicle to extend the reach of future planetary exploration missions is an attractive possibility but little is known about the behaviour of a walking rover on deformable planetary terrain. This paper applies ideas from the developing study of granular materials together with a detailed characterization of the sinkage process to propose and validate a combined model of terrain interaction based on an understanding of the physics and micro mechanics at the granular level. Whilst the model reflects the complexity of interactions expected from a walking rover, common themes emerge which enable the model to be streamlined to the extent that a simple mathematical representation is possible without resorting to numerical methods. Bespoke testing and analysis tools are described which reveal some unexpected conclusions and point the way towards intelligent control and foot geometry techniques to improve thrust generation. PMID:24434658

  16. NASA Radiation Protection Research for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; Mertens, Christopher J.; Walker, Steve A.; Blattnig, Steven R.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code was used in recent trade studies for renewed lunar exploration and currently used in engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and EVA equipment. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating high charge and energy (HZE) ions, light-ions and neutrons with either laboratory or space boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light-ion propagation is under development. Atomic and nuclear model requirements to support that development will be discussed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. We discuss limitations of code validation due to the currently available data and recommend priorities for new data sets.

  17. Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

  18. A Review of Technology Development for NASA's Planetary Science Division Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Patricia; Clarke, J. T.; Lorenz, R.; Kremic, T.; Hughes, P.; Perry, B.; Singleton, J.

    2010-10-01

    NASA has made tremendous progress in addressing critical questions about our solar system but often the knowledge gained raises new and more challenging questions. Future robotic space missions need to be endowed with more capable instruments, spacecraft subsystems and ground support on order to be able to answer the new and more difficult questions that lay before us. Developing future instrument, spacecraft subsystem, or ground support technologies for robotic planetary missions is a complicated and challenging endeavor. Recognizing this, the Planetary Science Division (PSD) in NASA's Science Mission Directorate has chartered a panel to review its current technology development programs and provide recommendations on process and policy improvements that will enable better utilization of technology. This paper discusses the work and findings of that panel, known as the Planetary Science Technology Review (PSTR) panel. The paper discusses the technology development challenges faced by the PSD as well as panel findings and observations about the current programs and processes employed. The paper also discusses the potential recommendations that may be considered by the Planetary Science Division in future technology development efforts.

  19. Surface penetrators for planetary exploration: Science rationale and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Reynolds, R. T.; Blanchard, M. B.; Clanton, U. S.

    1981-01-01

    Work on penetrators for planetary exploration is summarized. In particular, potential missions, including those to Mars, Mercury, the Galilean satellites, comets, and asteroids are described. A baseline penetrator design for the Mars mission is included, as well as potential instruments and their status in development. Penetration tests in soft soil and basalt to study material eroded from the penetrator; changes in the structure, composition, and physical properties of the impacted soil; seismic coupling; and penetrator deflection caused by impacting rocks, are described. Results of subsystem studies and tests are given for design of entry decelerators, high-g components, thermal control, data acquisition, and umbilical cable deployment.

  20. The Collaborative Information Portal and NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mak, Ronald; Walton, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The Collaborative Information Portal was enterprise software developed jointly by the NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission. Mission managers, engineers, scientists, and researchers used this Internet application to view current staffing and event schedules, download data and image files generated by the rovers, receive broadcast messages, and get accurate times in various Mars and Earth time zones. This article describes the features, architecture, and implementation of this software, and concludes with lessons we learned from its deployment and a look towards future missions.

  1. NASA's new Mars Exploration Program: the trajectory of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Garvin, J B; Figueroa, O; Naderi, F M

    2001-01-01

    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils." PMID:12448977

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  3. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations. The action team organized the SKGs into four broad themes: 1) Identify human mission targets; 2) Understand how to work on and interact with the small body surface; 3) Understand the small body environment and its potential risk/benefit to crew, systems, and operational assets; and 4) Understand the small body resource potential. Of these four SKG themes, the first three have significant overlap with planetary defense considerations. The data obtained from investigations of small body physical characteristics under these three themes can be directly applicable to planetary defense initiatives. Conclusions: Missions to investigate small bodies can address small body strategic knowledge gaps and contribute to the overall success for human exploration missions to asteroids and the Martian moons. In addition, such reconnaissance of small bodies can also provide a wealth of information relevant to the science and planetary defense of NEAs.

  4. Mission-directed path planning for planetary rover exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Robotic rovers uniquely benefit planetary exploration---they enable regional exploration with the precision of in-situ measurements, a combination impossible from an orbiting spacecraft or fixed lander. Mission planning for planetary rover exploration currently utilizes sophisticated software for activity planning and scheduling, but simplified path planning and execution approaches tailored for localized operations to individual targets. This approach is insufficient for the investigation of multiple, regionally distributed targets in a single command cycle. Path planning tailored for this task must consider the impact of large scale terrain on power, speed and regional access; the effect of route timing on resource availability; the limitations of finite resource capacity and other operational constraints on vehicle range and timing; and the mutual influence between traverses and upstream and downstream stationary activities. Encapsulating this reasoning in an efficient autonomous planner would allow a rover to continue operating rationally despite significant deviations from an initial plan. This research presents mission-directed path planning that enables an autonomous, strategic reasoning capability for robotic explorers. Planning operates in a space of position, time and energy. Unlike previous hierarchical approaches, it treats these dimensions simultaneously to enable globally-optimal solutions. The approach calls on a near incremental search algorithm designed for planning and re-planning under global constraints, in spaces of higher than two dimensions. Solutions under this method specify routes that avoid terrain obstacles, optimize the collection and use of rechargable energy, satisfy local and global mission constraints, and account for the time and energy of interleaved mission activities. Furthermore, the approach efficiently re-plans in response to updates in vehicle state and world models, and is well suited to online operation aboard a robot. Simulations exhibit that the new methodology succeeds where conventional path planners would fail. Three planetary-relevant field experiments demonstrate the power of mission-directed path planning in directing actual exploration robots. Offline mission-directed planning sustained a solar-powered rover in a 24-hour sun-synchronous traverse. Online planning and re-planning enabled full navigational autonomy of over 1 kilometer, and supported the execution of science activities distributed over hundreds of meters.

  5. Application of radioactive sources in analytical instruments for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Economou, Thanasis E

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes have been used in analytical instrumentation for planetary exploration since the very beginning of the space age. An Alpha Scattering Instrument (ASI) on board the Surveyor 5, 6 and 7 spacecrafts used the isotope (242)Cm to obtain the chemical composition of the lunar surface material in 1960s. The Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) used on several mission to Mars (Pathfinder, Mars-96, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the next mission to Mars in 2011 and on the Rosetta mission to a comet) are improved derivatives of the original ASI, complimented with an X-ray mode and using the longer lived (244)Cm isotope. (57)Co, (55)Fe and many other radioisotopes have been used in several missions carrying XRF and Mössbauer instruments. In addition, (238)Pu isotope is exclusively being used in most of the space missions for heating and power generation. PMID:19850487

  6. Exploring NASA Earth Science Satellite Data in the K-12 Classroom Using MY NASA DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Diones, D. D.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2007-12-01

    Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) is an Internet-based project aimed to bring real NASA Earth system satellite data into the K-12 science classroom. MY NASA DATA consists of a Web site that collects lesson plans, science project ideas, and specially developed documentation to help the target audience more easily use NASA's vast collection of data about the Earth system. The core engine of MY NASA DATA is the Live Access Server (LAS) that provides access to over 128 satellite data parameters for student inquiry. The LAS allows students to make custom geo- referenced color plots, line graphs and data files for spreadsheets for any given parameter, time and location of choice. Students may also actively compare parameters and generate difference or overlay plots to explore real issues and topics in Earth science. The MY NASA DATA Web site already contains over 50 user-contributed lesson plans and science projects that introduce teachers and students to using the LAS interactive analysis tool, and about twenty more contributions will be posted by mid-2008. Each lesson plan is linked to national and state Standards of Learning (SOL) for easy implementation into the science curriculum and includes learning outcomes, prerequisites, and other key pedagogical elements. In-depth unit plans and science fair project ideas are also collected to engage students in longer-term research and interpretation of the NASA satellite data parameters. Several of the projects encourage students to collect local scientific data over a period of time for comparison with the satellite data. Each lesson or project provides the age-appropriate scaffolding that allows students to make new discoveries by exploring real data while teaching basic scientific principals and methods. The MY NASA DATA project also utilizes new developments in media and technology to provide more options for involving users remotely. Digital Learning Network (DLN) videoconferences, summer teacher workshops, and short courses at regional and national conferences are available for more intensive training in using MY NASA DATA in the classroom. Lessons using LAS data with Geographical Information System (GIS) software and data formats are also available for advanced audiences. A mentor network has been established to allow students to ask professional scientists and engineers scientific or career questions via e-mail. Feedback from outreach efforts has been extremely positive, and Web site metrics currently show over 8000 unique users per month.

  7. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  8. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  9. NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could support NASA's RPS technology development planning, and provide an understanding of fuel need trades over the next three decades.

  10. NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could support NASA's RPS technology development planning, and provide an understanding of fuel need trades over the next three decades.

  11. Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S. J.; Voels, S. A.; Mueller, R. P.; Lee, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a recent (July-August 2010 and July 2011) planetary surface traverse planning experiment. The purpose of this experiment was to gather data relevant to robotically repositioning surface assets used for planetary surface exploration. This is a scenario currently being considered for future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. The specific scenario selected was a robotic traverse on the lunar surface from an outpost at Shackleton Crater to the Malapert Massif. As these are exploration scenarios, the route will not have been previously traversed and the only pre-traverse data sets available will be remote (orbital) observations. Devon Island was selected as an analog location where a traverse route of significant length could be planned and then traveled. During the first half of 2010, a team of engineers and scientists who had never been to Devon Island used remote sensing data comparable to that which is likely to be available for the Malapert region (eg., 2-meter/pixel imagery, 10-meter interval topographic maps and associated digital elevation models, etc.) to plan a 17-kilometer (km) traverse. Surface-level imagery data was then gathered on-site that was provided to the planning team. This team then assessed whether the route was actually traversable or not. Lessons learned during the 2010 experiment were then used in a second experiment in 2011 for which a much longer traverse (85 km) was planned and additional surface-level imagery different from that gathered in 2010 was obtained for a comparative analysis. This paper will describe the route planning techniques used, the data sets available to the route planners and the lessons learned from the two traverses planned and carried out on Devon Island.

  12. Commission Fleshes Out Bush Administration's Space Exploration Agenda for NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-06-01

    A commission appointed by President George W. Bush has unanimously endorsed his plan to dramatically re-orient NASA to focus on space exploration and manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The 16 June report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy finds that the new space agenda announced by Bush on 14 January will help the U.S. economy, security, and technological leadership, and provide educational opportunities. The report presents a series of recommendations for implementing the plan.

  13. Simulation Based Acquisition for NASA's Office of Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joe

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, President George W. Bush unveiled his vision for NASA to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. This vision includes the goal to extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon no later than 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. In response to this vision, NASA has created the Office of Exploration Systems (OExS) to develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures to explore and support decisions about human exploration destinations, including the development of a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Within the OExS organization, NASA is implementing Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), a robust Modeling & Simulation (M&S) environment integrated across all acquisition phases and programs/teams, to make the realization of the President s vision more certain. Executed properly, SBA will foster better informed, timelier, and more defensible decisions throughout the acquisition life cycle. By doing so, SBA will improve the quality of NASA systems and speed their development, at less cost and risk than would otherwise be the case. SBA is a comprehensive, Enterprise-wide endeavor that necessitates an evolved culture, a revised spiral acquisition process, and an infrastructure of advanced Information Technology (IT) capabilities. SBA encompasses all project phases (from requirements analysis and concept formulation through design, manufacture, training, and operations), professional disciplines, and activities that can benefit from employing SBA capabilities. SBA capabilities include: developing and assessing system concepts and designs; planning manufacturing, assembly, transport, and launch; training crews, maintainers, launch personnel, and controllers; planning and monitoring missions; responding to emergencies by evaluating effects and exploring solutions; and communicating across the OExS enterprise, within the Government, and with the general public. The SBA process features empowered collaborative teams (including industry partners) to integrate requirements, acquisition, training, operations, and sustainment. The SBA process also utilizes an increased reliance on and investment in M&S to reduce design risk. SBA originated as a joint Industry and Department of Defense (DoD) initiative to define and integrate an acquisition process that employs robust, collaborative use of M&S technology across acquisition phases and programs. The SBA process was successfully implemented in the Air Force s Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program.

  14. Data Assimilation Technology Transfer from Planetary Exploration to Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Data assimilation can be a valuable tool for discovery and exploration. Planetary missions--principally polar orbiting spacecraft--are now capable of returning enough information to constrain global dynamical models. However, such missions operate under a number of severe constraints: there is no ground truth to calibrate and validate either the models or the data: and there are limited computational resources available, particularly onboard the spacecraft, for the near real-time processing that is required for aerobraking and other semi-autonomous maneuvers. A modified data assimilation approach, in which the prime analysis variable is the observed quantity (i.e., infrared radiances), has been found to be effective in deriving global meteorology from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. It may also be useful in a number of terrestrial applications (e.g. aerosol assimilation).

  15. Multi-Wavelength Dielectrometer (MWD) Sensor For Planetary Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar; VanSteenberg, Michael; Hilliard, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    NASA's mission to Moon, Mars, and Beyond envisions landing of a light weight measurement platform on the planetary surface. The Multi-Wavelength Dielectrometer (MWD) on-board consists of essential electronics and metallic plates acting as electrodes attached to the body of such platform. An electric signal applied to one of the electrodes acting as a cathode sets up electric field pattern (in the soil medium) between the cathode and other electrodes acting as anodes. The electrodes are swept through multiple wavelengths (1Hz-1MHz) and the electric current drawn by the electrodes is measured at each frequency. The measured current whose amplitude and phase depend upon electrode spacing, dielectric constant of the subsurface soil, and the frequency is then used to estimate electrical properties of the soil. In this paper the MWD sensor that will measure the dielectric properties of Moon/Mars s soil is presented. A procedure to process the MWD measured data for extracting the soil properties is also described. Assuming the subsurface soil structure as multilayer strata having varying electric properties, an electric equivalent circuit of the multiple electrodes configuration placed on a multi-layer soil sample is obtained. The current drawn by the equivalent circuit from the low frequency signal generator is then calculated. By minimizing the difference between the model s estimated current and measured MWD data the electric properties of soil samples are extracted. Experimental and simulated results will be presented to validate the proposed procedure for extracting soil properties.

  16. Motion Control for a Planetary Exploration Rover with Six Steerable Wheels

    E-print Network

    Glette, Kyrre

    Motion Control for a Planetary Exploration Rover with Six Steerable Wheels Kyrre Glette July 29, 2004 #12;ii #12;Abstract IARES is a highly flexible planetary exploration demonstration rover developed active, steerable wheels. The rover has software for au- tonomous navigation, including stereo camera

  17. Instrument deployment testbed: For planetary surface geophysical exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Rankin, A. L.; Cheng, Yang; Tso, K. S.; Deen, R. G.; Aghazarian, H.; Kulczycki, E. A.; Bonitz, R. G.; Alkalai, L.

    This paper describes a high fidelity mission concept systems testbed at JPL that was used to support the InSight (Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) mission concept study. The InSight mission would conduct geophysical exploration of Mars' interior using three instruments 1. SEIS seismometer monitors seismic activity and tidal displacements; 2. RISE X-band radio Doppler tracking experiment measures rotational variations; and 3. HP3: Heat-flow and Physical Properties Probe determines the geothermal heat flux. CNES contributes SEIS and DLR contributes HP3. The measurements from these instruments would yield information about processes that occurred during the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of its core, crust, and mantle, and subsequent evolution of its interior. The SEIS and HP3 instruments will be deployed to the surface of Mars using a robotic arm similar to the robotic arm used on the Mars Phoenix Lander mission and operational experience inherited from Phoenix and MER. The SEIS and HP3 will be monitored every three hours for one Mars year, with no ground-in-the-loop interaction required. InSight was one of three proposed missions selected by NASA Discovery Program in May 2011 for funding to conduct preliminary design studies and analyses. InSight was selected in August 2012 as the 12th mission in the NASA Discovery Program.

  18. Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric J.; Glabb, Louis J.; Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. The technology areas include electric propulsion technologies, spacecraft bus technologies, entry vehicle technologies, and design tools for systems analysis and mission trajectories. The electric propulsion technologies include critical components of both gridded and non-gridded ion propulsion systems. The spacecraft bus technologies under development include an ultra-lightweight tank (ULTT) and advanced xenon feed system (AXFS). The entry vehicle technologies include the development of a multi-mission entry vehicle, mission design tools and aerocapture. The design tools under development include system analysis tools and mission trajectory design tools.

  19. Comparison of planetary evolution processes studying cosmic thin section sets of NASA and NIPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berczi, Sz.; Foldi, T.; Kubovics, I.; Lukacs, B.; Varga, I.

    1997-03-01

    Thin sections of samples from the moon and from Antarctic meteorites represent a huge 'raw material' for education in studying thermal evolutionary (inner) and metamorphic (mainly impact, outer) processes on planetary and asteroidal bodies with different sizes. This size range embraces source bodies from the parent bodies of meteorites to the moon and Mars. Characteristics of both inner processes (equilibration, diffusion, grain-size distribution changes, melting and differentiation, etc.) and outer processes (impact effects in breccia formation) are left on the texture of fragments from these bodies. In our report we summarize almost two years of comparison studies on thin section sets of NASA lunar samples and NIPR Antarctic meteorites.

  20. Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

  1. Ohio State forum explores NASA's past, present, and future NASA's space missions have been a catalyst for the creation of new products and services; new businesses and industries;

    E-print Network

    Ohio State forum explores NASA's past, present, and future NASA's space missions have been to a close after 30 years, NASA is preparing to usher in the next era of exploration. On February 20-21, the NASA Future Forum was held on campus to discuss the role NASA will play in further advancing innovation

  2. Reports and recommendations from COSPAR Planetary Exploration Committee (PEX) & International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration, the objectives of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) are to provide high quality, independent science input to support the development of a global space exploration program while working to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system bodies. PEX engages with COSPAR Commissions and Panels, science foundations, IAA, IAF, UN bodies, and IISL to support in particular national and international space exploration working groups and the new era of planetary exploration. COSPAR's input, as gathered by PEX, is intended to express the consensus view of the international scientific community and should ultimately provide a series of guidelines to support future space exploration activities and cooperative efforts, leading to outstanding scientific discoveries, opportunities for innovation, strategic partnerships, technology progression, and inspiration for people of all ages and cultures worldwide. We shall focus on the lunar exploration aspects, where the COSPAR PEX is building on previous COSPAR, ILEWG and community conferences. An updated COSPAR PEX report is published and available online (Ehrenfreund P. et al, COSPAR planetary exploration panel report, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/assets/COSPAR_PEX2012.pdf). We celebrate 20 years after the 1st International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon at Beatenberg in June 1994. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established the year after in April 1995 at an EGS meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon (http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ ). It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration (with emphasis on Science and exploration; Technologies and resources, Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers) (http://sci.esa.int/iceum11). We give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap.

  3. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

  4. NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

  5. NASA SSERVI Contributions to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Brad; Pendleton, Yvonne; Schmidt, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration that will enable deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as we move further out of low-Earth orbit. The new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) will focus on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science centered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. We will provide a detailed look at research being conducted by each of the 9 domestic US teams as well as our 7 international partners. The research profile of the Institute integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies.

  6. Smarter Software For Enhanced Vehicle Health Monitoring and Inter-Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Goodrich, Charles H.; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The existing philosophy for space mission control was born in the early days of the space program when technology did not exist to put significant control responsibility onboard the spacecraft. NASA relied on a team of ground control experts to troubleshoot systems when problems occurred. As computing capability improved, more responsibility was handed over to the systems software. However, there is still a large contingent of both launch and flight controllers supporting each mission. New technology can update this philosophy to increase mission assurance and reduce the cost of inter-planetary exploration. The advent of model-based diagnosis and intelligent planning software enables spacecraft to handle most routine problems automatically and allocate resources in a flexible way to realize mission objectives. The manifests for recent missions include multiple subsystems and complex experiments. Spacecraft must operate at longer distances from earth where communications delays make earthbound command and control impractical. NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC) has demonstrated the utility of onboard diagnosis and planning with the Remote Agent experiment in 1999. KSC has pioneered model-based diagnosis and demonstrated its utility for ground support operations. KSC and ARC are cooperating in research to improve the state of the art of this technology. This paper highlights model-based reasoning applications for Moon and Mars missions including in-situ resource utilization and enhanced vehicle health monitoring.

  7. NASA lunar surface habitat and remote exploration demonstration project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP) conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center to develop technological integration and demonstration capabilities for lunar and Mars space missions is described. The development of safe, effective, and reliable systems requires that independently engineered subsystems be fully integrated and tested under realistic conditions. The primary objective of the HEDP is demonstration of various aspects of human exploration and habitation on extraterrestrial surfaces. Some of the technologies to be demonstrated are also applicable to unmanned precursor mission functions. It is concluded that the HEDP will provide a unique opportunity to address a broad spectrum of advanced mission operations by bridging between the early requirements for robotic systems with control at earth-based workstations.

  8. NASA lunar surface habitat and remote exploration demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1992-07-01

    The Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP) conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center to develop technological integration and demonstration capabilities for lunar and Mars space missions is described. The development of safe, effective, and reliable systems requires that independently engineered subsystems be fully integrated and tested under realistic conditions. The primary objective of the HEDP is demonstration of various aspects of human exploration and habitation on extraterrestrial surfaces. Some of the technologies to be demonstrated are also applicable to unmanned precursor mission functions. It is concluded that the HEDP will provide a unique opportunity to address a broad spectrum of advanced mission operations by bridging between the early requirements for robotic systems with control at earth-based workstations.

  9. Behavior control for robotic exploration of planetary surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gat; R. Desai; R. Ivlev; J. Loch; D. P. Miller

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a series of robots developed at JPL to demonstrate the feasibility of using a behavior-control approach to control small robots on planetary surfaces. The round-trip light-time delay makes direct teleoperation of a mobile robot on a planetary surface impossible. Planetary rovers must therefore possess a certain degree of autonomy. However, small robots can only support small computers

  10. Field Immune Assessment during Simulated Planetary Exploration in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Lee, Pascal; Stowe, Raymond; Jones, Jeff; Effenhauser, Rainer; Widen, Raymond; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during space flight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions has yet to be established. In addition, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive field immunology assessment on crewmembers participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate mission-associated effects on the human immune system, as well as to evaluate techniques developed for processing immune samples in remote field locations. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, wholeblood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles and plasma EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were L-30, midmission and R+60. The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed in the field location, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in Astronauts following spaceflight. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune assessment during exploration-class space missions or in remote terrestrial field locations. The data validate the use of the HMP as a ground-based spaceflight/planetary exploration analog for some aspects of human physiology.

  11. A Proposed Role of Aeroelasticity in NASA's New Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Moses, Robert W.; Scott, Robert C.; Templeton, Justin D.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Buck, Greg M.

    2005-01-01

    On 14 January 2004, NASA received a mandate to return astronauts to the Moon, evolve a sustained presence there, then head out into the solar system to Mars and perhaps beyond. This new space exploration initiative directs NASA to develop human and robotic technologies that can deliver payloads larger than Apollo to the Moon, to Mars, and bring astronauts and samples safely back to Earth at costs much lower than Apollo. These challenges require creative aerospace systems. On proposed technology for safely delivering payloads to the surface of Mars and returning samples to Earth involves deployed flexible and inflatable decelerators for atmospheric entry. Because inflatable decelerators provide the entry vehicle more drag surface area at smaller mass than traditional ablative devices, this class of decelerators can potentially accomodate larger mass payloads. The flexibility of these lightweight aeroshells can pose both vehicle and aeroelastic stability problems if not properly designed for the expected flight regimes. Computational tools need to be developed for modelling the large and nonlinear deformations of these highly flexible structures. Unlike wind tunnel testing, an integrated and efficient aeroelastic analysis tool can explore the entire flight environment. This paper will provide some background on flexible deployable decelerators, survey the current state of technology and outline the proposed development of an aeroelastic analysis and capability.

  12. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; Feng, Steven H.; Kotecki, Carl A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Rice, James W.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  13. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rockström; W. Steffen; K. Noone; F. S. Chapin; E. Lambin; T. M. Lenton; M. Scheffer; C. Folke; H. Schellnhuber; B. Nykvist; C. A. De Wit; T. Hughes; S. van der Leeuw; H. Rodhe; S. Sörlin; P. K. Snyder; R. Costanza; U. Svedin; M. Falkenmark; L. Karlberg; R. W. Corell; V. J. Fabry; J. Hansen; Ĺsa Persson; F. Stuart; Hans Joachim; Brian Walker; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan Foley

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of

  14. Orbital observatories for planetary science and exoplanets exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavrov, Alexander; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Ksanfomality, Leonid; Korablev, Oleg; Ananyeva, Vladislava; Kiselev, Alexander

    The Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science (IKI RAS) currently develops two middle class space telescopes projects aimed to observe Solar system planets by a long term spectroscopy polarimetry monitoring and aimed to extra solar planets (exoplanets) engineering and scientific goals. “Planetary monitoring” telescope has a 0.6 meter primary mirror diameter and it is planned on board of Russian Segment of ISS. It is scheduled to be launched in 2018. It includes 5 science instruments: IR: 1000..4000 nm high-resolution spectrometer R>10000; Visible Field camera with filters wheel; UV-VIS Fourier spectrometer; UV-VIS spectropolarimeter; Stellar coronagraph linked with spectrometer. The “Planetary monitoring” telescope scientific goals devoted to explore not jet well studied questions on Mars (methane, ozone, dust and clouds, isotope ratio of HDO/H2O), on Venus (UV absorber, night glow, atmosphere dynamics), icy and gaseous Solar system planets, Jovian moons, Lunar exosphere, comets, meteorites. This telescope aims also for engineering development of exoplanet study by stellar coronagraphy linked with a low resolution spectrometry. The “Plnetary monitoring” telescope will have its larger version with up to 1.5 .. 2 meter primary mirror diameter. That mission called “Zvezdnyi (engl. stellar) patrol” and is tentatively scheduled for the launch in 2022 to L2 point on a Navigator automate platform. “Zvezdnyi patrol” has the main goal to atmospheric characterization of cold exoplanets with spectral near IR instruments. Another goal is to measure more precisely the Solar system planets atmosphere components. High-contrast imaging is currently the only available technique for the study of the thermodynamical and compositional properties of exoplanets in long-period orbits, comparable to the range from Venus to Jupiter. This project is a coronagraphic space telescope dedicated to the spectropolarimetric analysis of gaseous and icy giant planets as well as super-Earths at visible and near IR wavelengths. So far, studies for high-contrast imaging instruments have mainly focused on technical feasibility because of the challenging planet/star flux ratio of 10e-8-10e-10 required at short separations (200 mas or so) to image cold exoplanets. However, the main interest of “Zvezdnyi patrol” instruments, namely the analysis of planet atmospheric/surface properties, has remained largely unexplored.

  15. Future developments in planetary Fourier transform spectroscopy at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasunas, John C.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) has a long history at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Rudy Hanel developed a series of such instruments for Earth, Mars and the two Voyager spacecraft. More recently as part of the Cassini mission, the CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) FTS was launched in 1997 for the 2000-2001 Jupiter flyby and the 2004-2008+ Saturn tour. At about 40 kg, CIRS is both too heavy and too light for future planetary missions. It is too heavy for future Discovery and New Frontier missions, where the emphasis is on low-mass, low-power instrumentation. On the other hand, CIRS could be heavier to take full advantage of future Prometheus missions such as JIMO. Here we discuss future development of CIRS-like FTS"s for both Discovery/New Frontier and for Prometheus flight opportunities. We also briefly discuss possible applications in the Moon/Mars exploration initiative.

  16. Predictable Mobility: A Statistical Approach for Planetary Surface Exploration Rovers in Uncertain Terrain

    E-print Network

    Ishigami, Genya

    In this article, a statistical mobility prediction for planetary surface exploration rovers has been described. This method explicitly considers uncertainty of the terrain physical parameters via SRSM and employs models ...

  17. Vision-based terrain classification and classifier fusion for planetary exploration rovers

    E-print Network

    Halatci, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Autonomous rover operation plays a key role in planetary exploration missions. Rover systems require more and more autonomous capabilities to improve efficiency and robustness. Rover mobility is one of the critical components ...

  18. Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx): an infrastructure to bridge space missions data and computational models in planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Génot, V. N.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Topf, F.; Schmidt, W.; Alexeev, I. I.; Modolo, R.; André, N.; Gangloff, M.; Belenkaya, E. S.

    2012-04-01

    The FP7-SPACE project Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx) has started in June 2011. The aim of the project is the Creation of an integrated interactive IT framework where data from space missions will be interconnected to numerical models, providing a possibility to 1) simulate planetary phenomena and interpret spacecraft data; 2) test and improve models versus experimental data; 3) fill gaps in measurements by appropriate modelling runs; 4) solve technological tasks of mission operation and preparation. Data analysis and visualization within IMPEx will be based on the advanced computational models of the planetary environments. Specifically, the 'modeling sector' of IMPEx is formed of four well established numerical codes and their related computational infrastructures: 1) 3D hybrid modeling platform HYB for the study of planetary plasma environments, hosted at FMI; 2) an alternative 3D hybrid modeling platform, hosted at LATMOS; 3) MHD modelling platform GUMICS for 3D terrestrial magnetosphere, hosted at FMI; and 4) the global 3D Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model for simulation of magnetospheres of different Solar System objects, hosted at SINP. Modelling results will be linked to the corresponding experimental data from space and planetary missions via several online tools: 1/ AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) which provides cross-linked visualization and operation of experimental and numerical modelling data, 2/ 3DView which will propose 3D visualization of spacecraft trajectories in simulated and observed environments, and 3/ "CLWeb" software which enables computation of various micro-scale physical products (spectra, distribution functions, etc.). In practice, IMPEx is going to provide an external user with an access to an extended set of space and planetary missions' data and powerful, world leading computing models, equipped with advanced visualization tools. Via its infrastructure, IMPEx will enable to merge spacecraft data bases and scientific modelling tools, providing their joint interconnected operation for the better understanding of related space and planetary physics phenomena.

  19. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU With Power Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streibech, Douglas; Urdaneta, Mario; Chapman, Patricia; Furfaro, Roberto; Ramohalli, Kumar

    2000-01-01

    The concept of generating power bursts upon demand in space exploration is presented. As acknowledged by two NASA Novel Technology Report (NTR) awards, the concept is new and innovative. As a general background, it must be recalled that power has always been a major limiting factor in exploration, especially in the exploration of far off sites like Mars (contrasted with LEO or GEO). Without the high power ability, no amount of energy (that can only be expended at a low rate, i.e., low power) can accomplish such simple operations as: crushing a rock, hopping over an obstacle, drilling deep, and eventually ascent from the planet to an orbiting craft above, or even the return journey to Earth. The concept presented here is an advance over the much studied In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU); we use ISRU for the extraction of the needed fuel and oxidizer from the local resources, store these gases, and expend them rapidly when needed. In the martian scenario, these gases will be carbon monoxide (fuel) and oxygen (oxidizer) extracted from the atmospheric carbon dioxide; subsequently, higher chemistry is possible after the discovery, and utilization of water which enables the production of an entire spectrum of hydrocarbons and carbohydrates. If nitrogen can also be added at a still later date, many more chemicals in the ammonia based family are possible. At SERC (University of Arizona) we have pioneered all of these chemical productions. In another award-winning innovation, an ultra-light weight material, popularly known as muscle wires, is used in a biology-inspired robot called BiRoD. The expenditure of energy in these materials produces power that results in mechanical motion. The short term power generation is thousands of times the average power that was used to harness the local resource in the first place. At the time of this abstract, BiRoD has been designed, assembled, and shown to work in a primitive way, in its component form; new media have carried the high-profile story all over the nation. At the time of the Congress, we expect to no only have many more pieces of quantitative, engineering data from BiRoD but we still also attempt to bring that robot to the session for an actual demonstration.

  20. Long-Life, Lightweight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard C.; Fusaro, Robert L.; Dimofte, Florin

    2012-01-01

    NASA s initiative for Lunar and Martian exploration will require long lived, robust drive systems for manned vehicles that must operate in hostile environments. The operation of these mechanical drives will pose a problem because of the existing extreme operating conditions. Some of these extreme conditions include operating at a very high or very cold temperature, operating over a wide range of temperatures, operating in very dusty environments, operating in a very high radiation environment, and operating in possibly corrosive environments. Current drive systems use gears with various configurations of teeth. These gears must be lubricated with oil (or grease) and must have some sort of a lubricant resupply system. For drive systems, oil poses problems such as evaporation, becoming too viscous and eventually freezing at cold temperatures, being too thin to lubricate at high temperatures, being degraded by the radiation environment, being contaminated by the regolith (soil), and if vaporized (and not sealed), it will contaminate the regolith. Thus, it may not be advisable or even possible to use oil because of these limitations. An oil-less, compact traction vehicle drive is a drive designed for use in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary surfaces. Initially, traction roller tests in vacuum were conducted to obtain traction and endurance data needed for designing the drives. From that data, a traction drive was designed that would fit into a prototype lunar rover vehicle, and this design data was used to construct several traction drives. These drives were then tested in air to determine their performance characteristics, and if any final corrections to the designs were necessary. A limitation with current speed reducer systems such as planetary gears and harmonic drives is the high-contact stresses that occur at tooth engagement and in the harmonic drive wave generator interface. These high stresses induce high wear of solid lubricant coatings, thus necessitating the use of liquid lubricants for long life.

  1. An Update on the NASA Planetary Science Division Research and Analysis Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Christina; Bernstein, Max; Rall, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) solicits its Research and Analysis (R&A) programs each year in Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES). Beginning with the 2014 ROSES solicitation, PSD will be changing the structure of the program elements under which the majority of planetary science R&A is done. Major changes include the creation of five core research program elements aligned with PSD's strategic science questions, the introduction of several new R&A opportunities, new submission requirements, and a new timeline for proposal submissionROSES and NSPIRES: ROSES contains the research announcements for all of SMD. Submission of ROSES proposals is done electronically via NSPIRES: http://nspires.nasaprs.com. We will present further details on the proposal submission process to help guide younger scientists. Statistical trends, including the average award size within the PSD programs, selections rates, and lessons learned, will be presented. Information on new programs will also be presented, if available.Review Process and Volunteering: The SARA website (http://sara.nasa.gov) contains information on all ROSES solicitations. There is an email address (SARA@nasa.gov) for inquiries and an area for volunteer reviewers to sign up. The peer review process is based on Scientific/Technical Merit, Relevance, and Level of Effort, and will be detailed within this presentation.ROSES 2014 submission changes: All PSD programs will use a two-step proposal submission process. A Step-1 proposal is required and must be submitted electronically by the Step-1 due date. The Step-1 proposal should include a description of the science goals and objectives to be addressed by the proposal, a brief description of the methodology to be used to address the science goals and objectives, and the relevance of the proposed research to the call submitted to.Additional Information: Additional details will be provided on the Cassini Data Analysis Program, the Exoplanets Research program and Discovery Data Analysis Program, for which Dr. Richey is the Lead Program Officer.

  2. Heliospheric Physics and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration outlines NASA's development of a new generation of human-rated launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and an architecture for exploring the Moon and Mars. The system--developed by the Constellation Program--includes a near term (approx. 2014) capability to provide crew and cargo service to the International Space Station after the Shuttle is retired in 2010 and a human return to the Moon no later than 2020. Constellation vehicles and systems will necessarily be required to operate efficiently, safely, and reliably in the space plasma and radiation environments of low Earth orbit, the Earth's magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and on the lunar surface. This presentation will provide an overview of the characteristics of space radiation and plasma environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-lunar injection and trans-Earth injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose and plasma wake charging environments in near lunar space, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the design and operational environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

  3. Mars Aeronomy Science Themes and the NASA Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Bougher, S.; Gladstone, R.; Grebowsky, J.; Heelis, R.; Trosper, J.; Yau, A.; Zurek, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA convened a workshop on 18-19 August to reexamine Mars upper-atmosphere science questions in light of the new Exploration Initiative, with more than 80 scientists participating. The upper atmosphere is an important part of the martian climate system. Determining the nature and history of the martian climate, the chemical weathering and alteration of the surface, and the planet's habitability requires understanding the roles of the solar wind and solar radiation inputs; the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere; and the escape of volatiles to space. The upper atmosphere also plays important roles in programmatic aspects of the Mars exploration program, including communications, energetic particle and radiation environments that can affect humans, the lifetimes of orbiting spacecraft, operational aspects of orbital missions, and aerobraking operations. Important aspects of the upper-atmosphere can be observed from the unique perspective of the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, especially with observations potentially made over an entire solar cycle. Although some limited observations are being made of the upper atmosphere at present, even combined with possible results from MTO they will not provide the detailed information necessary for either science or programmatic issues. The necessary observations can be obtained from a dedicated spacecraft mission with appropriate orbit, lifetime, and instrumentation. The necessary observations are thought to be possible within the confines of a Scout-class mission, although detailed analysis of this opportunity has not been done.

  4. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Dynamical Assessment: The current near-term NASA human spaceflight capability is in the process of being defined while the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Space Launch System (SLS) are still in development. Hence, those NEAs in more accessible heliocentric orbits relative to a minimal interplanetary exploration capability will be considered for the first missions. If total mission durations for the first voyages to NEAs are to be kept to less than one year, with minimal velocity changes, then NEA rendezvous missions ideally will take place within 0.1 AU of Earth (approx about 5 million km or 37 lunar distances). Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to inter-planetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting detailed scientific investigations of these primitive objects. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at these destinations. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. Conclusions: The scientific and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a piloted mission to a NEA using NASA's proposed human exploration systems a compelling endeavor

  5. An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when micro gravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

  6. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  7. Wireless sensor networks for planetary exploration: Experimental assessment of communication and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, D.; Barrientos, A.; Garzón, M.; Rossi, C.; Mura, M.; Puccinelli, D.; Puiatti, A.; Graziano, M.; Medina, A.; Mollinedo, L.; de Negueruela, C.

    2013-09-01

    Planetary surface exploration is an appealing application of wireless sensor networks that has been investigated in recent years by the space community, including the European Space Agency. The idea is to deploy a number of self-organizing sensor nodes forming a wireless networked architecture to provide a distributed instrument for the study and exploration of a planetary body. To explore this concept, ESA has funded the research project RF Wireless for Planetary Exploration (RF-WIPE), carried out by GMV, SUPSI and UPM. The purpose of RF-WIPE was to simulate and prototype a wireless sensor network in order to assess the potential and limitations of the technology for the purposes of planetary exploration. In this paper, we illustrate the results of the work carried out within the context of RF-WIPE. Two test case scenarios have been investigated: a distributed sensor network-based instrument and networked planetary surface exploration. Each scenario is related to a particular network configuration. For such configurations, energy models and communication protocols have been developed, simulated, and validated both on laboratory tests and with outdoor field tests. Additionally, node deployment was investigated, and a deployment system based on a mobile robotics platform has been designed and tested.

  8. Exploring the Architectural Trade Space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Exploring the Architectural Trade Space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program Marc of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible, Bernie Seery NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 8800 Greenbelt Road Greenbelt, MD 20771 301

  9. NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product

    E-print Network

    NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product Educators#DQG#Ionosphere An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for

  10. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

  11. NASA Mission to Explore Forcing of Earth's Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission has been selected as a mission of opportunity by NASA's Small Explorer program. This mission, with an anticipated 2014 launch date, is an opportunity to significantly advance thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) science and to provide answers to key elements of an overarching question for heliophysics science: What is the global-scale response of the thermosphere and ionosphere to forcing (e.g., by geomagnetic storms or atmospheric tides) in the integrated Sun-Earth system? Understanding the response of the TI region to forcing is important for scientific as well as societal reasons. Scientifically, understanding how Earth's TI responds to forcing provides insights into the response of similar regions on other planets. Societal impacts that arise from an inadequate understanding of this region include unnecessary delays in air travel and unanticipated interruptions in satellite services such as the Global Positioning System. The GOLD mission promises to lead to a decrease in such problems.

  12. Evaluation of Dual Pressurized Rover Operations During Simulated Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A pair of small pressurized rovers (Space Exploration Vehicles, or SEVs) is at the center of the Global Point-of-Departure architecture for future human planetary exploration. Simultaneous operation of multiple crewed surface assets should maximize productive crew time, minimize overhead, and preserve contingency return paths. Methods: A 14-day mission simulation was conducted in the Arizona desert as part of NASA?s 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS). The simulation involved two SEV concept vehicles performing geological exploration under varied operational modes affecting both the extent to which the SEVs must maintain real-time communications with mission control ("Continuous" vs. "Twice-a-Day") and their proximity to each other ("Lead-and-Follow" vs. "Divide-and-Conquer"). As part of a minimalist lunar architecture, no communications relay satellites were assumed. Two-person crews consisting of an astronaut and a field geologist operated each SEV, day and night, throughout the entire 14-day mission, only leaving via the suit ports to perform simulated extravehicular activities. Standard metrics enabled quantification of the habitability and usability of all aspects of the SEV concept vehicles throughout the mission, as well as comparison of the extent to which the operating modes affected crew productivity and performance. Practically significant differences in the relevant metrics were prospectively defined for the testing of all hypotheses. Results and Discussion: Data showed a significant 14% increase in available science time (AST) during Lead-and-Follow mode compared with Divide-and-Conquer, primarily because of the minimal overhead required to maintain communications during Lead-and-Follow. In Lead-and-Follow mode, there was a non-significant 2% increase in AST during Twice-a-Day vs. Continuous communications. Situational awareness of the other vehicle?s location, activities, and contingency return constraints were enhanced during Lead-and-Follow and Twice-a-Day communications modes due to line-of-sight and direct SEV-to-SEV communication. Preliminary analysis of Scientific Data Quality and Observation Quality metrics showed no significant differences between modes.

  13. Experimental Results for Over-the-Horizon Planetary Exploration using a LIDAR sensor

    E-print Network

    Rekleitis, Ioannis

    are also presented. 1 Introduction Planetary exploration is one of the biggest challenges in robotics of robotics in space exploration [18]. The MER's limited autonomy capabilities restrict the distance at which and environmental modelling, path-planning, and trajectory following. In the next Section we present some related

  14. The Exploration of Neptune and Triton Submitted to the NRC 2009 Planetary Science Decadal Survey by

    E-print Network

    Barr, Amy C.

    The Exploration of Neptune and Triton Submitted to the NRC 2009 Planetary Science Decadal Survey by of Arizona #12;The Exploration of Neptune and Triton 2 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Neptune has the strongest winds's subsequent dynamical evolution. Neptune's large moon Triton is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object (KBO

  15. Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J. (Editor); Kaplan, David I. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Personnel representing several NASA field centers have formulated a "Reference Mission" addressing human exploration of Mars. This report summarizes their work and describes a plan for the first human missions to Mars, using approaches that are technically feasible, have reasonable risks, and have relatively low costs. The architecture for the Mars Reference Mission builds on previous work of the Synthesis Group (1991) and Zubrin's (1991) concepts for the use of propellants derived from the Martian Atmosphere. In defining the Reference Mission, choices have been made. In this report, the rationale for each choice is documented; however, unanticipated technology advances or political decisions might change the choices in the future.

  16. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Hine, Butler; McClard, Steven; Grayzeck, Edwin; Boroson, Don

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 40 years have passed since the last Apollo missions investigated the mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. The most important questions remain: what is the composition, structure and variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere? What are its origins, transport mechanisms, and loss processes? Is lofted lunar dust the cause of the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor missions and Apollo astronauts? How does such levitated dust arise and move, what is its density, and what is its ultimate fate? The US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) reports have identified studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. These measurements have become particularly important since recent observations by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission point to significant amounts of water and other volatiles sequestered within polar lunar cold traps. Moreover Chandrayaan/M3, EPOXI and Cassini/VIMS have identified molecular water and hydroxyl on lunar surface regolith grains. Variability in concentration suggests these species are likely to be present in the exosphere, and thus constitute a source for the cold traps. NASA s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. LADEE s results are relevant to surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, will address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and will have implications for future exploration activities. LADEE will be the first mission based on the Ames Common Bus design. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: a Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), an Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). It will also carry a space terminal as part of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD), which is a technology demonstration. LLCD will also supply a ground terminal. LLCD is funded by the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD), managed by GSFC, and built by MIT Lincoln Lab. NMS was directed to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and UVS to Ames Research Center (ARC). LDEX was selected through the Stand Alone Missions of Opportunity Notice (SALMON) Acquisition Process, and is provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder. The LADEE NMS covers a m/z range of 2-150 and draws its design from mass spectrometers developed at GSFC for the MSL/SAM, Cassini Orbiter, CONTOUR, and MAVEN missions. The UVS instrument is a next-generation, high-reliability version of the LCROSS UV-Vis spectrometer, spanning 250-800 nm wavelength, with high (<1 nm) spectral resolution. UVS will also perform dust occultation measurements via a solar viewer optic. LDEX senses dust impacts in situ, at LADEE orbital altitudes of 50 km and below, with a particle size range of between 100 nm and 5 micron. Dust particle impacts on a large hemispherical target create electron and ion pairs. The latter are focused and accelerated in an electric field and detected at a microchannel plate. LADEE is an important part of NASA s portfolio of near-term lunar missions; launch is planned for May, 2013. The lunar atmosphere is the most accessible example of a surface boundary exosphere, and may reveal the sources and cycling of volatiles. Dynamic dust activity must be accounted for in the design and operation of lunar surface operations.

  17. Exploring Diffuse X-ray Emission from Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) has established that diffuse X-ray emission, generated by energetic, nebula-shaping wind shocks, emanates from ~1/4 of planetary nebulae (PNe). Such X-ray emission sources are found only in the youngest, most compact nebulae with the highest nebular densities, implying active PN "sculpting" lifetimes of ?5000 years. The diffuse X-ray detection rate is 100% for the (five) ChanPlaNS sample PNe with Wolf-Rayet ([WR]) type central stars. We present preliminary results from 3D structural reconstructions of PNe that are designed to investigate the apparent systematic differences between the diffuse X-ray emission morphologies of PNe with [WR] vs. non-[WR] central stars, as well as the possibility of enhanced, intranebular X-ray absorption.

  18. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Abstracts are presented from a conference sponsored by the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research and hosted by NASA Glenn Research Center and the National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion, held in Cleveland, Ohio, June 22-23, 2004. Topics pertained to the behavior of processes and materials in microgravity as well as physiological-biological studies and microgravity effects.

  19. Microsystems, Space Qualified Electronics and Mobile Sensor Platforms for Harsh Environment Applications and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Okojie, Robert S.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Xu, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is presently developing and applying a range of sensor and electronic technologies that can enable future planetary missions. These include space qualified instruments and electronics, high temperature sensors for Venus missions, mobile sensor platforms, and Microsystems for detection of a range of chemical species and particulates. A discussion of each technology area and its level of maturity is given. It is concluded that there is a strong need for low power devices which can be mobile and provide substantial characterization of the planetary environment where and when needed. While a given mission will require tailoring of the technology for the application, basic tools which can enable new planetary missions are being developed.

  20. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project strives to enable a largely mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. The goals are to engineer logistics materials, common crew consumables, and container configurations to meet the following five basic goals: 1. Minimize intrinsic logistics mass and improve ground logistics flexibility. 2. Allow logistics components to be directly repurposed for on-orbit non-logistics functions (e.g., crew cabin outfitting) thereby indirectly reducing mass/volume. 3. Compact and process logistics that have not been directly repurposed to generate useful on-orbit components and/or compounds (e.g., radiation shielding, propellant, other usable chemical constituents). 4. Enable long-term stable storage and disposal of logistics end products that cannot be reused or repurposed (e.g., compaction for volume reduction, odor control, and maintenance of crew cabin hygienic conditions). 5. Allow vehicles in different mission phases to share logistics resources. This paper addresses the work being done to meet the second goal, the direct repurposing of logistics components to meet other on-orbit needs, through a strategy termed Logistics to Living (L2L). L2L has several areas but can be defined as repurposing or converting logistical items (bags, containers, foam, components, etc.) into useful crew items or life support augmentation on-orbit after they have provided their primary logistics function. The intent is that by repurposing items, dedicated crew items do not have to be launched and overall launch mass is decreased. For non-LEO missions, the vehicle interior volume will be relatively fixed so L2L will enable this volume to be used more effectively through reuse and rearrangement of logistical components. Past work in the area of L2L has already conceptually developed several potential technologies [Howe, Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  1. Adhesion of Silicone Elastomer Seals for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Miller, Sharon K. R.; Smith, Ian M.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M

    2008-01-01

    Silicone rubber seals are being considered for a number of interfaces on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Some of these joints include the docking system, hatches, and heat shield-to-back shell interface. A large diameter molded silicone seal is being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) that forms an effective seal between the CEV and International Space Station (ISS) and other future Constellation Program spacecraft. Seals between the heat shield and back shell prevent high temperature reentry gases from leaking into the interface. Silicone rubber seals being considered for these locations have inherent adhesive tendencies that would result in excessive forces required to separate the joints if left unchecked. This paper summarizes adhesion assessments for both as-received and adhesion-mitigated seals for the docking system and the heat shield interface location. Three silicone elastomers were examined: Parker Hannifin S0899-50 and S0383-70 compounds, and Esterline ELA-SA-401 compound. For the docking system application various levels of exposure to atomic oxygen (AO) were evaluated. Moderate AO treatments did not lower the adhesive properties of S0899-50 sufficiently. However, AO pretreatments of approximately 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm did lower the adhesion of S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 to acceptable levels. For the heat shield-to-back shell interface application, a fabric covering was also considered. Molding Nomex fabric into the heat shield pressure seal appreciably reduced seal adhesion for the heat shield-to-back shell interface application.

  2. Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, Brian; Lee, Pascal; Stowe, Raymond; Jones, Jeff; Effenhauser, Rainer; Widen, Raymond; Sams, Clarence

    2007-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive immune assessment on field team members participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of mission-associated stressors on the human immune system. To perform the study, the development of techniques for processing immune samples in remote field locations was required. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, whole-blood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles, plasma cortisol and EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were 30 days prior to mission start, mid-mission and 60 days after mission completion. Results The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed on Devon Island, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Conclusion The immune system changes described during the HMP field deployment validate the use of the HMP as a ground-based spaceflight/planetary exploration analog for some aspects of human physiology. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune studies in remote terrestrial field locations. Elements of this protocol could possibly be adapted for future in-flight immunology studies conducted during space missions. PMID:17521440

  3. Explore at NASA Goddard Promo - Duration: 54 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., will again open its gates to welcome the regional community for a day of fun-filled activities, hands-on demonstrations, entertainment, and foo...

  4. 76 FR 7235 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting...Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee...WebEx link is https://nasa.webex.com/, meeting...NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 President's Budget Request...

  5. Successfully Engaging Scientists in NASA Education and Public Outreach: Examples from a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Series and a Planetary Analog Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators are a series of weeklong workshops for grade 6-9 science teachers focused on lunar science and exploration, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). These workshops have been held across the country for the past five years, in places underserved with respect to NASA workshops and at LRO team member institutions. MarsFest is a planetary analog festival that has been held annually in Death Valley National Park since 2012, made possible with support from the Curiosity (primarily the Sample Analysis at Mars) Education and Public Outreach team, NASA's Ames Research Center, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the SETI Institute, and Death Valley National Park. Both the Lunar Workshops for Educators and MarsFest rely strongly on scientist engagement for their success. In the Lunar Workshops, scientists and engineers give talks for workshop participants, support facility tours and field trips, and, where possible, have lunch with the teachers to interact with them in a less formal setting. Teachers have enthusiastically appreciated and benefited from all of these interactions, and the scientists and engineers also provide positive feedback about their involvement. In MarsFest, scientists and engineers give public presentations and take park visitors on field trips to planetary analog sites. The trips are led by scientists who do research at the field trip sites whenever possible. Surveys of festival participants indicate an appreciation for learning about scientific research being conducted in the park from the people involved in that research, and scientists and engineers report enjoying sharing their work with the public through this program. The key to effective scientist engagement in all of the workshops and festivals has been a close relationship and open communication between the scientists and engineers and the activity facilitators. I will provide more details about both of these programs, how scientists and engineers are involved in them, and offer suggestions for others who would like to engage scientists and engineers in similar activities.

  6. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, responding to widespread concern about America's competitiveness and future in the development of space technology and the academic preparation of our next generation of space professionals, NASA initiated a program to establish Space Engineering Research Centers (SERC's) at universities with strong doctoral programs in engineering. The goal was to create a national infrastructure for space exploration and development, and sites for the Centers would be selected on the basis of originality of proposed research, the potential for near-term utilization of technologies developed, and the impact these technologies could have on the U.S. space program. The Centers would also be charged with a major academic mission: the recruitment of topnotch students and their training as space professionals. This document describes the goals, accomplishments, and benefits of the research activities of the University of Arizona/NASA SERC. This SERC has become recognized as the premier center in the area known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or Indigenous Space Materials Utilization.

  7. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 1987, responding to widespread concern about America's competitiveness and future in the development of space technology and the academic preparation of our next generation of space professionals, NASA initiated a program to establish Space Engineering Research Centers (SERC's) at universities with strong doctoral programs in engineering. The goal was to create a national infrastructure for space exploration and development, and sites for the Centers would be selected on the basis of originality of proposed research, the potential for near-term utilization of technologies developed, and the impact these technologies could have on the U.S. space program. The Centers would also be charged with a major academic mission: the recruitment of topnotch students and their training as space professionals. This document describes the goals, accomplishments, and benefits of the research activities of the University of Arizona/NASA SERC. This SERC has become recognized as the premier center in the area known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or Indigenous Space Materials Utilization.

  8. Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: The Role and Utility of Long Range, Long Duration Traverses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J. (Editor); Voels, Stephen A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    Topics covered include: Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: Science Operations Lessons Learned, Planning, and Equipment Capabilities for Long Range, Long Duration Traverses; Parallels Between Antarctic Travel in 1950 and Planetary Travel in 2050 (to Accompany Notes on "The Norwegian British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1949-52"); My IGY in Antarctica; Short Trips and a Traverse; Geologic Traverse Planning for Apollo Missions; Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) Traverse Planning; Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic; NOR-USA Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica: Science and Logistics on a Three-Month Expedition Across Antarctica's Farthest Frontier; A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface; and The Princess Elisabeth Station.

  9. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    Planetary protection (PP) policies established by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science have been in force effectively for five decades, ensuring responsible exploration and the integrity of science activities, for both human and robotic missions in the Solar System beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). At present, operations on most bodies in the solar system are not constrained by planetary protection considerations because they cannot be contaminated by Earth life in ways that impact future space exploration. However, operations on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, which represent locations with biological potential, are subject to strict planetary protection constraints for missions of all types because they can potentially be contaminated by organisms brought from Earth. Forward contamination control for robotic missions is generally accomplished through a combination of activities that reduce the bioload of microbial hitchhikers on outbound spacecraft prior to launch. Back contamination control for recent robotic missions has chiefly been accomplished by selecting sample-return targets that have little or no potential for extant life (e.g., cometary particles returned by Stardust mission). In the post-Apollo era, no human missions have had to deal with planetary protection constraints because they have never left Earth orbit. Future human missions to Mars, for example, will experience many of the challenges faced by the Apollo lunar missions, with the added possibility that astronauts on Mars may encounter habitable environments in their exploration or activities. Current COSPAR PP Principles indicate that safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. While guidelines for planetary protection controls on human missions to Mars have been established by COSPAR, detailed engineering constraints and processes for implementation of these guidelines have not yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations discussed by the study participants to date have set the agenda for additional work that will

  10. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at a NEA with total mission duration limits of 180 days or less. Hence, these missions would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while simultaneously conducting detailed investigations of these primitive objects with instruments and equipment that exceed the mass and power capabilities delivered by robotic spacecraft. All of these activities will be vital for refinement of resource characterization/identification and development of extraction/utilization technologies to be used on airless bodies under low- or micro-gravity conditions. In addition, gaining enhanced understanding of a NEA's geotechnical properties and its gross internal structure will assist the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. Conclusions: The scientific, resource utilization, and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a piloted sample return mission to a NEA using NASA's proposed human exploration systems a compelling endeavor.

  11. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at a NEA with total mission duration limits of 180 days or less. Hence, these missions would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while simultaneously conducting detailed investigations of these primitive objects with instruments and equipment that exceed the mass and power capabilities delivered by robotic spacecraft. All of these activities will be vital for refinement of resource characterization/identification and development of extraction/utilization technologies to be used on airless bodies under low- or micro-gravity conditions. In addition, gaining enhanced understanding of a NEA s geotechnical properties and its gross internal structure will assist the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. Conclusions: The scientific, resource utilization, and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a piloted sample return mission to a NEA using NASA s proposed human exploration systems a compelling endeavor.

  12. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Paradigm Shift in Design for NASA's Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    implications of NASA's new space exploration initiative at the value, system architecture and vehicle levels. The space exploration system is expected to accomplish a wide variety of defined and undefined mission. The new design process is defined and then applied to the space exploration system with decisions

  13. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten key areas. Various case studies are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  14. 79 FR 7480 - NASA Community Workshop on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-02-07

    ...EDT). ADDRESSES: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics...Conference Center, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Guidi, NASA Human Exploration...Directions APL is located on Johns Hopkins Road, approximately...

  15. PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Barbara Anne

    PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133 Rocks and Minerals I. OBJECTIVES One of the many ways to study Earth is by examining the rocks that make up its. These processes cre- ate many different kinds of rocks. Geologists examine these rocks to try to infer

  16. Global Reachability and Path Planning for Planetary Exploration with Montgolfiere Balloons

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    . A montgolfiere, also known as a hot air balloon, maintains buoyancy by heating the atmospheric gas insideGlobal Reachability and Path Planning for Planetary Exploration with Montgolfiere Balloons Lars capabilities. Recent studies have proposed the use of a montgolfiere balloon, which controls its altitude

  17. Lunar Landing Sites to Explore the Extent of KREEP and Its Significance to Key Planetary Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Jilly; P. Sharma; A. L. Souchon; J. F. Blanchette-Guertin; J. Flauhaut; D. A. Kring

    2011-01-01

    We present a list of possible lunar landing sites that explore the extent of KREEP. Samples of lunar material from these sites may help to determine the nature of primordial urKREEP and KREEP basalts, to further constrain models of key planetary formation processes.

  18. Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance Missions For The Autonomous Exploration Of Planetary Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Fink; James M. Dohm; Mark A. Tarbell; Trent M. Hare; Victor R. Baker; D. Schulze-Makuch; R. Furfaro; A. G. Fairen; T. P. Ferre; H. Miyamoto; G. Komatsu; W. C. Mahaney

    2007-01-01

    A fundamentally new (scientific) reconnaissance mission concept, termed tier-scalable reconnaissance, for remote planetary (including Earth) atmospheric, surface and subsurface exploration recently has been devised that soon will replace the engineering and safety constrained mission designs of the past, allowing for optimal acquisition of geologic, paleohydrologic, paleoclimatic, and possible astrobiologic information of Venus, Mars, Europa, Ganymede, Titan, Enceladus, Triton, and other

  19. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  20. Science Operations During Planetary Surface Exploration: Desert-RATS Tests 2009-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Research and Technology Studies (RATS) team evaluates technology, human-robotic systems and extravehicular equipment for use in future human space exploration missions. Tests are conducted in simulated space environments, or analog tests, using prototype instruments, vehicles, and systems. NASA engineers, scientists and technicians from across the country gather annually with representatives from industry and academia to perform the tests. Test scenarios include future missions to near-Earth asteroids (NEA), the moon and Mars.. Mission simulations help determine system requirements for exploring distant locations while developing the technical skills required of the next generation of explorers.

  1. Operational Support Issues for the new NASA Exploration Initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kunches; C. Balch; W. Murtagh

    2004-01-01

    The recent proposal for NASA to fly astronauts to the Moon and Mars is both very exciting and, at the same time, daunting. Any flight away from the protection of the Earth's magnetic field poses special problems for space weather operational support providers such as NOAA's Space Environment Center. Since the Apollo flights in the 1960's, SEC has provided forecasts

  2. The NASA 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.; Schwochert, M.; Morris, R. V.; Athena Team

    2002-12-01

    The Panoramic Camera System (Pancam) is part of the Athena science payload to be launched to Mars in 2003 on NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rover missions. The Pancam imaging system on each rover consists of two major components: a pair of digital CCD cameras, and the Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA), which provides the azimuth and elevation actuation for the cameras as well as a 1.5 meter high vantage point from which to image. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system, with a field of regard provided by the PMA that extends across 360o of azimuth and from zenith to nadir, providing a complete view of the scene around the rover. Pancam utilizes two 1024x2048 Mitel frame transfer CCD detector arrays, each having a 1024x1024 active imaging area and 32 optional additional reference pixels per row for offset monitoring. Each array is combined with optics and a small filter wheel to become one "eye" of a multispectral, stereoscopic imaging system. The optics for both cameras consist of identical 3-element symmetrical lenses with an effective focal length of 42 mm and a focal ratio of f/20, yielding an IFOV of 0.28 mrad/pixel or a rectangular FOV of 16o\\x9D 16o per eye. The two eyes are separated by 30 cm horizontally and have a 1o toe-in to provide adequate parallax for stereo imaging. The cameras are boresighted with adjacent wide-field stereo Navigation Cameras, as well as with the Mini-TES instrument. The Pancam optical design is optimized for best focus at 3 meters range, and allows Pancam to maintain acceptable focus from infinity to within 1.5 meters of the rover, with a graceful degradation (defocus) at closer ranges. Each eye also contains a small 8-position filter wheel to allow multispectral sky imaging, direct Sun imaging, and surface mineralogic studies in the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. Pancam has been designed and calibrated to operate within specifications from -55oC to +5oC. An onboard calibration target and fiducial marks provide the ability to validate the radiometric and geometric calibration on Mars. Pancam relies heavily on use of the JPL ICER wavelet compression algorithm to maximize data return within stringent mission downlink limits. The scientific goals of the Pancam investigation are to: (a) obtain monoscopic and stereoscopic image mosaics to assess the morphology, topography, and geologic context of each MER landing site; (b) obtain multispectral visible to short-wave near-IR images of selected regions to determine surface color and mineralogic properties; (c) obtain multispectral images over a range of viewing geometries to constrain surface photometric and physical properties; and (d) obtain images of the Martian sky, including direct images of the Sun, to determine dust and aerosol opacity and physical properties. In addition, Pancam also serves a variety of operational functions on the MER mission, including (e) serving as the primary Sun-finding camera for rover navigation; (f) resolving objects on the scale of the rover wheels to distances of ~100 m to help guide navigation decisions; (g) providing stereo coverage adequate for the generation of digital terrain models to help guide and refine rover traverse decisions; (h) providing high resolution images and other context information to guide the selection of the most interesting in situ sampling targets; and (i) supporting acquisition and release of exciting E/PO products.

  3. VEVI: A Virtual Reality Tool For Robotic Planetary Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piguet, Laurent; Fong, Terry; Hine, Butler; Hontalas, Phil; Nygren, Erik

    1994-01-01

    The Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI), developed by the NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Mechanisms Group, is a modular operator interface for direct teleoperation and supervisory control of robotic vehicles. Virtual environments enable the efficient display and visualization of complex data. This characteristic allows operators to perceive and control complex systems in a natural fashion, utilizing the highly-evolved human sensory system. VEVI utilizes real-time, interactive, 3D graphics and position / orientation sensors to produce a range of interface modalities from the flat panel (windowed or stereoscopic) screen displays to head mounted/head-tracking stereo displays. The interface provides generic video control capability and has been used to control wheeled, legged, air bearing, and underwater vehicles in a variety of different environments. VEVI was designed and implemented to be modular, distributed and easily operated through long-distance communication links, using a communication paradigm called SYNERGY.

  4. Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

    2011-12-01

    Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional XRF technology, to evaluate the handheld technology. All of these samples are fine-grained and homogeneous, and were selected to eliminate effects introduced to the data by inconsistencies in the sample matrix, or added complexities like increased vesicularity or phenocryst content. Our calibration curves are built from smooth, sawed surfaces. We have examined all major elements, minus Na (which falls below the instrument sensitivity). Initial tests show that reproducible and reliable calibration curves are produced for Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, and Si, but the curves produced for Mg, Mn, K and P include greater uncertainties. We are currently investigating how the instrument signal variably drops off as a function of surface roughness and distance to the instrument window. Through studies such as these in the simulated GeoLab setting, we can better understand the instrument's capabilities in a field environment, both on Earth and for potential future missions to other planetary surfaces.

  5. Planetary science questions for the manned exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Douglas P.

    1986-01-01

    A major goal of a manned Mars mission is to explore the planet and to investigate scientific questions for which the intensive study of Mars is essential. The systematic exploration of planets was outlined by the National Academy of Science. The nearest analogy to the manned Mars mission is the Apollo program and manned missions to the Moon, but the analogy is limited. The case is argued here that Mars may have to be explored far more systematically than was the pre-Apollo Moon to provide the detailed information necessary if plans are made to use any of the resources available on Mars. Viking missions provided a wealth of information, yet there are great gaps in the fundamental knowledge of essential facts such as the properties of the Martian surface materials and their interaction with the atmosphere. Building on a strong data base of precursor missions, human exploration will allow great leaps in understanding the Martian environment and geologic history and its evolutionary role in the solar system.

  6. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2007-01-01

    A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation: four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: 1) the Kensington Expert Mouse, 2) the Hulapoint mouse, 3) the Logitech Marble Mouse, and 4) the Honeywell trackball. Results showed that: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices, 2) gloved operations were about 1 second slower and had at least 15% more errors; 3) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback, 4) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

  7. The MASSE Project: Applications of Biotechnology for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Kennda; Steele, Andrew; Hedgecock, Jud; Wainwright, Norm; McKay, David S.; Maule, Jake; Schweitzer, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Automated life-detection experiments for solar system exploration have been previously. proposed and used onboard the. Viking, Mars lander,s, although. with ambiguous results. The recent advances in biotechnology such as biosensors, protein microarrays, and microfluidics alongside increased. knowledge in biomarker science have led to vastly improved sophistication and sensitivity for a new approach in life detection. The MASSE project has taken the challenge of integrating all of this knowledge into a new generation of interplanetary flight instrumentation for the main purpose.ot combining several mutually. confirming tests for life, organic/microbial contamination, prebiotic and abiotic chemicals into a small low powered instrument. Although the primary goal is interplanetary exploration, several terrestrial applications have become apparent specifically in point-of-care medical technology, bio-warfare, environmental sensing and microbial monitoring of manned space-flight vehicles.

  8. Exploration Roadmap Working Group (ERWG) Data Collection, NASA's Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret; Landis, Rob; Thomas, Andrew; Mauzy, Susan; Graham, Lee; Culbert, Chris; Troutman, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews four areas for further space exploration: (1) Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, (2) Robotic Precursors targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) for Human Exploration, (3) Notional Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects and (4) Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Refueling to Augment Human Exploration. The first presentation reviews the goals and objectives of the Mars DRA, presents a possible mission profile, innovation requirements for the mission and key risks and challenges for human exploration of Mars. The second presentation reviews the objective and goals of the robotic precursors to the NEO and the mission profile of such robotic exploration. The third presentation reviews the mission scenario of human exploration of NEO, the objectives and goals, the mission operational drivers, the key technology needs and a mission profile. The fourth and last presentation reviews the examples of possible refueling in low earth orbit prior to lunar orbit insertion, to allow for larger delivered payloads for a lunar mission.

  9. Planning for planetary protection and contamination control: challenges beyond Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea P. Belz; James A. Cutts

    2006-01-01

    In situ analysis for targets beyond Mars brings new challenges in planetary protection, where planetary protection preserves the chemical environment of a target body for future life-detection exploration and, in sample return missions, protects the Earth from potential extraterrestrial contamination. The National Research Council's decadal survey of 2003 and the NASA Solar System Exploration Strategic Program roadmap of 2005 calls

  10. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  11. 75 FR 33838 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...and timeline. Report on fact-finding meetings. Asteroid detection, warning, response, and concepts for deflection...International coordination on planetary defense against asteroids. The meeting will be open to the public up to the...

  12. Back to the future: the role of the ISS and future space stations in planetary exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2010-05-01

    Space stations as stepping stones to planets appear already in the1954 Disney-von Braun anticipation TV show but the first study with a specific planetary scientific objective was the ANTEUS project of 1978. This station was an evolution of SPACELAB hardware and was designed to analyse Mars samples with better equipment than the laboratory of the VIKING landers. It would have played the role of the reception facility present in the current studies of Mars sample return, after analysis, the "safe" samples would have been returned to earth by the space shuttle. This study was followed by the flights of SPACELAB and MIR. Finally after 35 years of development, the International Space Station reaches its final configuration in 2010. Recent developments of the international agreement between the space agencies indicate a life extending to 2025, it is already part of the exploration programme as its crews prepare the long cruise flights and missions to the exploration targets. It is now time to envisage also the use of this stable 350 tons spacecraft for planetary and space sciences. Planetary telescopes are an obvious application; the present SOLAR payload on COLUMBUS is an opportunity to use the target pointing capabilities from the ISS. The current exposure facilities are also preparing future planetary protection procedures. Other applications have already been previously considered as experimental collision and impact studies in both space vacuum and microgravity. Future space stations at the Lagrange points could simultaneously combine unique observation platforms with an actual intermediate stepping stone to Mars.

  13. Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

  14. NASA: Innovate, Explore, Discover, Inspire - Duration: 6 minutes, 41 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The President's Fiscal Year 2014 budget ensures the United States will remain the world's leader in space exploration and scientific discovery for years to come, while making critical advances in a...

  15. Japanese Exploration to Solar System Small Bodies: Rewriting a Planetary Formation Theory with Astromaterial Connection (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, H.

    2013-12-01

    Three decades ago, Japan's deep space exploration started with Sakigake and Suisei, twin flyby probes to P/Halley. Since then, the Solar System small bodies have been one of focused destinations to the Japanese solar system studies even today. Only one year after the Halley armada launch, the very first meeting was held for an asteroid sample return mission at ISAS, which after 25 years, materialized as the successful Earth return of Hayabusa , an engineering verification mission for sample return from surfaces of an NEO for the first time in the history. Launched in 2003 and returned in 2010, Hayabusa became the first to visit a sub-km, rubble-pile potentially hazardous asteroid in near Earth space. Its returned samples solved S-type asteroid - ordinary chondrite paradox by proving space weathering evidences in sub-micron scale. Between the Halley missions and Hayabusa, SOCCER concept by M-V rocket was jointly studied between ISAS and NASA; yet it was not realized due to insufficient delta-V for intact capture by decelerating flyby/encounter velocity to a cometary coma. The SOCCER later became reality as Stardust, NASA Discovery mission for cometary coma dust sample return in1999-2006. Japan has collected the second largest collection of the Antarctic meteorites and micrometeorites of the world and asteromaterial scientists are eager to collaborate with space missions. Also Japan enjoyed a long history of collaborations between professional astronomers and high-end amateur observers in the area of observational studies of asteroids, comets and meteors. Having these academic foundations, Japan has an emphasis on programmatic approach to sample returns of Solar System small bodies in future prospects. The immediate follow-on to Hayabusa is Hayabusa-2 mission to sample return with an artificial impactor from 1999 JU3, a C-type NEO in 2014-2020. Following successful demonstration of deep space solar sail technique by IKAROS in 2010-2013, the solar power sail is a deep space probe with hybrid propulsion of solar photon sail and ion engine system that will enable Japan to reach out deep interplanetary space beyond the main asteroid belt. Since 2002, Japanese scientists and engineers have been investigating the solar power sail mission to Jupiter Trojans and interdisciplinary cruising science, such as infrared observation of zodiacal light due to cosmic dust, which at the same time hit a large cross section of the solar sail membrane dust detector, concentrating inside the main asteroid belt. Now the mission design has extended from cruising and fly-by only to rendezvous and sample return options from Jupiter Trojan asteroids. Major scientific goal of Jupiter Trojan exploration is to constrain its origin between two competing hypothesis such as remnants of building blocks the Jovian system as the classic model and the second generation captured EKBOs as the planetary migration models, in which several theories are in deep discussion. Also important is to better understand mixing process of material and structure of the early Solar System just beyond snow line. The current plan involves its launch and both solar photon and IES accelerations combined with Earth and Jupiter gravity assists in 2020's, detailed rendezvous investigation of a few 10-km sized D-type asteroid among Jupiter Trojans in early 2030's and an optional sample return of its surface materials to the Earth in late 2030's.

  16. Argus: An Io observer mission concept study from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, L. E.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Becerra, P.; Basu, K.; Davis, B.; Fox, V. K.; Herman, J. F. C.; Hughes, A. C. G.; Keane, J. T.; Marcucci, E.; Mendez-Ramos, E.; Nelessen, A.; Neveu, M.; Parrish, N. L.; Scheinberg, A. L.; Wrobel, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Jupiter's satellite Io represents the ideal target for studying extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two of the most important processes in the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. The 2011 Planetary Decadal Survey identified an Io Observer as a high-priority New Frontiers class mission to be considered for the decade 2013-2022. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose a mission concept for an Io Observer mission, named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io), developed by the students of the August 2014 session of the Planetary Science Summer School hosted by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, together with JPL's Team X. The goals of our mission are: (i) Study the effects of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (ii) Investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for early Earth; (iii) Analyze the interaction of Io with the Jovian system through material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (iv) Study the internal structure of Io, as well as its chemical and tectonic history in order to gain insight into its formation and that of the other Galilean satellites.

  17. Refining the Ares V Design to Carry Out NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle is part of an overall architecture for u.S. space exploration that will span decades. The Ares V, together with the Ares I crew launch vehicle, Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander, will carry out the national policy goals of retiring the Space Shuttle, completing the International Space Station program, and expanding exploration of the Moon as a steps toward eventual human exploration of Mars. The Ares fleet (Figure 1) is the product of the Exploration Systems Architecture study which, in the wake of the Columbia accident, recommended separating crew from cargo transportation. Both vehicles are undergoing rigorous systems design to maximize safety, reliability, and operability. They take advantage of the best technical and operational lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle and more recent programs. NASA also seeks to maximize commonality between the crew and cargo vehicles in an effort to simplify and reduce operational costs for sustainable, long-term exploration.

  18. Layered Metals Fabrication Technology Development for Support of Lunar Exploration at NASA\\/MSFC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Cooper; James E. Good; Scott D. Gilley

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for missions to the Moon and beyond. In support of these missions, engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are developing technologies for ground-based and in-situ fabrication capabilities utilizing provisioned and locally-refined materials. Development efforts are pushing state-of-the art fabrication technologies to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical

  19. European Tracked Micro-Rovers for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Rieder, R.; vanWinnendael, M.; Zelikman, M.

    2000-07-01

    During the Mars Pathfinder mission, the 10-kg-rover Sojourner proved to be the enabling technology for efficient exploration of the landing site. At the same time as larger rovers are planned, certain missions also call for low-mass-rovers. They are needed not only to collect samples for return to Earth, but to deploy scientific instruments at relevant samples for in-situ measurements. For both mission types, the rover system must be as small and light as possible, accommodating a maximum of payloads or samples at the same time. In Europe, nano-rover technology has been developed for many years. One of the most advanced concepts is the tracked microrover Nanokhod, developed most recently in the frame of ESA's Technology Research Programme. With a total rover mass of 2.55 kg it can accommodate four miniaturized scientific instruments with a mass of 1.1 kg in order to deploy and operate the instruments in the vicinity of a stationary lander. An upscaled version of the same rover concept can be used for deep drilling and sampling, as it is needed for example in future exobiology missions. This paper gives an overview of the Nanokhod rover concepts and summarizes the development status as well as current and prospected activities.

  20. Enhanced Multi-Modal Access to Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamarra, Norm; Doyle, Richard; Wyatt, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Tomorrow's Interplanetary Network (IPN) will evolve from JPL's Deep-Space Network (DSN) and provide key capabilities to future investigators, such as simplified acquisition of higher-quality science at remote sites and enriched access to these sites. These capabilities could also be used to foster public interest, e.g., by making it possible for students to explore these environments personally, eventually perhaps interacting with a virtual world whose models could be populated by data obtained continuously from the IPN. Our paper looks at JPL's approach to making this evolution happen, starting from improved communications. Evolving space protocols (e.g., today's CCSDS proximity and file-transfer protocols) will provide the underpinning of such communications in the next decades, just as today's rich web was enabled by progress in Internet Protocols starting from the early 1970's (ARPAnet research). A key architectural thrust of this effort is to deploy persistent infrastructure incrementally, using a layered service model, where later higher-layer capabilities (such as adaptive science planning) are enabled by earlier lower-layer services (such as automated routing of object-based messages). In practice, there is also a mind shift needed from an engineering culture raised on point-to-point single-function communications (command uplink, telemetry downlink), to one in which assets are only indirectly accessed, via well-defined interfaces. We are aiming to foster a 'community of access' both among space assets and the humans who control them. This enables appropriate (perhaps eventually optimized) sharing of services and resources to the greater benefit of all participants. We envision such usage to be as automated in the future as using a cell phone is today - with all the steps in creating the real-time link being automated.

  1. Combining Open-Source Packages for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Albrecht; Grieger, Björn; Völk, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The science planning of the ESA Rosetta mission has presented challenges which were addressed with combining various open-source software packages, such as the SPICE toolkit, the Python language and the Web graphics library three.js. The challenge was to compute certain parameters from a pool of trajectories and (possible) attitudes to describe the behaviour of the spacecraft. To be able to do this declaratively and efficiently, a C library was implemented that allows to interface the SPICE toolkit for geometrical computations from the Python language and process as much data as possible during one subroutine call. To minimise the lines of code one has to write special care was taken to ensure that the bindings were idiomatic and thus integrate well into the Python language and ecosystem. When done well, this very much simplifies the structure of the code and facilitates the testing for correctness by automatic test suites and visual inspections. For rapid visualisation and confirmation of correctness of results, the geometries were visualised with the three.js library, a popular Javascript library for displaying three-dimensional graphics in a Web browser. Programmatically, this was achieved by generating data files from SPICE sources that were included into templated HTML and displayed by a browser, thus made easily accessible to interested parties at large. As feedback came and new ideas were to be explored, the authors benefited greatly from the design of the Python-to-SPICE library which allowed the expression of algorithms to be concise and easier to communicate. In summary, by combining several well-established open-source tools, we were able to put together a flexible computation and visualisation environment that helped communicate and build confidence in planning ideas.

  2. Auxiliary Propulsion Activities in Support of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Philip J.; Unger, Ronald J.; Waits, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) procurement mechanism NRA8-30 initiated the Auxiliary Propulsion System/Main Propulsion System (APS/MPS) Project in 2001 to address technology gaps and development risks for non-toxic and cryogenic propellants for auxiliary propulsion applications. These applications include reaction control and orbital maneuvering engines, and storage, pressure control, and transfer technologies associated with on-orbit maintenance of cryogens. The project has successfully evolved over several years in response to changing requirements for re-usable launch vehicle technologies, general launch technology improvements, and, most recently, exploration technologies. Lessons learned based on actual hardware performance have also played a part in the project evolution to focus now on those technologies deemed specifically relevant to the Exploration Initiative. Formal relevance reviews held in the spring of 2004 resulted in authority for continuation of the Auxiliary Propulsion Project through Fiscal Year 2005 (FY05), and provided for a direct reporting path to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The tasks determined to be relevant under the project were: continuation of the development, fabrication, and delivery of three 870 lbf thrust prototype LOX/ethanol reaction control engines; the fabrication, assembly, engine integration and testing of the Auxiliary Propulsion Test Bed at White Sands Test Facility; and the completion of FY04 cryogenic fluid management component and subsystem development tasks (mass gauging, pressure control, and liquid acquisition elements). This paper presents an overview of those tasks, their scope, expectations, and results to-date as carried forward into the Exploration Initiative.

  3. FINAL.0 July 27, 2010 NASA Advisory Council Exploration Committee

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    , 2010 Jet Propulsion Laboratory - 4800 Oak Grove Drive - Building 180, Room 101; and von Karman Advisory Council Exploration Committee Tuesday/Wednesday, August 3 - 4, 2010 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Constellation Program Manager 10:00 Break 10:15 Heavy Lift and Propulsion Technology Cristina Guidi, Deputy

  4. NASA's Planned Fuel Cell Development Activities for 2009 and Beyond in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.

  5. NAC Exploration Committee April 26-27 Minutes CORRECTED 5/24/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    NAC Exploration Committee April 26-27 Minutes ­ CORRECTED 5/24/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC) Exploration Committee CORRECTED MINUTES Meeting Date: April 26-27, 2010 AGENDA: · Briefing on Federal Advisory Committee Act · Ethics Briefing · NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Status · ESMD FY11

  6. Opportunities within NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate for Engineering Students and Faculty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) launched two new Educational Projects: (1) The ESMID Space Grant Student Project ; and (2) The ESM1D Space Grant Faculty Project. The Student Project consists of three student opportunities: exploration-related internships at NASA Centers or with space-related industry, senior design projects, and system engineering paper competitions. The ESMID Space Grant Faculty Project consists of two faculty opportunities: (1) a summer faculty fellowship; and (2) funding to develop a senior design course.

  7. Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets: Programmatic Preparations for Europa Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Rummel

    2007-01-01

    A new era of planetary exploration - and the investigation of whether life exists or has existed beyond Earth - requires the development of biologically relevant instruments capable of extensive, autonomous operations on and below planetary surfaces. In collaboration with other agencies, NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) Program sponsors investigations focused on exploring the Earth's extreme

  8. The SAO\\/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Henneken; A. Accomazzi; C. S. Grant; M. J. Kurtz; D. Thompson; E. Bohlen; S. S. Murray

    2009-01-01

    The SAO\\/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  9. NASA Planetary Scientist Profile Emily Wilson - Duration: 2 minutes, 48 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA scientist Emily Wilson discusses her work developing miniaturized instruments that measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Her latest instrument, the mini-LHR, works in tandem with AERONET...

  10. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  11. NASA's Learning Technology Project: Developing Educational Tools for the Next Generation of Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federman, A. N.; Hogan, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    Since 1996, NASA's Learning Technology has pioneered the use of innovative technology toinspire students to pursue careers in STEM(Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.) In the past this has included Web sites like Quest and the Observatorium, webcasts and distance learning courses, and even interactive television broadcasts. Our current focus is on development of several mission oriented software packages, targeted primarily at the middle-school population, but flexible enough to be used by elementary to graduate students. These products include contributions to an open source solar system simulator, a 3D planetary encyclopedia), development of a planetary surface viewer (atlas) and others. Whenever possible these software products are written to be 'open source' and multi-platform, for the widest use and easiest access for developers. Along with the software products, we are developing activities and lesson plans that are tested and used by educators in the classroom. The products are reviewed by professional educators. Together these products constitute the NASA Experential Platform for learning, in which the tools used by the public are similar (and in some respects) the same as those used by professional investigators. Efforts are now underway to incorporate actual MODIS and other real time data uplink capabilities.

  12. NASA's M and S Accreditation Process Plan and Specification for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, David; Hale, Joe

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) is implementing a management approach for modeling and simulation (M&S) that will provide decision-makers information on the model's fidelity, credibility, and quality. This information will allow the decision-maker to understand the risks involved in using a model's results in the decision-making process. This presentation will discuss NASA's overall approach to achieving formal accreditation of its models or simulations supporting space exploration. The development of a formal Accreditation Plan is a key component in the preliminary activities for modeling and simulation (M&S) assessment. This presentation will describe NASA's process for identifying risks associated with M&S use and the associated M&S assessments that will dictate the level of data certification and M&S verification and validation (V&V) activities required to support the decision-making process. The M&S Accreditation Plan and Report templates for ESMD will also be illustrated.

  13. NASA Exploration Team (NExT) In-Space Transportation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Cooke, Douglas R.; Kos, Larry D.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of NASA Exploration Team's (NEXT) vision of in-space transportation in the future. Hurdles facing in-space transportation include affordable power sources, crew health and safety, optimized robotic and human operations and space systems performance. Topics covered include: exploration of Earth's neighborhood, Earth's neighborhood architecture and elements, Mars mission trajectory options, delta-v variations, Mars mission duration options, Mars mission architecture, nuclear electric propulsion advantages and miscellaneous technology needs.

  14. NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

  15. NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

  16. NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

  17. Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  18. Enabling Laser and Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  19. "Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

  20. NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Robinson; Tracy L. Thumm; Donald A. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments

  1. NASA's Role in Addressing Misconceptions: Scale of Our Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2014-07-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. As of early September 2013, there were over 940 known planets orbiting other stars. Planetary systems are fairly common, and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the “Goldilocks Zone,” implying that there may be many habitable planets. The Next Generation Science Standards includes the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. While we are learning more about the nature of our Solar System and its planets by studying other planetary systems, our discoveries are heavily biased by the techniques used to detect these systems: primarily radial velocity, transits, and direct observations.

  2. Development of In Situ Instruments for Planetary Exploration - Unique Challenges in Design, Development, and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy; Beauchamp, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing in situ instruments for NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) In Situ Instrumentation; 2) Planetary Extremes; 3) Mars Surface Environment; 4) Lunar Precursor Mission Environment; 5) Europa Surface Analogue; 6) Other Parameters; 7) Space In Situ Instrumentation still in its Infancy; 8) Needed Capabilities For In Situ Science; 9) Framework For Putting The Pieces Together; 10) The Wild World of Astrobiology; 11) Timeline; 12) Example: MOD; 13) In Situ Sample Analysis Laboratories are more complex; 14) technologies In Situ Sample Analysis Requires Integration of Many Emerging Advanced Concepts; 15) Supporting technologies for In Situ Laboratories; 16) Micro-laboratory example; 17) In Situ Instrument Classes; and 18) Key for Analytical Instrument:Sample Preparation.

  3. They say that good things come in small packages, and this has certainly been true for NASA's Explorer Program. Explorers are

    E-print Network

    the solar panels to recharge the battery during the day side. Over a period of twenty-eight months's Explorer Program. Explorers are among the lowest-cost missions flown by NASA, but they can pack a big together to produce this view of the galaxy next door. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech ssttooryry | A| ASSK

  4. Discovery planetary mission operations concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Coffin

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing Discovery missions

  5. Space Applications of the FLUKA Monte-Carlo Code: Lunar and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, V.; Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Elkhayari, N.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadoli, E.; Gazelli, M. V.; LeBourgeois, M.; Lee, K. T.; Mayes, B.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Rancati, T.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannocchio, D.; Smirnov, G.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has recognized the need for making additional heavy-ion collision measurements at the U.S. Brookhaven National Laboratory in order to support further improvement of several particle physics transport-code models for space exploration applications. FLUKA has been identified as one of these codes and we will review the nature and status of this investigation as it relates to high-energy heavy-ion physics.

  6. Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) as a sampler for future planetary exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Dolgin, B. P.; Bridges, N.; Bao, X.; Chang, Z.; Saunders, R. S.; Pal, D.; Krohl, J.; Peterson, T.

    2000-01-01

    Future NASA exploration missions to Mars, Europa, Titan, comets and asteroids are seeking to perform sampling, in-situ analysis and possibly return of material to Earth for further tests. One of the major limitations of sampling in low gravity environments is the conventional sampling in low gravity environments is the conventional drills need for high axial force. An ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) mechanism was developed to address these and other limitations of existing drilling techniques.

  7. Highly Sensitive Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometers for In Situ Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasudev, Ram; Mansour, Kamjou; Webster, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes highly sensitive tunable diode laser spectrometers suitable for in situ planetary exploration. The technology developed at JPL is based on wavelength modulated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. It is capable of sensitively detecting chemical signatures of life through the abundance of biogenic molecules and their isotopic composition, and chemicals such as water necessary for habitats of life. The technology would be suitable for searching for biomarkers, extinct life, potential habitats of extant life, and signatures of ancient climates on Mars; and for detecting biomarkers, prebiotic chemicals and habitats of life in the outer Solar System. It would be useful for prospecting for water on the Moon and asteroids, and characterizing its isotopic composition. Deployment on the Moon could provide ground truth to the recent remote measurements and help to uncover precious records of the early bombardment history of the inner Solar System buried at the shadowed poles, and elucidate the mechanism for the generation of near-surface water in the illuminated regions. The technology would also be useful for detecting other volatile molecules in planetary atmospheres and subsurface reservoirs, isotopic characterization of planetary materials, and searching for signatures of extinct life preserved in solid matrices.

  8. Calibration of a vision-based system for displacement measurement in planetary exploration space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertile, M.; Magnabosco, M.; Debei, S.

    2010-07-01

    In planetary exploration space missions, motion measurement of a vehicle on the surface of a planet is a very important task. In this work a visual-odometry solution is analyzed. Particularly, a vision-based displacement instrument is described and calibrated using a simulated rocky scene. The most significant uncertainty sources are found out by experimental tests. Particular attention is dedicated to the uncertainty contributions of the feature detector and of lighting conditions. Two different motion directions are considered and the evaluated uncertainty are compared.

  9. Statistical exploration and volume reduction of planetary remote sensing spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, G. A.; Roush, T. L.; Blanco, A.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.

    2008-12-01

    Modern planetary scientific experiments are providing a huge amount of information that requires extensive analysis and evaluation in order to understand its scientific content. In this work we evaluate the ability of a previously developed and evaluated technique to explore a large data set in order to identify the cluster representatives of the spectral variability of a selected Martian region and obtain a reduction of the original data volume ~2 × 104. We also demonstrate that the cluster centroids are able to quantitatively reproduce previously interpreted atmospheric, topographic, and compositional properties. The results build additional confidence in the application of the statistical techniques.

  10. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  11. Observations of the 5-day planetary wave in PMC measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Satellite

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Observations of the 5-day planetary wave in PMC measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Satellite, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(4), 1196, doi:10; revised 5 December 2002; accepted 17 December 2002; published 28 February 2003. [1] The Student Nitric

  12. Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, Franklin D.

    2005-02-01

    The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved, not just as contractors to NASA, but as sources of investment and direct beneficiaries of returns; in short, full participants in a long-term program that can transform the future of mankind. In order to make the vision both sustainable and affordable, true partnerships involving industry, academia and government must exist to create Earth benefits while working on needed exploration technologies and, at the same time, provide the added investments that will inevitably be required in extended periods of fiscal restraint. Such partnership programs, embodied in the Research Partnership Centers, have long existed within NASA. They have recently been realigned to more fully support the exploration vision and brought into the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This program and its past and potential contributions to the exploration vision will be described in detail at the conference.

  13. 75 FR 15742 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION...National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...CONTACT: Ms. Jane Parham, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  14. NAC Exploration Committee August 3-4, 2010 Minutes CORRECTED 9/27/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    NAC Exploration Committee August 3-4, 2010 Minutes ­ CORRECTED 9/27/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC) Exploration Committee CORRECTED MINUTES Meeting Date: August 3-4, 2010 AGENDA: · Exploration Program Status Session with Technology & Innovation Committee o Review of Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) o ESMD

  15. Solar system exploration from the Moon: Synoptic and comparative study of bodies in our Planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruston, P.; Mumma, M. J.

    1994-06-01

    An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.

  16. Development of Spacecraft to Exploit Electric Propulsion for Outer Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor); Noland, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Outer planetary exploration spacecraft have relied on Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) to provide power. This is necessary as solar power is not useful beyond the inner planets. For propulsion these spacecraft have made use of chemical systems. A study was undertaken to look at the possibility of designing a spacecraft for outer planetary exploration that would use an RPS in combination with Electric Propulsion. That is, the RPS would be the sole power provider to the EP system. Recent improvements in RPS s have made Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) more of a possibility. The combined power and propulsion technologies of REP and a direct trajectory would potentially enable a new class of missions - high delta V, beyond Mars orbit for a small spacecraft primarily suited for small body capture (orbit capture or co-orbit). A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a REP spacecraft for a selected representative mission of this type. To evaluate the potential of these technologies, a design reference mission was established and a conceptual design of a spacecraft developed. The following paper describes the Ion Propulsion System, one particular subsystem onboard of the spacecraft.

  17. NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists…

  18. Demonstration of the feasibility of an integrated x ray laboratory for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, E. D.; Kerner, J. A.; Koppel, L. N.; Boyle, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The identification of minerals and elemental compositions is an important component in the geological and exobiological exploration of the solar system. X ray diffraction and fluorescence are common techniques for obtaining these data. The feasibility of combining these analytical techniques in an integrated x ray laboratory compatible with the volume, mass, and power constraints imposed by many planetary missions was demonstrated. Breadboard level hardware was developed to cover the range of diffraction lines produced by minerals, clays, and amorphous; and to detect the x ray fluorescence emissions of elements from carbon through uranium. These breadboard modules were fabricated and used to demonstrate the ability to detect elements and minerals. Additional effort is required to establish the detection limits of the breadboard modules and to integrate diffraction and fluorescence techniques into a single unit. It was concluded that this integrated x ray laboratory capability will be a valuable tool in the geological and exobiological exploration of the solar system.

  19. NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

  20. NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

  1. NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

  2. Explore! To the Moon and Beyond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lunar and Planetary Institute

    2010-01-01

    These activities and resources are related to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and were developed for use by libraries. The module is part of Lunar and Planetary Institute's Explore! program.

  3. Planetary Sciences Subcommittee September 3-4, 2014 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    as Opportunity Rover), Mars Express (MEX), Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Mars Science Status Update 6 Mars Exploration Program Update 8 Mars 2020 Status Report 9 Outer Planets Program Update). The missions reviewed were Cassini, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Mars Exploration Rover (MER, also known

  4. Layered Metals Fabrication Technology Development for Support of Lunar Exploration at NASA\\/MSFC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Cooper; James E. Good; Scott D. Gilley

    2007-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for missions to the Moon and beyond. In support of these missions, engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are developing technologies for ground-based and in-situ fabrication capabilities utilizing provisioned and locally-refined materials. Development efforts are pushing state-of-the art fabrication technologies to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical

  5. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports are presented from volume 2 of the conference titled Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions, poster session. Topics included spacecraft fire suppression and fire extinguishing agents,materials flammability, various topics on the effects of microgravity including crystal growth, fluid mechanics, electric particulate suspension, melting and solidification, bubble formation, the sloshing of liquid fuels, biological studies, separation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU.

  6. Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced by President George W. Bush in 2004 sets NASA and the nation on a bold path to return to the Moon and one day put a human on Mars. The long-term endeavor represented by the VSE is, however, subject to the constraints imposed by annual funding. Given that the VSE may take tens of years to implement,…

  7. Human exploration of space: A review of NASA's 90-day study and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stever, H. Guyford; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Gavin, Joseph G.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Levinthal, Elliott C.; Mar, James W.; Mcelroy, John H.; Mcruer, Duane T.; Merrell, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) examines the NASA Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, and alternative concepts. Included in this paper, prepared for the National Space Council, are the answers to a challenging set of questions posed by the Vice President. Concerns addressed include: the appropriate pace, the scope of human exploration, the level of long-term support required, the technology development available and needed, the feasibility of long-duration human spaceflight in a low-gravity environment, scientific objectives, and other considerations such as costs and risks.

  8. Time-resolved stand-off UV-Raman spectroscopy for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulinova, M.; Lefebvre, C.; Sobron, P.; Eshelman, E.; Daly, M.; Gravel, J.-F.; Cormier, J.-F.; Châteauneuf, F.; Slater, G.; Zheng, W.; Koujelev, A.; Léveillé, R.

    2014-03-01

    The exploration of Mars, Europa and Enceladus has provided evidence that support the existence of present or past potentially habitable environments, which may shelter signatures of extinct or extant life. A search for further evidence for habitability or for life requires the development of sophisticated instruments and techniques that enable detailed investigations of locations, which are of great interest to planetary scientists and astrobiologists. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful and versatile technique; a rover based Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) operating at 532 nm excitation wavelength has been selected for the 2018 ExoMars mission. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of the utilisation of a time-resolved stand-off UV-Raman prototype for the detection and identification of pure organics, organics mixed in a quartz matrix and minerals that have been selected based on their potential relevance to astrobiology and planetary exploration. The samples of organics (?-carotene, L-ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, L-alanine, L-serine, thymine), carbonates (calcite, dolomite), sulfates (gypsum), silicates (quartz), and natural rock (an altered meta-volcanic rock featuring quartz inclusions) were analyzed at a distance of 6 m using a 355 nm excitation source and a gated intensified charged-coupled device (ICCD) as the detector. We were able to obtain spectra with clear Raman signals enabling unequivocal identification of all selected samples. We assert for the first time, that such an instrument can effectively identify minerals and a wide range of organics that may serve as geo- and biomarkers thus showing great potential for the exploration of planets and astrobiology.

  9. 2010 NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate: Lunabotics Mining Competition Systems Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A fast growing approach in determining the best design concept for a problem is to hold a competition in which the rules are based on requirements similar to the actual problem. By going public with such competitions, sponsoring entities receive some of the most innovative engineering solutions in a fraction of the time and cost it would have taken to develop such concepts internally. Space exploration is a large benefactor of such design competitions as seen by the results of X-Prize Foundation and NASA lunar excavation competitions [1]. The results of NASA's past lunar excavator challenges has led to the need for an effective means of collecting lunar regolith in the absence of human beings. The 2010 Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Lunar Excavation Challenge was created "to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM, in a competitive environment that may result in innovative ideas and solutions, which could be applied to actual lunar excavation for NASA." [2]. The ESMD Challenge calls for "teams to use telerobotics or autonomous operations to excavate at least 10kg of lunar regolith simulant in a 15 minute time limit" [2]. The Systems Engineering approach was used in accordance with Auburn University's mechanical engineering senior design course (MECH 4240-50) to develop a telerobotic lunar excavator, seen in Fig. 1, that fulfilled requirements imposed by the NASA ESMD Competition Rules. The goal of the senior design project was to have a validated lunar excavator that would be used in the NASA ESMD lunar excavation challenge.

  10. Lessons learned from and the future for NASA's Small Explorer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, George P.

    1991-01-01

    NASA started the Small Explorer Program to provide space scientists with an opportunity to conduct space science research in the Explorer Program using scientific payloads launched on small-class expendable launch vehicles. A series of small payload, scientific missions was envisioned that could be launched at the rate of one to two missions per year. Three missions were selected in April 1989: Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer, and Sub-millimeter Wave Astronomy. These missions are planned for launch in June 1992, September 1994 and June 1995, respectively. At a program level, this paper presents the history, objectives, status, and lessons learned which may be applicable to similar programs, and discusses future program plans.

  11. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a compilation of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principle investigators and their associates, supported through the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program.

  12. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1986-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A compilation is presented of selected bibliographic data relating to recent publications submitted by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

  13. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principal investigators and their associates, supported through the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is presented.

  14. Submission of Earth-based ring occultation observations to the NASA planetary data system rings discipline node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    This is a technical report summarizing our progress in our program of contributing high quality Earth-based occultation observations to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Rings Node. During our first year of funding, we selected five data sets for eventual inclusion in the PDS Rings Node. These were Uranus occultation observations obtained by the PI and co-workers from the IRTF of event stars U34 (26 April 1986), U1052 (5 May 1988), U65 (21 June 1990), U7872 (25 June 1991), and U7808 (28 June 1991). In our original proposal, we described four tasks: data sets to a common format; documentation of the occultation observations and associated calibrations; calculation of the occultation geometry for each event; establish prototype PDS templates. As discussed in our renewal proposal, submitted 8 June 1993, we have completed the first three tasks, and are working on the fourth. As an indication of our progress to date, we provide information about each of the data sets, their formats, the documentation, and the method used for reconstructing the occultation geometry.

  15. Activities of the NASA Exploration Team Human-Robotics Working Group Chris Culbert, Jen Rochlis, Fred Rehnmark, David Kortenkamp, Kevin Watson,

    E-print Network

    Kortenkamp, David

    Activities of the NASA Exploration Team Human-Robotics Working Group Chris Culbert, Jen Rochlis of the work performed by the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT) Human-Robotics Working Group. The team had of heterogeneous teams of human and robot pioneers is central to the NASA Exploration Team's strategic vision

  16. Servant Leadership: How does NASA Serve the Interests of Humankind in Aerospace Exploration and the Role STEM Plays in it?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides a description of technology efforts illustrative of NASA Glenn Research Center Core competencies and which exemplifies how NASA serves the interest of humankind in aerospace exploration. Examples are provided as talking points to illustrate the role that career paths in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) plays in the aforementioned endeavor.

  17. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D

    1980-03-01

    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation. PMID:16592781

  18. Interactives: Comets, Orbital Motions, and Virtual Ballooning to Explore Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R. M.; Genyuk, J.

    2009-12-01

    We will demonstrate interactives and animations from the Windows to the Universe web site (www.windows.ucar.edu) covering three topics: cometary orbits and tails, orbit shapes and orbital motions, and virtual ballooning to explore planetary atmospheres. The comet interactive illustrates the range of shapes and sizes of cometary orbits, the formation of tails when a comet nears the Sun, and the orientations of the dust and ion tails. Our suite of animations and interactives about orbits and orbital motions help learners understand the shapes (eccentricity) and sizes (semi-major axis) of orbits as well as variations in orbital velocity from perihelion to aphelion. Our Mars orbit interactive illustrates the variations in distance between Earth and Mars as the planets orbit and at successive oppositions (closest approaches), which has influenced the history of both telescopic observations of the Red Planet as well as the timing of space missions to Mars. The virtual ballooning interactive enables students to explore the structures of atmospheres by launching virtual weather balloons that send back data on the variation of pressure and temperature with altitude. Learners set the altitude ranges and sampling frequencies for their balloon-borne virtual instruments and collect data over the course of four flights. Students learn about the pressure variation with altitude, temperature vs. altitude relationships in different atmospheric layers, and how to be thoughtful and selective during experimental data collection. Students can explore the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and Titan as well as Earth.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable, Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated December 2017. SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. For the United States current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. This version will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. SLS is designed to evolve to a 130 t lift capability that can reduce mission costs, simplify payload design, reduce trip times, and lower overall risk. Each vehicle element completed its respective Preliminary Design Reviews, followed by the SLS Program. The Program also completed the Key Decision Point-C milestone to move from formulation to implementation in 2014. NASA hasthorized the program to proceed to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Accomplihments to date include: manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. This paper will discuss SLS Program successes over the past year and examine milestones and challenges ahead. The SLS Program and its elements are managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  20. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3), can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

  2. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Because of a change in the NASA funding cycle, the present reporting period covers only the six months from March to September 1991. Nevertheless, remarkable progress was made in a number of areas, some of the most noteworthy of which are: (1) Engineering operation of a breadboard CO2 yields O2 demonstration plant that produced over 10 grams of oxygen per day during several runs of over 100 hours each with a single electrolytic cell. Complete automation of controls, monitoring of various inputs/outputs and critical internal variables, diagnostics, and emergency shutdown in an orderly manner were also included. Moreover, 4-cell and 16-cell units, capable of much higher rates of production, were assembled and tested. (2) Demonstration of a 200 percent increase in the carbothermal reduction of ilmenite through vapor deposition of carbon layers on particles of that material. (3) Demonstration of the deposition of strong iron films from carbonyl chemical vapor deposition, establishing the crucial role of additive gases in governing the process. (4) Discovery of an apparent 800 percent increase in the conversion rates of a modified ilmenite simulant in a plasma-augmented reactor, including direct enhancement by solar radiation absorption. (5) Proof that test specimens of lunar soil with small amounts of metallic additives, recrystallized at moderate temperatures, exhibit an improvement of several orders of magnitude in ductility/tensile strength. (6) Experiments establishing the feasibility of producing silicon-based polymers from indigenous lunar materials. (7) Application of CCD technology to the production of maps of TiO2 abundance, defining primary ilmenite deposits, on the disk of the full moon. (8) Attainment of a discovery rate of approximately 3 new near-Earth asteroids per month by Spacewatch, more than doubling the previous global rate. (9) Coordination of industry and university magma electrolysis investigations in a workshop designed to define remaining problem areas and propose critical experiments.

  3. The Cassini mission to Saturn is the most ambi-tious effort in planetary space exploration ever

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    The Cassini mission to Saturn is the most ambi- tious effort in planetary space exploration ever the atmosphere to the surface of Saturn's largest and most interesting moon, Titan. Launched in 1997, Cassini will reach Saturn in 2004 after an interplanetary cruise spanning nearly seven years. Along the way, it has

  4. COMBINED MICROSCOPIC RAMAN AND LIBS FOR PLANETARY SURFACE EXPLORATION USING A FAST TIME-GATED DETECTOR. J. Blacksberg1

    E-print Network

    Rossman. George R.

    COMBINED MICROSCOPIC RAMAN AND LIBS FOR PLANETARY SURFACE EXPLORATION USING A FAST TIME Spectroscopy (LIBS) for elemental analysis. This com- bination yields a highly capable microscopic analysis an order of magnitude creates a microscopic plasma near the surface and enables the collection of LIBS

  5. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  6. Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.; Fairbridge, R. W.

    1997-09-01

    Containing more than 450 entries by some 200 eminent contributors from all over the world, the Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences is the first book to present this information in an authoritative yet approachable way. This encyclopedia deals with the atmospheres, surfaces and interiors of the planets and moons, and with the interplanetary environment of plasma fields, as well as with asteroids and meteorites. Processes such as accretion, differentiation, thermal evolution and impact cratering form another category of entries. Remote sensing techniques employed in investigation and exploration, such as magnetometry, photometry, and spectroscopy are described in separate articles. In addition the Encyclopedia chronicles the history of planetary science, including biographies of pioneering scientists, and detailed descriptions of all major lunar and planetary missions and programs. The Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences is superbly illustrated throughout with over 450 line drawings, 180 black and white photographs, and 63 colour illustrations. It will be a key reference source for planetary scientists, astronomers, and workers in related disciplines such as geophysics, geology and the atmospheric sciences. Included in this book is a PC and Mac compatible CD-ROM containing over 200 relevant planetary and related images available from NASA. This CD-ROM has been specially compiled for the Encyclopedia by The United States National Space Science Data Center.

  7. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration: NASA's First Step Toward Very High Data Rate Support of Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroson, Don M.; Robinson, Bryan S.

    2014-12-01

    Future NASA missions for both Science and Exploration will have needs for much higher data rates than are presently available, even with NASA's highly-capable Space- and Deep-Space Networks. As a first step towards this end, for one month in late 2013, NASA's Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) successfully demonstrated for the first time high-rate duplex laser communications between a satellite in lunar orbit, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and multiple ground stations on the Earth. It constituted the longest-range laser communication link ever built and demonstrated the highest communication data rates ever achieved to or from the Moon.

  8. Lidar Past, Present, and Future in NASA's Earth and Space Science Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, Franco; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Abshire, James B.

    2004-01-01

    Lidar is firmly entrenched in the family of remote sensing technologies that NASA is developing and using. Still a relatively new technology, lidar should continue to experience significant advances and progress. Lidar is used in each one of the major research themes, including planetary exploration, in the Earth Sciences Directorate at Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA has and will continue to generate new lidar applications from ground, air and space for both Earth science and planetary exploration.

  9. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

  10. Development of NASA's Small Fission Power System for Science and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Mason, Lee S.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick R.; Creasy, John; Robinson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system has brought many exciting challenges to our nations scientific and engineering community over the past several decades. As we expand our visions to explore new, more challenging destinations, we must also expand our technology base to support these new missions. NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate is tasked with developing these technologies for future mission infusion and continues to seek answers to many existing technology gaps. One such technology gap is related to compact power systems (1 kWe) that provide abundant power for several years where solar energy is unavailable or inadequate. Below 1 kWe, Radioisotope Power Systems have been the workhorse for NASA and will continue to be used for lower power applications similar to the successful missions of Voyager, Ulysses, New Horizons, Cassini, and Curiosity. Above 1 kWe, fission power systems become an attractive technology offering a scalable modular design of the reactor, shield, power conversion, and heat transport subsystems. Near term emphasis has been placed in the 1-10kWe range that lies outside realistic radioisotope power levels and fills a promising technology gap capable of enabling both science and human exploration missions. History has shown that development of space reactors is technically, politically, and financially challenging and requires a new approach to their design and development. A small team of NASA and DOE experts are providing a solution to these enabling FPS technologies starting with the lowest power and most cost effective reactor series named Kilopower that is scalable from approximately 1-10 kWe.

  11. The ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) as a subsurface drill, sampler, and lab-on-a-drill for planetary exploration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Chang, Z.; Sherrit, S.; Badescu, M.; Bao, X.

    2005-05-01

    The search for existing or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's mission. For this purpose, effective instruments that can sample and conduct in-situ astrobiology analysis are being sought. In support of this objective, a novel Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) based mechanism has been developed to probe and sample rocks, ice and soil. The USDC consists of an ultrasonic actuator that impacts a coring or drilling bit at sonic frequencies through the use of an intermediate free-mass. The USDC can produce both a core and powdered cuttings as well as emit elastic waves into the penetrated medium. For planetary exploration, this mechanism has the important advantage of requiring low axial force, virtually no torque, and can be duty cycled to require low average power. This low axial load advantage overcomes a major limitation of planetary sampling in low gravity environments and when operating from lightweight robots and rovers. The low average power operation produces a minimum temperature rise which is important for the acquisition of biologically meaningful samples. The development of the USDC is being pursued on various fronts ranging from analytical modeling to improvements of the mechanism while seeking a wide range of applications. In this paper, the latest status of the USDC development and applications that are underway is reviewed and discussed.

  12. Exploring medium gravity icy planetary bodies: an opportunity in the Inner System by landing at Ceres high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, O.; Martinot, V.; Tobie, G.

    2009-04-01

    With potentially up to 25% of its mass as H2O and current indications of a differentiated morphology, 950km-wide "dwarf planet" Ceres is holding the promise to be our closest significant icy planetary body. Ceres is within easier reach than the icy moons, allowing for the use of solar arrays and not lying inside the deep gravity well of a giant planet. As such, it would represent an ideal step stone for future in-situ exploration of other airless icy bodies of major interest such as Europa or Enceladus. But when NASA's Dawn orbits Ceres and maps it in 2015, will we be ready to undertake the next logical step: landing? Ceres' gravity at its poles, at about one fifth of the Moon's gravity, is too large for rendezvous-like asteroid landing techniques to apply. Instead, we are there fully in the application domain of soft precision landing techniques such as the ones being developed for ESA's MoonNext mission. These latter require a spacecraft architecture akin to robotic lunar Landers or NASA's Phoenix, and differing from missions to comets and asteroids. If Dawn confirms the icy nature of Ceres under its regolith-covered surface, the potential presence of some ice spots on the surface would call for specific attention. Such spots would indeed be highly interesting landing sites. They are more likely to lie close to the poles of Ceres where cold temperatures should prevent exposed ice from sublimating and/or may limit the thickness of the regolith layer. Also the science and instruments suite should be fitted to study a large body that has probably been or may still be geologically active: its non-negligible gravity field combined with its high volatile mass fraction would then bring Ceres closer in morphology and history to an "Enceladus" or a frozen or near-frozen "Europa" than to a rubble-pile-structured asteroid or a comet nucleus. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary assessment of a mission to Ceres high latitudes. We present here why we think an in-situ mission to the polar areas of Ceres should be of interest in the near future. We dwell on the environmental factors and challenges for a Lander, both as specificities of Ceres and as a consequence of the high latitude targeted. Factors such as day duration, fine regolith, terrain hazards, optical contrasts, thermal gradients, planetary contamination... are reviewed. We then assess how the soft precision landing technologies being developed for other missions would apply in such an environment. We present a preliminary mission analysis and a concept for the Lander, with preliminary evaluation of mass and power resources for a fixed payload or for a mini-rover. The resulting mission design combines technological maturity and a launch mass that is found compatible with the moderate cost of a Soyuz launcher. Finally we conclude that a Ceres Polar Lander mission should be feasible, covered by automatic missions to the Moon in terms of difficulty of landing and by Dawn for the cruise. Lander missions to medium gravity bodies such as Ceres, Enceladus, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Iapetus, Triton… in the [0.01-0.15g] range should be accounted for in the development roadmaps of landing techniques and be considered in their return on investment. The synergies with the soft landing missions to come on Mars and Moon should then make a Ceres lander affordable for the agencies within the end of the next decade and pave the way for in-situ missions to more distant icy bodies.

  13. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described. PMID:25551493

  14. NAC Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense Apr 15-16, 2010 CORRECTED 6/10/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    : add member from the field of disaster management response. · Intersection between exploration programs, projects, activities and facilities related to planetary defense"). Breadth, specificity, and nature of Task Force output are works in progress. Co-Chairs will discuss with NAC. · Task Force should

  15. The Role of Astrobiology in Solar System Exploration: Report from the NASA Astrobiology Institute to the NRC Solar-System Exploration Steering Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Jakosky; D. J. Des Marais

    2001-01-01

    Astrobiology as related to solar-system exploration addresses far more than just the search for life in our solar system. It is about understanding the planets in our solar system as representing different outcomes in their formation, the nature of processes that affected those outcomes, and how those same processes might have operated elsewhere. It is about understanding planetary evolution and

  16. NASA's First Year Progress with Fuel Cell Advanced Development in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industry partners, is leading a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) advanced development effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort encompasses the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program, and is directed at multiple power levels for both primary and regenerative fuel cell systems. The major emphasis is the replacement of active mechanical ancillary components with passive components in order to reduce mass and parasitic power requirements, and to improve system reliability. A dual approach directed at both flow-through and non flow-through PEMFC system technologies is underway. A brief overview of the overall PEMFC project and its constituent tasks will be presented, along with in-depth technical accomplishments for the past year. Future potential technology development paths will also be discussed.

  17. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  18. Lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) as scientific tools for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Barfoot, Timothy D.; Ghafoor, Nadeem; Izawa, Matt; Banerjee, Neil; Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Tripp, Jeff; Richards, Robert; Auclair, Simon; Sapers, Haley; Thomson, Laura; Flemming, Roberta

    2010-03-01

    With the continued success of the Mars Exploration Rovers and the return of humans to the Moon within the next decade, a considerable amount of research is being done on the technologies required to provide surface mobility and the tools required to provide scientific capability. Here, we explore the utility of lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) - which is based on a stereo camera system - as scientific tools. Both of these technologies have been, or are being considered for, technological applications such as autonomous satellite rendezvous and rover navigation. We carried out a series of field tests at the 23 km diameter, 39 Ma, Haughton impact structure located on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic. Several sites of geological interest were investigated, including polygonal terrain, gullies and channels, slump/collapse features, impact melt breccia hills, and a site of impact-associated hydrothermal mineralization. These field tests show that lidar and mSM provide a superior visual record of the terrain, from the regional (km) to outcrop (m to cm) scale and in 3-D, as compared to standard digital photography. Thus, a key strength of these technologies is in situ reconnaissance and documentation. Lidar scans also provide a wealth of geometric and structural information about a site, accomplishing the equivalent of weeks to months of manual surveying and with much greater accuracy than traditional tools, making this extremely useful for planetary exploration missions. An unexpected result of these field tests is the potential for lidar and mSM to provide qualitative, and potentially quantitative, composition information about a site. Given the high probability of lidar and mSM being used on future lunar missions, we suggest that it would be beneficial to further investigate the potential for these technologies to be used as science tools.

  19. Planetary Exploration in the Time of Astrobiology: Protecting Against Biological Contamination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rummel, J. D. (John D.)

    This article discusses the history and future of planetary-protection restrictions. It begins by addressing the difficulty of discovering (possibly rare) life elsewhere, and then describes the potential difficulties of dealing with alien life that could be discovered on other worlds or in samples returned to the Earth from space. Sections include an introduction, planetary protection heritage, two examples forward and backward contamination, future planetary-protection challenges, and the role of academics.

  20. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Reeves, David; Drake, Bret; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth- Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. The scientific and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a mission to a NEA using NASA s proposed exploration systems a compelling endeavor.

  1. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1982 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.

  2. Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

    NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

  3. A Team Approach to the Development of Gamma Ray and x Ray Remote Sensing and in Situ Spectroscopy for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Floyd, S.; Ruitberg, A.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Metzger, A.; Reedy, R.; Drake, D.; Moss, C.; Edwards, B.

    1993-01-01

    An important part of the investigation of planetary origin and evolution is the determination of the surface composition of planets, comets, and asteroids. Measurements of discrete line X-ray and gamma ray emissions from condensed bodies in space can be used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative elemental composition information. The Planetary Instrumentation Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) X-Ray/Gamma Ray Team has been established to develop remote sensing and in situ technologies for future planetary exploration missions.

  4. Progress Made in Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Under NASA's Exploration Technology and Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and the production of mission critical consumables for 9 propulsion, power, and life support into mission architectures can greatly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of missions 10 leading to a sustainable and affordable approach to human exploration beyond Earth. ISRU and its products can 11 also greatly affect how other exploration systems are developed, including determining which technologies are 12 important or enabling. While the concept of lunar ISRU has existed for over 40 years, the technologies and systems 13 had not progressed much past simple laboratory proof-of-concept tests. With the release of the Vision for Space 14 Exploration in 2004 with the goal of harnessing the Moon.s resources, NASA initiated the ISRU Project in the 15 Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) to develop the technologies and systems needed to meet 16 this goal. In the five years of work in the ISRU Project, significant advancements and accomplishments occurred in 17 several important areas of lunar ISRU. Also, two analog field tests held in Hawaii in 2008 and 2010 demonstrated 18 all the steps in ISRU capabilities required along with the integration of ISRU products and hardware with 19 propulsion, power, and cryogenic storage systems. This paper will review the scope of the ISRU Project in the 20 ETDP, ISRU incorporation and development strategies utilized by the ISRU Project, and ISRU development and 21 test accomplishments over the five years of funded project activity.

  5. Breakthrough capability for the NASA Astrophysics Explorer Program: Reaching the darkest sky

    E-print Network

    Greenhouse, M A; Falck, R D; Fixsen, D J; Gardner, J P; Garvin, J B; Kruk, J W; Oleson, S R; Thronson, H A

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to ~13X increased photometric sensitivity and ~160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun-Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time ...

  6. The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been “institutes without walls,” fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes’ international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA’s strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA’s Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

  7. From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

  8. Nanobiomimetic Active Shape Control - Fluidic and Swarm-Intelligence Embodiments for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, S.

    The concepts of Active Shape Control ( ASC ) and of Generalized Quantum Holography ( GQH ), respectively embodying a closer approach to biomimicry than the current macrophysics-based attempts at bioinspired robotic systems, and realizing a non-connectionistic, life-like kind of information processing that allows increasingly depths of mimicking of the biological structure-function solidarity, which have been formulated in physical terms in previous papers, are here further investigated for application to bioinspired flying or swimming robots for planetary exploration. It is shown that nano-to-micro integration would give the deepest level of biomimicry, and that both low and very low Reynolds number ( Re ) fluidics would involve GQH and Fiber Bundle Topology ( FBT ) for processing information at the various levels of ASC bioinspired robotics. While very low Re flows lend themselves to geometrization of microrobot dynamics and to FBT design, the general design problem is geometrized through GQH , i.e. made independent of dynamic considerations, thus allowing possible problems of semantic dyscrasias in highly complex hierarchical dynamical chains of sensing information processing actuating to be overcome. A roadmap to near- and medium-term nanostructured and nano-to-micro integration realizations is suggested.

  9. Compact Neutron Generators for Medical Home Land Security andPlanetary Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.

    2005-05-11

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

  10. Aerosol optical depth and planetary Albedo in the visible from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naudet, J. P.; Thomas, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    The Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite has observed the visible sunlight scattered at the earth's limb since early 1982. By using a radiative-transfer model including multiple scattering and albedo effects, observations at 20 deg N latitude have been interpreted in terms of aerosol optical depth. The ratio of aerosol extinction to Rayleigh extinction at 431.8 nm shows a large increase after the eruption of El Chichon. A maximum ratio of 5 at 36 km and larger than 11 at 30 km occurred in the summer of 1982 followed by a decrease through 1983 and 1984. Aspects of the aerosol time evolution appear to be consistent with other observations and model predictions. Quantitative differences exist between inferred SME and lidar extinction coefficients, possibly due to the different wavelengths of the measurements and to the different scattering phase functions used in the two analyses. It is also shown that visible limb radiances provide information on the planetary albedo, which shows an increase from the equator to the poles with a maximum in the winter hemisphere and a minimum in the summer hemisphere.

  11. A micro seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer technology for planetary exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hai; Tang, Rui [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Carande, Bryce; Oiler, Jonathan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Zaitsev, Dmitri; Agafonov, Vadim [Center of Molecular Electronics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Center of Molecular Electronics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yu, Hongyu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States) [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-05-13

    This letter describes an implementation of micromachined seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET) technology. As opposed to a solid inertial mass, MET seismometer senses the movement of liquid electrolyte relative to fixed electrodes. The employment of micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques reduces the internal size of the sensing cell to 1{mu}m and improves the reproducibility of the device. For operating bias of 600 mV, a sensitivity of 809 V/(m/s{sup 2}) was measured under acceleration of 400{mu}g(g{identical_to}9.81m/s{sup 2}) at 0.32 Hz. A -115 dB (relative to (m/s{sup 2})/{radical}(Hz)) noise level at 1 Hz was achieved. This work develops an alternative paradigm of seismic sensing device with small size, high sensitivity, low noise floor, high shock tolerance, and independence of installation angle, which is promising for next generation seismometers for planetary exploration.

  12. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1983 - 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witbeck, N. E. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    A compilation is given of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principle investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. Topics include the solar system, asteroids, volcanoes, stratigraphy, remote sensing, and planetary craters.

  13. Extensions to the Visual Odometry Pipeline for the Exploration of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgale, Paul Timothy

    Mars represents one of the most important targets for space exploration in the next 10 to 30 years, particularly because of evidence of liquid water in the planet's past. Current environmental conditions dictate that any existing water reserves will be in the form of ice; finding and sampling these ice deposits would further the study of the planet's climate history, further the search for evidence of life, and facilitate in-situ resource utilization during future manned exploration missions. This thesis presents a suite of algorithms to help enable a robotic ice-prospecting mission to Mars. Starting from visual odometry---the estimation of a rover's motion using a stereo camera as the primary sensor---we develop the following extensions: (i) a coupled surface/subsurface modelling system that provides novel data products to scientists working remotely, (ii) an autonomous retrotraverse system that allows a rover to return to previously visited places along a route for sampling, or to return a sample to an ascent vehicle, and (iii) the extension of the appearance-based visual odometry pipeline to an actively illuminated light detection and ranging sensor that provides data similar to a stereo camera but is not reliant on consistent ambient lighting, thereby enabling appearance-based vision techniques to be used in environments that are not conducive to passive cameras, such as underground mines or permanently shadowed craters on the moon. All algorithms are evaluated on real data collected using our field robot at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, or at a planetary analogue site on Devon Island, in the Canadian High Arctic.

  14. Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

  15. Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Wilhelm; R. Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning (REAL) is an innovative and new approach to student learning that thoughtfully integrates the excitement of space science discovery with science and mathematics. Students explore NASA images of planetary surfaces using the contexts of crater density, cratering rates, and surface age while developing critical thinking skills in science and mathematics that can be applied to

  16. Future Io Exploration for 2013-2022 and Beyond: A White Paper submitted for the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Lopes, R. M.; de Pater, I.; Schneider, N. M.; Marchis, F.; Moses, J. I.; Davies, A. G.; Perry, J.; Kargel, J. S.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Paranicas, C.; McEwen, A. S.; Jessup, K.; Goldstein, D.; Bunte, M. K.; Rathbun, J. A.; McGrath, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Jupiter's satellite Io is the most geologically dynamic solid body in the Solar System. Io undergoes severe tidal heating, induced by the orbital eccentricity forced by Jupiter and the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance between Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Io's high global heat flow (>2 W m-2, compared to the 0.06 W m-2 average for Earth) presages an extremely rich array of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and atmospheric phenomena operating at a scale not currently seen active anywhere else in our Solar System. Thus we are not restricted, as on other planetary bodies, to reconstructing processes from their long-dead remains. Io also is the main source of neutral gas, plasma, and dust to the Jovian magnetosphere. And importantly, Io is the best place in the Solar System to study the effects of tidal heating. Testing models of tidal heating on Io has implications for many satellites in our own Solar System, and to the possibility of expanded habitability zones in extrasolar systems. Io's history is directly linked to the evolution of the one of most promising sites for extraterrestrial life, Europa. By studying the time-variable orbital and thermal evolution of Io, we also gain a better understanding of time-variable tidal heating of Europa, with obvious implications for the sustainability of its putative subsurface ocean and history of habitability. An Io-dedicated mission that operates in the 2013-2022 timeframe could identify key parameters involved in Europa’s orbital-thermal evolution, which can be further investigated by the NASA-ESA Europa-Jupiter System Mission's (EJSM) orbiters when they enter the Jovian system in 2025. This presentation will review the science objectives and proposed mission concepts for future exploration of Io in the next decade and beyond. We recommend specific mission concepts and instruments be implemented during the next Decadal Survey period. These include: 1) a Jupiter-orbiting spacecraft (Io Observer) of either Discovery-class or New Frontiers-class designed to investigate the tidal heating of Io and its effects; 2) a space-based UV telescope with diffraction-limited capability, that is able to resolve Io; 3) monitoring of Io's volcanism over a variety of time scales (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years) and spectral and spatial resolutions on future Jovian missions, as is currently planned by EJSM; and 4) expanded time for infrared Io observations by ground-based 8- to 10-m class telescopes, particularly those with Adaptive Optics capability.

  17. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  18. Testing of the Crew Exploration Vehicle in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Borg, Stephen E.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Cole, Daniel R.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a strategic, multi-facility test program, subscale testing of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle was conducted in both legs of NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate aerodynamic and surface pressure data over a range of supersonic Mach numbers and reentry angles of attack for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. To provide initial information on boundary layer transition at supersonic test conditions, transition studies were conducted using temperature sensitive paint and infrared thermography optical techniques. To support implementation of these optical diagnostics in the Unitary Wind Tunnel, the experiment was first modeled using the Virtual Diagnostics Interface software. For reentry orientations of 140 to 170 degrees (heat shield forward), windward surface flow was entirely laminar for freestream unit Reynolds numbers equal to or less than 3 million per foot. Optical techniques showed qualitative evidence of forced transition on the windward heat shield with application of both distributed grit and discreet trip dots. Longitudinal static force and moment data showed the largest differences with Mach number and angle of attack variations. Differences associated with Reynolds number variation and/or laminar versus turbulent flow on the heat shield were very small. Static surface pressure data supported the aforementioned trends with Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack.

  19. Exploring the inner heliosphere with the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. P.; Sentinels Team

    We present the results of the study by the Science and Technology Definition Team STDT to define the NASA Sentinels mission the heliospheric element of the integrated LWS program The objective of the Sentinels is to discover understand and model the connection between solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections CMEs and heliospheric and magnetospheric events such as Solar Particle Events SPEs that can adversely impact life and society in particular NASA s exploration initiative to the Moon Mars and beyond The primary objective of Sentinels is to provide the observations necessary for an understanding of the physics of the Sun inner heliosphere processes that affect the solar system so the requirements for eventual predictive capability can be defined This can be achieved with a combination of the Inner Heliosphere Sentinels consisting of four identical spacecraft that utilize Venus gravity assists to achieve 0 25-0 75 AU orbits primarily for in situ particles and fields measurements a Near-Earth Sentinel with spectroscopic and wide field sim 0 3 AU coronagraphs and a Farside Sentinel with a magnetograph to provide near global photospheric magnetic field measurements for modeling

  20. Saga, A Small Advanced Geochemistry Assembly With Micro-rover For The Exploration Of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, J.; Saga Team

    During future lander missions on Mars, Moon, or Mercury, it is highly advisable to extend the reach of instruments and to bring them to the actual sites of interest to measure in-situ selected surface samples (rocks, soils, or regolith). Particularly, geo- chemical measurements (determination of chemistry, mineralogy, and surface texture) are of utmost importance, because they provide key data on the nature of the sur- face samples. The obtained data will contribute to the classification of these samples. On Mars, weathering processes can also be studied provided some grinding tools are available. Also, the existence of ancient water activities, if any, can be searched for (e.g. sediments, hydroxides, hydrated minerals, or evaporates). The combined geo- chemical data sets of several samples and one/or several landing sites provide an im- portant base for the understanding of planetary surface processes and, hence, plan- etary evolution. A light-weight integrated instrument package and a micro-rover is proposed for future geochemical investigations. SAGA (Small Advanced Geochem- istry Assembly) will consist of several small geochemistry instruments and a tool that are packaged in a compact payload cab: the chemical Alpha Particle X-Ray Spec- trometer (APXS), the mineralogical Mössbauer Spectrometer (MIMOS), the textural close-up camera (MIROCAM), and a blower/grinder tool. These instruments have or will get flight heritage on upcoming ESA and NASA missions. The modularity of the concept permits to attach SAGA to any deployment device, specially, to the pro- posed small, lightweight micro-rover (dubbed SAGA?XT). Micro-rover technology has been developed for many years in Europe. One of the most advanced concepts is the tracked micro-rover SNanokhodT, developed recently in the frame of ESASs & cedil; Technology Research Programme (TRP). It has a total mass of about 3.5 kg (includ- ing payload and parts on the lander). This micro-rover is designed to drive to different target sites in the vicinity of a (small) lander. In the framework of the upcoming ESA Aurora programme, the further development of surface-mobile robots will be an im- portant technology area to improve control, navigation, and guidance of a micro-rover and the accurate docking of its instruments on selected targets.

  1. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  2. Final cryogenic performance report for the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, S. M.; Dipirro, M. J.; Castles, S. H.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Hopkins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The cryogenic operation of NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) ended on September 21, 1990, with the depletion of the liquid helium cryogen. The COBE had successfully completed more than 10 months of dewar and instrument operation. We report on the cryogenic performance of the COBE dewar and of the two cryogenic instruments throughout the mission lifetime. We discuss the steady state dewar performance, and the dewar and instrument response to a variety of transient thermal phenomena, including external radiation (from the earth and the sun) and instrument power variation. We present the effectiveness of using approximate mass gauging techniques in determining the liquid helium content. Finally we discuss the dewar behavior during the depletion of the helium, and the expected thermal performance of the dewar cryogen tank and the cryogenic instruments as they approach final thermal equilibrium.

  3. Layered Metals Fabrication Technology Development for Support of Lunar Exploration at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for missions to the Moon and beyond. In support of these missions, engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are developing technologies for ground-based and in-situ fabrication capabilities utilizing provisioned and locally-refined materials. Development efforts are pushing state-of-the art fabrication technologies to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, launch vehicle components and crew exercise equipment. This paper addresses current fabrication technologies relative to meeting targeted capabilities, near term advancement goals, and process certification of fabrication methods.

  4. Engaging Students from Minority Serving Institutions Through Research Internships in NASA Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, S. A.; Harrington, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Through an ongoing partnership with NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) the MESSENGER, New Horizons and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions have hosted science, engineering and computer science undergraduate and masters students in summer internships over the past several years. These programs have proved beneficial to students, their institutions and local communities, and to the NASA missions. The first internship opportunity was a highly successful partnership between MU-SPIN and the MESSENGER program where fifteen undergraduate and masters students were placed at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory during the testing and integration of the MESSENGER spacecraft in Summer 2003. Many of these students are either in NASA related jobs or are pursuing advanced degrees. For example, of the five students from City University of New York one is an Aerospace Engineer at Wallops Flight Facility, another received her MS in Computer Science and is working for the NSF Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program. One just received her BS in Math and was accepted to the NASA Academy at Glenn Research Center while another is continuing his studies in Computer Engineering at City College of New York. The only community college student intern is now a Space Grant Fellow at Penn State, majoring in aerospace engineering. Student interns from the MESSENGER program were also involved in community outreach following their internship. Several students from South Carolina State University presented their internship experiences to local science teachers during an in-service teacher workshop on the MESSENGER mission. The second internship program took place in Summer 2005 and placed students at Goddard Space Flight Center with LRO and at JHUAPL with the New Horizons mission. LRO interns worked with individual instrument teams while New Horizons interns were engaged in environmental testing and software development for the Pluto-bound spacecraft. The majority of the interns have expressed a desire to return next summer and at least two students were given the opportunity to continue work at JHUAPL. During our presentation, we will provide the results of follow-up interviews with the mentors and interns who took part in the 2005 internship program. We will also discussed lessons learned for those who are exploring implementing similar programs at their research centers or colleges and universities.

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  6. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  7. In-Space Propulsion Engine Architecture Based on Sublimation of Planetary Resources: From Exploration Robots to NED Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Mantovani, James; Dominquez, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this NIAC study is to identify those volatile and mineral resources that are available on asteroids, comets, moons and planets in the solar system, and investigate methods to transform these resources into forms of power that will expand the capabilities of future robotic and human exploration missions to explore planetary bodies beyond the Moon and will mitigate hazards from NEOs. The sources of power used for deep space probe missions are usually derived from either solar panels for electrical energy, radioisotope thermal generators for thermal energy, or fuel cells and chemical reactions for chemical energy and propulsion.

  8. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations team the opportunity to gain insight into functional hardware requirements via lessons learned from executing the Desert RATS field test missions. This paper will detail the mission control team structure that was used during the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS Lunar analog missions. It will also present a number of the lessons learned by the operations team during these field tests. Major lessons learned involved Mission Control Center (MCC) operations, pre-mission planning and training processes, procedure requirements, communication requirements, and logistic support for analogs. This knowledge will be applied to future Desert RATS field tests, and other Earth based analog testing for space exploration, to continue the evolution of manned space operations in preparation for human planetary exploration. It is important that operational knowledge for human space exploration missions be obtained during Earth-bound field tests to the greatest extent possible. This allows operations personnel the ability to examine various flight control and crew operations scenarios in preparation for actual space missions.

  9. Adaptive Bio-Inspired Wireless Network Routing for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard I.; Lee, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Wireless mobile networks suffer connectivity loss when used in a terrain that has hills, and valleys when line of sight is interrupted or range is exceeded. To resolve this problem and achieve acceptable network performance, we have designed an adaptive, configurable, hybrid system to automatically route network packets along the best path between multiple geographically dispersed modules. This is very useful in planetary surface exploration, especially for ad-hoc mobile networks, where computational devices take an active part in creating a network infrastructure, and can actually be used to route data dynamically and even store data for later transmission between networks. Using inspiration from biological systems, this research proposes to use ant trail algorithms with multi-layered information maps (topographic maps, RF coverage maps) to determine the best route through ad-hoc network at real time. The determination of best route is a complex one, and requires research into the appropriate metrics, best method to identify the best path, optimizing traffic capacity, network performance, reliability, processing capabilities and cost. Real ants are capable of finding the shortest path from their nest to a food source without visual sensing through the use of pheromones. They are also able to adapt to changes in the environment using subtle clues. To use ant trail algorithms, we need to define the probability function. The artificial ant is, in this case, a software agent that moves from node to node on a network graph. The function to calculate the fitness (evaluate the better path) includes: length of the network edge, the coverage index, topology graph index, and pheromone trail left behind by other ant agents. Each agent modifies the environment in two different ways: 1) Local trail updating: As the ant moves between nodes it updates the amount of pheromone on the edge; and 2) Global trail updating: When all ants have completed a tour the ant that found the shortest route updates the edges in its path.

  10. This is NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's first 20 years are described including the accomplishments of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics from its creation in 1915 until its absorption into NASA in 1958. Current and future activities are assessed in relation to the Federal R&D research plan for FY 1980 and to U.S. civil space policy. A NASA organization chart accompanies descriptions of the responsibilities of Headquarters, its various offices, and field installations. Directions are given for contacting the agency for business activities or contracting purposes; for obtaining educational publications and other media, and for tours. Manpower statistics are included with a list of career opportunities. Special emphasis is given to manned space flight, space launch vehicles, space shuttle, planetary exploration, and investigations of the stars and the solar system.

  11. Mars Sample Return Feedforward of Potential Planetary Protection Technology/Knowledge to Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, L. E.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Planetary protection considerations for Mars Sample Return and Human Extraterrestrial Missions clearly have significant overlap. What are some of the ways that considerations for the former may or may not feed forward to the latter?

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  13. NASA Now: Earth Science Week: Exploring Energy - Duration: 7 minutes, 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    During this installment of NASA Now, youâ??ll see some of the ways NASA studies Earth. Youâ??ll meet Eric Brown de Colstoun, a physical scientist at NASAâ??s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...

  14. Virtual Collaborations with the Real: NASA's New Era in Space Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Cooke; Butler P. Hine

    2002-01-01

    If new technologies can inspire a new understanding of our universe, we might ask how far and in what direction can computer science research itself be pushed? NASA is poised to play a significant role in answering this question. Traditionally, NASA has pointed the way for many new technologies. NASA has identified the directions that have led to the breakthroughs

  15. A Reliable Service-Oriented Architecture for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mak, Ronald; Walton, Joan; Keely, Leslie; Hehner, Dennis; Chan, Louise

    2005-01-01

    The Collaborative Information Portal (CIP) was enterprise software developed jointly by the NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's highly successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Both MER and CIP have performed far beyond their original expectations. Mission managers and engineers ran CIP inside the mission control room at JPL, and the scientists ran CIP in their laboratories, homes, and offices. All the users connected securely over the Internet. Since the mission ran on Mars time, CIP displayed the current time in various Mars and Earth time zones, and it presented staffing and event schedules with Martian time scales. Users could send and receive broadcast messages, and they could view and download data and image files generated by the rovers' instruments. CIP had a three-tiered, service-oriented architecture (SOA) based on industry standards, including J2EE and web services, and it integrated commercial off-the-shelf software. A user's interactions with the graphical interface of the CIP client application generated web services requests to the CIP middleware. The middleware accessed the back-end data repositories if necessary and returned results for these requests. The client application could make multiple service requests for a single user action and then present a composition of the results. This happened transparently, and many users did not even realize that they were connecting to a server. CIP performed well and was extremely reliable; it attained better than 99% uptime during the course of the mission. In this paper, we present overviews of the MER mission and of CIP. We show how CIP helped to fulfill some of the mission needs and how people used it. We discuss the criteria for choosing its architecture, and we describe how the developers made the software so reliable. CIP's reliability did not come about by chance, but was the result of several key design decisions. We conclude with some of the important lessons we learned form developing, deploying, and supporting the software.

  16. RS-25 for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle: The Evolution of SSME for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael H.; Genge, Gary G.; Greene, William D.; Jacobs, William; McArthur, J. Craig; Mims, Michael J.; Tepool, J. Eric; Wofford, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    As a first step towards the fulfillment of the National Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has begun development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). The CLV will act, in conjunction with the Crew Exploration Vehicle, as the next generation human launch system to first support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), then later to support the lunar return missions, and then after that to exploration missions to Mars and beyond. The CLV is a two-stage launch vehicle with the first stage based upon the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster. The newly designed, expendable second stage is powered by a single RS-25 liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket engine. The RS-25 is essentially the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) evolved for a new mission, new environments, and new conditions. The CLV Upper-Stage Engine (USE) office has been established to develop the RS-25 in support of the CLV Project. This paper presents an outline and discussion of the risks associated with this endeavor of transforming the SSME into the upper-stage, altitude-start RS-25 and the plans being undertaken to understand and mitigate these risks. In addition, to meet the long-term requirements of the CLV launch manifest, it will be necessary to redevelop the RS-25, with its long history as the reusable SSME for the Space Shuttle Program, as an expendable engine. While the first flights of CLV will be using heritage SSME hardware, beyond that a new version of RS-25 as an expendable engine is being pursued by the CLV USE element. The goals of this work include the need to make the hardware more producible while maintaining the inherent and inherited reliability of the basic design. This paper will also discuss the risks and present the plans for developing both this next generation version of the RS-25 and for developing the manufacturing capacity necessary to support the CLV Project.

  17. Using NASA NEO and ImageJ to Explore the Role of Snow Cover in Shaping Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    B. Youngman

    In this activity students download satellite images displaying land surface temperature, snow cover, and reflected short wave radiation data from the NASA Earth Observation (NEO) Web site. They then explore and animate these images using the free tool ImageJ and utilize the Web-based analysis tools built into NEO to observe, graph, and analyze the relationships among these three variables.

  18. On-Board Perception System For Planetary Aerobot Balloon Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Scheid, Robert E.; T. Salomon, Phil

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is implementing the Planetary Aerobot Testbed to develop the technology needed to operate a robotic balloon aero-vehicle (Aerobot). This earth-based system would be the precursor for aerobots designed to explore Venus, Mars, Titan and other gaseous planetary bodies. The on-board perception system allows the aerobot to localize itself and navigate on a planet using information derived from a variety of celestial, inertial, ground-imaging, ranging, and radiometric sensors.

  19. Period lengthening of the penetrator seismometer response and application to the future planetary explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Yamada, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Naoki; Murakami, Hideki; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    A short-period passive seismometer onboard the lunar penetrator is modified as two different types of long-period active sensors; one is a conventional force-balanced accelerometer, and the other is a so-called PID-controlled feedback velocity sensor. The former adopts the forcebalance principle, which means that the external force on the sensor mass is compensated by an electro-magnetic force in the opposite direction, using a displacement transducer to sense the mass motion. The latter has a broader frequency response in velocity output, by an additional installation of integrator/derivator circuits. The original short-period seismometer is a classical electro-magnetic type one with velocity output consisted of signal coils as a pendulum mass suspended by a pair of diaphragm springs and magnetic circuits fixed to the reference frame. Because it was developed for the former LUNAR-A penetrator mission, it has the shock-durability up to 10,000G at a high-speed impact process and it demonstrates to work well even under low temperature condition. When several little modifications are made for this short-period seismometer, the sensor performance in the frequency ranges of 10 to 20 seconds is considerably improved and appropriate for detection of the longer body waves and possible surface waves on any other terrestrial planets. However, the present lunar penetrator can not install both the active-type seismometers for a long-lived observation, because of the strict limitation of power consumption. If some more electrical power is supplied, we will be able to apply either of these improved versions for lunar soft-lander. And also, if the possible Martian penetrator with an after-body structure would be continuously operated by the solar power battery, we could do just the same. In this paper, we present some results of laboratory and field tests and compare them with the original short-period sensor, and then we describe the future prospects for application on the lunar and planetary explorations.

  20. Robonaut 2 Maps The Way For Human Exploration - Duration: 2 minutes, 43 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is one of the advanced robotic capabilities being developed by NASA to survey deep space and planetary surfaces, and to map the way for future human exploration. From working onboard the...

  1. A New NASA Web Site Designed to Assist Planetary Scientists in Setting Up and Doing Education and Outreach Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Davis

    2002-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on space scientists' involvement in education and public outreach efforts, many planetary scientists find themselves in a quandry about what to do and how to get started. Even those who have spent many years in such efforts may find themselves wanting to establish more national or global partnerships with E\\/PO professional organizations, either in formal education

  2. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

  3. CanSat Competition: Contributing to the Development of NASA's Vision for Robotic Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Joshua; Berman, Timothy; Billheimer, Thomas; Biclmer. Elizabeth; Hood, Stuart; Neas, Charles

    2007-01-01

    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The CanSat competition is designed for college, university and high school students wanting to participate in an applicable space-related competition. The objective of the CanSat competition is to complete space exploration missions by designing a specific system for a small sounding rocket payload which will follow and perform to a specific set of rules and guidelines for each year's competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, judging and competition. The mission guidelines are based from space exploration missions and include bonus requirement options which teams may choose to participate in. The fundamental goal of the competition is to educate future engineers and scientists. This is accomplished by students applying systems engineering practices to a development project that incorporates an end-to-end life cycle, from requirements analysis, through preliminary design, integration and testing, an actual flight of the CanSat, and concluding with a post-mission debrief. This is done specifically with space related missions to bring a unique aspect of engineering and design to the competition. The competition has been progressing since its creation in 2005. The competition was originally meant to purely convey the engineering and design process to its participants, but through many experiences the competition has also undergone a learning experience with respect to systems engineering process and design. According

  4. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

  5. Tracking capability for entry, descent and landing and its support to NASA Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Timothy; Chang, Christine; Fort, David; Satorius, Edgar; Finley, Susan; White, Leslie; Estabrook, Polly

    2003-01-01

    This paper described a new capability recently deployed in the NASA Deep Space Network to support the entry, descent and landing of the two Mars Exploration Rovers - Spirit and Opportunity. This final segment of a 7-month journey was critical step in enabling successful mission operation. The EDL Data Analysis (EDA) equipment processed the open loop recording samples from the existing radio science receivers, extracted the MFSK-modulated tones, and provided information on the occurrence of associated events happened onboard spacecraft. The EDA software supported real-time as well as post pass processing. The design flexibility allowed the track to be divided into different segments, each could be processed with a configuration optimized for its signal conditions and uncertainties. The use of dynamic lock state concept enabled signal detection be done with minimum required computing power - less was spent when signal was steadily detected and more when signal fluctuated. With the server-client design, the EDA supported connections to different remote operation centers for monitor purpose. The paper also presented the field results from both Spirit and Opportunity landings. The detection were much better than anticipated. All critical event tones were seen in real time. Surprising detection of LCP signal was found with Spirit landing, resulted in a reconfiguration for Opportunity landing to maximize signal detection.

  6. On the Potential Implementation of Ground-based Scanning & Imaging LIDARs on Future Surface Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhania, A.; Fernandez, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    To this date Landers and Rovers used in planetary exploration have relied on stereoscopic camera systems to provide 3D information used to perform both scientific imaging and navigation tasks. Despite being highly reliable, stereoscopic systems have several limitations in the creation of accurate 3D models. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems have evolved from simple ranging devices used as altimeters to complex mapping systems capable of developing highly accurate 3D models. Data collected using a COTS Scanning and Imaging LIDAR (SIL) under simulated planetary surface conditions is presented and evaluated as an alternative to the traditional stereoscopic imaging systems, to provide navigation and scientific data for future planetary surface missions. SIL data set includes 3D spatial information (XYZ coordinates), laser return intensity and mapped to each laser point, the RGB pixel value obtained from the imaging sensor. The main advantage of SIL over stereo cameras is that it establishes a precise Cartesian coordinate system which enables the scientific and imaging data to be integrated into a single spatially coherent data set. A complete description of the pros and cons between stereo imagers and SIL is given.

  7. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  8. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  9. Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    "Life at the Extreme" is an education and public outreach (E/PO) project that engaged teachers and 4-12th grade students (an in part, Prek-3rd grade students) in an internet-based, virtual expedition with scientists as they conducted experiments in a unique planetary analog environment in the Bolivian High-Andes at nearly 6,000 m (~20,000ft). Through high altitude diving and sampling, they explored the Licancabur volcano summit lake, which is one of the closest analogs to ancient lakes on Mars. Their goal was to characterize the environment and to study the defense strategies of life against extreme physical conditions in order to understand the biological potential of Mars and prepare future planetary missions. This "virtual field" was in the form of an interactive web site, live interactive discussions, a live video webcast with the San Francisco Exploratorium, and videotapes. Through this medium, about 2,700 students, 90 schools and teachers were able to directly participate and extend their knowledge of scientific processes as they explored an extreme and unique terrestrial environment. In the weeks leading up to the expedition, and during in-the-field activities, students were able to communicate with scientists as they prepared for and conducted scientific investigations. The general public could follow the expedition as well on the web. Overall, the website received ~70,000 hits from all over the world during the time of the expedition. Allowing this access to scientists as they performed their investigations proved invaluable as students understood the implications of scientific work. The broader impact of this experience provided ground work for other educational institutions to conduct similar activities with leading scientists and bridge the gap that often exists between scientists and education. The project was conducted in partnership with the NASA's Ames Research Center's expedition to the Licancabur volcano, located on the border between Chile and Bolivia and is the location of one of the least explored lakes in the world. K-12 educators played a key roll in the development and implementation of curriculum for this project. In 2002, a teacher accompanied the scientific team to the summit to document their research for the benefit of all k-12 educators both as the exploration occurs and as an ongoing educational enquiry. The virtual field experience was funded through an IDEAS (The Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science) grant. The 2002-03, and 2003-04 virtual field experience can be found at: http://www.extremeenvironment.com.

  10. NASA program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Major facts are given for NASA'S planned FY-1981 through FY-1985 programs in aeronautics, space science, space and terrestrial applications, energy technology, space technology, space transportation systems, space tracking and data systems, and construction of facilities. Competition and cooperation, reimbursable launchings, schedules and milestones, supporting research and technology, mission coverage, and required funding are considered. Tables and graphs summarize new initiatives, significant events, estimates of space shuttle flights, and major missions in astrophysics, planetary exploration, life sciences, environmental and resources observation, and solar terrestrial investigations. The growth in tracking and data systems capabilities is also depicted.

  11. Meteoric Material - One of the Least Explored Components of Planetary Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Moses; J. M. Grebowsky; W. D. Pesnell; A. L. Weisman

    2001-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) continuously impact all the planets and their satellites in the solar system. In all planetary atmospheres IDPs leave their imprint as aerosols or smoke particles that are left behind when the IDPs do not ablate completely or when the ablated vapors recondense. In addition, in all atmospheres they produce ionization layers comprised of metallic ions, predominantly

  12. Exploring the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 299, 2013

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    000000000000000X Planet gaps in the dust layer of 3D proto- planetary disks: Observability with ALMA J. Method In a previous work (Fouchet et al. 2010), we ran full 3D, two-fluid Smoothed Particle.-F. Gonzalez1, C. Pinte2, S. T. Maddison3 and F. M´enard2 1 Universit´e de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003, France

  13. Planetary Penetrators: The vanguard for the Future Exploration of the Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Collinson

    2008-01-01

    The UK Penetrator Consortium is aiming to develop spacecraft weighing <15 kg, rugged enough to survive impacts with planetary surfaces at speeds of up to 300 m\\/s and bury themselves a few meters into the surface. A full-scale trial is currently under preparation, leading towards a proposed Lunar mission, called \\

  14. Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, John F. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. This volume contains papers presented at the Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments on 28-30 Apr. 1993. This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. Over the past several years, SDIO has sponsored a significant technology development program aimed, in part, at the production of instruments with these characteristics. This workshop provided an opportunity for specialists from the planetary science and DoD communities to establish contacts, to explore common technical ground in an open forum, and more specifically, to discuss the applicability of SDIO's technology base to planetary science instruments.

  15. Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

    2008-01-01

    The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

  16. Litmum batteries on 2003 Mars Exploration Rover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Ratnakumar; M. C. Smart; G. Halpert; A. Kindler; H. Frank; S. Di Stefano; R. Ewell; S. Surampudi

    2002-01-01

    The upcoming NASA missions aimed at exploring our planetary system require batteries that can operate at extreme temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Since conventional aerospace rechargeable battery systems are inadequate to meet the demands, lithium ion rechargeable batteries were chosen for these missions. The 2003 Mars 2 Exploration Rover mission plans to deploy twin rovers, with longer

  17. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  18. Restructuring Planetary Science's Research & Analysis Program

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Restructuring Planetary Science's Research & Analysis Program James Green NASA, Planetary Science: An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences 2010: Community R&A survey 2010 2012: Planetary Workforce R&A program by the Planetary Sciences Subcommittee (PSS) as a Response to the NRC report ­ Ron

  19. In situ mineral identification - Raman technique in future robotic explorations on planetary surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A.; Jolliff, B.L.; Haskin, L.A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Rover and lander missions are being continually planned for the characterization of planetary surface materials. With a series of simulated Raman measurements of lunar soils, rock chips and Martian analogues, we have demonstrated that mineral identification for the main phases in these planetary materials can be unambiguously achieved. We also obtained significant information on composition and structural features of important phases, such as the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ration in olivines, the dominant structural forms of pyroxenes, and the characteristics of hydrous components and cations in carbonates and sulfates, that are very important for Martian geology. Recent developments of Raman spectroscopic instrumentation make it possible to build a small, sensitive, and robust Raman system for rover and lander missions. Compared to other spectroscopic techniques (VIS-NIR, mid-IR and Moessbauer spectroscopy) that have been used or proposed for planetary application, Raman spectroscopy has many advantages, such as sharp, non-overlapping peaks in mineral spectra, no need for spectral deconvolution in order to identify the phases, and operation in visible spectral region. A rover Raman system could work nicely as a mineral indicator in future missions to Mars and Moon.

  20. Far Travelers: The Exploring Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicks, Oran W.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program of lunar and planetary exploration produced a flood of scientific information about the moon, planets and the environment of interplanetary space. This book is an account of the people, machines, and the events of this scientific enterprise. It is a story of organizations,…

  1. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Exploring challenges, creating opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepic, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program offers researchers access to the world's largest collection of aerospace information. An overview of Program activities, products and services, and new directions is presented. The R&D information cycle is outlined and specific examples of the NASA STI Program in practice are given. Domestic and international operations and technology transfer activities are reviewed and an agenda for the STI Program NASA-wide is presented. Finally, the incorporation of Total Quality Management and evaluation metrics into the STI Program is discussed.

  2. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  3. FORUM | PLANETARY SCIENCE & ASTROBIOLOGY Jupiter exploration: high risk and high rewards

    E-print Network

    Kite, Edwin

    reactors [Johnson, 2003]. Compact, high-output power is a prerequisite for piloted deep-space missions fission reactor would cause less environmental damage than #12;that of a Pu238 RTG. Fission power would Department of Energy (DoE)/NASA programme to develop advanced radioisotope power sources and nuclear fission

  4. NASA Now: Exploring Asteroids: An Analog Mission - Duration: 5 minutes, 27 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASAâ??s Extreme Environment Mission Operations, or NEEMO, project lead Bill Todd describes this analog mission and how aquanauts living and working in an undersea habitat are helping NASA prepare ...

  5. NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Satellite Design 1 Educational Product

    E-print Network

    and Public Outreach Manager, Raytheon ITSS and the NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center Ms. Susan Higley Cherry School, Silver Spring, Maryland Cherry Hill Middle School student volunteers: Michael Coogan Brea Mc

  6. NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 1 Educational Product

    E-print Network

    Outreach Manager, Raytheon ITSS and the NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center Ms. Susan Higley Cherry Hill School, Silver Spring, Maryland Cherry Hill Middle School student volunteers: Michael Coogan Brea Mc

  7. Micromachined silicon-based analytical microinstruments for space science and planetary exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Grunthaner, F.J.; Stalder, R.E.; Boumsellek, S.; Van Zandt, T.R.; Kenny, T.W.; Hecht, M.H.; Ksendzov, A.; Homer, M.L.; Terhune, R.W.; Lane, A.L. [and others

    1994-09-01

    For future planetary science missions, the authors are developing a series of microinstruments using the techniques of silicon-based micromachining. Conventional instruments such as chemical sensors, charged particle analyzers and mass spectrometers are reduced in size and effective volume to the dimension of cubic centimeters, while maintaining or enhancing performance. Using wafer/wafer bonding techniques, selective chemical etching, thin Film growth, and high resolution lithography, complex three dimensional structures can be assembled. This paper discusses the design, implementation and performance of two new instruments: The Micromachined Bessel Box Auger Electron Spectrometer, and the Mars Soil Chemistry Experiment (MOx).

  8. Planetary Protection Policy (U.S.A.).

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D

    1992-01-01

    Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the Earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and Earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. US Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of Earth's separation from the martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive. PMID:11538131

  9. Robotic Thin Section Sample Preparation Device for In Situ Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, C. B.; Zacny, K.; Skok, J.; Steele, J.; Paulsen, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Schwendeman, J.; Carrell, T.; Szczesiak, M.

    2008-12-01

    Petrographic thin sections are used on Earth to identify minerals. The data from thin sections together with chemical rock data could result in a much better interpretation of planetary geology. A petrographic thin section is a well polished thin (~30 micron) sample of rock mounted on a glass slide. When viewed under a polarizing microscope one can quickly observe minerals from the interference colors. With unpolarized light some textural and structural features can be identified. Making of thin section is an art that takes many years of experience to acquire. All thin sections on Earth have been done manually. The Colorado School of Mines and Honeybee Robotics have been developing a robotic thin section device that one day may be used on planetary surface missions to autonomously slice, grind and polish a piece of rock. In particular, we have been developing methods for rough cutting, epoxy/slide application, and grinding/polishing of a rock to thin section quality. Examination of rock surface finish was done quantitatively using surface roughness measurement and qualitatively by a thin section expert. Here we report on the progress to date.

  10. NASA is pleased to release this summary of the agency's recent work on future human space exploration capabilities and missions, largely performed by our Human

    E-print Network

    human space exploration endeavor for the nation. The team's work helps provide a context for the nextNASA is pleased to release this summary of the agency's recent work on future human space exploration capabilities and missions, largely performed by our Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Capability Roadmap Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts. Although detailed requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, near-term technology investment decisions need to be guided by the anticipated capabilities needed to enable or enhance the mission concepts. This paper describes a roadmap that NASA has formulated to guide the development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing, flight-proven state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed. When SOA capabilities fell short of meeting the needs, those "gaps" were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The resulting list of enabling and enhancing capability gaps can be used to guide future ECLSS development. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies needed to enable and enhance exploration may be developed in a manner that synergistically benefits the ISS operational capability, supports Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) development, and sustains long-term technology investments for longer duration missions. This paper summarizes NASA s ECLSS capability roadmap development process, findings, and recommendation

  12. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  13. NASA payload data book: Payload analysis for space shuttle applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Data describing the individual NASA payloads for the space shuttle are presented. The document represents a complete issue of the original payload data book. The subjects discussed are: (1) astronomy, (2) space physics, (3) planetary exploration, (4) earth observations (earth and ocean physics), (5) communications and navigation, (6) life sciences, (7) international rendezvous and docking, and (8) lunar exploration.

  14. The Exploration of Mars. Educational Brief: Planetary Science, Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet gives a history of human observations of Mars, including observations made from U.S. unmanned spacecraft. Also included is a discussion, "Encountering a New World: How to Explore a Planet," which contains classroom discussion questions and four classroom activities. The classroom activities include: (1) How to explore a planet; (2)…

  15. Lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) as scientific tools for planetary exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon R. Osinski; Timothy D. Barfoot; Nadeem Ghafoor; Matt Izawa; Neil Banerjee; Piotr Jasiobedzki; Jeff Tripp; Robert Richards; Simon Auclair; Haley Sapers; Laura Thomson; Roberta Flemming

    2009-01-01

    With the continued success of the Mars Exploration Rovers and the return of humans to the Moon within the next decade, a considerable amount of research is being done on the technologies required to provide surface mobility and the tools required to provide scientific capability. Here, we explore the utility of lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) - which

  16. Lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) as scientific tools for planetary exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon R. Osinski; Timothy D. Barfoot; Nadeem Ghafoor; Matt Izawa; Neil Banerjee; Piotr Jasiobedzki; Jeff Tripp; Robert Richards; Simon Auclair; Haley Sapers; Laura Thomson; Roberta Flemming

    2010-01-01

    With the continued success of the Mars Exploration Rovers and the return of humans to the Moon within the next decade, a considerable amount of research is being done on the technologies required to provide surface mobility and the tools required to provide scientific capability. Here, we explore the utility of lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) – which

  17. The exploration metaphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's experience in planetary exploration has demonstrated that the desktop workstation is inadequate for many visualization situations. The primary mission displays for the unmanned Surveyor missions to the moon during the mid-1960's, for example, were environmental images assembled on the inside surfaces of spherical shells. Future exploration missions will greatly benefit from advances in digital computer and display technology, but there remain unmet user interface needs. Alternative user interfaces and metaphors are needed for planetary exploration and other interactions with complex spatial environments. These interfaces and metaphors would enable the user to directly explore environments and naturally manipulate objects in those environments. Personal simulators, virtual workstations, and telepresence user interfaces are systems capable of providing this integration of user space and task space. The Exploration Metaphor is a useful concept for guiding the design of user interfaces for virtual environments and telepresence. To apply the Exploration Metaphor is to assert that computing is like exploration, and to support objects, operations, and contexts comparable to those encountered in the exploration of natural environments. The Exploration Metaphor, under development for user interfaces in support of NASA's planetary exploration missions and goals, will also benefit other applications where complex spatial information must be visualized. Visualization methods and systems for planetary exploration are becoming increasingly integrated and interactive as computing technology improves. These advances will benefit from virtual environment and telepresence interface technology. A key development has been the processing of multiple images and other sensor data to create detailed digital models of the planets and moons. Data from images of the Earth, Mars, and Miranda, for example, have been converted into 3D models, and dynamic virtual fly-overs have been computed as demonstrations. Similar processing of lower altitude photography and the use of computer aided design tools promise to produce very detailed models in the future.

  18. Planetary Science Resource Discoveries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    G. J. Taylor

    Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) is an educational site sharing the latest research on meteorites, planets, and other solar system bodies being made by NASA-sponsored scientists. The web site is supported by the Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and by Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium. The site features useful links related to planetary and space sciences. Links to internal pages as well as other sites are searchable by topic. The site also includes a glossary.

  19. PLATO : PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of Stars - The Exoplanetary System Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala, C.; Arentoft, T.; Fridlund, M.; Lindberg, R.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Micela, G.; Pollacco, D.; Poretti, E.; Rauer, H.; Roxburgh, I.; Stankov, A.; Udry, S.

    2010-10-01

    PLATO’s objective is to characterize exoplanets and their host stars in the solar neighbourhood. While it builds on the heritage from CoRoT and Kepler, the major breakthrough will come from its strong focus on bright targets (mV ? 11). The PLATO targets will also include a large number of very bright (mV ? 8) and nearby stars. The prime science goals of PLATO are: (i) the detection and characterization of exoplanetary systems of all kinds, including both the planets and their host stars, reaching down to small, terrestrial planets in the habitable zone; (ii) the identification of suitable targets for future, more detailed characterization, including a spectroscopic search for bio-markers in nearby habitable exoplanets. These ambitious goals will be reached by ultra-high precision, long (few years), uninterrupted photometric monitoring in the visible of very large samples of bright stars, which can only be done from space. The resulting high quality light curves will be used on the one hand to detect planetary transits, as well as to measure their characteristics, and on the other hand to provide a seismic analysis of the host stars of the detected planets, from which precise measurements of their radii, masses, and ages will be derived. The PLATO space-based data will be complemented by ground-based follow-up observations, in particular very precise radial velocity monitoring, which will be used to confirm the planetary nature of the detected events and to measure the planet masses. The full set of parameters of exoplanetary systems will thus be measured, including all characteristics of the host stars and the orbits, radii, masses, and ages of the planets, allowing us to derive planet mean densities, and estimate their temperature and radiation environment. Finally, the knowledge of the age of the exoplanetary systems will allow us to put them in an evolutionary perspective.

  20. Virtual Planetary Analysis Environment for Remote Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie; Beyer, Ross; Edwards. Laurence; Lees, David

    2009-01-01

    All of the data for NASA's current planetary missions and most data for field experiments are collected via orbiting spacecraft, aircraft, and robotic explorers. Mission scientists are unable to employ traditional field methods when operating remotely. We have developed a virtual exploration tool for remote sites with data analysis capabilities that extend human perception quantitatively and qualitatively. Scientists and mission engineers can use it to explore a realistic representation of a remote site. It also provides software tools to "touch" and "measure" remote sites with an immediacy that boosts scientific productivity and is essential for mission operations.

  1. NASA's Learning Technology Project: Developing Educational Tools for the Next Generation of Explorers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Federman; P. J. Hogan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, NASA's Learning Technology has pioneered the use of innovative technology toinspire students to pursue careers in STEM(Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.) In the past this has included Web sites like Quest and the Observatorium, webcasts and distance learning courses, and even interactive television broadcasts. Our current focus is on development of several mission oriented software packages, targeted primarily

  2. Executive Summary Today NASA pursues technical innovations and scientific discoveries to advance human exploration of space.

    E-print Network

    ) .......................................................................................Page 18 The NEEMO analog mission uses the world's only operating undersea laboratory, Aquarius, which is located 62 feet underwater off Key Largo Florida, to mimic the isolation, constrained habitats, harsh .......................................................................................................Page 42 Researchers and engineers at NASA are developing mining equipment and production facilities

  3. Exploring a structured decision approach as a means of fostering participatory space policy making at NASA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Arvai; Tim McDaniels; Robin Gregory

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the National Research Council's Committee on Risk Characterization argued convincingly for the implementation of more participatory approaches to improve policy making by incorporating a wide range of stakeholder values and concerns in policy decisions. Guidance about how to best carry out such an approach in an agency like NASA is less clear. To address this gap, this paper

  4. Extending the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model to Explore Mars’ Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, Amanda; Hollingsworth, J.; Kahre, M.; Schaeffer, J.

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) upper boundary has been extended to ~120 km altitude (p ~10-5 mbar). The extension of the MGCM upper boundary initiates the ability to understand the connection between the lower and upper atmosphere of Mars through the middle atmosphere 70 - 120 km). Moreover, it provides the opportunity to support future missions (i.e. the 2013 MAVEN mission). A major factor in this extension is the incorporation of the Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) heating (visible) and cooling (infrared). This modification to the radiative transfer forcing (i.e., RT code) has been significantly tested in a 1D vertical column and now has been ported to the full 3D Mars GCM. Initial results clearly show the effects of NLTE in the upper middle atmosphere. Diagnostic of seasonal mean fields and large-scale wave activity will be shown with insight into circulation patterns in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, sensitivity tests with the resolution of the pressure and temperature grids, in which the k-coefficients are calculated upon, have been performed in the 1D RT code. Our progress on this research will be presented. Brecht is supported by NASA’s Postdoctoral Program at the Ames Research Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

  5. Aerothermodynamic Testing of Protuberances and Penetrations on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle Heat Shield in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of an Agency wide effort to develop a replacement for the Space Shuttle and to support the NASA s long-term objective of returning to the moon and then on to Mars. This paper documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions obtained using phosphor thermography were used to infer interference heating on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Cycle 1 heat shield from local protuberances and penetrations for both laminar and turbulent heating conditions. Test parametrics included free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.0x10(exp 6)/ft to 7.25x10(exp 6)/ft in Mach 6 air at a fixed angle-of-attack. Single arrays of discrete boundary layer trips were used to trip the boundary layer approaching the protuberances/penetrations to a turbulent state. Also, the effects of three compression pad diameters, two radial locations of compression pad/tension tie location, compression pad geometry, and rotational position of compression pad/tension tie were examined. The experimental data highlighted in this paper are to be used to validate CFD tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Heat transfer measurements will also assist in the determination of the most appropriate engineering methods that will be used to assess local flight environments associated with protuberances/penetrations of the CEV thermal protection system.

  6. Development of legged, wheeled, and hybrid rover mobility models to facilitate planetary surface exploration mission analysis

    E-print Network

    McCloskey, Scott H. (Scott Haddon)

    2007-01-01

    This work discusses the Mars Surface Exploration (MSE) tool and its adaptation to model rovers featuring legged, wheeled, and hybrid mobility. MSE is a MATLAB based systems engineering tool that is capable of rapidly ...

  7. Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiant Energy (OSPREy): Calibration and Validation of Current and Next-Generation NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Bernhard, Germar; Morrow, John H.; Booth, Charles R.; Comer, Thomas; Lind, Randall N.; Quang, Vi

    2012-01-01

    A principal objective of the Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiance Energy (OSPREy) activity is to establish an above-water radiometer system as a lower-cost alternative to existing in-water systems for the collection of ground-truth observations. The goal is to be able to make high-quality measurements satisfying the accuracy requirements for the vicarious calibration and algorithm validation of next-generation satellites that make ocean color and atmospheric measurements. This means the measurements will have a documented uncertainty satisfying the established performance metrics for producing climate-quality data records. The OSPREy approach is based on enhancing commercial-off-the-shelf fixed-wavelength and hyperspectral sensors to create hybridspectral instruments with an improved accuracy and spectral resolution, as well as a dynamic range permitting sea, Sun, sky, and Moon observations. Greater spectral diversity in the ultraviolet (UV) will be exploited to separate the living and nonliving components of marine ecosystems; UV bands will also be used to flag and improve atmospheric correction algorithms in the presence of absorbing aerosols. The short-wave infrared (SWIR) is expected to improve atmospheric correction, because the ocean is radiometrically blacker at these wavelengths. This report describes the development of the sensors, including unique capabilities like three-axis polarimetry; the documented uncertainty will be presented in a subsequent report.

  8. Exploring planetary magnetic environments using magnetically unclean spacecraft: a systems approach to VEX MAG data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, S. A.; Zhang, T. L.; Balikhin, M. A.; Delva, M.; Hvizdos, L.; Kudela, K.; Dimmock, A. P.

    2011-04-01

    In situ measurements of the magnetic field are vital to the study of many fundamental problems in planetary research. Therefore the magnetometer experiment is a key element of the payload of Venus Express. In addition to the interaction of the solar wind with Venus, these measurements are crucial for the study of atmospheric escape and detection of lightning. However, the methodology for the magnetic field measurements had to be different to the traditional approach, because Venus Express is not a magnetically clean spacecraft. A technique based on two-point simultaneous measurements of the magnetic field and systems identification software is used to separate the natural magnetic field from the spacecraft generated interference. In this paper an overview of the techniques developed to separate these two field types and the results achieved for 1 Hz Venus Express data are presented. Previous publications suggest that the resulting Venus Express cleaned data is of comparable quality to measurements made from onboard magnetically clean spacecraft (Zhang et al., 2008a, b; Slavin et al., 2009).

  9. NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Art B. Chmielewski; Jon S. Pyle

    1991-01-01

    NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid

  10. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  11. Abstract--Exploring planetary surfaces typically involves traversing challenging and unknown terrain and acquiring in-

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Alonzo

    , which landed on Mars in 1997. This capability enables scientists to collect measurements from targets on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains Mars research rover and fielded them in the JPL Mars Yard. We conducted 43 runs with targets

  12. Driving rovers on Mars: challenges and opportunities associated with robotic planetary explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric T.

    2004-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Science objectives: To determine the water, climate, and geologic history of two sites on Mars where evidence has been preserved for past and persistent liquid water activity that may have supported biotic or pre-biotic processes.

  13. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER Planetary science focuses on many aspects of

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER Planetary science focuses on many aspects of planetary objects, from across the university. (CourtesyNASA/JPL) Planetary Science LASP scientists study geological- ated departments: · Geological sciences · Astrophysics and planetary sciences · Atmospheric and oceanic

  14. Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

    2011-12-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved) where the best models from each school or group are brought together for a celebratory showcase exhibit and judging. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning.

  15. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (~1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. This, in effect, allows for beneficial explora-tion to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Re-search (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO. The proposed radioisotope-based system would leverage the high specific energies [J/kg] associated with radioisotope materials and enhance their inherent low specific powers [W/g]. This is accomplished by accumulating thermal energy from nuclear decay within a central core over time. This allows for significant amounts of power to be transferred to a flowing gas over short periods of time. In the proposed configuration the stored energy can be utilized in two ways: (1) with direct propellant injection to the core, the energy can be converted into thrust through the use of a converging-diverging nozzle and (2) by flowing a working fluid through the core and subsequent Brayton engine, energy within the core can be converted to electrical energy. The first scenario achieves moderate ranges of thrust, but at a higher Isp than traditional chemical-based systems. The second scenario allows for the production of electrical power, which is then available for electric-based propulsion. Additionally, once at location the production of electrical power can be dedicated to the payload’s communication system for data transfer. Ultimately, the proposed dual-mode propulsion platform capitalizes on the benefits of two types of propulsion methods – the thrust of thermal propulsion ideal for quick orbital maneuvers and the specific impulse of electric propulsion ideal for efficient inter-planetary travel. Previous versions of this RTR-based concept have been studied for various applications [NETS 1-3]. The current version of this concept is being matured through a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I grant, awarded for FY 2014. In this study the RTR concept is being developed to deliver a 6U CubeSat payload to the orbit of the Saturnian moon - Enceladus. Additionally, this study will develop an entire mission architecture for Enceladus targeting a total allowable launch mass of 1,000 kg.

  16. CECE: Expanding the Envelope of Deep Throttling Technology in Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engines for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuliano, Victor J.; Leonard, Timothy G.; Lyda, Randy T.; Kim, Tony S.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the first technology development programs awarded by NASA under the Vision for Space Exploration, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Deep Throttling, Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) program was selected by NASA in November 2004 to begin technology development and demonstration toward a deep throttling, cryogenic engine supporting ongoing trade studies for NASA s Lunar Lander descent stage. The CECE program leverages the maturity and previous investment of a flight-proven hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine, the PWR RL10, to develop and demonstrate an unprecedented combination of reliability, safety, durability, throttlability, and restart capabilities in high-energy, cryogenic, in-space propulsion. The testbed selected for the deep throttling demonstration phases of this program was a minimally modified RL10 engine, allowing for maximum current production engine commonality and extensibility with minimum program cost. Four series of demonstrator engine tests have been successfully completed between April 2006 and April 2010, accumulating 7,436 seconds of hot fire time over 47 separate tests. While the first two test series explored low power combustion (chug) and system instabilities, the third test series investigated and was ultimately successful in demonstrating several mitigating technologies for these instabilities and achieved a stable throttling ratio of 13:1. The fourth test series significantly expanded the engine s operability envelope by successfully demonstrating a closed-loop control system and extensive transient modeling to enable lower power engine starting, faster throttle ramp rates, and mission-specific ignition testing. The final hot fire test demonstrated a chug-free, minimum power level of 5.9%, corresponding to an overall 17.6:1 throttling ratio achieved. In total, these tests have provided an early technology demonstration of an enabling cryogenic propulsion concept with invaluable system-level technology data acquisition toward design and development risk mitigation for future lander descent main engines.

  17. Orion-CEV Project Overview To the NASA Sports and Exploration "Kick-Off" Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Orion Crew Exploration vehicle (CEV) and its usage in the exploration of the moon and subsequent travel to Mars. Schedules for development and testing of the CEV are shown. Also displayed are various high level design views of the CEV, the launch abort system, the Atlas Docking adapter, and the service module.

  18. James L. Green Director, Planetary Science

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    1 James L. Green Director, Planetary Science NASA #12;Year of the Solar System Planetary Science * February 14 Stardust NExT encounters comet Tempel 1 * March 7 ­ Planetary Science Decadal Survey released to Ceres August 5 MSL lands on Mars * Completed #12;Planetary Science Division Overview · Overarching

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: The Future of Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session The Future of Mars Surface Exploration includes the following topics: 1) High Resolution Laser Scanning Techniques for Rock Abrasion and Texture Analyses on Mars and Earth; 2) Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument; 3) Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analogues Using CHEMIN Data and Rietveld Refinement; 4) In Situ Analytical Strategy for Mars Combining X-Ray and Optical Techniques; 5) In-Situ Dating on Mars: The Potential of OSL Dating; 6) Experiment of Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN): Searching for Water-rich Spots from the Rover on the Surface of Mars; and 7) Developing an Automated Science Analysis System for Mars Surface Exploration for MSL and Beyond.

  20. 22LRO Explores the Apollo 12 Landing Area on the Moon NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) from a lunar orbit of 21 kilometers (13

    E-print Network

    22LRO Explores the Apollo 12 Landing Area on the Moon NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO of the Apollo 12 landing site. Images show the twists and turns of the paths made when the astronauts explored the lunar surface. One of the details that shows up is a bright L-shape in the Apollo 12 image. It marks

  1. Workshop on advanced technologies for planetary instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, J. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's robotic solar system exploration program requires a new generation of science instruments. Design concepts are now judged against stringent mass, power, and size constraints--yet future instruments must be highly capable, reliable, and, in some applications, they must operate for many years. The most important single constraint, however, is cost: new instruments must be developed in a tightly controlled design-to-cost environment. Technical innovation is the key to success and will enable the sophisticated measurements needed for future scientific exploration. As a fundamental benefit, the incorporation of breakthrough technologies in planetary flight hardware will contribute to U.S. industrial competitiveness and will strengthen the U.S. technology base. The Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments was conceived to address these challenges, to provide an open forum in which the NASA and DoD space communities could become better acquainted at the working level, and to assess future collaborative efforts. Over 300 space scientists and engineers participated in the two-and-a-half-day meeting held April 28-30, 1993, in Fairfax, Virginia. It was jointly sponsored by NASA's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), within the Office of Space Science (OSS); NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT); DoD's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), now called the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO); and the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). The meeting included invited oral and contributed poster presentations, working group sessions in four sub-disciplines, and a wrap-up panel discussion. On the first day, the planetary science community described instrumentation needed for missions that may go into development during the next 5 to 10 years. Most of the second day was set aside for the DoD community to inform their counterparts in planetary science about their interests and capabilities, and to describe the BMDO technology base, flight programs, and future directions. The working group sessions and the panel discussion synthesized technical and programmatic issues from all the presentations, with a specific goal of assessing the applicability of BMDO technologies to science instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  2. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (editor); James, Odette B. (editor); Macpherson, Glenn (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  3. The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

  4. Evaluation of Composite Structures Technologies for Application to NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (CoSTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deo, Ravi; Wang, Donny; Bohlen, Jim; Fukuda, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    A trade study was conducted to determine the suitability of composite structures for weight and life cycle cost savings in primary and secondary structural systems for crew exploration vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, landers, rovers, and habitats. The results of the trade study were used to identify and rank order composite material technologies that can have a near-term impact on a broad range of exploration mission applications. This report recommends technologies that should be developed to enable usage of composites on Vision for Space Exploration vehicles towards mass and life-cycle cost savings.

  5. Lithium ion batteries for Mars exploration missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Ratnakumar; M. C. Smart; J. Byers; R. Ewell; S. Surampudi

    1999-01-01

    The upcoming NASA missions aimed at exploring our Planetary system require batteries that can operate at extreme operating temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Conventional aerospace rechargeable battery systems are inadequate to meet the demands. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are thus being chosen for these missions. The Mars 2001 (Mars Surveyor Program MSP 01) Lander and the 2003

  6. Implementing planetary protection requirements for sample return missions.

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D

    2000-01-01

    NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding the biological contamination of other solar system bodies and protecting the Earth against potential harm from materials returned from space. NASA's planetary protection program evaluates missions (with external advice from the US National Research Council and others) and imposes particular constraints on individual missions to achieve these objectives. In 1997 the National Research Council's Space Studies Board published the report, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations, which reported advice to NASA on Mars sample return missions, complementing their 1992 report, The Biological Contamination of Mars Issues and Recommendations. Meanwhile, NASA has requested a new Space Studies Board study to address sample returns from bodies other than Mars. This study recognizes the variety of worlds that have been opened up to NASA and its partners by small, relatively inexpensive, missions of the Discovery class, as well as the reshaping of our ideas about life in the solar system that have been occasioned by the Galileo spacecraft's discovery that an ocean under the ice on Jupiter's moon Europa might, indeed, exist. This paper will report on NASA's planned implementation of planetary protection provisions based on these recent National Research Council recommendations, and will suggest measures for incorporation in the planetary protection policy of COSPAR. PMID:12038481

  7. Why Should Students Get Involved With the NASA Exploration Design Challenge? - Duration: 2 minutes, 7 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kelvin Kirby, deputy director for the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, explains that looking for answers to oneâ??s own...

  8. Microbial functions in space: Mars transit to early planetary base exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. L.

    2007-02-01

    Microbial processing of liquid and solid wastes may play a role in the advanced life support systems of nearer term human exploration missions such as transit vehicles to Mars or initial surface bases on either the Moon or Mars. Recycling wastewater (urine, atmospheric condensate, hygiene water) is a critical component of reducing storage and resupply requirements on such missions, and microbial treatment of all or part of the waste stream may improve overall treatment efficiency. As small-scale plant systems (i.e., 5 10mperson) are used to supplement food storage, microbial processing of both wastewater and edible plant material will facilitate nutrient and water recycling through the biomass production systems.

  9. NASA Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    NASA Images was created through a partnership between NASA and the Internet Archive, a non-profit digital library based in San Francisco, to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The site contains everything from classic photos to educational programming and HD video, and is growing all the time as its creators continue to gain both new and archived media from all of NASA's centers. This effort aimes to promote education and facilitate scholarship in math and the sciences at all levels, and to build general interest and excitement around space exploration, aeronautics, and astronomy.

  10. Geodesy and cartography methods of exploration of the outer planetary systems: Galilean satellites and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, Anatoliy; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina

    Introduction. While Galilean satellites have been observed by different spacecrafts, including Pioneer, Voyager-1 and -2, Galileo, New Horizons, and Enceladus by Cassini and Voyager-2, only data from Galileo, Cassini and the two Voyagers are useful for precise mapping [1, 2]. For purposes of future missions to the system of outer planets we have re-computed the control point network of the Io, Ganymede and Enceladus to support spacecraft navigation and coordinate knowledge. Based on the control networks, we have produced global image mosaics and maps. Geodesy approach. For future mission Laplace-P we mainly focused on Ganymede which coverage is nearly complete except for polar areas (which includes multispectral data). However, large differences exist in data resolutions (minimum global resolution: 30 km/pixel). Only few areas enjoy coverage by highest resolution images, so we suggest to obtain regional Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from stereo images for selected areas. Also using our special software, we provide calculation of illumination conditions of Ganymede surface in various representations [3]. Finally, we propose a careful evaluation of all available data from the previous Voyager and Galileo missions to re-determine geodetic control and rotation model for other Galilean satellites - Callisto and Europe. Mapping. Based on re-calculated control point networks and global mosaics we have prepared new maps for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus [4]. Due to the difference in resolution between the images, which were also taken from different angles relative to the surface, we can prepare only regional high resolution shape models, so for demonstrating of topography and mapping of the satellites we used orthographic projection with different parameters. Our maps, which include roughness calculations based on our GIS technologies [5], will also be an important tool for studies of surface morphology. Conclusions. Updated data collection, including new calculation of elements of external orientation, provides new image processing of previous missions to outer planetary system. Using Photomod software (http://www.racurs.ru/) we have generated a new control point network in 3-D and orthomosaics for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus. Based on improved orbit data for Galileo we have used larger numbers of images than were available before, resulting in a more rigid network for Ganymede. The obtained results will be used for further processing and improvement of the various parameters: body shape parameters and shape modeling, libration, as well as for studying of the surface interesting geomorphological phenomena, for example, distribution of bright and dark surface materials on Ganymede and their correlations with topography and slopes [6]. Acknowledgments: The Ganymede study was partly supported by ROSKOSMOS and Space Research Institute under agreement ? 36/13 “Preliminary assessment of the required coordinate and navigation support for selection of landing sites for lander mission “Laplace” and partly funding by agreement ? 11-05-91323 for “Geodesy, cartography and research satellites Phobos and Deimos” References: [1] Nadezhdina et al. Vol. 14, EGU2012-11210, 2012. [2] Zhukov et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [3] Zubarev et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [4] Lazarev et al. Izvestia VUZov. 2012, No 6, pp. 9-11 http://miigaik.ru/journal.miigaik.ru/2012/20130129120215-2593.pdf (in Russian). [5] Kokhanov et al. Current problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space. 2013. Vol. 10. No 4. pp. 136-153. http://d33.infospace.ru/d33_conf/sb2013t4/136-153.pdf (in Russian). [6] Oberst et al., 2013 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013.

  11. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

  12. Using information Theory in Optimal Test Point Selection for Health Management in NASA's Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a new methodology that measures the "worth" of deploying an additional testing instrument (sensor) in terms of the amount of information that can be retrieved from such measurement. This quantity is obtained using a probabilistic model of RLV's that has been partially developed in the NASA Ames Research Center. A number of correlated attributes are identified and used to obtain the worth of deploying a sensor in a given test point from an information-theoretic viewpoint. Once the information-theoretic worth of sensors is formulated and incorporated into our general model for IHM performance, the problem can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem where reliability and operational safety of the system as a whole is considered. Although this research is conducted specifically for RLV's, the proposed methodology in its generic form can be easily extended to other domains of systems health monitoring.

  13. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using European and NASA proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA explorer platform spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Hohwiesner; Jean-Michel Pairot

    1992-01-01

    NASA and the European space organizations (ESA and CNES) have been working for many years to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking\\/capture capability. The technologies to support this in both Europe and the U.S. have now matured to the level where a flight demonstration is the next logical step. NASA is about to launch a spacecraft, fitted with reflectors to

  14. The Explorer's Guide to the Universe: A Reading List for Planetary and Space Science. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Bevan M. (Compiler); McDonagh, Mark S. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    During the last decade, both scientists and the public have been engulfed by a flood of discoveries and information from outer space. Distant worlds have become familiar landscapes. Instruments in space have shown us a different Sun by the "light" of ultraviolet radiation and X-rays. Beyond the solar system, we have detected a strange universe of unsuspected violence, unexplained objects, and unimaginable energies. We are completely remarking our picture of the universe around us, and scientists and the general public alike are curious and excited about what we see. The public has participated in this period of exploration and discovery to an extent never possible before. In real time, TV screens show moonwalks, the sands of Mars, the volcanoes of Io, and the rings of Saturn. But after the initial excitement, it is hard for the curious non-scientist to learn more details or even to stay in touch with what is going on. Each space mission or new discovery is quickly skimmed over by newspapers and TV and then preserved in technical journals that are neither accessible nor easily read by the average reader. This reading list is an attempt to bridge the gap between the people who make discoveries in space and the people who would like to read about them. The aim has been to provide to many different people--teachers, students, scientists, other professionals, and curious citizens of all kinds--a list of readings where they can find out what the universe is like and what we have learned about it. We have included sections on the objects that seem to be of general interest--the Moon, the planets, the Sun, comets, and the universe beyond. We have also included material on related subjects that people are interested in--the history of space exploration, space habitats, extraterrestrial life, and U F O ' s . The list is intended to be self-contained; it includes both general references to supply background and more specific sources for new discoveries. Although the list can be used by a wide range of people, it has been compiled with the non-scientist specifically in mind. A s a general rule, we have not included technical symposia or the special issues of

  15. The Use of Nanomaterials to Achieve NASA's Exploration Program Power Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power requirements for the space exploration and the lunar surface mobility programs. It includes information about the specifications for high energy batteries and the power requirements for lunar rovers, lunar outposts, lunar ascent module, and the lunar EVA suit.

  16. NASA: A Generic Infrastructure for System-level MP-SoC Design Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    Pimentel, Andy D.

    different, search algorithms to simultaneously co-explore the various design space dimensions. As a result configurations using a single search algorithm for all design space dimensions to configurations using a separate space using e.g. analytical models or simulation, and 2) the search mechanism to systematically travel

  17. Surface and downhole prospecting tools for planetary exploration: tests of neutron and gamma ray probes.

    PubMed

    Elphic, R C; Chu, P; Hahn, S; James, M R; Lawrence, D J; Prettyman, T H; Johnson, J B; Podgorney, R K

    2008-06-01

    The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon's poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to "illuminate" surrounding materials and gauge the instruments' efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>or=10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition. PMID:18554085

  18. Technical report of the studies on lunar and planetary exploration and utilization, part B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the concept of the lunar satellite and the manned lunar base. In reviewing the satellite system, two possible missions were proposed. Mission Case A is mapping and resource investigation using two-ton-class lunar satellite, and Mission Case B is a landing experiment on the moon using a lunar satellite plus moon landing explorer. These missions will require special devices such as a lunar mapping camera, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), and a laser altimeter. The mode, performance, and characteristics of these devices were analyzed and reviewed for selecting suitable devices to the missions. The system and operation were reviewed on the basis of these data. For a manned lunar base, the following missions were proposed: (1) technical verification of human activity on the moon; (2) verification of environmental control; (3) verification of preparation, extraction and purification of lunar resources; and (4) astronomic and astrophysical observations, and environmental measurement on the moon. The base is roughly separated into two modules, resident and experimental module. The system configuration, distribution of power supply and weight, required function and performance, construction method, operation and safety were reviewed. Robots and an experimental system for lunar operation will be significant to accomplish the mission.

  19. Using Participatory Exploration to Engage Classrooms in STEM Learning: A Case Study Using NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Graff, P.; Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Mars Program and Arizona State University’s Mars Education Program have partnered with Mars mission teams and Mars Principal Investigator Dr. Phil Christensen to develop and promote an ongoing STEM-based opportunity for students to become active participants in the exploration of the Red Planet. The Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) has, since 2002, given over 15,000 students from grades 5 through early college the opportunity to work with scientists, mission planners and Mars education specialists using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera. MSIP participants are involved in authentic Mars research by imaging and researching a site on Mars using the THEMIS visible wavelength camera onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. Students can participate one of three ways: on-site at ASU, through distance learning and using archived THEMIS images. Throughout the period of time that the Mars Student Imaging Project has been operating, many lessons-learned have been accumulated, assessed, and project adjustments have been made. To meet the needs of a changing educational landscape and audience needs, MSIP is changing as well. Many challenges and barriers are making it difficult for teachers to promote deep, hands-on research projects in the formal classroom. As high stakes testing is again becoming more of the focus for the classroom, there becomes a greater need to understand audience needs (schools, teachers, students) and where new opportunities might emerge for students to participate in authentic and data-driven research. Participatory Exploration is a new exciting way to help teachers bring authentic STEM to their students through our journeys through the solar system. By engaging students through technology and challenging them with space-related research opportunities, we can further enable this generation of technology natives toward STEM literacy in a hands-on, memorable way.

  20. Mothership - Affordable Exploration of Planetary Bodies through Individual Nano-Sats and Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCorcia, James D.; Ernst, Sebastian M.; Grace, J. Mike; Gump, David P.; Lewis, John S.; Foulds, Craig F.; Faber, Daniel R.

    2015-04-01

    One concept to enable broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies is the Mothership mission architecture which delivers third-party nano-sats, experiments, and sensors to a near Earth asteroid or comet. Deep Space Industries' Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth, and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. It allows researchers to house their instruments in a low-cost nano-sat platform that does not require the high-performance propulsion or deep space communication capabilities that otherwise would be required for a solo asteroid mission. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. In addition, the Mothership and its deployed nano-sats can offer a platform for instruments which need to be distributed over multiple spacecraft. The Mothership is designed to carry 10 to 12 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accomodates the same volume as a traditional 3U Cubesat. This design was found to be more favorable for deep space due to its thermal characteristics. The CubeSat standard was originally designed with operations in low Earth orbit in mind. By deliberately breaking the standard, Deep Space Nano-Sats offer better performance with less chance of a critical malfunction in the more hostile deep space environment. The first mission can launch as early as Q4 2017, with subsequent, regular launches through the 2020's.

  1. Innovative Technologies for Human Exploration: Opportunities for Partnerships and Leveraging Novel Technologies External to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hay, Jason; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Reeves, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Human spaceflight organizations have ambitious goals for expanding human presence throughout the solar system. To meet these goals, spaceflight organizations have to overcome complex technical challenges for human missions to Mars, Near Earth Asteroids, and other distant celestial bodies. Resolving these challenges requires considerable resources and technological innovations, such as advancements in human health and countermeasures for space environments; self-sustaining habitats; advanced power and propulsion systems; and information technologies. Today, government space agencies seek cooperative endeavors to reduce cost burdens, improve human exploration capabilities, and foster knowledge sharing among human spaceflight organizations. This paper looks at potential opportunities for partnerships and spin-ins from economic sectors outside the space industry. It highlights innovative technologies and breakthrough concepts that could have significant impacts on space exploration and identifies organizations throughout the broader economy that specialize in these technologies.

  2. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Douglas; Abelson, Robert; Johannesen, Jennie; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William; Newlin, Laura

    NASA's Juno mission will launch in 2011 and explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions and its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. The science mission is concluded with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction due to impact into an icy body.

  3. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

  4. The Highland Terrain Hopper: a new locomotion system for exploration of Mars and other low-gravity planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Mege, Daniel; Rickman, Hans

    Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, reconstruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, conducting and interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. There are few limitations in the type of scientific payload conventional exploration rovers can carry, from geology and geophysics to geochemistry and exobiology. They lack two skills, however: the ability of working on rugged or unstable terrain, like in canyons and mountains, and on solid bodies having gravity too low for the friction between the wheels and the ground to generate robot displacement. ASTRONIKA Ltd. and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences are designing Galago, the Highland Terrain Hopper, a small (Ř~50-100 cm), light (5-10 kg), and robust locomotion system, which addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a commando. Galago is symmetric and can jump accurately to a height of 4.5 m on Mars, 9 m on the Moon, and much more on Phobos and other small bodies. For one Galago, a nominal horizontal travel distance of 5 km (1000 jumps) is currently planned with the considered energy source, a battery reloaded by solar panels. Galago may assist other types of robots, or humans, in accessing difficult terrain, or even replace them for specific measurements or campaigning. Its three independent legs make possible several types of motions: accurate jumping (to any place identified in advance), turning over, and tilting. Many risky displacements are made possible by robot symmetry and leg configuration. In case of failed jump, one leg at least is in contact with the ground and can be used for a new jump and a new attempt. Due to low weight and cost, several galagos may be sent to study the geology and geophysics along profiles tens of km long or grids covering up to hundreds of km2, with either duplicate or complementary payloads. Payload weight is limited to ca. 1 kg per one Galago. In order to save space and weight, the main system and payload will be highly miniaturized and designed simultaneously in order to share as much components as possible; no moving parts will be allowed. On Mars, the full stratigraphy, from the pre-Noachian to some of the most recent deposits, may be obtained using a small swarm of galagos dropped along a traverse going through one of the main Valles Marineris chasmata equipped with a payload including a visible-NIR multispectral camera and an inclinometer. At the same time, data regarding rock fracturing, hydrogeologic and paleohydrologic conditions, paleogeography, paleoenvironments, soils and paleosoils, would be collected. Such measurements would provide helpful information as to early volatile delivery and the very early climate, as well as assessment of past habitability. Galagos carrying a ground resistivity meter could probe the subsurface and look for buried ice; with geophones the present geologic activity and surface dynamics (slope processes such as recurring slope lineae, ice movement in rock- or dust-covered glaciers etc.) could be monitored and identified; a magnetometer would provide the first in situ measurements of Martian rock magnetization induced by the early dynamo. The Galago capabilities will be illustrated by a site study in Valles Marineris.

  5. Compact remote Raman and LIBS system for detection of minerals, water, ices, and atmospheric gases for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Bates, David E.

    2011-06-01

    At the University of Hawaii, we have developed a compact, portable remote Raman and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) system with a 532 nm pulsed laser for planetary exploration under the Mars Instrument Development Program. The compact time-resolved remote Raman and LIBS system consists of (i) a regular 85 mm Nikon (F/1.8) camera lens with clear aperture of 50 mm as collection optics, (ii) a miniature spectrograph that occupies 1/14th the volume of a comparable commercial spectrograph from Kaiser Optical Systems Inc., (iii) a custom mini-ICCD detector, and (iv) a small frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser (30 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz) with a 10x beam expander. In the standoff Raman mode the system is capable of measuring various minerals, water, ices, and atmospheric gases from a 50 meter range with a 10 s integration time. At shorter distances of 10 m or less, good quality Raman spectra can be obtained within 1 s. The time-gated system is capable of detecting both the target mineral as well as the atmospheric gases before the target using their Raman fingerprints. Various materials can easily be identified through glass, plastic, and water media. The time-gating capability makes the system insensitive to window material, which is highly desirable for future missions to Venus where instruments are expected to be within the lander. The standoff LIBS range is 10 m and LIBS spectra of various minerals can be obtained with single laser pulse excitation. The standoff LIBS capability provides additional elemental verification of the targeted material.

  6. Planetary GIS interfaces and links with the Planetary Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Baumann, P.; Beccati, A.; Cecconi, B.; Erard, S.; Marmo, C.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary data with a strong geographic component constitute a large portion of all those collected over planets and moons [e.g. 1]. The variety of Solar System bodies imaged and their geometry is large and cartographic standards have been set [e.g. 2]. Linking and making broadly accessible the growing amount of data in planetary archives of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) [3, 4] and ESA Planetary Science Archive (PSA) [5], derived datasets from experiment teams, group and individual scientists is a tremendous challenge. In order to tackle this, Virtual Observatory (VO) techniques and tools applied to Planetary Science data have been developed [6, 7].

  7. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250- kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30 days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is performed at an orbit with periapsis between 20-60 km. This orbit must be constantly managed due to the Moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field. During the Science Phase, the moon will rotate more than three times underneath the LADEE orbit. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: a Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) from Goddard Space Flight Center, an Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) from Ames Research Center, and a dust detection experiment (LDEX) from the University of Colorado/LASP. It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demonstration. The LLCD is funded by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), managed by GSFC, and built by the MIT Lincoln Lab. Contingent upon LADEE's successful lunar orbit insertion and checkout, we will report the early results from the science investigations.

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

  9. Planetary Times

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online journal features an archive of issues, dating back to 1997, on space exploration topics, particularly the purpose, results, and benefits of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions. Each issue includes downloadable images and links to additional information on the topic being discussed.

  10. NASA Quest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-02-06

    NASA Quest provides interactive and hands-on materials intended to bring NASA personnel and science to classrooms through the internet. These materials include Quest Challenges--interactive explorations designed to engage students in scientific and engineering processes related to actual missions. A typical challenge begins with students receiving a mission-related question. They work on preliminary solutions, based on research, as NASA experts provide critique. Final designs, developed after feedback and encouragement, are presented in live webcasts. Other Quest products include online tools and resources such as web-based and printed lesson plans; educator guides and workbooks; interactive features; and software for students at all levels.

  11. Exploring the Frontier of Exoplanet Atmosphere Dynamics with NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob; Stevenson, Kevin; Showman, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer+HST program to explore the frontier of exoplanet atmosphere dynamics. We will pursue a multi-wavelength approach to create detailed maps of the thermal structure of two of the best target hot Jupiters. First, we will perform secondary eclipse mapping for WASP-18b with Spitzer at 4.5 microns to complement existing Spitzer+HST phase curve observations. The combination of these data will yield the first ever map of an exoplanet's thermal structure as a function of latitude, longitude, and altitude, and provide a benchmark for 3D atmospheric circulation models of highly irradiated planets. Second, we will use a new technique pioneered by our team to observe full-orbit phase curves for WASP-103b with Spitzer and HST/WFC3. These observations will reveal the planet's phase-resolved emission spectrum and determine the global temperature-pressure profile and atmospheric composition, as well as its heat redistribution and Bond albedo. This program will significantly expand the sample of thoroughly characterized exoplanets and enable comparative planetology beyond the Solar System. Spitzer and HST are the facilities that have made the strongest contributions to our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres thus far, and we are now in a position to combine their powers in a strategic way to yield unprecedentedly detailed characterization of hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics. This program will set the stage for even more precise investigations that will be possible with JWST.

  12. International Collaboration for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Limaye, Sanjay; Zasova, Ludmila; Wilson, Colin; Ocampo, Adriana; Glaze, Lori; Svedhem, H.; Nakamura, Masato; Widemann, Thomas

    The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. From the outset, VEXAG has been open to the international community participation and has followed the progress of the ESA Venus Express Mission and the JAXA Akasuki mission as well exploring potential broad international partnerships for Venus exploration through coordinated science and missions. This paper discussed three mechanisms through which these collaborations are being explored in which VEXAG members participate One pathway for international collaboration has been through COSPAR. The International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) was formed during the 2012 COSPAR general assembly in Mysore, India. Another potentially significant outcome has been the IVEWG’s efforts to foster a formal dialog between IKI and NASA/PSD on the proposed Venera D mission resulting in a meeting in June 2013 to be followed by a discussion at the 4MS3 conference in October 2013. This has now resulted in an agreement between NASA/PSD and IKI to form a joint Science Definition Team for Venera D. A second pathway has been through an international focus on comparative climatology. Scientists from the established space faring nations participated in a first international conference on Comparative Climatology for Terrestrial Planet (CCTP) in Boulder Colorado in June 2012 sponsored by several international scientific organizations. A second conference is planned for 2015. The Planetary Robotics Exploration Coordinating Group (PRECG) of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) the IAA has been focusing on exploring affordable contributions to the robotic exploration by non-space-faring nations wishing to get involved in planetary exploration. PRECG has sponsored a two year study of Comparative Climatology for which Venus is the focal point and focused on engaging nations without deep space exploration capabilities. A third area of interchange has been the International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW) , now in its eleventh year, which brings together scientists, technologists and mission designers interested in the exploration of planets with atmospheres and particularly in the challenges of entry, descent and landing and sustained flight on other planets. IPPW has been an opportunity for developing the collaborations at a grass roots level. With both NASA and ESA favoring competitive rather than strategic approaches for selecting planetary missions (except for Moon and Mars), future collaboration on Venus exploration will involve flexible partnerships. However, international standards for proximity communication frequencies and protocols will be vital to international collaboration.

  13. Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zacny; P. W. Bartlett; D. Glaser

    2005-01-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments

  14. Stratospheric Balloons for Planetary Science and the Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) Mission Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremic, Tibor; Cheng, Andrew F.; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dolloff, Matthew D.; Landis, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the planetary science community have been exploring the potential contributions approximately 200 questions raised in the Decadal Survey have identified about 45 topics that are potentially suitable for addressing by stratospheric balloon platforms. A stratospheric balloon mission was flown in the fall of 2014 called BOPPS, Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science. This mission observed a number of planetary targets including two Oort cloud comets. The optical system and instrumentation payload was able to provide unique measurements of the intended targets and increase our understanding of these primitive bodies and their implications for us here on Earth. This paper will discuss the mission, instrumentation and initial results and how these may contribute to the broader planetary science objectives of NASA and the scientific community. This paper will also identify how the instrument platform on BOPPS may be able to contribute to future balloon-based science. Finally the paper will address potential future enhancements and the expected science impacts should those enhancements be implemented.

  15. Analysis of science team activities during the 1999 Marsokhod Rover Field Experiment: Implications for automated planetary surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Geb; Cabrol, Nathalie; Rathe, April

    2001-04-01

    This work analyzes the behavior and effectiveness of a science team using the Marsokhod mobile robot to explore the Silver Lake region in the Mojave Desert near Baker, California. The work addresses the manner in which the geologists organized themselves, how they allocated their time in different activities, how they formed and communicated scientific hypotheses, and the frequency with which they requested different types of data from the mission archive during the first 3 days of the mission. Eleven scientists from the NASA Ames Research Center and three of the five scientists who participated from their home institutions were videotaped as they worked throughout the 3-day experiment. The videotape record indicates that 46% of available person-hours were consumed in semistructured or formal meetings and that only 1% of their time was spent studying immersive, three-dimensional virtual reality models of the robot's surroundings. The remainder of their time was spent in unstructured work sessions in groups of two or three. Hypothesis formation and evolution patterns show a meager flow of information from the distributed science team to the on-site team and a bias against reporting speculative hypotheses. Analysis of the visual imagery received from the robot indicates that acquisition of the large panoramic information leads to high levels of redundancy in the data acquired. The scientists' archive requests indicate that small, specifically requested image targets were the most frequently accessed information. The work suggests alternative organizational structures that would expedite the flow of information within the geologic team. It also advocates emphasizing specific science targets over high-resolution, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging when programming a mobile robot's onboard cameras.

  16. Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. A written report on the science objectives and design features of the Rover is required. The program includes specific learning objectives in research skills, language arts (reading scientific literature, preparing a verbal presentation and writing a report), mathematics, science and engineering.The model will be mostly a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost (estimated cost of less than 10-25) of mostly found objects and simple art supplies.

  17. Exploring scaling issues by using NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment(CLPX-1, IOP3) radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary; Stankov, Boba; Gasiewski, Al; Klein, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Cold-land Processes Field Experiment-1 (CLPX-1) involved several instruments in order to acquire data at different spatial resolutions. Indeed, one of the main tasks of CLPX-1 was to explore scaling issues associated with microwave remote sensing of snowpacks. To achieve this task, microwave brightness temperatures collected at 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz at LSOS test site by means of the University of Tokyo s Ground Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) were compared with brightness temperatures recorded by the NOAA Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR/A) and by SSM/I and AMSR-E radiometers. Differences between different scales observations were observed and they may be due to the topography of the terrain and to observed footprints. In the case of satellite and airborne data, indeed, it is necessary to consider the heterogeneity of the terrain and the presence of trees inside the observed scene becomes a very important factor. Also when comparing data acquired only by the two satellites, differences were found. Different acquisition times and footprint positions, together with different calibration and validation procedures, can be responsible for the observed differences.

  18. Small planetary rovers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Angle; Rodney A. Brooks

    1990-01-01

    The authors argue that small rovers on the order of 1 to 2 kg are suitable for planetary exploration. Not only are they extremely cost effective but they also enable a number of new possibilities for scientific objectives. The authors describe their Attila robots which are prototypes for planetary rovers at the larger end of the scale (1.6 kg). The

  19. Humans in earth orbit and planetary exploration missions; IAA Man in Space Symposium, 8th, Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, Sept. 29-Oct. 3, 1990, Selection of Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigor'ev, A. I. (editor); Klein, K. E. (editor); Nicogossian, A. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on findings from space life science investigations relevant to long-term earth orbit and planetary exploration missions, as well as considerations for future research projects on these issues, discusses the cardiovascular system and countermeasures against its deterioration in the microgravity environment, cerebral and sensorimotor functions, findings to date in endocrinology and immunology, the musculoskeletal system, and health maintenance and medical care. Also discussed are radiation hazards and protective systems, life-support and habitability factors, and such methodologies and equipment for long space mission research as the use of animal models, novel noninvasive techniques for space crew health monitoring, and an integrated international aerospace medical information system.

  20. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  1. Exploring the Solar System Teacher Workshop: Lessons Learned and Teacher Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Allen, J. S.; Allen, C. C.; Eskridge, G.; Tobola, K.; Stocco, K.

    1996-03-01

    In June 1995 JSC planetary scientists conducted a three week teacher workshop on "Exploring the Solar System (Ex SS)" as part of the NASA Science Teacher Enhancement Program (STEP). The scientists were assisted by the JSC education branch and two lead teachers who had previously helped develop the meteorite educational activities. Additional support was provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Space Center Houston, and the University of Houston, Clear Lake. Funding for the workshop which included teacher stipends and tuition for 3 hours college credit at UHCL came primarily from the STEP at NASA headquarters education office, with limited support for exploration activities from code SX.

  2. Europa planetary protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore Jupiter and its near environment starting in 2016. Planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. In particular Juno's polar orbit, which enables scientific investigations of parts of Jupiter's environment never before visited, also greatly assist avoiding close flybys of Europa and the other Galilean satellites. The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  3. Planetary Protection Technology for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Mars Exploration Program has recently adopted a plan that includes a first Mars sample return (MSR) mission proposed for launch in 2013. Such a mission would deal with two new categories of planetary protection requirements: (1) assuring a very low probability of inadvertent release of the sample in order to provide extra protection against the extremely unlikely possibility of biological hazards in the returned material and (2) keeping the samples free of round-trip Earth organisms to facilitate confirmation of safety after return to Earth. This paper describes the planetary-protection-related technical challenges awaiting any MSR mission and describes work in progress on technology needed to meet these challenges. New technology is needed for several functions. Containment assurance requires breaking the chain of contact with Mars: the exterior of the sample container must not be contaminated with Mars material either during the loading process or during launch from the Mars surface.

  4. Towards Other Planetary Systems (TOPS): A technology needs identification workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.; Nishioka, Kenji

    1991-01-01

    The workshop identified a strong commonality between the technology needs for NASA's TOPS program and the technology needs that were identified for NASA's astrophysics program through its Astrotech 21 survey. The workshop encourages NASA to have the Solar System Exploration and Astrophysics Div. work cooperatively to share in technology studies that are common to both programs, rather than to conduct independent studies. It was also clear, however, that there are technology needs specific to TOPS, and these should be pursued by the Solar System Exploration Div. There are two technology areas that appear to be particularly critical to realizing the ultimate performance that is being sought under the TOPS program, these areas are metrology and optics. The former is critical in calibration and verification of instrument performance, while the latter is needed to provide optical systems of sufficient quality to conduct a search for and characterization of other planetary systems at the more extreme levels of performance identified in TOPS program.

  5. NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1990, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston-University Park and Johnson Space Centers (JSC). A compilation of the final reports on the research projects is presented. The following topics are covered: the Space Shuttle; the Space Station; lunar exploration; mars exploration; spacecraft power supplies; mars rover vehicle; mission planning for the Space Exploration Initiative; instrument calibration standards; a lunar oxygen production plant; optical filters for a hybrid vision system; dynamic structural analysis; lunar bases; pharmacodynamics of scopolamine; planetary spacecraft cost modeling; and others.

  6. come an Exploration Science Intern! The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) is hosting a special summer intern program to involve students in activities that support missions to both the Moon and near-Earth

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    of the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program that was designed to evaluate possible landing sites on the Mooncome an Exploration Science Intern! The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) is hosting a special for a particular destination (e.g., on the lunar farside) or a more general assessment of a class of possible

  7. NASA's explorer school and spaceward bound programs: Insights into two education programs designed to heighten public support for space science initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, Matthew; McKay, Chris; Coe, Liza; Rask, Jon; Paradise, Jim; Judson Wynne, J.

    2010-04-01

    IntroductionNASA has played an influential role in bringing the enthusiasm of space science to schools across the United States since the 1980s. The evolution of this public outreach has led to a variety of NASA funded education programs designed to promote student interest in science, technology, engineering, math, and geography (STEM-G) careers. PurposeThis paper investigates the educational outreach initiatives, structure, and impact of two of NASA's largest educational programs: the NASA Explorer School (NES) and NASA Spaceward Bound programs. ResultsSince its induction in 2003 the NES program has networked and provided resources to over 300 schools across the United States. Future directions include further development of mentor schools for each new NES school selected, while also developing a longitudinal student tracking system for NES students to monitor their future involvement in STEM-G careers. The Spaceward Bound program, now in its third year of teacher outreach, is looking to further expand its teacher network and scientific collaboration efforts, while building on its teacher mentorship framework.

  8. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  9. ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF PLANETS EMBEDDED IN A MASSIVE DEBRIS DISK. J. M. Hahn, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston TX 77058-1113, USA, hahn@lpi.jsc.nasa.gov, R. Malhotra, renu@lpi.jsc.nasa.gov.

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF PLANETS EMBEDDED IN A MASSIVE DEBRIS DISK. J. M. Hahn, Lunar and Planetary slowly expanded during an earlier time when there was still debris left over from the epoch of planet that develops when the giant planets toss planetesimals amongst themselves [3,4]. Here, the planet migration

  10. Life on Mars A Dilemma Case in Planetary Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruce C. Allen

    1997-01-01

    This case explores the question of whether there was ever life on Mars and in doing so explores how we define life. The backdrop for the case is the 1996 revelation by NASA of evidence of life on Mars. Through a fictionalized account of the events, the case explores what constitutes life as well as the ethics of announcing scientific discoveries directly to the public instead of following the traditional process of peer review and publication. The protagonist of the story is a young planetary geologist who must decide whether or not to join his colleagues at a press conference announcing the "discovery."  Originally designed for a course in planetary geology, where it was used in the last class in the semester as a capstone experience, the case could also be used in a general biology class to discuss the characteristics of life.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Education Programs Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the session on Education Programs Demonstration include:Hands-On Activities for Exploring the Solar System in K-14; Formal Education and Informal Settings;Making Earth and Space Science and Exploration Accessible; New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators Engaging Students of All Ages with Research-related Activities: Using the Levers of Museum Reach and Media Attention to Current Events; Astronomy Village: Use of Planetary Images in Educational Multimedia; ACUMEN: Astronomy Classes Unleashed: Meaningful Experiences for Neophytes; Unusual Guidebook to Terrestrial Field Work Studies: Microenvironmental Studies by Landers on Planetary Surfaces (New Atlas in the Series of the Solar System Notebooks on E tv s University, Hungary); and The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More.

  12. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  13. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.

    2007-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) plays an important role in Italy. Numerous scientific international space programs are currently carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry), provided by ASI either as contribution to ESA programs either within a NASA/ASI joint venture framework, are now operating: MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation three Italian dedicated operational centers have been realized, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD ( Processing Altimetry Data). Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution. Although they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). PROC is conceived in order to include the three operational centers, namely SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD, either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view. The Planetary Radar Processing Center shall be conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs. Therefore, scalability, easy use and management shall be the design drivers. The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. Furthermore, in the frame of an operative experimental platform, where a specific payload ( to be developed by the Italian Industry) a GPR will be accommodated on-board the Italian Space Agency stratospheric balloon and the data analysed by PROC; as a minimum two flight campaigns over polar regions are foreseen. The system shall be capable of acquiring radar data upon scientists requests in order to help them refine their models, experiment new algorithms, improve data interpretation capabilities. The paper also describes how the system will be integrated in the PROC, sharing the operational resources and aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface radar sounding. A specific PROC Web facility is foreseen to allow data gathering, request submission, data exchange and dissemination.

  14. International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 and NGC 7293

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Bohlin; J. P. Harrington; T. P. Stecher

    1982-01-01

    Absolute flux measurements have been obtained by the IUE in the wavelength range from 1200 to 3100 A for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 and NGC 7293. For NGC 6853, a value of E(B-V)=0.06 can be derived from visual photometry. For NGC 7293, an E(B-V)=0.012 is deduced from the interstellar Lyman alpha absorption line and the

  15. NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council July 9-10, 2009 NASA Headquarters Washington, D Chair, Planetary Science Subcommittee (Interim) #12;NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009

  16. The Planetary Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The homepage of The Planetary Society, this Web site is devoted to planetary exploration and education. The site publicizes the latest meteor sightings around the world and other recent news. Educators and students can find lots of materials dealing with Mars including observing tips, events, and games. At the Learning Center, enjoyable activities from making comet balls to determining your weight on other planets are available. The site features Space Events including Planetfest '04, the celebration of space exploration. Those unable to catch Planetary Radio can listen to archives of the weekly radio show.

  17. Planetary Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the "mind-boggling mysteries" of our solar system. The article opens with a quick review of what we know about our solar system and how we've gathered that information. Students then "explore the mystery" of each planet within our solar system, which is presented though fun facts, evidence, theories, and NASA missions. The article ends with a nine-question quiz that gives students a fun way to test what they've learned.

  18. Artist's Concept of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Artist's concept of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.

    A new NASA mission will scan the entire sky in infrared light in search of nearby cool stars, planetary construction zones and the brightest galaxies in the universe.

    Called the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the mission has been approved to proceed into the preliminary design phase as the next in NASA's Medium-class Explorer program of lower cost, highly focused, rapid-development scientific spacecraft. It is scheduled to launch in 2008.

  19. Planetary Geochemistry Techniques: Probing In-Situ with Neutron and Gamma Rays (PING) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Burger, D.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lin, L.; McClanahan, T.; Nankung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument is a promising planetary science application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth. The objective of our technology development program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Astrochemistry Laboratory is to extend the application of neutron interrogation techniques to landed in situ planetary composition measurements by using a 14 MeV Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) combined with neutron and gamma ray detectors, to probe the surface and subsurface of planetary bodies without the need to drill. We are thus working to bring the PING instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets.

  20. A Comparison of Flow-Through Versus Non-Flow-Through Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), NASA is developing both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems within the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project. This effort is being led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve fuel cell and electrolysis stack electrical performance, reduce system mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability. A major focus of this effort has been the parallel development of both flow-through and non-flow-through proton exchange membrane (PEM) primary fuel cell power systems. The plan has been, at the appropriate time, to select a single primary fuel cell technology for eventual flight hardware development. Ideally, that appropriate time would occur after both technologies have achieved a technology readiness level (TRL) of six, which represents an engineering model fidelity PEM fuel cell system being successfully tested in a relevant environment. Budget constraints in fiscal year 2009 and beyond have prevented NASA from continuing to pursue the parallel development of both primary fuel cell options. Because very limited data exists for either system, a toplevel, qualitative assessment based on engineering judgement was performed expeditiously to provide guidance for a selection. At that time, the non-flow-through technology was selected for continued development because of potentially major advantages in terms of weight, volume, parasitic power, reliability, and life. This author believes that the advantages are significant enough, and the potential benefits great enough, to offset the higher state of technology readiness of flow-through technology. This paper summarizes the technical considerations which helped form the engineering judgement that led to the final decision.