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1

Proceedings of the 2004 NASA/JPL Workshop on Physics for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference was held April 20-22, 2004, the NASA/JPL Workshop on Physics for Planetary Exploration focused on NASA's new concentration on sending crewed missions to the Moon by 2020 and then to Mars and beyond. However, our ground-based physics experiments are continuing to be funded, and it will be possible to compete for $80-90 million in new money from the NASA exploration programs. Papers presented at the workshop related how physics research can help NASA to prepare for and accomplish this grand scheme of exploration. From sensors for water on the Moon and Mars, to fundamental research on those bodies, and to aids for navigating precisely to landing sites on distant planets, diverse topics were addressed by the Workshop speakers.

Strayer, Donald M. (Editor); Banerdt, Bruce; Barmatz, M.; Chung, Sang; Chui, Talso; Hamell, R.; Israelsson, Ulf; Jerebets, Sergei; Le, Thanh; Litchen, Stephen

2004-01-01

2

NASA's Planetary Science Program Overview  

E-print Network

NASA's Planetary Science Program Overview James L. Green, Director Planetary's FY14 Planetary Science Budget Plus an Approved FY13 Budget · President's FY14/yr support of DoE PU-238 infrastructure support 3 * * Notional #12;Planetary Science

Rathbun, Julie A.

3

NASA Planetary Visualization Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one of these color coded markers are clicked, it downloads the full image and displays it in the full context of its location on Earth. MODIS images are publication quality material at resolutions up to 250-meters-per-pixel. NASA World Wind provides a full catalog of countries, capitals, counties, cities, towns, and even historical references. The names appear dynamically, increasing in number as the user zooms in. World Wind is capable of browsing through and displaying GLOBE data based on any date one wishes planetary data for. That means one can download today's (or any previous day's) temperature across the world, or rainfall, barometric pressure, cloud cover, or even the GLOBE students' global distribution of collected data. This program is free and available for further development via the NASA Open Source Agreement guidelines.

Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

2004-12-01

4

Refocusing NASA Planetary Science Funding  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA should invest more money in data analysis for its planetary science missions, even if it means delaying or canceling afuture mission, members of the science committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) suggested at a 12 October meeting.

Sarah Zielinski

2006-01-01

5

NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. In addition, the material surrounding the boulder can be collected from the surface, thus providing geological contextual information and additional samples of NEA regolith. The robotic manipulators used for capturing the boulder will ensure some of the surface remains undisturbed and that the boulder will retain its structural integrity, which will preserve the context of any samples collected by the astronauts and ensure a high level of science return. Human Exploration: Due to the coherent nature of the boulder that will be collected, entire encapsulation of the asteroid material is not required. This facilitates exploration and sample collection of the boulder by astronauts in a variety of ways. The total time for EVA during the crew portion of the mission is very limited. Current estimates are that each of the two EVAs will only last four hours. The RBC option will allow crew members to have good situational awareness of the work site and quickly identify sample sites of interest. In addition, the samples to be collected can be readily accessed without having to deal with removal of an encapsulation system, which adds extra complexity and risk for the astronauts during EVA. Resource Utilization: One of the most crucial aspects for resource utilization is the identification and collection of appropriate materials (e.g., volatiles, organics, metals, etc.) that contain components of interest. Prior characterization of NEAs is required in order to increase the likelihood that appropriate materials will be returned. Ground-based observations of small (<10 m) NEAs are challenging, but characterization efforts of larger targets have demonstrated that NEAs with volatiles and organics have been identified. Two potential targets for the RBC option (Bennu and 1999 JU3) have been previously identified as potentially rich in resources, and both are already targets of currently planned robotic missions that will characterize their physical properties in great detail. Planetary Defense: The RBC option involves interaction wi

Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

2014-01-01

6

Planetary exploration through year 2000: An augmented program. Part two of a report by the Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1982, the NASA Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) published a report on a Core Program of planetary missions, representing the minimum-level program that could be carried out in a cost effective manner, and would yield a continuing return of basic scientific results. This is the second part of the SSEC report, describing missions of the highest scientific merit that lie outside the scope of the previously recommended Core Program because of their cost and technical challenge. These missions include the autonomous operation of a mobile scientific rover on the surface of Mars, the automated collection and return of samples from that planet, the return to Earth of samples from asteroids and comets, projects needed to lay the groundwork for the eventual utilization of near-Earth resources, outer planet missions, observation programs for extra-solar planets, and technological developments essential to make these missions possible.

1986-01-01

7

NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

Arvidson, Raymond E.

2001-01-01

8

Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

Brown, Robert A.

2002-01-01

9

A vision for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

10

Direct Areal Robot Explorers For Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DARE), which essentially are autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will follow the winds while in passive-exploring mode or steer across the winds towards regions of interest while in active-directed mode. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as micro probes (MIPs) delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high- resolution targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional micro probes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling (Jupiter, Saturn), or surface exploration (Mars, Venus, Titan), relaying data back to the balloons. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report on our progress towards the development of DARE.

Pankine, A.; Nock, K.; Heun, M.; Aaron, K.; Schlaifer, S.

11

NASA Exploration Design Challenge  

NASA Video Gallery

From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

12

To: Jim Green, Jonathan Rall, Janet Luhmann & Planetary Science Subcommittee From: NASA Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), Lori S. Glaze (Chair)  

E-print Network

To: Jim Green, Jonathan Rall, Janet Luhmann & Planetary Science Subcommittee From: NASA Venus of the Planetary Science Subcommittee, VEXAG solicited feedback from the Venus science community in response to the proposed restructuring of the Planetary Science Division R&A Program. Questions and Comments were solicited

Rathbun, Julie A.

13

Planetary exploration by robotic aerovehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary aerobots are a new type of telerobotic science platform that can fly and navigate in a dynamic 3D atmospheric environment, enabling the exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Aerobots use planetary balloon altitude control which employs reversible-fluid changes to permit repeated excursions in altitude. Venus, Mars and Titan will be explored with aerobots using helium or hydrogen as their

J. A. Cutts; K. T. Nock; J. A. Jones; G. Rodriguez; J. Balaram

1995-01-01

14

Planetary exploration by robotic aerovehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary aerobots are a new type of telerobotic science platform that can fly and navigate in a dynamic 3-dimensional atmospheric environment, thus enabling the global in situ exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Aerobots are enabled by a new concept in planetary balloon altitude control, developed at JPL, which employs reversible-fluid changes to permit repeated excursions in altitude. The essential

James A. Cutts; Kerry T. Nock; Jack A. Jones; Guillermo Rodriguez; J. Balaram

1995-01-01

15

Planetary Exploration Rebooted! New Ways of Exploring the Moon, Mars and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this talk, I will summarize how the NASA Ames Intelligent Robotics Group has been developing and field testing planetary robots for human exploration, creating automated planetary mapping systems, and engaging the public as citizen scientists.

Fong, Terrence W.

2010-01-01

16

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore NASA's space missions by target, letter, year, and program. Individuals can learn about the history and future of robotic exploration of space through a pictorial timeline. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, science goals, and information on NASA scientists. Kids will enjoy the Roadtrip to Mars interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

17

Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) project is essentially research oriented towards technology insertion issues for NASA's unmanned planetary probes. It was initiated to complement and augment the long-term efforts for space exploration with particular reference to NASA/LaRC's (NASA Langley Research Center) research needs for planetary exploration missions of the mid and late 1990s. The requirements for space missions as given in the somewhat dated Advanced Information Processing Systems (AIPS) requirements document are contrasted with the new requirements from JPL/Caltech involving sensor data capture and scene analysis. It is shown that more stringent requirements have arisen as a result of technological advancements. Two possible architectures, the AIPS Proof of Concept (POC) configuration and the MAX Fault-tolerant dataflow multiprocessor, were evaluated. The main observation was that the AIPS design is biased towards fault tolerance and may not be an ideal architecture for planetary and deep space probes due to high cost and complexity. The MAX concepts appears to be a promising candidate, except that more detailed information is required. The feasibility for adding neural computation capability to this architecture needs to be studied. Key impact issues for architectural design of computing systems meant for planetary missions were also identified.

Cezzar, Ruknet; Sen, Ranjan K.

1989-01-01

18

Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry system's robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites."

Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

2012-01-01

19

National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!  

E-print Network

1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics for Exploration Systems! NASA Headquarters! Presented to the NASA Advisory Councils Task Force on Planetary Program (xPRP) #12;Title_Design Editor! 3! ESMD: Blazing a Trail Into the Solar System! · NASA's human

Waliser, Duane E.

20

Planetary Protection Status of NASA Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA monitors its spacecraft from a planetary protection (PP) perspective, to ensure it continues in compliance with COSPAR planetary protection requirements. This report to COSPAR on previous, ongoing and future missions will describe the PP compliance status of each, with changes noted as appropriate from the previous report in 2006. Missions to be covered include (but are not limited to):

A. Spry; Ying Lin; Yuki Salinas; Laura Newlin

2008-01-01

21

Exploring Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has been an exciting time to study atmospheres. Fundamental studies of Earth's general circulation and hydrological cycle have been stimulated by questions about past climates and the future impacts of humankind's activities. Long-term spacecraft and Earth-based observations of solar system planets have reinvigorated the study of comparative planetary climatology. The explosion in discoveries of planets outside our solar system has made atmospheric science integral to understanding the diversity of our solar system and the potential habitability of planets outside it. Thus, the AGU Chapman Conference: Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary AtmospheresFrom Earth to Exoplanets, gathered Earth, solar system, and exoplanet scientists to share experiences, insights, and challenges from their individual disciplines and to discuss areas in which thinking broadly might enhance scientists' fundamental understanding of how atmospheres work.

Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Del Genio, Anthony D.

2013-11-01

22

Planetary exploration by robotic aerovehicles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary aerobots are a new type of telerobotic science platform that can fly and navigate in a dynamic 3D atmospheric environment, enabling the exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Aerobots use planetary balloon altitude control which employs reversible-fluid changes to permit repeated excursions in altitude. Venus, Mars and Titan will be explored with aerobots using helium or hydrogen as their primary means of buoyancy. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have deep atmospheres that are predominantly hydrogen. It may be possible to explore these atmospheres with aerobots inflated with atmospheric gas that is then radiatively heated from the hotter gaseous depths below. Aerobots will need autonomous state estimators to guide their observations and provide information to the altitude control systems. The techniques for acquiring these data remotely are outlined. Aerobots will also use on-board altitude control and navigation systems to execute complex flight paths. Approaches to control of these systems are examined. The application of aerobots to Venus exploration is explored in some detail: the Venus Flyer Robot would have the capability to make repeated short excursions to the high-temperature surface environment of Venus to acquire data and then return to the Earth-like upper atmosphere to communicate and recool its electronic systems. Finally, a planetary aerobot testbed is discussed which will conduct Earth atmospheric flights to validate autonomous state estimator techniques and flight path control techniques needed for future planetary missions.

Cutts, J. A.; Nock, K. T.; Jones, J. A.; Rodriguez, G.; Balaram, J.

23

NASA's Exploration for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration for Life is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about kingdoms of life, environments on Earth and Mars, landforms, and the Mars Surveyor Program. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

24

Planetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediately upon launching Sputnik in 1957, it was clear that technical and political conditions would soon permit humans to realize a dream of centuriesexploring the Moon and planets. With large military rockets plus advanced radio techniques and the dawning skills of robotics, it would be possible eventually to send spacecraft throughout the solar system.

Burke, James D.

25

Exploring Planetary Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of mathematics problems relating to the moons of the solar system. Learners will use simple proportional relationships and work with fractions to study the relative sizes of the larger moons in our solar system, and explore how temperatures change from place to place using the Celsius and Kelvin scales.

26

Curie-Montgolfiere Planetary Explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot-air balloons, also known as Montgolfiere balloons, powered by heat from radioisotope decay are a potentially useful tool for exploring planetary atmospheres and augmenting the capabilities of other exploration technologies. This paper describes the physical equations and identifies the key engineering parameters that drive radioisotope-powered balloon performance. These parameters include envelope strength-to-weight, envelope thermal conductivity, heater power-to-weight, heater temperature, and

Chris Y. Taylor; Jeremiah Hansen

2007-01-01

27

Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee  

E-print Network

1 REPORT of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Washington, DC 2-3 October 2008 Introduction The Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) of the NASA Advisory day began with a briefing by James Green, Director of the Planetary Science Division (PSD) of NASA

Rathbun, Julie A.

28

Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee  

E-print Network

1 REPORT of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Orlando, Florida 7 October 2007 Introduction The Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) of the NASA Advisory, Director of the Planetary Science Division (PSD) of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), briefed

Rathbun, Julie A.

29

Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. As a 3D geospatial browser, the Google Earth client is one way to visualize planetary data. KML imagery super-overlays enable us to create a non-Earth planetary globe within Google Earth, and conversion of planetary meta-data allows display of the footprint locations of various higher-resolution data sets. Once our group, or any group, performs these data conversions the KML can be made available on the Web, where anyone can download it and begin using it in Google Earth (or any other geospatial browser), just like a Web page. Lucian Plesea at JPL offers several KML basemaps (MDIM, colorized MDIM, MOC composite, THEMIS day time infrared, and both grayscale and colorized MOLA). We have created TES Thermal Inertia maps, and a THEMIS night time infrared overlay, as well. Many data sets for Mars have already been converted to KML. We provide coverage polygons overlaid on the globe, whose icons can be clicked on and lead to the full PDS data URL. We have built coverage maps for the following data sets: MOC narrow angle, HRSC imagery and DTMs, SHARAD tracks, CTX, and HiRISE. The CRISM team is working on providing their coverage data via publicly-accessible KML. The MSL landing site process is also providing data for potential landing sites via KML. The Google Earth client and KML allow anyone to contribute data for everyone to see via the Web. The Earth sciences community is already utilizing KML and Google Earth in a variety of ways as a geospatial browser, and we hope that the planetary sciences community will do the same. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data. Our presentation will demonstrate how to leverage the latest Google Earth and KML features to visualize planetary data. In the future we hope to make additional planetary KML data available for Mars, the Moon, and other planets in the solar system. This will vastly increase the public's ability to easily access NASA's store of planetary geospatial information.

Beyer, R. A.; Hancher, M. D.; Broxton, M.; Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.

2008-12-01

30

Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers both at the technical and policy level to assure the efficiency and ultimate utility of these efforts to derive educational benefits from the space science and exploration program as a whole.

Brown, Robert A.

1992-01-01

31

Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers both at the technical and policy level to assure the efficiency and ultimate utility of these efforts to derive educational benefits from the space science and exploration program as a whole.

Brown, Robert A.

1992-12-01

32

Public Participation in Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years The Planetary Society has created several innovative opportunities for general public participation in the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life. The conduct of such exploration has traditionally been the province of a few thousand, at most, of professionally involved scientists and engineers. Yet the rationale for spending resources required by broad and far-reaching exploration involves a greater societal interest - it frequently being noted that the rationale cannot rely on science alone. This paper reports on the more notable of the opportunities for general public participation, in particular: 1) Visions of Mars: a CD containing the works of science fiction about Mars, designed to be placed on Mars as the first library to be found by eventual human explorers; 2) MAPEX: a Microelectronics And Photonics Experiment, measuring the radiation environment for future human explorers of Mars, and containing a electron beam lithograph of names of all the members of The Planetary Society at a particular time; 3) Naming of spacecraft: Involvement in the naming of spacecraft: Magellan, Sojourner; 4) The Mars Microphone: the first privately funded instrument to be sent to another world; 5) Red Rover Goes to Mars: the first commercial-education partnership on a planetary mission; 6) Student designed nanoexperiments: to fly on a Mars lander; and 7) SETI@home: a tool permitting millions to contribute to research and data processing in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A brief description of each of the projects will be given, and the opportunity it provided for public participation described. The evolving complexity of these projects suggest that more opportunities will be found, and that the role of public participation can increase at the same time as making substantive contributions to the flight missions. It will be suggested that these projects presage the day that planetary exploration will be truly and global and mass public enterprise, with people in their homes, and in schools, in direct communication, and even control, of robotic devices on other worlds. The effect of this on future human and robotic exploration plans is considered. Specific suggestions and plans for the Mars program will be offered - for the 2003, 2005 planned missions, for rovers, balloons and other aerostats, and for outposts leading to human flight. Partnerships among government and non-government organizations internationally and domestically and among different types of organizations contributing to education and public outreach will be discussed.

Friedman, Louis

2000-07-01

33

Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee  

E-print Network

REPORT of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Washington, D.C. 7-8 June 2007 Introduction The Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) of the NASA Advisory the Planetary Science Division's Government Performance Reporting Act (GPRA) progress. Phil Crane first

Rathbun, Julie A.

34

NASA'S Mars Exploration Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from NASA hosts a collection of science and news articles, images and animations, and resources for teachers and students. Information about various Martian missions and observational technologies are included as well as links to other NASA sites that relate to Mars.

Nasa

35

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration  

E-print Network

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration 09 January is demonstrated through partnership evaluations for three reference human spaceflight missions beyond Low Earth

de Weck, Olivier L.

36

NASA planetary science summer school application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post doctoral and graduate students for its 18th Annual Planetary Science Summer School, which will hold two sessions this summer (24-28 July and 31 July 31-4 August) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. During the summer school, student teams will carry out the equivalent of an early concept study in response to a selected NASA Announcement of Opportunity, prepare a proposal authorization review presentation, present it to a review board, and receive feedback. At the end of the week, students will have a clearer understanding of the life cycle of a space mission; relationships between mission design, cost, and schedule; and the trade-offs necessary to stay within cost and schedule while preserving the quality of science.

2006-05-01

37

Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

1971-01-01

38

Data Management in Planetary Exploration and Space Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary exploration and space physics approach data management in very different ways. In this talk we will compare the approaches in these two disciplines with emphasis on how each has dealt with the problems of locating and accessing distributed data. We also will outline the data management challenges each will face in the next decade. Sixteen years ago the NASA

R. J. Walker; S. P. Joy; T. A. King

2003-01-01

39

Planetary protection for human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human astronauts have unique capabilities that could greatly facilitate scientific exploration of other planets. However, when searching for life beyond Earth, these capabilities can be utilized effectively only if the biological contamination associated with human presence is monitored and minimized. This is termed planetary protection, and is a critical element in human exploration beyond Earth. Planetary protection must be incorporated

Catharine A. Conley; John D. Rummel

2010-01-01

40

Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

2003-01-01

41

Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

2001-01-01

42

Planetary Protection Constraints For Planetary Exploration and Exobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London / Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related planetary protection Cospar recommendations. Planetary protection takes also into account the protection of exobiological science, because the results of life detection experimentations could have impacts on planetary protection regulations. The validation of their results depends strongly of how the samples have been collected, stored and analyzed, and particularly of their biological and organic cleanliness. Any risk of contamination by organic materials, chemical coumpounds and by terrestrial microorganisms must be avoided. A large number of missions is presently scheduled, particularly on Mars, in order to search for life or traces of past life. In the frame of such missions, CNES is building a planetary protection organization in order handle and to take in charge all tasks linked to science and engineering concerned by planetary protection. Taking into account CNES past experience in planetary protection related to the Mars 96 mission, its planned participation in exobiological missions with NASA as well as its works and involvement in Cospar activities, this paper will present the main requirements in order to avoid celestial bodies biological contamination, focussing on Mars and including Earth, and to protect exobiological science.

Debus, A.; Bonneville, R.; Viso, M.

43

NASA/CP--2006214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop  

E-print Network

NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Washington, DC April 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program

de Weck, Olivier L.

44

Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project's main contributions have been in the area of student support. Throughout the project, at least one, in some cases two, undergraduate students have been supported. By working with the project, these students gained valuable knowledge involving the scientific research project, including the not-so-pleasant reporting requirements to the funding agencies. The other important contribution was towards the establishment of a graduate program in computer science at Hampton University. Primarily, the PAPER project has served as the main research basis in seeking funds from other agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, for establishing a research infrastructure in the department. In technical areas, especially in the first phase, we believe the trip to Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and gathering together all the pertinent information involving experimental computer architectures aimed for planetary explorations was very helpful. Indeed, if this effort is to be revived in the future due to congressional funding for planetary explorations, say an unmanned mission to Mars, our interim report will be an important starting point. In other technical areas, our simulator has pinpointed and highlighted several important performance issues related to the design of operating system kernels for MIMD machines. In particular, the critical issue of how the kernel itself will run in parallel on a multiple-processor system has been addressed through the various ready list organization and access policies. In the area of neural computing, our main contribution was an introductory tutorial package to familiarize the researchers at NASA with this new and promising field zone axes (20). Finally, we have introduced the notion of reversibility in programming systems which may find applications in various areas of space research.

Cezzar, Ruknet

1993-01-01

45

Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2004-01-01

46

Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration.  

PubMed

How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments. PMID:15795977

Landis, Geoffrey A

2004-12-01

47

Terrain identification methods for planetary exploration rovers  

E-print Network

Autonomous mobility in rough terrain is becoming increasingly important for planetary exploration rovers. Increased knowledge of local terrain properties is critical to ensure a rover's safety, especially when driving on ...

Brooks, Christopher Allen, 1978-

2004-01-01

48

NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres Programs - A Snapshot  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am considering establishing two standing Review Committees with staggered two-year appointments for the Planetary Astronomy (PAST) and Planetary Atmospheres (PATM) Programs. These committees are being formed to solicit membership and Chair the annual review processes in these two program areas. Initially the PAST Review Committee will consist of 4 to 5 members, an overall chairperson and 3 to 4

J. J. Hillman

2001-01-01

49

Planetary exploration through year 2000, a core program: Mission operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1980 the NASA Advisory Council created the Solar System Exploratory Committee (SSEC) to formulate a long-range program of planetary missions that was consistent with likely fiscal constraints on total program cost. The SSEC had as its primary goal the establishment of a scientifically valid, affordable program that would preserve the nation's leading role in solar system exploration, capitalize on two decades of investment, and be consistent with the coordinated set of scientific stategies developed earlier by the Committe on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). The result of the SSEC effort was the design of a Core Program of planetary missions to be launched by the year 2000, together with a realistic and responsible funding plan. The Core Program Missions, subcommittee activities, science issues, transition period assumptions, and recommendations are discussed.

1986-01-01

50

Solar discrepancies : Mars exploration and the curious problem of inter-planetary time.  

E-print Network

??The inter-planetary work system for the NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission entailed coordinating work between two corporally diverse workgroups, human beings and solar-powered robots, (more)

Mirmalek, Zara Lenora

2008-01-01

51

75 FR 57520 - NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research...Technology Working Group of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...CONTACT: Dr. Michael New, Planetary Science Division, National...

2010-09-21

52

NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. Participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. For this professional development opportunity, applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students, and faculty teaching such students. Disciplines include planetary science, geoscience, geophysics, environmental science, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, and materials science. Participants are selected through a competitive review process, with selections based on the strength of the application and advisor's recommendation letter. Under the mentorship of a lead engineer (Dr. Charles Budney), students select, design, and develop a mission concept in response to the NASA New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. They develop their mission in the JPL Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) environment, which is a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of professional engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. About 36 students participate each year, divided into two summer sessions. In advance of an intensive week-long session in the Project Design Center at JPL, students select the mission and science goals during a series of six weekly WebEx/telecons, and develop a preliminary suite of instrumentation and a science traceability matrix. Students assume both a science team and a mission development role with JPL Team X mentors. Once at JPL, students participate in a series of Team X project design sessions, during which their mentors aid them in finalizing their mission design and instrument suite, and in making the necessary trade-offs to stay within the cost cap. Tours of JPL facilities highlight the end-to-end life cycle of a mission. At week's end, students present their Concept Study to a "proposal review board" of JPL scientists and engineers and NASA Headquarters executives, who feed back the strengths and weaknesses of their proposal and mission design. A survey of Planetary Science Summer School alumni administered in summer of 2011 provides information on the program's impact on students' career choices and leadership roles as they pursue their employment in planetary science and related fields. Preliminary results will be discussed during the session. Almost a third of the approximately 450 Planetary Science Summer School alumni from the last 10 years of the program are currently employed by NASA or JPL. The Planetary Science Summer School is implemented by the JPL Education Office in partnership with JPL's Team X Project Design Center.

Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Urban, A.; NASA Planetary Science Summer School Team

2011-12-01

53

NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponsored by NASAs Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. Participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. For this professional development opportunity, applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students, and faculty teaching such students. Disciplines include planetary science, geoscience, geophysics, environmental science, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, and materials science. Participants are selected through a competitive review process, with selections based on the strength of the application and advisors recommendation letter. Under the mentorship of a lead engineer (Dr. Charles Budney), students select, design, and develop a mission concept in response to the NASA New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. They develop their mission in the JPL Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) environment, which is a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of professional engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. About 36 students participate each year, divided into two summer sessions. In advance of an intensive week-long session in the Project Design Center at JPL, students select the mission and science goals during a series of six weekly WebEx/telecons, and develop a preliminary suite of instrumentation and a science traceability matrix. Students assume both a science team and a mission development role with JPL Team X mentors. Once at JPL, students participate in a series of Team X project design sessions, during which their mentors aid them in finalizing their mission design and instrument suite, and in making the necessary trade-offs to stay within the cost cap. Tours of JPL facilities highlight the end-to-end life cycle of a mission. At weeks end, students present their Concept Study to a proposal review board of JPL scientists and engineers and NASA Headquarters executives, who feed back the strengths and weaknesses of their proposal and mission design. The majority of students come from top US universities with planetary science or engineering programs, such as Brown University, MIT, Georgia Tech, University of Colorado, Caltech, Stanford, University of Arizona, UCLA, and University of Michigan. Almost a third of Planetary Science Summer School alumni from the last 10 years of the program are currently employed by NASA or JPL. The Planetary Science Summer School is implemented by the JPL Education Office in partnership with JPLs Team X Project Design Center.

Budney, C. J.; Lowes, L. L.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Wessen, A.; Scalice, D.

2010-12-01

54

NASA Propulsion Investments for Exploration and Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests in chemical and electric propulsion systems to achieve future mission objectives for both human exploration and robotic science. Propulsion system requirements for human missions are derived from the exploration architecture being implemented in the Constellation Program. The Constellation Program first develops a system consisting of the Ares I launch vehicle and Orion spacecraft to access the Space Station, then builds on this initial system with the heavy-lift Ares V launch vehicle, Earth departure stage, and lunar module to enable missions to the lunar surface. A variety of chemical engines for all mission phases including primary propulsion, reaction control, abort, lunar ascent, and lunar descent are under development or are in early risk reduction to meet the specific requirements of the Ares I and V launch vehicles, Orion crew and service modules, and Altair lunar module. Exploration propulsion systems draw from Apollo, space shuttle, and commercial heritage and are applied across the Constellation architecture vehicles. Selection of these launch systems and engines is driven by numerous factors including development cost, existing infrastructure, operations cost, and reliability. Incorporation of green systems for sustained operations and extensibility into future systems is an additional consideration for system design. Science missions will directly benefit from the development of Constellation launch systems, and are making advancements in electric and chemical propulsion systems for challenging deep space, rendezvous, and sample return missions. Both Hall effect and ion electric propulsion systems are in development or qualification to address the range of NASA s Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics mission requirements. These address the spectrum of potential requirements from cost-capped missions to enabling challenging high delta-v, long-life missions. Additionally, a high specific impulse chemical engine is in development that will add additional capability to performance-demanding space science missions. In summary, the paper provides a survey of current NASA development and risk reduction propulsion investments for exploration and science.

Smith, Bryan K.; Free, James M.; Klem, Mark D.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.

2008-01-01

55

The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) is chartered to implement the NASA space science goals of detecting and characterizing exoplanets and to search for signs of life. The ExEP manages space missions, future studies, technology investments, and ground-based science that either enables future missions or completes mission science. The exoplanet science community is engaged by the Program through Science Definition Teams and through the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group. The ExEP includes the space science missions of Kepler, K2, and the proposed WFIRST-AFTA that includes dark energy science, a widefield infrared survey, a microlensing survey for outer-exoplanet demographics, and a coronagraph for direct imaging of cool outer gas- and ice-giants around nearby stars. Studies of probe-scale (medium class) missions for a coronagraph (internal occulter) and starshade (external occulter) explore the trades of cost and science and provide motivation for a technology investment program to enable consideration of missions at the next decadal survey for NASA Astrophysics. Program elements include follow-up observations using the Keck Observatory which contribute to the science yield of Kepler and K2, and include mid-infrared observations of exo-zodiacal dust by the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer which provide parameters critical to the design and predicted science yield of the next generation of direct imaging missions. ExEP includes the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute which provides archives, tools, and professional education for the exoplanet community. Each of these program elements contribute to the goal of detecting and characterizing earth-like planets orbiting other stars, and seeks to respond to rapid evolution in this discovery-driven field and to ongoing programmatic challenges through engagement of the scientific and technical communities.

Hudgins, Douglas M.; Blackwood, Gary; Gagosian, John

2014-11-01

56

76 FR 58303 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-081)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

2011-09-20

57

76 FR 69292 - NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-113] NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces that the meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

2011-11-08

58

76 FR 62456 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-089] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

2011-10-07

59

NASA: Exploration in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration in 3D website is well executed and is accompanied by music with that classic, creepy, outer space feel. For visitors who prefer silence while looking at images of deep, dark space, there is a mute button near the bottom right side of the homepage. With this website, NASA is allowing the public to see their next major project, which involves creating a transportation system to take astronauts to the moon and then on to Mars. To enable the interested public to watch the progress of their plans for space, NASA will be taking photos of the project and putting them on this website, so they can be downloaded and printed. Once said images are printed, that's where the 3-D pocket viewfinders come in. For visitors interested in getting a viewfinder, click on the link at the bottom of the page that says "Click here to request your own EXN3D Pocket Viewfinder". To view the latest images with your viewfinder that are ready to download and print, visitors can click on "Downloads". Interested parties should check back in the future to see newly added images of the progress of the transportation system.

60

Design of Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mobile Exploration System Project (MEX) at NASA Ames Research Center has been conducting studies into hybrid communication networks for future planetary missions. These networks consist of space-based communication assets connected to ground-based Internets and planetary surface-based mobile wireless networks. These hybrid mobile networks have been deployed in rugged field locations in the American desert and the Canadian arctic for support of science and simulation activities on at least six occasions. This work has been conducted over the past five years resulting in evolving architectural complexity, improved component characteristics and better analysis and test methods. A rich set of data and techniques have resulted from the development and field testing of the communication network during field expeditions such as the Haughton Mars Project and NASA Mobile Agents Project.

Alena, Richard L.; Ossenfort, John; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Stone, Thom

2004-01-01

61

Physics-Based Planning for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a planetary rover returned important scientific information from Mars. More ambitious missions are planned. New planning methods are required that allow rovers to explore challenging areas with a high level of autonomy. This paper presents a planning methodology based on a physics-based model of the rover and environment. Plans are developed that allow a rover to perform a mission

Shane Farritor; Herv Hacot; Steven Dubowsky

1998-01-01

62

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

1996-01-01

63

Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

64

Exploring Science with NASA Spacelink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of NASA Spacelink Computer Information Service for Educators to obtain instructional materials and ideas for classroom demonstrations. Uses the free-fall concept of zero gravity as an example. Provides NASA Spacelink contact information. (JRH)

Schack, Markham B.

1995-01-01

65

76 FR 31641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...following topics: --Review of the Planetary Science Division Response to the...

2011-06-01

66

78 FR 77719 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update...

2013-12-24

67

78 FR 64024 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update...

2013-10-25

68

76 FR 10626 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...Administration announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Discussion and Formulation of the Planetary Science Division's Response to...

2011-02-25

69

75 FR 80851 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...following topics: --Update on the Planetary Science Division. --Update from...

2010-12-23

70

76 FR 7235 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Budget Request and Impact to Planetary Science Division --Discussion...

2011-02-09

71

75 FR 36445 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Group --Update on Progress of Planetary Science Technology Review...

2010-06-25

72

Multimission ground data system support of NASA'S planetary program  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA funds the Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to design, develop, and operate the Advanced Multimission Operations (AMMOS) multimission ground data system capabilities that are used to control operational spacecraft and process data returned from a variety of planetary missions. The AMMOS design is based on use of modular, networked capabilities and industry standard hardware

William B. Green

1995-01-01

73

IUS application to NASA planetary missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The considerations involved in the selection of a new upper stage to launch three planetary missions following the decision to cancel the use of Centaur are discussed, and the methods by which the selected IUS will fly these missions are described. It is shown that the IUS is capable of accomplishing all three misssions (Magellan, Galileo, and Ulysses) with some compromises in mission transit time. Relatively minor modifications to the IUS, airborne support equipment, and software are required. The first of the three missions is to be accomplished two and a half years from go-ahead by the use of existing IUS flight hardware.

Hanford, Denton; Saucier, Sidney

1987-01-01

74

From: The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility Network (corresponding author: Justin Hagerty, jhagerty@usgs.gov)  

E-print Network

Science Division R&A programs Introduction: At the meeting of the NASA Planetary Science Subcommittee on November 5, 2013 the planetary science community was informed that the NASA Planetary Science Division (PSD, and using planetary science data sets. Questions to be addressed: · How will supporting facilities

Rathbun, Julie A.

75

NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster features several of the NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers, plus suggestions for using the series in the classroom. The series of online articles features NASA explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12 and up.

Iges

2007-01-01

76

Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star-type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first three years of data, 100 of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane) which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g. velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within 1 AU of their host stars in support of NASA's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system.

Batalha, N. M.

2014-09-01

77

77 FR 71641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-104)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee...Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This...

2012-12-03

78

Middle School Adventures in Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1998 the UW-Madison Office of Space Science Education (OSSE) developed and implemented a pilot summer school program to improve the math and science performance of middle school students. The program focused on the subject of solar system exploration for the summer school offered by the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for middle school students. OSSE staff collaborated with science, math, and technology teachers from two middle schools (Milwaukee Education Center and Bell Middle School) to expand upon a series of hands-on, interdisciplinary lesson plans originally developed to accompany the Planetary Society's Red Rover, Red Rover Program. For six weeks, sixty inner city middle school students had the opportunity to explore new worlds as far reaching as Mars, Mercury, Titania, Uranus and Pluto with the assistance of Planetary Scientists and staff from the UW-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Students were provided with computers and internet connections by AT&T to conduct on-line research on their own research topic relating to planetary exploration. Based on their own research efforts, teams of five or six students wrote a mission statement and then proceeded to create a terrain resembling their desired planetary target. Team engineers then built a computer operated Lego Dacta rover designed especially for exploring the unique features of their targeted planet. In addition to strengthening their science and math skills, students also focused on the improvement of their communication skills by maintaining a daily journal of their experiences, tribulations and successes. Students were tested in the beginning and again at the end of the program. An independent group from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee performed overall assessment of the summer program. Based on the overall success in achieving performance enchmarks, the Milwaukee Public Schools and UW-Extension Learning Innovations Center have elected to collaborate with the OSSE to expand the pilot space science curriculum for the academic school year. This effort was supported by a grant from the AT&T Educational Foundation.

Limaye, S. S.; Pertzborn, R. A.

1998-09-01

79

Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

2005-01-01

80

Budgeting for Exploration: the History and Political Economy of Planetary Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of financial resources continues to be one of the greatest limiting factors to NASAs planetary science agenda. Historians and members of the space science community have offered many explanations for the scientific, political, and economic actions that combine to form NASAs planetary science efforts, and this essay will use budgetary and historical analysis to examine how each of these factors have impacted the funding of U.S. exploration of the solar system. This approach will present new insights into how the shifting fortunes of the nations economy or the changing priorities of political leadership have affected government investment in science broadly, and space science specifically. This paper required the construction of a historical NASA budget data set displaying layered fiscal information that could be compared equivalently over time. This data set was constructed with information collected from documents located in NASAs archives, the Library of Congress, and at the Office of Management and Budget at the White House. The essay will examine the effects of the national gross domestic product, Federal debt levels, the budgets of other Federal agencies engaged in science and engineering research, and party affiliation of leadership in Congress and the White House on the NASA budget. It will also compare historic funding levels of NASAs astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science efforts to planetary science funding. By examining the history of NASAs planetary science efforts through the lens of the budget, this essay will provide a clearer view of how effectively the planetary science community has been able to align its goals with national science priorities.

Callahan, Jason

2013-10-01

81

NASA ADMINISTRATOR'S SYMPOSIUM Risk and Exploration  

E-print Network

exploration--Congresses. 3. Outer space--Exploration--Congresses. 4. Technology--Risk assessment AND KEITH L. COWING, EDITORS National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of External Relations NASA SCOTT HUBBARD 1 The Vision for Exploration SEAN O'KEEFE 3 Race to the Moon JAMES LOVELL 11 Bold

Rhoads, James

82

FIDO ROVER FIELD TRIALS AS REHEARSAL FOR THE NASA 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVERS MISSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent extended field trials performed using the FIDO (Field Integrated Design & Operations) rover, an advanced NASA technology development platform and research prototype for the next planned rover mission to Mars. Realistic physical simulation of the NASA 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers mission was achieved through collaborative efforts of roboticists, planetary scientists, and mission operations personnel. An overview

Edward Tunstel; Terry Huntsberger; Hrand Aghazarian; Paul Backes; Eric Baumgartner; Yang Cheng; Michael Garrett; Brett Kennedy; Chris Leger; Lee Magnone; Jeffrey Norris; Mark Powell; Ashitey Trebi-Ollennu; Paul Schenker

2003-01-01

83

Use of Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles for the Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the thin, cold, carbon dioxide-based atmosphere of Mars, recent work at NASA Ames has suggested that vertical lift (based on rotary-wing technology) planetary aerial vehicles could potentially be developed to support Mars exploration missions. The use of robotic vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles (VL PAVs) would greatly augment the science return potential of Mars exploration. Many technical challenges exist in the development of vertical lift vehicles for planetary exploration. It only takes the realization that the world altitude record for a helicopter is less than 40,000 feet (versus flight at the equivalent terrestrial altitude of over 100,000 feet required to match Mars' surface atmospheric density) to appreciate the aeronautical challenges in developing these vehicles. Nonetheless, preliminary work undertaken at NASA Ames and others suggest that these vehicles are indeed viable candidates for Mars exploration.

Young, L. A.; Briggs, G. A.; Derby, M. R.; Aiken, E. W.

2000-01-01

84

ASSESSMENT OF THE NASA PLANETARY SCIENCE DIVISION'S MISSION-ENABLING ACTIVITIES  

E-print Network

i ASSESSMENT OF THE NASA PLANETARY SCIENCE DIVISION'S MISSION-ENABLING ACTIVITIES By Planetary Sciences Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee 29 August 2011 #12; ii Planetary Science Subcommittee (PSS) Ronald Greeley, Chair Arizona State University Jim Bell Arizona State

Rathbun, Julie A.

85

NASA ARES Project: Exploring Meteorite Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a set of 19 lessons on meteorites and their effects upon impact with Earth, developed by NASA's Astromaterials Research center. Appropriate for grades 6-12, each lesson is aligned to national science and math standards. The collection is divided into units based on key questions students may ask about meteorites: "What are they?", "Where do they come from?", and "What happens when they hit the Earth?" Lessons range in complexity from very simple introductory material to more advanced meteorite detection and planetary evolution. Educators who complete a cost-free certification process with NASA may have use of a Meteorite Sample Disk and accompanying slide show for classroom use. NASA's Astromaterials Research Office (ARES), is responsible for conducting fundamental research on meteorites, cosmic dust, solar wind, lunar rocks, and orbital debris.

2010-03-10

86

Autonomous Science Target Identification and Acquisition (ASTIA) for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an autonomous planetary explo- ration software architecture being developed for the purpose of autonomous science target identification and surface sample acquisition. Our motivation is to maximise planetary science data return whilst minimising the need for ground-based human intervention during long duration planetary robotic exploration missions. Our Autonomous Science Target Identification and Acquisition (ASTIA) architecture incorporates a number of

David Preston Barnes; Stephen Medwyn Pugh; Laurence Gethyn Tyler

2009-01-01

87

Planetary exploration through year 2000: A core Program, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Core Program, goals for planetary exploration, continuity and expansion, core program missions, mission implementation, anticipated accomplishments, resource requirements, and near term budget decisions are discussed.

1983-01-01

88

NASA Explorer Schools Teachers Selected for 2011 School Recognition Award  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Explorer Schools project announces this year's schools selected for recognition. These schools showed exemplary classroom practices and innovative use of NASA. Explorer Schools resources to en...

89

2014 NASA Planetary Science Summer School Applications Open NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post-docs,  

E-print Network

2014 NASA Planetary Science Summer School Applications Open NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students for its 26th Annual Planetary Science Summer School, which will be held in three separate sessions in summer 2014 (June 16-20, July 14

Rathbun, Julie A.

90

Scientific field training for human planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved from field school alone. This will enhance their ability to execute, explore and adapt as in-field situations require.

Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairn, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

2010-05-01

91

NASA Solar System Exploration: Galileo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains details on the Galileo spacecraft mission to Jupiter. Galileo operated from 1989-2003 and sent back valuable information about Jupiter and its moons before being destroyed in Jupiter's atmosphere. Information on the mission, photos, explorations, news articles, and educational links are available.

Harvey, Samantha

2003-10-10

92

Planetary Rover Developments Supporting Mars Exploration, Sample Return and Future Human-Robotic Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview our recent research on planetary mobility. Products of this effort include the Field Integrated Design & Operations rover (FIDO), Sample Return Rover (SRR), reconfigurable rover units that function as an All Terrain Explorer (ATE), and a multi-Robot Work Crew of closely cooperating rovers (RWC). FIDO rover is an advanced technology prototype; its design and field testing support NASA's

Paul S. Schenker; Terry L. Huntsberger; Paolo Pirjanian; Eric T. Baumgartner; Eddie Tunstel

2003-01-01

93

Space Networking Demonstrated for Distributed Human-Robotic Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications and networking experts from the NASA Glenn Research Center designed and implemented an innovative communications infrastructure for a simulated human-robotic planetary mission. The mission, which was executed in the Arizona desert during the first 2 weeks of September 2002, involved a diverse team of researchers from several NASA centers and academic institutions.

Bizon, Thomas P.; Seibert, Marc A.

2003-01-01

94

NASA Mars Exploration Program: Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this site information can be found that deals with issues pertaining to the possiblity of life on Mars. It explains exactly what conditions in the environment are needed so that life can exist. It discusses the climate of Mars, both in the past and the present day. The geology of Mars is also mentioned and how by looking at the rocks the existence of life in the past can be suggested. And finally the a few comments on man exploring Mars.

2005-04-15

95

Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: A Workshop Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four Antarctic explorers were invited to a workshop at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide expert assessments of NASA's current understanding of future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. These explorers had been on relatively sophisticated, extensive Antarctic expeditions with sparse or nonexistent support infrastructure in the period following World War II through the end of the International Geophysical Year. Their experience was similar to that predicted for early Mars or other planetary exploration missions. For example: one Antarctic a expedition lasted two years with only one planned resupply mission and contingency plans for no resupply missions should sea ice prevent a ship from reaching them; several traverses across Antarctica measured more than 1000 total miles, required several months to complete, and were made without maps (because they did not exist) and with only a few aerial photos of the route; and the crews of six to 15 were often international in composition. At JSC, the explorers were given tours of development, training, and scientific facilities, as well as documentation at operational scenarios for future planetary exploration. This report records their observations about these facilities and plans in answers to a series of questions provided to them before the workshop.

Hoffman, Stephen J.

2002-04-01

96

Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: A Workshop Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Antarctic explorers were invited to a workshop at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide expert assessments of NASA's current understanding of future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. These explorers had been on relatively sophisticated, extensive Antarctic expeditions with sparse or nonexistent support infrastructure in the period following World War II through the end of the International Geophysical Year. Their experience was similar to that predicted for early Mars or other planetary exploration missions. For example: one Antarctic a expedition lasted two years with only one planned resupply mission and contingency plans for no resupply missions should sea ice prevent a ship from reaching them; several traverses across Antarctica measured more than 1000 total miles, required several months to complete, and were made without maps (because they did not exist) and with only a few aerial photos of the route; and the crews of six to 15 were often international in composition. At JSC, the explorers were given tours of development, training, and scientific facilities, as well as documentation at operational scenarios for future planetary exploration. This report records their observations about these facilities and plans in answers to a series of questions provided to them before the workshop.

Hoffman, Stephen J. (Editor)

2002-01-01

97

Exploring planetary interiors: Experiments at extreme conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ high-pressure and high-temperature experiments are invaluable to understanding the interiors of planets primarily giving us insight into the relationship of pressure and temperature on the chemical and physical characteristics of planetary materials as well as testing current theories of planetary accretion, differentiation and evolution throughout a planet's lifetime. X-ray diffraction was used to measure the volume response to pressure and temperature of a natural peridotite at lower-mantle pressures. A lower mantle composed of an upper-mantle rock composition is 1--4% less dense than seismic observations for temperatures between 2000--3000 K, suggesting distinct mantle layers not only based on structural phase changes but also chemical differences. X-ray diffraction was also used to track the alloying behavior between two very different elements, alkali-metal potassium (K) and transition-metal iron (Fe) to test the theory of an alkali-to-transition metal electronic transition at high pressure as well as the theory of sequestering potassium into the Earth's iron-rich core thereby providing a long-lived radioactive isotope 40K to power the Earth's magnetic field and mantle dynamics. At pressures above 26 GPa and above the melting temperature of iron, K and Fe form an alloy in which one percent of the Fe atoms are substituted for K in the hexagonal-close-pack structure of epsilon-Fe thereby validating the former theory and making the latter possible. Dynamic and static experimental methods were combined to explore the behavior of water at pressures above 50 GPa and up to 10,000 K. Water is found to exhibit complicated physical behavior---not surprising since at relatively low pressures and temperatures water has more than a dozen structures---with changing optical properties indicative of ionization and metallization with increased pressures and temperatures.

Lee, Kanani Kealaokehaulani Meulang

98

Use and sizing of rocket hoppers for planetary surface exploration  

E-print Network

The utilization of rocket hoppers can provide a valuable means of obtaining enhanced mobility for planetary surface exploration missions. Hoppers offer higher exploration versatility than landers, rovers, or other surface ...

Michel, Wendelin X

2010-01-01

99

An Integrated Traverse Planner and Analysis Tool for Planetary Exploration  

E-print Network

Future planetary explorations will require surface traverses of unprecedented frequency, length, and duration. As a result, there is need for exploration support tools to maximize productivity, scientific return, and safety. ...

Johnson, Aaron William

100

NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

2014-01-01

101

Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

Gavert, Raymond B.

2006-01-01

102

Planetary Exploration and Archaeology: Heritage Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary exploration is resulting in the creation of new archaeological sites material and debris on planets and their moons and in various orbits round the Earth Mars the Sun etc. The main off-Earth bodies with sites so far are the Moon and Mars. Although thousands of archaeological sites on Earth are protected for their heritage value no sites off-Earth are properly protected as yet. Sites off-Earth need to be ranked for their comparative heritage significance and protocols developed for the conservation and protection of the more significant sites and artefacts before specimens are collected and returned to Earth in an uncontrolled manner. A new UN Space Heritage Treaty is needed or at least IAU agreed protocols. The UN Outer Space Treaty 1967 is very out of date and a product of the Cold War. Conservation of sites on Venus would be impracticable as any surviving artefacts will be very corroded. Monitoring selected sites and artefacts on Mars would be of particular interest as abrasion and cryoclastic action will be occurring. A register of sites on asteroids (e.g. Eros) jovian moons (e.g. Europa) and further out would be very useful to maintain as they are created

Campbell, John

103

United States and Western Europe cooperation in planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework was sought for U.S.-European cooperation in planetary exploration. Specific issues addressed include: types and levels of possible cooperative activities in the planetary sciences; specific or general scientific areas that seem most promising as the main focus of cooperative efforts; potential mission candidates for cooperative ventures; identification of special issues or problems for resolution by negotiation between the agencies, and possible suggestions for their resolutions; and identification of coordinated technological and instrumental developments for planetary missions.

Levy, Eugene H.; Hunten, Donald M.; Masursky, Harold; Scarf, Frederick L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wilkening, Laurel L.; Fechtig, Hugo; Balsiger, Hans; Blamont, Jacques; Fulchignoni, Marcello

1989-01-01

104

Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

1992-01-01

105

NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs,

T. K. Gregg

2008-01-01

106

Terrain Classification and Classifier Fusion for Planetary Exploration Rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical properties of terrain surrounding a planetary exploration rover can be used to allow a rover system to fully exploit its mobility capabilities. Here a study of multi-sensor terrain classification for planetary rovers in Mars and Mars-like environments is presented. Two classification algorithms for color, texture, and range features are presented based on maximum likelihood estimation and

Ibrahim Halatci; Christopher A. Brooks; Karl Iagnemma

2007-01-01

107

The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

2010-01-01

108

The role of small missions in planetary and lunar exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council charged its Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) to (1) examine the degree to which small missions, such as those fitting within the constraints of the Discovery program, can achieve priority objectives in the lunar and planetary sciences; (2) determine those characteristics, such as level of risk, flight rate, target mix, university involvement, technology development, management structure and procedures, and so on, that could allow a successful program; (3) assess issues, such as instrument selection, mission operations, data analysis, and data archiving, to ensure the greatest scientific return from a particular mission, given a rapid deployment schedule and a tightly constrained budget; and (4) review past programmatic attempts to establish small planetary science mission lines, including the Planetary Observers and Planetary Explorers, and consider the impact management practices have had on such programs. A series of small missions presents the planetary science community with the opportunity to expand the scope of its activities and to develop the potential and inventiveness of its members in ways not possible within the confines of large, traditional programs. COMPLEX also realized that a program of small planetary missions was, in and of itself, incapable of meeting all of the prime objectives contained in its report 'An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010.' Recommendations are provided for the small planetary missions to fulfill their promise.

1995-01-01

109

Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate methodology and data requirements for remotely-assisted robotic traverse of extraterrestrial planetary surface to support human exploration program, assess opportunities for in-transit science operations, an...

P. C. Lee, R. P. Mueller, S. A. Voels, S. J. Hoffman

2012-01-01

110

Tradespace model for planetary surface exploration hopping vehicles  

E-print Network

Robotic planetary surface exploration, which has greatly benefited humankind's scientific knowledge of the solar system, has to date been conducted by sedentary landers or by slow, terrain-limited rovers. However, there ...

Cunio, Phillip M

2012-01-01

111

Mission operations systems for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to present an overview of the processes comprising planetary mission operations as conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and (2) to present a project-specific and historical context within which this evolving process functions. In order to accomplish these objectives, the generic uplink and downlink functions are described along with their specialization to current flight projects. Also, new multimission capabilities are outlined, including prototyping of advanced-capability software for subsequent incorporation into more automated future operations. Finally, a specific historical ground is provided by listing some major operations software plus a genealogy of planetary missions beginning with Mariner 2 in 1962.

Mclaughlin, William I.; Wolff, Donna M.

1988-01-01

112

Multimodal Platform Control for Robotic Planetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary exploration missions pose unique problems for astronauts seeking to coordinate and control exploration vehicles. These include working in an environment filled with abrasive dust (e.g., regolith compositions), a desire to have effective hands-free communication, and a desire to have effective analog control of robotic platforms or end effectors. Requirements to operate in pressurized suits are particularly problematic due to the increased bulk and stiffness of gloves. As a result, researchers are considering alternative methods to perform fine movement control, for example capitalizing on higher-order voice actuation commands to perform control tasks. This paper presents current research at NASA s Neuro Engineering Laboratory that explores one method-direct bioelectric interpretation-for handling some of these problems. In this type of control system, electromyographic (EMG) signals are used both to facilitate understanding of acoustic speech in pressure-regulated suits 2nd to provide smooth analog control of a robotic platform, all without requiring fine-gained hand movement. This is accomplished through the use of non-invasive silver silver-chloride electrodes located on the forearm, throat, and lower chin, positioned so as to receive electrical activity originating from the muscles during contraction. For direct analog platform control, a small Personal Exploration Rover (PER) built by Carnegie Mellon University Robotics is controlled using forearm contraction duration and magnitudes, measured using several EMG channels. Signal processing is used to translate these signals into directional platform rotation rates and translational velocities. higher order commands were generated by differential contraction patterns called "clench codes."

Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.

2006-01-01

113

Mars--NASA Explores the Red Planet: Science Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website lays out NASA's four goals for the exploration of Mars. Each goal is described on a separate webpage--most with illustrations. The webpage for the fourth goal describes preparation for possible human exploration of Mars.

2012-08-27

114

What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? The University of Western Ontario's Centre for Planetary Science  

E-print Network

What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? The University of Western Ontario's Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX) was formed to address numerous questions planetary science and exploration by creating a research-intensive learning environment and developing

Denham, Graham

115

An Overview of Wind-Driven Rovers for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of in-situ propulsion is considered enabling technology for long duration planetary surface missions. Most studies have focused on stored energy from chemicals extracted from the soil or the use of soil chemicals to produce photovoltaic arrays. An older form of in-situ propulsion is the use of wind power. Recent studies have shown potential for wind driven craft for exploration of Mars, Titan and Venus. The power of the wind, used for centuries to power wind mills and sailing ships, is now being applied to modern land craft. Efforts are now underway to use the wind to push exploration vehicles on other planets and moons in extended survey missions. Tumbleweed rovers are emerging as a new type of wind-driven science platform concept. Recent investigations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) indicate that these light-weight, mostly spherical or quasi-spherical devices have potential for long distance surface exploration missions. As a power boat has unique capabilities, but relies on stored energy (fuel) to move the vessel, the Tumbleweed, like the sailing ships of the early explorers on earth, uses an unlimited resource the wind to move around the surface of Mars. This has the potential to reduce the major mass drivers of robotic rovers as well as the power generation and storage systems. Jacques Blamont of JPL and the University of Paris conceived the first documented Mars wind-blown ball in 1977, shortly after the Viking landers discovered that Mars has a thin CO2 atmosphere with relatively strong winds. In 1995, Jack Jones, et al, of JPL conceived of a large wind-blown inflated ball for Mars that could also be driven and steered by means of a motorized mass hanging beneath the rolling axis of the ball. A team at NASA Langley Research Center started a biomimetic Tumbleweed design study in 1998. Wind tunnel and CFD analysis were applied to a variety of concepts to optimize the aerodynamic characteristics of the Tumbleweed Rovers. Bare structures, structures carrying sails and a tumbleweed plant (of the Salsola genus) were tested in Langley's wind tunnels. Thomas Estier of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology developed a memory metal collapsible structure, the Windball. Numerous other researchers have also suggested spherical rovers.

Hajos, Gregory A.; Jones, Jack A.; Behar, Alberto; Dodd, Micheal

2005-01-01

116

Neutron-gamma techniques for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical analysis of planetary surfaces is necessary for the understanding of the origin and evolutionary processes of the solar system. Orbital lunar geochemical experiments performed during the Apollo 15 and 16 demonstrated that even with a low neutron flux (fast and thermal), reliable results could be extracted. The possibility of using a compact 14 MeV neutron generator for geochemical analysis of planetary surfaces, comets and asteroids is currently studied. This method allows the determination of bulk chemical composition, even in the presence of an atmosphere. This would be possible on the surface of Venus, for example, where alternate methods such as sample return are impractical. This method can be used for continuous monitoring of elemental abundances from a roving vehicle, for example, on the surface of Mars.

Johnson, R. G.; Evans, L. G.; Trombka, J. I.

1979-01-01

117

Aerobot airdata measurement for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For those planets and moons that support an atmosphere (e.g. Mars, Venus, Titan and Jupiter), flying robots, or aerobots, are likely to provide a practical solution to the problem of extended planetary surface coverage for terrain mapping, and surface\\/sub-surface composition surveying. Not only could such devices be used for sub-orbital mapping of terrain regions, but they could be used also

Emmanuel Geneste; Dave Barnes

2001-01-01

118

Antenna Technologies for Future NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s plans for the manned exploration of the moon and Mars will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure on the surface and back to Earth. Future missions will thus focus not only on gathering scientific data, but also on the formation of the communications network. In either case, unique requirements become imposed on the antenna technologies necessary to accomplish these tasks. For example, surface activity applications such as robotic rovers, human extravehicular activities (EVA), and probes will require small size, lightweight, low power, multi-functionality, and robustness for the antenna elements being considered. Trunk-line communications to a centralized habitat on the surface and back to Earth (e.g., surface relays, satellites, landers) will necessitate wide-area coverage, high gain, low mass, deployable antennas. Likewise, the plethora of low to high data rate services desired to guarantee the safety and quality of mission data for robotic and human exploration will place additional demands on the technology. Over the past year, NASA Glenn Research Center has been heavily involved in the development of candidate antenna technologies with the potential for meeting these strict requirements. This technology ranges from electrically small antennas to phased array and large inflatable structures. A summary of this overall effort is provided, with particular attention being paid to small antenna designs and applications. A discussion of the Agency-wide activities of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in forthcoming NASA missions, as they pertain to the communications architecture for the lunar and Martian networks is performed, with an emphasis on the desirable qualities of potential antenna element designs for envisioned communications assets. Identified frequency allocations for the lunar and Martian surfaces, as well as asset-specific data services will be described to develop a foundation for viable antenna technologies which might address these requirements and help guide future technology development decisions.

Miranda, Felix A.

2006-01-01

119

Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carl Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners include: Canada, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. Discussions are ongoing to bring several more partners into the fold. These partnerships have impacted lunar science in a number of ways, resulting in such efforts and groups as the Pan-European Lunar Science Consortium and the Canadian Sudbury Field School. For more information visit sservi.nasa.gov

Pendleton, Yvonne

120

A Review of Antenna Technologies for Future NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's plans for the manned exploration of the Moon and Mars will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit and back to Earth. Future missions will thus focus not only on gathering scientific data, but also on the formation of the communications network. In either case, unique requirements become imposed on the antenna technologies necessary to accomplish these tasks. For example, proximity (i.e., short distance) surface activity applications such as robotic rovers, human extravehicular activities (EVA), and probes will require small size, lightweight, low power, multi-functionality, and robustness for the antenna elements being considered. In contrast, trunk-line communications to a centralized habitat on the surface and back to Earth (e.g., relays, satellites, and landers) will necessitate high gain, low mass antennas such as novel inflatable/deployable antennas. Likewise, the plethora of low to high data rate services desired to guarantee the safety and quality of mission data for robotic and human exploration will place additional demands on the technology. Over the last few years, NASA Glenn Research Center has been heavily involved in the development and evaluation of candidate antenna technologies with the potential for meeting the aforementioned requirements. These technologies range from electrically small antennas to phased arrays and large inflatable antenna structures. A summary of these efforts will be discussed in this paper. NASA planned activities under the Exploration Vision as they pertain to the communications architecture for the Lunar and Martian scenarios will be discussed, with emphasis on the desirable qualities of potential antenna element designs for envisioned communications assets. Identified frequency allocations for the Lunar and Martian surfaces, as well as asset-specific data services will be described to develop a foundation for viable antenna technologies which might address these requirements and help guide future technology development decisions.

Miranda, Felix A.; Nessel, James A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Acosta, J.

2007-01-01

121

NASA ARES Project: Exploring the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 17 inquiry-based lessons on Earth's moon: its properties, formation, and geological history. Designed for use in middle school, the lessons are organized into three units: 1) Pre-Apollo, 2) Learning from Apollo, and 3) The future of lunar exploration. Activities were developed to provide concrete experiences and models. For example, one lesson explores lunar surface formation by using crumbled toast and Oreo cookie crumbs. Another uses marbles, ball bearings, and golf balls to model impact cratering. Educators who complete a cost-free certification process with NASA may have use of a Lunar Sample Disk and accompanying slide show for classroom use. EDITOR'S NOTE: Since this resource was created, scientists have discovered compelling evidence of the presence of water at the Moon's polar regions. See Related Materials for more on this topic.

2010-03-10

122

Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

2006-01-01

123

An Antarctic research outpost as a model for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using an Antarctic site as the location for high-fidelity earth-based simulations of planetary exploration that could help prepare for these complex planetary operations is discussed. The remote and hostile dry valleys of southern Victoria Land are suggested as a valid analog to the Martian environment that remain sufficiently accessible to permit routine logistical support and relative safety to the inhabitants. Such a research outpost, designed as a planetary exploration simulation facility, would have great potential as a training site and testbed for the operation of future Mars bases. Some potential uses could include the study of human factors in an isolated environment, testing new technologies such as advanced life support facilities, and conducting basic research similar to investigations to be pursued on Mars, all the while contributing to the planning for human exploration.

Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Rummel, J. D.

1990-01-01

124

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled materials, makes the sampling operation a tedious task and quite challenging. This paper highlights the recent advancements in the sample acquisition control system design and development for the in situ scientific exploration of planetary and small interplanetary missions.

Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Dolgin, Ben; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

2000-01-01

125

The Cassini mission to Saturn is the most ambi-tious effort in planetary space exploration ever  

E-print Network

- entific probe called Huygens that will be released from the main space- craft to para- chute throughThe Cassini mission to Saturn is the most ambi- tious effort in planetary space exploration ever mounted. A joint endeavor of NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian space agency, Agenzia

Waliser, Duane E.

126

75 FR 19661 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC. The meeting will be held for the purpose of soliciting from the scientific community and other persons scientific and technical information relevant to program...

2010-04-15

127

A hypersonic vehicle approach to planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced Mars network class mission using a lifting hypersonic entry vehicle is proposed. The basic vehicle, derived from a mature hypersonic flight system called SWERVE, offers several advantages over more conventional low L/D or ballistic entry systems. The proposed vehicle has greatly improved lateral and cross range capability (e.g., it is capable of reaching the polar regions during less than optimal mission opportunities), is not limited to surface target areas of low elevation, and is less susceptible to problems caused by Martian dust storms. Further, the integrated vehicle has attractive deployment features and allows for a much improved evolutionary path to larger vehicles with greater science capability. Analysis of the vehicle is aided by the development of a Mars Hypersonic Flight Simulator from which flight trajectories are obtained. Atmospheric entry performance of the baseline vehicle is improved by a deceleration skirt and transpiration cooling system which significantly reduce TPS (Thermal Protection System) and flight battery mass. The use of the vehicle is also attractive in that the maturity of the flight systems make it cost-competitive with the development of a conventional low L/D entry system. Finally, the potential application of similar vehicles to other planetary missions is discussed.

Murbach, Marcus S.

1993-01-01

128

Exploring Exoplanet Populations with NASA's Kepler Mission  

E-print Network

The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star-type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first three years of data, 100 of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane) which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g. velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting wit...

Batalha, Natalie M

2014-01-01

129

Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission.  

PubMed

The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

Batalha, Natalie M

2014-09-01

130

Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission  

PubMed Central

The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (8590% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

Batalha, Natalie M.

2014-01-01

131

Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop  

PubMed Central

Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 810, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond science protection per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address harmful contamination beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protectionExtraterrestrial lifeLife in extreme environmentsEnvironmentHabitability. Astrobiology 12, 10171023. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

2012-01-01

132

New Carriers and Sensors for Robotic Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robotic element of planetary exploration missions does play a crucial role for a successful mission completion. The development of reliable and rugged systems with at the same time low resource requirements and a generous acceptance of harsh environmental conditions is an important constituent of supportive research and development programs. This paper introduces a selection of new technologies developed by

J. Romstedt; A. Schiele; N. Boudin; P. Coste; R. Lindner

2006-01-01

133

The JPL Autonomous Helicopter Testbed: A Platform for Planetary Exploration  

E-print Network

The JPL Autonomous Helicopter Testbed: A Platform for Planetary Exploration Technology Research ­ The JPL Autonomous Helicopter Testbed (AHT), an aerial robot based upon a radio- controlled (RC) model and milestones achieved to date are discussed. The JPL Gantry Testbed (GT) is introduced in Section 3. The GT

Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

134

MOBILE ROBOT ROUGH-TERRAIN CONTROL (RTC) FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile robots are increasingly being developed for high- risk missions in rough terrain situations, such as planetary exploration. Here a rough-terrain control (RTC) methodology is presented that exploits the actuator redundancy found in multi-wheeled mobile robot systems to improve ground traction and reduce power consumption. The methodology \\

Karl Iagnemma; Steven Dubowsky

2000-01-01

135

Planetary protection issues and human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of the Space Exploration Initiative involves human missions to Mars. The report describing the initiative cites the search for life on Mars, extant or extinct, as one of the five science themes for such an endeavor. Because of this, concerns for planetary protection (PP) have arisen of two fronts: (1) forward contamination of Mars by spacecraft-borne terrestrial

D. L. Devincenzi

1991-01-01

136

Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

2013-01-01

137

The Science Goals of NASA's Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently released policy directive, "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U. S. Space Exploration," seeks to advance the U. S. scientific, security and economic interest through a program of space exploration which will robotically explore the solar system and extend human presence to the Moon, Mars and beyond. NASA's implementation of this vision will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance, including the origin of our Solar System and the search for life beyond Earth. The Exploration Roadmap identifies four key targets: the Moon, Mars, the outer Solar System, and extra-solar planets. First, a lunar investigation will set up exploration test beds, search for resources, and study the geological record of the early Solar System. Human missions to the Moon will serve as precursors for human missions to Mars and other destinations, but will also be driven by their support for furthering science. The second key target is the search for past and present water and life on Mars. Following on from discoveries by Spirit and Opportunity, by the end of the decade there will have been an additional rover, a lander and two orbiters studying Mars. These will set the stage for a sample return mission in 2013, increasingly complex robotic investigations, and an eventual human landing. The third key target is the study of underground oceans, biological chemistry, and their potential for life in the outer Solar System. Beginning with the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004 and a landing on Titan in 2006, the next decade will see an extended investigation of the Jupiter icy moons by a mission making use of Project Prometheus, a program to develop space nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion. Finally, the search for Earth-like planets and life includes a series of telescopic missions designed to find and characterize extra-solar planets and search them for evidence of life. These missions include HST and Spitzer, operating now; Kepler, SIM, JWST, and TPF, currently under development; and the vision missions, Life Finder and Planet Imager, which will possibly be constructed in space by astronauts.

Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grunsfeld, John

2004-01-01

138

2004: The Annus Mirabilis of the Planetary System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2004 has represented for the majority of the international scientific community involved in planetary sciences an exceptional year. Many space probes designed and developed in the last two decades reached their operational stage and started producing scientific data of unprecedented quality. The ESA's planetary probes MARS EXPRESS, ROSETTA and SMART1, the NASA-ASI-ESA mission CASSINI-HUYGENS have all started their activity last year and, in many cases, shall continue well into the next decade. The italian contribution to these missions is relevant in terms not only of scientific contribution but also in terms of hardware contribution. Since the end of the 80's the italian scientific community with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) has invested a great deal of resources in the participation to planetary space missions. Many ambitious experiments have been proposed and were later mounted on board planetary probes. PFS, OMEGA and MARSIS on board MARS EXPRESS, VIMS and the RADAR for the CASSINI mission, VIRTIS on board ROSETTA and AMIE mounted on SMART1. This review shall provide an overview of the most relevant scientific results obtained by some of the abovementioned instruments.

Capaccioni, F.

139

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

140

Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.  

PubMed

With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

2012-11-01

141

Overview of the Planetary Data System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active archive that provides high quality, usable planetary science data products to the science community. This system evolved in response to scientists' requests for improved availability of planetary data from NASA missions, with increased scientific involvement and oversight. It is sponsored by the NASA Solar System Exploration Division, and includes seven university\\/research

Susan K. McMahon

1996-01-01

142

NASA's Exploration of the Red Planet: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's plans for the exploration of Mars. The reasons for the choice of Mars for exploration are reviewed: launch opportunity every 26 months, the closest planet, and potential extraterrestrial life.

Naderi, Firouz M.

2004-01-01

143

Lasers in Earth and Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 3 decades, lasers have been a tool of the space programs of the world for accomplishing a variety of engineering and scientific objectives. The majority of these uses have, however, been largely Earth-based and only a few lasers have actually been flown and operated in Earth orbit and even fewer on missions to the planets. However, in the last few years laser altimeters, lidars, and ranging systems have been part of space missions to the moon, an asteroid, and Mars; and more are planned and contemplated in the future exploration of the Earth and solar system. Early in 1994, the Clementine mission was launched to the moon and carried a laser altimeter that made the first systematic topographic survey of the moon during its 2-month observation period. This mission significantly improved our understanding of the shape and topography of the moon and along with gravity information obtained from the tracking data modified some of our thinking about the moon, the thickness of ice crust and the isostatic state of the highlands and basins. On September 11, 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) entered into orbit around Mars and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) started to map the topography of the planet to unprecedented accuracy. On its first pass across the planet, MOLA showed large areas of the northern hemisphere to be flatter than any other known surface on Earth or any other body explored to date. In January 1999, the NEAR spacecraft which carries a laser ranger (NLR), will arrive at the S-type asteroid, Eros, and during the following year the NLR will help determine the shape and rotational dynamics of this asteroid. In the Spring of 2000, the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission will be launched and employing a multi-beam laser altimeter (MBLA) will measure the Earth's tree canopy shapes and heights and begin to globally monitor the biomass. The following year, in 2001, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, which carries a 2 wavelength laser altimeter of a few centimeter accuracy, will begin a multi-year observation program of the Earth's icecaps, land mass, oceans and the clouds of the atmosphere. At the same time, laser ranging to satellites and the moon is likely to be poised to reach to the planets and track spacecraft throughout the inner solar system by applying optical transponder technology to increase its distance capability.

Smith, David E.

1998-01-01

144

Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper discusses the continuing work of the Mobile Exploration System Project, which has been performing studies toward the design of hybrid communication networks for future exploratory missions to remote planets. A typical network could include stationary radio transceivers on a remote planet, mobile radio transceivers carried by humans and robots on the planet, terrestrial units connected via the Internet to an interplanetary communication system, and radio relay transceivers aboard spacecraft in orbit about the planet. Prior studies have included tests on prototypes of these networks deployed in Arctic and desert regions chosen to approximate environmental conditions on Mars. Starting from the findings of the prior studies, the paper discusses methods of analysis, design, and testing of the hybrid communication networks. It identifies key radio-frequency (RF) and network engineering issues. Notable among these issues is the study of wireless LAN throughput loss due to repeater use, RF signal strength, and network latency variations. Another major issue is that of using RF-link analysis to ensure adequate link margin in the face of statistical variations in signal strengths.

Alena, Richard; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Osenfort, John; Stone, Thom

2007-01-01

145

VIPER: Virtual Intelligent Planetary Exploration Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation and visualization of rover behavior are critical capabilities for scientists and rover operators to construct, test, and validate plans for commanding a remote rover. The VIPER system links these capabilities. using a high-fidelity virtual-reality (VR) environment. a kinematically accurate simulator, and a flexible plan executive to allow users to simulate and visualize possible execution outcomes of a plan under development. This work is part of a larger vision of a science-centered rover control environment, where a scientist may inspect and explore the environment via VR tools, specify science goals, and visualize the expected and actual behavior of the remote rover. The VIPER system is constructed from three generic systems, linked together via a minimal amount of customization into the integrated system. The complete system points out the power of combining plan execution, simulation, and visualization for envisioning rover behavior; it also demonstrates the utility of developing generic technologies. which can be combined in novel and useful ways.

Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Nguyen, Laurent; Washington, Richard

2001-01-01

146

ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

2010-09-01

147

Review of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program: An Interim Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA requested that a committee under the auspices of the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board carry out an assessment of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). Organizationally, this program functions under the direction of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and is charged with developing new technologies that will enable NASA to conduct future human and robotic exploration missions, while reducing mission risk and cost. The Committee to Review NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program has been tasked to examine how well the program is aligned with the stated objectives of the President's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), to identify gaps in the program, and to assess the quality of the research. The full statement of task is given in Appendix A. The committee consists of 25 members and includes a cross section of senior executives, engineers, researchers, and other aerospace professionals drawn from industry, universities, and government agencies with expertise in virtually all the technical fields represented within the program.

2008-01-01

148

Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate methodology and data requirements for remotely-assisted robotic traverse of extraterrestrial planetary surface to support human exploration program, assess opportunities for in-transit science operations, and validate landing site survey and selection techniques during planetary surface exploration mission analog demonstration at Haughton Crater on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada. Additionally, 1) identify quality of remote observation data sets (i.e., surface imagery from orbit) required for effective pre-traverse route planning and determine if surface level data (i.e., onboard robotic imagery or other sensor data) is required for a successful traverse, and if additional surface level data can improve traverse efficiency or probability of success (TRPF Experiment). 2) Evaluate feasibility and techniques for conducting opportunistic science investigations during this type of traverse. (OSP Experiment). 3) Assess utility of remotely-assisted robotic vehicle for landing site validation survey. (LSV Experiment).

Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Lee, Pascal C.

2012-01-01

149

Micro Scanning Laser Range Sensor for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes a new type of scanning laser range sensor for planetary exploration. The proposed sensor has advantages of small size, light weight, and low power consumption with the help of micro electrical mechanical systems technology. We are in the process of developing a miniature two dimensional optical sensor which is driven by a piezoelectric actuator. In this paper, we present the mechanisms and system concept of a micro scanning laser range sensor.

Nakatani, Ichiro; Saito, Hirobumi; Kubota, Takashi; Mizuno, Takahide; Katoh, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Satoru; Kasamura, Kenji; Goto, Hiroshi

1995-01-01

150

Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

1990-01-01

151

A Review of the Approach of NASA Projects to Planetary Protection Compliance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA planetary protection, formerly planetary quarantine, is a set of regulations for extraterrestrial space missions which addresses applicable COSPAR resolutions, and ultimately derives from a 1967 United Nations treaty (the "Moon treaty"). The purpose of the NASA regulations is set forth in a basic policy, NPD 8020.7E (Ref. 1). The purposes are: to protect extraterrestrial objects from terrestrial biological contamination that may interfere with the search for extant life or its remnants or its precursors; and to protect the Earth from the possible hazards of an extraterrestrial sample return.

Barengoltz, Jack B.

2005-01-01

152

Jim Green, Kristen Erickson, Stephen Edberg NASA, Planetary Science  

E-print Network

* March 17 MESSENGER orbit insertion at Mercury * May 5 ­ Selection of 3 Discoveryclass missions of the Solar System Planetary Science Mission Events * September 16 ­ Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter * November for study * May ­ Selection of the next New Frontier mission for flight, OSIRISREx * July 16 Dawn orbit

153

Fiber lasers and amplifiers for science and exploration at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss present and near-term uses for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers for NASA- specific applications including planetary topography and atmospheric spectroscopy. Fiber lasers and amplifiers offer numerous advantages for both near-term and future deployment of instruments on exploration and science remote sensing orbiting satellites. Ground-based and airborne systems provide an evolutionary path to space and a means for calibration and verification of space-borne systems. We present experimental progress on both the fiber transmitters and instrument prototypes for ongoing development efforts. These near-infrared instruments are laser sounders and lidars for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor and methane and a pseudo-noise (PN) code laser ranging system. The associated fiber transmitters include high-power erbium, ytterbium, neodymium and Raman fiber amplifiers. In addition, we will discuss near-term fiber laser and amplifier requirements and programs for NASA free space optical communications, planetary topography and atmospheric spectroscopy.

Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James; Allan, Graham R.; Stephen Mark

2005-01-01

154

NASA Now: Exploring Asteroids: An Analog Mission  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA??s Extreme Environment Mission Operations, or NEEMO, project lead Bill Todd describes this analog mission and how aquanauts living and working in an undersea habitat are helping NASA prepare ...

155

NASA Flight Tests Explore Supersonic Laminar Flow  

NASA Video Gallery

In partnership with Aerion Corporation of Reno, Nevada, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center??s tested supersonic airflow over a small experimental airfoil design on its F-15B Test Bed aircraft du...

156

NASA's Spitzer Marks Beginning of New Age of Planetary Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA press release describes results from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The instrument detected a dip in the infrared light curve as a planet passes behind a star. This is the first direct detection of light from an extrasolar planet.

2005-04-19

157

An evaluation of nuclear electric propulsion for planetary exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system parameters for planetary exploration missions is described. Orbiter missions to the planets Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were selected for assessment, and five delivery modes were evaluated. The NEP system envisioned for this application consisted of a nuclear fission reactor with a thermoelectric conversion system and a thrust subsystem comprised of power processors coupled with mercury ion-bombardment thrusters. The results indicate that an NEP system sized at 90-160 kW electrical power rating and operating within a specific impulse range of 4500-5500 sec provides adequate performance for outer planet exploration.

Nagorski, R. P.; Boain, R. J.

1981-01-01

158

The NASA Education Enterprise: Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On April 12, 2002, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe opened a new window to the future of space exploration with these words in his Pioneering the Future address. Thus began the conceptual framework for structuring the new Education Enterprise. The Agency s mission is to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe in search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers as only NASA can. In adopting this mission, education became a core element and is now a vital part of every major NASA research and development mission. NASA s call to inspire the next generation of explorers is now resounding throughout the NASA community and schools of all levels all around the country. The goal is to capture student interest, nurture their natural curiosities, and intrigue their minds with new and exciting scientific research; as well as to provide educators with the creative tools they need to improve America s scientific literacy. The future of NASA begins with America s youngest scholars. According to Administrator O Keefe s address, if NASA does not motivate the youngest generation now, there is little prospect this generation will choose to pursue scientific disciplines later. Since embracing Administrator O Keefe s educational mandate over a year ago, NASA has been fully devoted to broadening its roadmap to motivation. The efforts have generated a whole new showcase of thoughtprovoking and fun learning opportunities, through printed material, Web sites and Webcasts, robotics, rocketry, aerospace design contests, and various other resources as only NASA can.

2003-01-01

159

An Optimization Framework for Global Planetary Surface Exploration Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the scale of space exploration increases, planning of planetary surface exploration becomes more complex and campaign- level optimization becomes necessary. This is a challenging profit maximization problem whose decisions encompass selection of bases, technological options, routes, and excursion methods under constraints on a route, a mission, and a whole campaign. This paper introduces the Generalized Location Routing Problem with Profits (GLRPP), which is a framework to deal with this campaign optimization problem. A mathematical formulation for the GLRPP is developed and solution methods to solve the GLRPP are presented. A case study for a global Mars surface exploration campaign optimization has been carried out. Problem instances with 100 potential bases and 1000 potential exploration sites are solved with consideration of realistic future technologies and constraints.

Ahn, J.; de Weck, O.; Hoffman, J.

160

Towards terrain interaction prediction for bioinspired planetary exploration rovers.  

PubMed

Deployment of a small legged vehicle to extend the reach of future planetary exploration missions is an attractive possibility but little is known about the behaviour of a walking rover on deformable planetary terrain. This paper applies ideas from the developing study of granular materials together with a detailed characterization of the sinkage process to propose and validate a combined model of terrain interaction based on an understanding of the physics and micro mechanics at the granular level. Whilst the model reflects the complexity of interactions expected from a walking rover, common themes emerge which enable the model to be streamlined to the extent that a simple mathematical representation is possible without resorting to numerical methods. Bespoke testing and analysis tools are described which reveal some unexpected conclusions and point the way towards intelligent control and foot geometry techniques to improve thrust generation. PMID:24434658

Yeomans, Brian; Saaj, Chakravathini M

2014-03-01

161

PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133  

E-print Network

PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133 Rocks 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 134 · Quartz is usually IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 135 · Extrusive rocks are igneous rocks that cool on the surface

Cohen, Barbara Anne

162

Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration?  

E-print Network

Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? · Formed and space · Aims to lead Canadian planetary science and exploration efforts by creating a research in space systems design and makes it the focus for planetary science research in Canada · Its members

Denham, Graham

163

Exploring Photosynthesis with NASA Remote Sensing Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use NASA Satellite data to analyze and understand ways of studying photosynthesis from space. They will assume the role of a park ranger at Shenandoah National Park and determine when the plants and trees at their top efficiency by analyzing when the plants are absorbing a majority of the light hitting them (within the photosynthetic range.)

164

Everybody Dreams: Preparing a New Generation. NASA Explorer Schools Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NASA Explorer Schools provides unique opportunities for students and teachers by offering access to technology and resources that are seemingly beyond reach. Combining new technologies with NASA content, lesson plans, and real-world experiments enables teachers to enhance inquiry-based learning and augment student engagement. This publication

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2005

2005-01-01

165

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space is the Agency's commercial space strategy message being perceived at the Center? JSC Strategic Implementation Plan What is the Center doing to promote it? Commercial Space Partnership Support What are the Center

Waliser, Duane E.

166

NASA Computational Case Study: Modeling Planetary Magnetic and Gravitational Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.

Simpson, David G.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

2014-01-01

167

Evaluation of multi-vehicle architectures for the exploration of planetary bodies in the Solar System  

E-print Network

Planetary exploration missions are becoming increasingly complex and expensive due to ever more ambitious scientific and technical goals. On the other hand, budgets in planetary science have suffered from dramatic cuts ...

Alibay, Farah

2014-01-01

168

NASA Shows Progress of President's Space Exploration Vision  

NASA Video Gallery

On the third anniversary of President Obama's visit to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where he set his space exploration vision for the future, news media representatives were given an opp...

169

The exploration of outer space with cameras: A history of the NASA unmanned spacecraft missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of television cameras and other video imaging devices to explore the solar system's planetary bodies with unmanned spacecraft is chronicled. Attention is given to the missions and the imaging devices, beginning with the Ranger 7 moon mission, which featured the first successfully operated electrooptical subsystem, six television cameras with vidicon image sensors. NASA established a network of parabolic, ground-based antennas on the earth (the Deep Space Network) to receive signals from spacecraft travelling farther than 16,000 km into space. The image processing and enhancement techniques used to convert spacecraft data transmissions into black and white and color photographs are described, together with the technological requirements that drove the development of the various systems. Terrestrial applications of the planetary imaging systems are explored, including medical and educational uses. Finally, the implementation and functional characteristics of CCDs are detailed, noting their installation on the Space Telescope.

Mirabito, M. M.

170

From NASA to a National Space Exploration Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created by federal legislation known as the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. As NASA turns fifty and begins to carry out nascent national plans for the long-term human exploration of the Moon, many within and outside the space exploration community question the rationale for the back-to-the-Moon effort and the

Arthur M. Hingerty

171

Mars--NASA Explores the Red Planet: Program Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site contains a statement of NASA's strategy to investigate life on Mars. The main page has an image of Mars captured by a spacecraft flying by in 1965. The Science Overview section provides a description of the four science goals of the entire Mars exploration initiative, extending well into the future. The page for Goal 4 links to the January 2004 statement by President George W. Bush on human exploration of space.

2012-08-28

172

A Small Fission Power System for NASA Planetary Science Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In March 2010, the Decadal Survey Giant Planets Panel (GPP) requested a short-turnaround study to evaluate the feasibility of a small Fission Power System (FPS) for future unspecified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science missions. FPS technology was considered a potential option for power levels that might not be achievable with radioisotope power systems. A study plan was generated and a joint NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) study team was formed. The team developed a set of notional requirements that included 1-kW electrical output, 15-year design life, and 2020 launch availability. After completing a short round of concept screening studies, the team selected a single concept for concentrated study and analysis. The selected concept is a solid block uranium-molybdenum reactor core with heat pipe cooling and distributed thermoelectric power converters directly coupled to aluminum radiator fins. This paper presents the preliminary configuration, mass summary, and proposed development program.

Mason, Lee; Casani, John; Elliott, John; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; MacPherson, Duncan; Nesmith, William; Houts, Michael; Bechtel, Ryan; Werner, James; Kapernick, Rick; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Lipinski, Ron; Radel, Ross; Bailey, Sterling; Weitzberg, Abraham

2011-01-01

173

Planetary protection requirements for orbiter and netlander elements of the CNES/NASA Mars sample return mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of Mars exploration, particularly for missions dedicated to the search for life or for traces of ancient forms of life, NASA and CNES have decided to join their efforts in order to build a Mars sample return mission. Taking into account article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial, referenced 610 UNTS 205 - resolution 2222(XXI) of December 1966, ratified in London / Washington January 27, 1967) and in order to comply with the COSPAR planetary protection recommendations, a common planetary protection program has to be established. Mars in-situ experimentations are limited by the size and the mass of the instruments necessary to perform exobiology investigations and, consequently, it appears that the best way to conduct such experiments is to bring back Mars samples to Earth. A sample return mission enables the use of a very large number of instruments and analysis protocols, giving exobiologists the best chance to find living entities or organic compounds related to life. Such a mission is complicated from a planetary protection point of view, it combines constraints for the protection of both the Mars environment as well as Earth, including the preservation of samples to ensure the validity of exobiological experiments.

Debus, A.

174

A subjective assessment of alternative mission architectures for the human exploration of Mars at NASA using multicriteria decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate signi.cant new scienti.c knowledge. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks cannot be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and bene.ts must be established for

Madjid Tavana

2004-01-01

175

NAC Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense August 17 and 20, 2010 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)  

E-print Network

Reich, Reporter (Nature), Charles Miller, NASA HQ; and Dan McGarthy, Johnson Space Center Task ForceNAC Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense August 17 and 20, 2010 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC) Ad for consensus, accuracy, clarity and impact. During the discussion, the point was made that NASA Administrator

Waliser, Duane E.

176

Galileo Avionica's Technologies and Instruments for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several missions for planetary exploration, including comets and asteroids, are ongoing or planned by the European Space Agencies: Rosetta, Venus Express, Bepi Colombo, Dawn, Aurora and all Mars Programme (in its past and next missions) are good examples. The satisfaction of the scientific request for the mentioned programmes calls for the development of new instruments and facilities devoted to investigate the body (planet, asteroid or comet) both remotely and by in situ measurements. The paper is an overview of some instruments for remote sensing and in situ planetary exploration already developed or under study by Galileo Avionica Space & Electro-Optics B.U. (in the following shortened as Galileo Avionica) for both the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and for the European Space Agency (ESA). Main technologies and specifications are outlined; for more detailed information please refer to Galileo Avionicas web-site at: http://www.galileoavionica.com .

Battistelli, E.; Falciani, P.; Magnani, P.; Midollini, B.; Preti, G.; Re, E.

2006-12-01

177

NASA launches dual Dynamics Explorer spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Delta launch vehicle was used to insert Dynamics Explorer A into a highly elliptical polar orbit, ranging from 675 to 24,945 km, and Dynamics Explorer B satellite into a low polar orbit, ranging from 306 to 1,300 km. The two spacecraft are designed to provide specific knowledge about the interaction of energy, electric currents, electric fields, and plasmas between the magnetosphere, the ionosphere, and the atmosphere.

1981-01-01

178

NASA's future directions in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

Odonnell, W. J.

1983-01-01

179

NASA Solar System Exploration: Galileo Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During its 14-year odyssey, the NASA spacecraft Galileo took thousands of images. In addition to extensively photographing the Jovian system, Galileo also turned its cameras on asteroids, Venus, Earth, and its Moon. Galileo also captured the only direct view of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments smashing into Jupiter in July 1994. This image gallery is separated by the various planets and moons visited by Galileo (Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Earth & Moon, Venus, Asteroids, and Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9) as well as the geographical and atmospheric features of the visited objects (Atmospheric Haze, Topography, Volcanic Features, Aurora, Great Red Spot, Lightning, White Ovals) and collected data from its instruments (Hot Spots, Temperature Data, and Cloud Height Data). It provides a wealth of images for either the casual viewer or the instructor seeking images that display particular phenomena.

180

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Exploration  

E-print Network

of gravity assist trajectory operations Builds off of ISS life support with less earth support Enables beyond LEO Basis for international HSF exploration partnerships 9 #12;ISS Enables Long Duration Testbed · Docking System High Reliability Closed Loop Life Support Long Term System Performance

Waliser, Duane E.

181

High-Performance Micro-Rover for Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary robotic missions rely on rovers to produce surface mobility for multiple sites sampling and exploration. For example, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have been extremely successful in the exploring a wide area of the Martian surface in the past four years. Each of the MER has the size of a golf car and weights ~170 kg. They both result in a massive launch of nearly 1100 kg. Small rovers (5-30 kg) can help to provide moderate surface traverse and greatly reduce cost of the mission, e.g. the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder mission. There is a growing interest in the micro-rover design and how to maximize performance of a miniaturized system. For example, the rover traversability and locomotion capability will be compromised if the objective is to reduce the size of the vehicle. Undoubtedly, this affects the rover performance in terms of mobility and usefulness to the mission. We propose to overcome this problem by investigating a new generation of rover chassis design to maximize its terrian capability. This paper presents a chassis concept suited for a micro-rover system and negotiating with different planetary terrains such as the Moon and Mars. The proposed tracked-wheel is motivated by bringing together advantages of wheels and tracks, in the same time keeping the design simple and easy to implement. The chassis is built based on four tracked-wheels and offers 10 DOF for the vehicle. Analysis based on Bekker theories suggests this design can generate larger tractive effort (drawbar pull) compared to the wheeled design for the same rover dimensions. As a result, a more effective and efficent chassis can be achieved and leave a large design margin for the science payload.

Gao, Y.; Chen, X.

2009-04-01

182

Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a recent (July-August 2010 and July 2011) planetary surface traverse planning experiment. The purpose of this experiment was to gather data relevant to robotically repositioning surface assets used for planetary surface exploration. This is a scenario currently being considered for future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. The specific scenario selected was a robotic traverse on the lunar surface from an outpost at Shackleton Crater to the Malapert Massif. As these are exploration scenarios, the route will not have been previously traversed and the only pre-traverse data sets available will be remote (orbital) observations. Devon Island was selected as an analog location where a traverse route of significant length could be planned and then traveled. During the first half of 2010, a team of engineers and scientists who had never been to Devon Island used remote sensing data comparable to that which is likely to be available for the Malapert region (eg., 2-meter/pixel imagery, 10-meter interval topographic maps and associated digital elevation models, etc.) to plan a 17-kilometer (km) traverse. Surface-level imagery data was then gathered on-site that was provided to the planning team. This team then assessed whether the route was actually traversable or not. Lessons learned during the 2010 experiment were then used in a second experiment in 2011 for which a much longer traverse (85 km) was planned and additional surface-level imagery different from that gathered in 2010 was obtained for a comparative analysis. This paper will describe the route planning techniques used, the data sets available to the route planners and the lessons learned from the two traverses planned and carried out on Devon Island.

Hoffman, S. J.; Voels, S. A.; Mueller, R. P.; Lee, P. C.

2011-01-01

183

NASA CONNECT: Geometry of Exploration: Water Below Mars?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Geometry of Exploration: Water Below the Surface of Mars?' is the third of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'Geometry of Exploration: Water Below the Surface of Mars?' students will learn how engineers and scientists are using geometry and the solar system to navigate spacecraft to Mars.

1999-01-01

184

78 FR 42110 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (13-078)] NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and...Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This...

2013-07-15

185

Multi-Wavelength Dielectrometer (MWD) Sensor For Planetary Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's mission to Moon, Mars, and Beyond envisions landing of a light weight measurement platform on the planetary surface. The Multi-Wavelength Dielectrometer (MWD) on-board consists of essential electronics and metallic plates acting as electrodes attached to the body of such platform. An electric signal applied to one of the electrodes acting as a cathode sets up electric field pattern (in the soil medium) between the cathode and other electrodes acting as anodes. The electrodes are swept through multiple wavelengths (1Hz-1MHz) and the electric current drawn by the electrodes is measured at each frequency. The measured current whose amplitude and phase depend upon electrode spacing, dielectric constant of the subsurface soil, and the frequency is then used to estimate electrical properties of the soil. In this paper the MWD sensor that will measure the dielectric properties of Moon/Mars s soil is presented. A procedure to process the MWD measured data for extracting the soil properties is also described. Assuming the subsurface soil structure as multilayer strata having varying electric properties, an electric equivalent circuit of the multiple electrodes configuration placed on a multi-layer soil sample is obtained. The current drawn by the equivalent circuit from the low frequency signal generator is then calculated. By minimizing the difference between the model s estimated current and measured MWD data the electric properties of soil samples are extracted. Experimental and simulated results will be presented to validate the proposed procedure for extracting soil properties.

Deshpande, Manohar; VanSteenberg, Michael; Hilliard, Lawrence

2006-01-01

186

Planetary protection issues and human exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key feature of the Space Exploration Initiative involves human missions to Mars. The report describing the initiative cites the search for life on Mars, extant or extinct, as one of the five science themes for such an endeavor. Because of this, concerns for planetary protection (PP) have arisen of two fronts: (1) forward contamination of Mars by spacecraft-borne terrestrial microbes which could interfere with exobiological analyses; and (2) back contamination of Earth by species that may be present in returned Mars samples. The United States is also signatory to an international treaty designed to protect Earth and planets from harmful cross-contamination during exploration. Therefore, it is timely to assess the necessity for, and impact of, PP procedures on the mission set comprising the human exploration of Mars. The ground-rules adopted at a recent workshop which addressed PP questions of this type are presented. In addition, the workshop produced several recommendations for dealing with forward and back contamination concerns for non-scientific perspectives, including public relations, legal, regulatory, international, and environmental.

Devincenzi, D. L.

1991-01-01

187

Time-resolved remote Raman and fluorescence spectrometers for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the University of Hawaii, we have developed compact time-resolved (TR) Raman, and fluorescence spectrometers suitable for planetary exploration under NASA's Mars Instrument Development Program. The compact Raman and fluorescence spectrometers consist of custom miniature spectrographs based on volume holographic gratings, and custom miniature intensified CCD cameras. These spectrographs have been interfaced with a regular 50 mm camera lens as well as with a three and a half inch diameter telescope for remotely interrogating minerals, water, water-ice and dry ice. Using a small frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser (35 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz) and 50 mm camera lens, TRRaman and LINF spectra of minerals, and bio-minerals can be measured within 30 s under super-critical CO2, and with 3.5-inch telescope these samples can be interrogated to 50 m radial distance during day time and nighttime. The fluorescence spectrograph is capable of measuring TR- laser-induced fluorescence excited with 355 nm laser in the spectral range 400-800 nm spectral range. The TR-fluorescence spectra allow measurement of LINF from rare-earths and transition-metal ions in time domain, and also assist in differentiating between abiogenic minerals from organic and biogenic materials based on the fluorescence lifetime. Biological materials are also identified from their characteristic short-lived (<10 ns) laser-induced fluorescence lifetime. These instruments will play important role in planetary exploration especially in NASA's future Mars Sample Return Mission, and lander and rover missions.

Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Lucey, Paul G.

2012-06-01

188

Using NASA Data on Science on a Sphere: Placing Earth and Planetary Science Data in an Authentic Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, has recently installed Science on a Sphere (SOS) at the Visitor Center. This exhibit entails a 9-foot suspended globe with four projectors that project three-dimensional data onto the surface of a planetary body. We have embraced the exhibit as a unique opportunity to project high- resolution NASA data for educational purposes. One of the challenges in using planetary data is the inability to represent the data in an authentic manner. Science on a Sphere has circumvented this dilemma by enabling three-dimensional data to be projected in the proper spherical configuration. Data have been adapted and used from current and old missions including Aura, Cassini, SOHO, and Voyager. These data are used to supplement current education and public outreach efforts for the Aura, MESSENGER, and New Horizons missions. Aura mission scientists have developed an educational air quality program that uses high resolution NO2, ozone, SO2, and aerosol data. These data are used in conjunction with GLOBE atmosphere and Hands on the Land ozone bio-monitoring garden protocols to provide students and educators with a rich educational experience. Those who experience the program are able to see Aura data on a global scale, and when coupled with the GLOBE protocols, are able to relate to those data on a local scale. Coupling data on SOS with local data collection techniques provides an educational experience that neither could accomplish alone. Planetary images from Cassini and Voyager have been adapted for SOS, and are used to supplement the educational package Exploring Ice in the Solar System, developed by Carnegie Institute of Washington for MESSENGER and the NASA Astrobiology Institute. These examples of adaptations of planetary data for SOS are just two of many possible educational applications. In the coming year, the Aura education and public outreach team will be developing a movie for SOS using Aura data which will be distributed to each of the nine education centers that currently use the format.

Carter, B. L.; Stockman, S.; Henderson, M. A.

2006-12-01

189

The Generalized Location Routing Problem with Profits for planetary surface exploration and terrestrial applications  

E-print Network

As the scale of space exploration gets larger, planning of planetary surface exploration becomes more complex and campaign-level optimization becomes necessary. This is a challenging profit maximization problem whose ...

Ahn, Jaemyung

2008-01-01

190

Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reference Mission was developed over a period of several years and was published in NASA Special Publication 6107 in July 1997. The purpose of the Reference Mission was to provide a workable model for the human exploration of Mars, which is described in enough detail that alternative strategies and implementations can be compared and evaluated. NASA is continuing to

John Connolly

1998-01-01

191

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

192

Breakthrough capability for the NASA astrophysics explorer program: reaching the darkest sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to ~13X increased photometric sensitivity and ~160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun- Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has strong applicability to SMD Planetary Science community-proposed missions. SEP is a stated flight demonstration priority for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This new mission architecture for astrophysics Explorers enables an attractive realization of joint goals for OCT and SMD with wide applicability across SMD science disciplines.

Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garvin, James B.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

2012-09-01

193

Breakthrough Capability for the NASA Astrophysics Explorer Program: Reaching the Darkest Sky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to 13X increased photometric sensitivity and 160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun- Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has strong applicability to SMD Planetary Science community-proposed missions. SEP is a stated flight demonstration priority for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This new mission architecture for astrophysics Explorers enables an attractive realization of joint goals for OCT and SMD with wide applicability across SMD science disciplines.

Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Joseph P.; Garvin, James B.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Stephen R.; Thronson, Harley A.

2012-01-01

194

Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

Burke, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

195

The Collaborative Information Portal and NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Collaborative Information Portal was enterprise software developed jointly by the NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission. Mission managers, engineers, scientists, and researchers used this Internet application to view current staffing and event schedules, download data and image files generated by the rovers, receive broadcast messages, and get accurate times in various Mars and Earth time zones. This article describes the features, architecture, and implementation of this software, and concludes with lessons we learned from its deployment and a look towards future missions.

Mak, Ronald; Walton, Joan

2005-01-01

196

The Planetary Observer Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of NASA's plans for the Planetary Observer Program, whose key element is to control the cost of each mission while establishing a long-term, stable base for the planetary sciences. The SSEC (Solar System Exploration Committee) has endorsed the view that many high science priority inner solar system missions are possible through the use of spacecraft derived

W. H. Blume

1984-01-01

197

NASA's new Mars Exploration Program: the trajectory of knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils.".

Garvin, J. B.; Figueroa, O.; Naderi, F. M.

2001-01-01

198

NASA's new Mars Exploration Program: the trajectory of knowledge.  

PubMed

NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is finally on the way to Mars with the successful April 7 launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. In addition, the announcement by the Bush Administration that the exploration of Mars will be a priority within NASA's Office of Space Science further cements the first decade of the new millennium as one of the major thrusts to understand the "new" Mars. Over the course of the past year and a half, an integrated team of managers, scientists, and engineers has crafted a revamped MEP to respond to the scientific as well as management and resource challenges associated with deep space exploration of the Red Planet. This article describes the new program from the perspective of its guiding philosophies, major events, and scientific strategy. It is intended to serve as a roadmap to the next 10-15 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. [For further details, see the Mars Exploration Program web site (URL): http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov]. The new MEP will certainly evolve in response to discoveries, to successes, and potentially to setbacks as well. However, the design of the restructured strategy is attentive to risks, and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program has been adopted. Mars beckons, and the next decade of exploration should provide the impetus for a follow-on decade in which multiple sample returns and other major program directions are executed. Ultimately the vision to consider the first human scientific expeditions to the Red Planet will be enabled. By the end of the first decade of this program, we may know where and how to look for the elusive clues associated with a possible martian biological record, if any was every preserved, even if only as "chemical fossils." PMID:12448977

Garvin, J B; Figueroa, O; Naderi, F M

2001-01-01

199

Planetary protection issues and the future exploration of Mars.  

PubMed

A primary scientific theme for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the search for life, extant or extinct, on Mars. Because of this, concerns about Planetary Protection (PP), the prevention of biological cross-contamination between Earth and other planets during solar system exploration missions, have arisen. A recent workshop assessed the necessity for, and impact of, PP requirements on the unmanned and human missions to Mars comprising the SEI. The following ground-rules were adopted: 1) information needed for assessing PP issues must be obtained during the unmanned precursor mission phase prior to human landings; 2) returned Mars samples will be considered biologically hazardous until proven otherwise; 3) deposition of microbes on Mars and exposure of the crew to Martian materials are inevitable when humans land; and, 4) human landings are unlikely until it is demonstrated that there is no harmful effect of Martian materials on terrestrial life forms. These ground-rules dictated the development of a conservative PP strategy for precursor missions. Key features of the proposed strategy include: 1) for prevention of forward contamination, all orbiters will follow Mars Observer PP procedures for assembly, trajectory, and lifetime. All landers will follow Viking PP procedures for assembly, microbial load reduction, and bioshield; and, 2) for prevention of back contamination, all sample return missions will have PP requirements which include fail-safe sample sealing, breaking contact chain with the Martian surface, and containment and quarantine analysis in an Earth-based lab. In addition to deliberating on scientific and technical issues, the workshop made several recommendations for dealing with forward and back contamination concerns from non-scientific perspectives. PMID:11538130

DeVincenzi, D L

1992-01-01

200

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD.  

PubMed

A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers. PMID:12650645

Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M V; Young, L; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2002-01-01

201

Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since September 2001 NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Also under development are several technologies for low cost sample return missions. These include a low cost Hall effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA s future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

2011-01-01

202

Projected NASA power requirements for space science and exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has recently completed its long-range strategic plan which describes a number of exciting space science missions into the early 21st century. In parallel, NASA's new Office of Exploration has begun defining in more detail the architectures of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) for returning to the Moon and going to Mars. Both the space science missions and the SEI missions are dependent upon power sources and energy storage with strong requirements for reliability, long life, ease of assembly, autonomy, and light weight. This paper reviews the currently planned space science and SEI missions and focuses upon the power requirements with a view toward guiding technology developers and power designers.

Bennett, Gary L.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Smith, William L.

1992-01-01

203

CAMERA RESPONSE SIMULATION FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION Dr. Richard Madison(1)  

E-print Network

-209, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109, USA, Madison@robotics.jpl.nasa.gov (2) Jet Propulsion, Marc.I.Pomerantz@jpl.nasa.gov (3) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology M/S 198-235, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109, USA, Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov ABSTRACT Current and future Mars

204

Path Planning for Planetary Exploration Rovers and Its Evaluation based on Wheel Slip Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a path planning and its evaluation method is described with taking into account wheel slip dynam- ics of lunar\\/planetary exploration rovers. The surface of the planetary body is largely covered with powdery soil. On such loose soil, the wheel slippage which will make the rover get stuck must be concerned. Since the slippage dynamically depends on the

Genya Ishigami; Keiji Nagatani; Kazuya Yoshida

2007-01-01

205

Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems  

E-print Network

Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems By Bryan K. Smith Submitted to the System Design, expansion and screening of Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power concepts capable of achieving planetaryDefinition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear

206

Vision-based terrain classification and classifier fusion for planetary exploration rovers  

E-print Network

Autonomous rover operation plays a key role in planetary exploration missions. Rover systems require more and more autonomous capabilities to improve efficiency and robustness. Rover mobility is one of the critical components ...

Halatci, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

207

Development of a mechanical counter pressure Bio-Suit System for planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is critical for human spaceflight and particularly for human planetary exploration. The MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory is developing a Bio-Suit EVA System, based on mechanical counterpressure ...

Sim, Zhe Liang

2006-01-01

208

Rough-terrain mobile robot planning and control with application to planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Future planetary exploration missions will require mobile robots to perform difficult tasks in highly challenging terrain, with limited human supervision. Current motion planning and control algorithms are not well suited ...

Iagnemma, Karl David

2001-01-01

209

Space exploration challenges : characterization and enhancement of space suit mobility and planetary protection policy analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two challenges associated with advanced space and planetary exploration: characterizing and improving the mobility of current and future gas pressurized space suits; and developing effective domestic ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2010-01-01

210

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

211

A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU With Power Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of generating power bursts upon demand in space exploration is presented. As acknowledged by two NASA Novel Technology Report (NTR) awards, the concept is new and innovative. As a general background, it must be recalled that power has always been a major limiting factor in exploration, especially in the exploration of far off sites like Mars (contrasted with LEO or GEO). Without the high power ability, no amount of energy (that can only be expended at a low rate, i.e., low power) can accomplish such simple operations as: crushing a rock, hopping over an obstacle, drilling deep, and eventually ascent from the planet to an orbiting craft above, or even the return journey to Earth. The concept presented here is an advance over the much studied In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU); we use ISRU for the extraction of the needed fuel and oxidizer from the local resources, store these gases, and expend them rapidly when needed. In the martian scenario, these gases will be carbon monoxide (fuel) and oxygen (oxidizer) extracted from the atmospheric carbon dioxide; subsequently, higher chemistry is possible after the discovery, and utilization of water which enables the production of an entire spectrum of hydrocarbons and carbohydrates. If nitrogen can also be added at a still later date, many more chemicals in the ammonia based family are possible. At SERC (University of Arizona) we have pioneered all of these chemical productions. In another award-winning innovation, an ultra-light weight material, popularly known as muscle wires, is used in a biology-inspired robot called BiRoD. The expenditure of energy in these materials produces power that results in mechanical motion. The short term power generation is thousands of times the average power that was used to harness the local resource in the first place. At the time of this abstract, BiRoD has been designed, assembled, and shown to work in a primitive way, in its component form; new media have carried the high-profile story all over the nation. At the time of the Congress, we expect to no only have many more pieces of quantitative, engineering data from BiRoD but we still also attempt to bring that robot to the session for an actual demonstration.

Streibech, Douglas; Urdaneta, Mario; Chapman, Patricia; Furfaro, Roberto; Ramohalli, Kumar

2000-01-01

212

Analysis of Obstacle-Climbing Capability of Planetary Exploration Rover with Rocker-Bogie Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheeled mobile robots are increasingly being utilized in unknown and dangerous situations such as planetary surface exploration. Based on force analysis of the differential joints and force analysis between the wheels and the ground, this paper established the quasi-static mathematical model of the 6-wheel mobile system of planetary exploration rover with rocker-bogie structure. Considering the constraint conditions, with the method

Wang Yongming; Yu Xiaoliu; Tang Wencheng

2009-01-01

213

Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

Baldwin, Richard S.

2007-01-01

214

EXPLORING THE HABITABLE ZONE FOR KEPLER PLANETARY CANDIDATES  

SciTech Connect

This Letter outlines a simple approach to evaluate habitability of terrestrial planets by assuming different types of planetary atmospheres and using corresponding model calculations. Our approach can be applied for current and future candidates provided by the Kepler mission and other searches. The resulting uncertainties and changes in the number of planetary candidates in the HZ for the Kepler 2011 February data release are discussed. To first order, the HZ depends on the effective stellar flux distribution in wavelength and time, the planet albedo, and greenhouse gas effects. We provide a simple set of parameters which can be used for evaluating future planet candidates from transit searches.

Kaltenegger, L. [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sasselov, D., E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-08-01

215

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

216

Using Perilog to Explore "Decision Making at NASA"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perilog, a context intensive text mining system, is used as a discovery tool to explore topics and concerns in "Decision Making at NASA," chapter 6 of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) Report, Volume I. Two examples illustrate how Perilog can be used to discover highly significant safety-related information in the text without prior knowledge of the contents of the document. A third example illustrates how "if-then" statements found by Perilog can be used in logical analysis of decision making. In addition, in order to serve as a guide for future work, the technical details of preparing a PDF document for input to Perilog are included in an appendix.

McGreevy, Michael W.

2005-01-01

217

NASA-KSC's earth resources benefits from space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify the nature and scope of earth resources activities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Because of recent developments from space exploration, NASA and KSC have evolved an earth resources program which focuses on applied R&D activities of direct benefit to a variety of federal, state, and local users. The historical development of this program is traced, and several projects are identified with special emphasis on the use of sidelooking airborne radar in several Brevard County, Florida test areas.

Ragusa, J. M.; Hecker, E. J.

1974-01-01

218

NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near-Earth objects (NEOs), which > 95% are asteroidal bodies, Phobos, Deimos, Mars, and beyond. The HEDS technology roadmap will strategically guide NASA and other U.S. Government agency technology investments that will result in capabilities enabling human exploration missions to diverse destinations generating high returns on investments.

Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

2011-01-01

219

Nuclear power technology requirements for NASA exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that future exploration of the moon and Mars will mandate developments in many areas of technology. In particular, major advances will be required in planet surface power systems. Critical nuclear technology challenges that can enable strategic self-sufficiency, acceptable operational costs, and cost-effective space transportation goals for NASA exploration missions have been identified. Critical technologies for surface power systems include stationary and mobile nuclear reactor and radioisotope heat sources coupled to static and dynamic power conversion devices. These technologies can provide dramatic reductions in mass, leading to operational and transportation cost savings. Critical technologies for space transportation systems include nuclear thermal rocket and nuclear electric propulsion options, which present compelling concepts for significantly reducing mass, cost, or travel time required for Earth-Mars transport.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.

1990-01-01

220

Wireless sensor networks for planetary exploration: Experimental assessment of communication and deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration is an appealing application of wireless sensor networks that has been investigated in recent years by the space community, including the European Space Agency. The idea is to deploy a number of self-organizing sensor nodes forming a wireless networked architecture to provide a distributed instrument for the study and exploration of a planetary body. To explore this concept, ESA has funded the research project RF Wireless for Planetary Exploration (RF-WIPE), carried out by GMV, SUPSI and UPM. The purpose of RF-WIPE was to simulate and prototype a wireless sensor network in order to assess the potential and limitations of the technology for the purposes of planetary exploration. In this paper, we illustrate the results of the work carried out within the context of RF-WIPE. Two test case scenarios have been investigated: a distributed sensor network-based instrument and networked planetary surface exploration. Each scenario is related to a particular network configuration. For such configurations, energy models and communication protocols have been developed, simulated, and validated both on laboratory tests and with outdoor field tests. Additionally, node deployment was investigated, and a deployment system based on a mobile robotics platform has been designed and tested.

Sanz, D.; Barrientos, A.; Garzn, M.; Rossi, C.; Mura, M.; Puccinelli, D.; Puiatti, A.; Graziano, M.; Medina, A.; Mollinedo, L.; de Negueruela, C.

2013-09-01

221

NASA/SP2009-566-ADD2 Human Exploration of Mars  

E-print Network

NASA/SP­2009-566-ADD2 Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Addendum #2 Bret G. Drake and Kevin D. Watts, editors NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas March 2014 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement

Waliser, Duane E.

222

EXPLORE/OC: A Search for Planetary Transits in the Field of NGC 2660  

E-print Network

We present preliminary photometric results of a monitoring study of the open cluster NGC 2660 as part of the EXPLORE/OC project to find planetary transits in Galactic open clusters. Analyzing a total of 21000 stars (3000 stars with photometry to 1% or better) yielded three light curves with low-amplitude signals like those typically expected for transiting hot Jupiters. Although their eclipses are most likely caused by non-planetary companions, our methods and photometric precision illustrate the potential to detect planetary transits around stars in nearby open clusters.

Kaspar von Braun; Brian Lee; Gabriela Mallen-Ornelas; Howard Yee; Sara Seager; Mike Gladders

2003-12-08

223

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 1 Educational Product  

E-print Network

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 1 Educational Product Educators & Students#DQG#Magnetic Storms An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for- mat through NASA Spacelink

224

Action planner of hybrid leg-wheel robots for lunar and planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an action planning algorithm and its evaluation method based on dynamic sim- ulation for a novel type of hybrid leg-wheel rover for planetary exploration. Hybrid leg-wheel robots are recently receiving a growing interest from the space community to explore planets, since they offer an appropriate solution to gain improved speed and mobility on unstructured terrain.

Eric Rohmer; Giulio Reina; Genya Ishigami; Keiji Nagatani; Kazuya Yoshida

2008-01-01

225

Lunar Exploration Island, NASAs Return to the Moon in Second Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second Life is a metaversea massively multi-user virtual world (MMVR) community. With over 9 million users worldwide, there are 40,000-50,000 users on line at any one time. Second Life hosts over 200 educational and institutional simulation locations termed islands or sims that are developed by users providing support for education and business endeavors. On-line tools are provided to construct structures and landforms simulating a real world in a virtual three-dimensional environment. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move in Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting and interact with other users via text or voice chat. This poster details the design and creation of the Second Life exhibit hall for NASAs Lunar Precursor Robotics Program and the LRO/LCROSS missions. The hall has been placed on the Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) in Second Life. Avatars enter via teleportation to an orientation room with information about the project, a simulator map, and other information. A central hall of flight houses exhibits pertaining to the LRO/ LCROSS missions and includes full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the missions, both spacecraft instrument suites, and EPO directed to support the missions. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference amphitheater with a stage and screen for video links such as live broadcasts of conferences and speakers. A link is provided to NASATV for live viewing LRO/LCROSS launch and impact activities and other NASA events. Recently visitors have viewed the Hubble servicing mission and several shuttle launches as well as the LRO/LCROSS launch. Lunar Exploration Island in Second Life

Ireton, F. M.; Bleacher, L.; Day, B.; Hsu, B. C.; Mitchell, B. K.

2009-12-01

226

Cytochemical studies of planetary microorganisms explorations in exobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to identify free living organisms in soils that may be substantially simpler in genetic content, and mirroring a more primitive stage of evolution than the species with which we are familiar to date, were designed. Organic chemical studies on the composition and disposition of elementary carbon leave nothing wanting as an aboriginal substrate for the original of life and early chemical evolution. Such studies were missed when it came to the interpretation of the Viking lander data, and needed for conceptual planning of future planetary missions.

Levinthal, E. C.

1980-01-01

227

Microsystems, Space Qualified Electronics and Mobile Sensor Platforms for Harsh Environment Applications and Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center is presently developing and applying a range of sensor and electronic technologies that can enable future planetary missions. These include space qualified instruments and electronics, high temperature sensors for Venus missions, mobile sensor platforms, and Microsystems for detection of a range of chemical species and particulates. A discussion of each technology area and its level of maturity is given. It is concluded that there is a strong need for low power devices which can be mobile and provide substantial characterization of the planetary environment where and when needed. While a given mission will require tailoring of the technology for the application, basic tools which can enable new planetary missions are being developed.

Hunter, Gary W.; Okojie, Robert S.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Xu, Jennifer

2007-01-01

228

NASA Advisory Council Subcommittee Recommendation  

E-print Network

NASA Advisory Council Subcommittee Recommendation Subcommittee Name: Planetary Science Chair: Sean in the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, that NASA formulate a transition strategy during the roadmapping process and capabilities built up on the Moon. The PSS further recommends that NASA expand its current level of interaction

Rathbun, Julie A.

229

Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive immune assessment on field team members participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of mission-associated stressors on the human immune system. To perform the study, the development of techniques for processing immune samples in remote field locations was required. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, whole-blood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles, plasma cortisol and EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were 30 days prior to mission start, mid-mission and 60 days after mission completion. Results The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed on Devon Island, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Conclusion The immune system changes described during the HMP field deployment validate the use of the HMP as a ground-based spaceflight/planetary exploration analog for some aspects of human physiology. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune studies in remote terrestrial field locations. Elements of this protocol could possibly be adapted for future in-flight immunology studies conducted during space missions. PMID:17521440

Crucian, Brian; Lee, Pascal; Stowe, Raymond; Jones, Jeff; Effenhauser, Rainer; Widen, Raymond; Sams, Clarence

2007-01-01

230

Benefit of Small Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of smaller spacecraft over the last decade, in combination with studies of potential science applications, has suggested the need for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) yielding much lower power levels than the 100 watt-scale devices used in the past. Small milliwatt to multiwatt-scale RPS units have the potential to extend the capability of small science payloads and instruments, and to enable many new mission applications. Such units could also find application in future human exploration missions involving use of monitoring stations and autonomous devices, similar to the ALSEP units deployed on the Moon during the Apollo program. Although flight-qualified RPS units in this size and power range do not presently exist, their potential to support a broad range of exploration tasks has led NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider the development of small-RPS units such that they might be available for missions by the early part of next decade. This paper summarizes the results of activities to date and provides possible options for future development.

Schmidt, George R.; Abelson, Robert D.; Wiley, Robert L.

2005-02-01

231

A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current state of knowledge. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

232

NASA/SP2009566-ADD Human Exploration of Mars  

E-print Network

to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program of aeronautical and space science STI in the world. The Program Office is also NASA's institutional mechanism

Waliser, Duane E.

233

Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation capability, allowing the crew to query the suit, and receive feedback and alerts that will lead to corrective action. LEGACI and VIOLET can also automatically control the astronaut's cooling and consumable use rate without crew input if desired. These findings suggest that non-invasive physiological and environmental sensors supported with data analysis can allow for more effective management of mission task performance during EVA. Integrated remote and local view of data metrics allow crewmember to receive real time feedback in synch with mission control in preventing performance shortcomings for EVA in exploration missions.

Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

2008-01-01

234

Autonomous Hopping Robotic Systems: Long Range Mobility and Extended Lifetime for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is significant potential for more mobile planetary surface science exploration vehicles. This is especially true for Mars, where the ability to cross challenging terrain, access areas of higher elevation, visit diverse geological regions and perform long traverses of up to 200 km supports the search for past water and life. Vehicles capable of a ballistic 'hop' have been proposed in the past, but proposals using in-situ acquired propellants offer the prospect of a significant step change in planetary exploration. This paper considers a mission concept termed "Mars Reconnaissance Lander". An approach is described for a mission where planetary science requirements that cannot be met by a conventional rover and are used to derive vehicle and mission requirements.

Ambrosi, R.; Williams, H. R.; Bridges, J. C.; Bannister, N. P.; Perkinson, M.-C.; Reed, J.; Peacocke, L.; Stuttard, M.; Howe, S. D.; O'Brien, R. C.; Klein, A. C.

2012-09-01

235

Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary protection (PP) policies established by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science have been in force effectively for five decades, ensuring responsible exploration and the integrity of science activities, for both human and robotic missions in the Solar System beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). At present, operations on most bodies in the solar system are not constrained by planetary protection considerations because they cannot be contaminated by Earth life in ways that impact future space exploration. However, operations on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, which represent locations with biological potential, are subject to strict planetary protection constraints for missions of all types because they can potentially be contaminated by organisms brought from Earth. Forward contamination control for robotic missions is generally accomplished through a combination of activities that reduce the bioload of microbial hitchhikers on outbound spacecraft prior to launch. Back contamination control for recent robotic missions has chiefly been accomplished by selecting sample-return targets that have little or no potential for extant life (e.g., cometary particles returned by Stardust mission). In the post-Apollo era, no human missions have had to deal with planetary protection constraints because they have never left Earth orbit. Future human missions to Mars, for example, will experience many of the challenges faced by the Apollo lunar missions, with the added possibility that astronauts on Mars may encounter habitable environments in their exploration or activities. Current COSPAR PP Principles indicate that safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. While guidelines for planetary protection controls on human missions to Mars have been established by COSPAR, detailed engineering constraints and processes for implementation of these guidelines have not yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations discussed by the study participants to date have set the agenda for additional work that will

Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

236

Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: The Role and Utility of Long Range, Long Duration Traverses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: Science Operations Lessons Learned, Planning, and Equipment Capabilities for Long Range, Long Duration Traverses; Parallels Between Antarctic Travel in 1950 and Planetary Travel in 2050 (to Accompany Notes on "The Norwegian British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1949-52"); My IGY in Antarctica; Short Trips and a Traverse; Geologic Traverse Planning for Apollo Missions; Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) Traverse Planning; Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic; NOR-USA Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica: Science and Logistics on a Three-Month Expedition Across Antarctica's Farthest Frontier; A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface; and The Princess Elisabeth Station.

Hoffman, Stephen J. (Editor); Voels, Stephen A. (Editor)

2012-01-01

237

The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten key areas. Various case studies are discussed to illustrate the approach.

Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

2004-01-01

238

NASA ADMINISTRATOR CALLS CONGRESSIONAL VOTE AN IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD IN SPACE EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

Administrator Charles Bolden issued the following statement: "Today, a historic vote will occur in the HouseNASA ADMINISTRATOR CALLS CONGRESSIONAL VOTE AN IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD IN SPACE EXPLORATION NASA of Representatives on a comprehensive NASA authorization bill that is expected to chart the future course of human

239

Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

Leptoukh, Gregory

2007-01-01

240

Terramechanics-based model for steering maneuver of planetary exploration rovers on loose soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analytical models to investigate the steering maneuvers of planetary exploration rovers on loose soil. The models are based on wheel-soil interaction mechan- ics, or terramechanics, with which the traction and disturbance forces of a wheel are evaluated for various slip conditions. These traction forces are decomposed into the lon- gitudinal and lateral directions of the wheel. The

Genya Ishigami; Akiko Miwa; Keiji Nagatani; Kazuya Yoshida

2007-01-01

241

Statistical mobility prediction for planetary surface exploration rovers in uncertain terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary surface exploration rovers must accurately and efficiently predict their mobility on natural, rough terrain. Most approaches to mobility prediction assume precise a priori knowledge of terrain physical parameters, however in practical scenarios knowledge of terrain parameters contains significant uncertainty. In this paper, a statistical method for mobility prediction that incorporates terrain uncertainty is presented. The proposed method consists of

Genya Ishigami; Gaurav Kewlani; Karl Iagnemma

2010-01-01

242

PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE METEORITES 146  

E-print Network

PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE METEORITES 146 I. OBJECTIVES Earth survive their passage through Earth's atmosphere and reach the surface. They are called meteorites. In this lab, you will: ·examine several types of meteorites; ·determine the cosmic histories

Cohen, Barbara Anne

243

Global Reachability and Path Planning for Planetary Exploration with Montgolfiere Balloons  

E-print Network

. A montgolfiere, also known as a hot air balloon, maintains buoyancy by heating the atmospheric gas insideGlobal Reachability and Path Planning for Planetary Exploration with Montgolfiere Balloons Lars capabilities. Recent studies have proposed the use of a montgolfiere balloon, which controls its altitude

Williams, Brian C.

244

Planetary Rover Developments Supporting Mars Exploration, Sample Return and Future Human-Robotic Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview our recent research on planetary mobility. Products of this effort include the Field Inte- grated Design & Operations rover (FIDO), Sample Return Rover (SRR), reconfigurable rover units that function as an All Terrain Explorer (ATE), and a multi-Robot Work Crew of closely cooperating rovers (RWC). FIDO rover is an advanced technology prototype; its design and field testing support

Paul S. Schenker; Terrance L. Huntsberger; Paolo Pirjanian; Eric T. Baumgartner; Edward Tunstel

2003-01-01

245

Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at a NEA with total mission duration limits of 180 days or less. Hence, these missions would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while simultaneously conducting detailed investigations of these primitive objects with instruments and equipment that exceed the mass and power capabilities delivered by robotic spacecraft. All of these activities will be vital for refinement of resource characterization/identification and development of extraction/utilization technologies to be used on airless bodies under low- or micro-gravity conditions. In addition, gaining enhanced understanding of a NEA's geotechnical properties and its gross internal structure will assist the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. Conclusions: The scientific, resource utilization, and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a piloted sample return mission to a NEA using NASA's proposed human exploration systems a compelling endeavor.

Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

2012-12-01

246

Planetary sciences and exploration: An Indian perspective J N GOSWAMI  

E-print Network

panels along with solar system objects of interest for exploration (bottom panel). From left to right solar flare records in meteorites and constancy of solar and galactic cosmic ray fluxes over long the nature of long-term solar wind, solar energetic particle and galactic cosmic ray fluxes as well

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

247

Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial cont...

M. E. Criswell, M. S. Race, J. D. Rummel, A. Baker

2005-01-01

248

A KML interface for dynamics simulation of robotic planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient exploration of the Moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies will require careful coordination between as- sets in human-robot teams. Such complexity requires mission planning tools to accurately simulate resource consumption, communications, and maneuverability\\/traversability for mul- tiple vehicles throughout proposed expeditions. This paper presents a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) interface for simulation of complex robotic vehicle missions with the Lu-

Thomas M. Howard; Jonathan Cameron; Steven Myint; Hari Nayar; Abhi Jain

2011-01-01

249

Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop (\\

Marvin E. Criswell; M. S. Race; J. D. Rummel; A. Baker

2005-01-01

250

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2011-01-01

251

Exploring NASA Earth Science Satellite Data in the K-12 Classroom Using MY NASA DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) is an Internet-based project aimed to bring real NASA Earth system satellite data into the K-12 science classroom. MY NASA DATA consists of a Web site that collects lesson plans, science project ideas, and specially developed documentation to help the target audience

C. S. Phelps; L. H. Chambers; D. D. Diones; S. W. Moore; P. C. Oots

2007-01-01

252

Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the user interface. The LADEE implementation represents the first step toward modernization of the archive and should make the archive more usable for data providers and end-users alike. The poster provides a link to a PDS4 online tutorial.

Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

2014-11-01

253

The MASSE Project: Applications of Biotechnology for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated life-detection experiments for solar system exploration have been previously. proposed and used onboard the. Viking, Mars lander,s, although. with ambiguous results. The recent advances in biotechnology such as biosensors, protein microarrays, and microfluidics alongside increased. knowledge in biomarker science have led to vastly improved sophistication and sensitivity for a new approach in life detection. The MASSE project has taken the challenge of integrating all of this knowledge into a new generation of interplanetary flight instrumentation for the main purpose.ot combining several mutually. confirming tests for life, organic/microbial contamination, prebiotic and abiotic chemicals into a small low powered instrument. Although the primary goal is interplanetary exploration, several terrestrial applications have become apparent specifically in point-of-care medical technology, bio-warfare, environmental sensing and microbial monitoring of manned space-flight vehicles.

Lynch, Kennda; Steele, Andrew; Hedgecock, Jud; Wainwright, Norm; McKay, David S.; Maule, Jake; Schweitzer, Mary

2003-01-01

254

Science requirements for PRoViScout, a robotics vision system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, including missions of interest for geobiology (e.g., ExoMars), will be the precursor of human missions within the next few decades. Such exploration will require platforms which are much more self-reliant and capable of exploring long distances with limited ground support in order to advance planetary science objectives in a timely manner. The key to this objective is the development of planetary robotic onboard vision processing systems, which will enable the autonomous on-site selection of scientific and mission-strategic targets, and the access thereto. The EU-funded research project PRoViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout) is designed to develop a unified and generic approach for robotic vision onboard processing, namely the combination of navigation and scientific target selection. Any such system needs to be "trained", i.e. it needs (a) scientific requirements which the system needs to address, and (b) a data base of scientifically representative target scenarios which can be analysed. We present our preliminary list of science requirements, based on previous experience from landed Mars missions.

Hauber, E.; Pullan, D.; Griffiths, A.; Paar, G.

2011-10-01

255

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product  

E-print Network

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product Educators#DQG#Aurora and the Ionosphere An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for

256

U.S. planetary exploration program technology implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a consequence of the widespread acceptance of the recommendations of the Solar System Exploration Committee, the U.S. Program for exploring the planets has entered a new phase. The objectives to be pursued involve a reduction of costs, while maintaining a high level of scientific return. Plans for the activities to be conducted in this new phase are related to a Core Program and to 'augmentation missions'. One part of the Core Program is concerned with the utilization of the technology, developed for earth-orbiting spacecraft, in missions within the inner solar system to targets ranging from Venus to the inner portion of the asteroid belt. However, modified earth-orbiting buses are not suitable for missions outside the inner solar system. For the second part of the Core Program, which is concerned with the outer solar system and small bodies, a modularized spacecraft based on Viking, Voyager, and Galileo technology will be developed. 'Augmentation missions' will be conducted when possible or desirable.

Diaz, A. V.; Rea, D. G.

1984-01-01

257

Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts are presented from a conference sponsored by the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research and hosted by NASA Glenn Research Center and the National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion, held in Cleveland, Ohio, June 22-23, 2004. Topics pertained to the behavior of processes and materials in microgravity as well as physiological-biological studies and microgravity effects.

Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

2004-01-01

258

75 FR 40852 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Exploration, Exploration Systems Mission...Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-07-14

259

Path-following control of wheeled planetary exploration robots moving on deformable rough terrain.  

PubMed

The control of planetary rovers, which are high performance mobile robots that move on deformable rough terrain, is a challenging problem. Taking lateral skid into account, this paper presents a rough terrain model and nonholonomic kinematics model for planetary rovers. An approach is proposed in which the reference path is generated according to the planned path by combining look-ahead distance and path updating distance on the basis of the carrot following method. A path-following strategy for wheeled planetary exploration robots incorporating slip compensation is designed. Simulation results of a four-wheeled robot on deformable rough terrain verify that it can be controlled to follow a planned path with good precision, despite the fact that the wheels will obviously skid and slip. PMID:24790582

Ding, Liang; Gao, Hai-bo; Deng, Zong-quan; Li, Zhijun; Xia, Ke-rui; Duan, Guang-ren

2014-01-01

260

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1987, responding to widespread concern about America's competitiveness and future in the development of space technology and the academic preparation of our next generation of space professionals, NASA initiated a program to establish Space Engineering Research Centers (SERC's) at universities with strong doctoral programs in engineering. The goal was to create a national infrastructure for space exploration and development, and sites for the Centers would be selected on the basis of originality of proposed research, the potential for near-term utilization of technologies developed, and the impact these technologies could have on the U.S. space program. The Centers would also be charged with a major academic mission: the recruitment of topnotch students and their training as space professionals. This document describes the goals, accomplishments, and benefits of the research activities of the University of Arizona/NASA SERC. This SERC has become recognized as the premier center in the area known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or Indigenous Space Materials Utilization.

261

Adhesion of Silicone Elastomer Seals for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicone rubber seals are being considered for a number of interfaces on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Some of these joints include the docking system, hatches, and heat shield-to-back shell interface. A large diameter molded silicone seal is being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) that forms an effective seal between the CEV and International Space Station (ISS) and other future Constellation Program spacecraft. Seals between the heat shield and back shell prevent high temperature reentry gases from leaking into the interface. Silicone rubber seals being considered for these locations have inherent adhesive tendencies that would result in excessive forces required to separate the joints if left unchecked. This paper summarizes adhesion assessments for both as-received and adhesion-mitigated seals for the docking system and the heat shield interface location. Three silicone elastomers were examined: Parker Hannifin S0899-50 and S0383-70 compounds, and Esterline ELA-SA-401 compound. For the docking system application various levels of exposure to atomic oxygen (AO) were evaluated. Moderate AO treatments did not lower the adhesive properties of S0899-50 sufficiently. However, AO pretreatments of approximately 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm did lower the adhesion of S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 to acceptable levels. For the heat shield-to-back shell interface application, a fabric covering was also considered. Molding Nomex fabric into the heat shield pressure seal appreciably reduced seal adhesion for the heat shield-to-back shell interface application.

deGroh, Henry C., III; Miller, Sharon K. R.; Smith, Ian M.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M

2008-01-01

262

NAC Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense Apr 15-16, 2010 CORRECTED 6/10/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)  

E-print Network

of Outer Space (COPUOS) · Status of Congressional Directive to Office of Science & Technology Policy (OSTP for OSTP to define NASA roles and responsibilities regarding planetary defense in a timely manner and distribute for review of TF members. The recommendation is that NASA seek timely direction from OSTP on what

Waliser, Duane E.

263

28Spitzer Explores a Dying Star NASA/JPL-Caltech/J. Hora (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)  

E-print Network

is about 1.4 solar masses. What percentage of the mass of the star was lost during its planetary nebula for Astrophysics) NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope finds a delicate flower in the Ring Nebula, as shown in this image. The outer shell of this planetary nebula looks surprisingly similar to the delicate petals of a camellia

264

75 FR 80081 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Bette Siegel, Exploration Systems Mission...Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-12-21

265

76 FR 18800 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration...meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and...

2011-04-05

266

75 FR 52375 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee AGENCY...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Jane Parham, Exploration Systems Mission...Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-08-25

267

Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reference Mission was developed over a period of several years and was published in NASA Special Publication 6107 in July 1997. The purpose of the Reference Mission was to provide a workable model for the human exploration of Mars, which is described in enough detail that alternative strategies and implementations can be compared and evaluated. NASA is continuing to develop the Reference Mission and expects to update this report in the near future. It was the purpose of the Reference Mission to develop scenarios based on the needs of scientists and explorers who want to conduct research on Mars; however, more work on the surface-mission aspects of the Reference Mission is required and is getting under way. Some aspects of the Reference Mission that are important for the consideration of the surface mission definition include: (1) a split mission strategy, which arrives at the surface two years before the arrival of the first crew; (2) three missions to the outpost site over a 6-year period; (3) a plant capable of producing rocket propellant for lifting off Mars and caches of water, O, and inert gases for the life-support system; (4) a hybrid physico-chemical/bioregenerative life-support system, which emphasizes the bioregenerative system more in later parts of the scenario; (5) a nuclear reactor power supply, which provides enough power for all operations, including the operation of a bioregenerative life-support system as well as the propellant and consumable plant; (6) capability for at least two people to be outside the habitat each day of the surface stay; (7) telerobotic and human-operated transportation vehicles, including a pressurized rover capable of supporting trips of several days' duration from the habitat; (7) crew stay times of 500 days on the surface, with six-person crews; and (8) multiple functional redundancies to reduce risks to the crews on the surface. New concepts are being sought that would reduce the overall cost for this exploration program and reducing the risks that are indigenous to Mars exploration. Among those areas being explored are alternative space propulsion approaches, solar vs. nuclear power, and reductions in the size of crews.

Connolly, John

1998-01-01

268

77 FR 20851 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION...National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA...Protection for Icy Bodies in the Solar System --Current Status of NASA's...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [FR...

2012-04-06

269

Three synergistic studies: A Manned Lunar Outpost, a Manned Mars Explorer, and an Antarctic Planetary Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The students at the University of Houston College of Architecture undertook three synergistic studies during the 1987-1988 academic year. These studies included a Manned Lunar Outpost, a Manned Mars Explorer Mission, and an Antarctic Planetary Testbed which would provide the necessary data and facilities for testing proposed missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. All research was based on existing or near-term technology.

1988-01-01

270

Recent developments on WALI for planetary exploration of PAH organics and micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide Angle Laser Imager (WALI) is being developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViScout project as a general purpose organic and life detection system for planetary exploration at UCL-MSSL. We show results of WALI being tested from an aerial platform for the detection of algae (cyanobacteria) in parallel to laboratory spectro-fluorimetric measurements of PAH organics both in pure form and doped onto Mars analog granules and with different varieties of cyanobacteria "extremophiles".

Muller, J.-P.; Griffiths, A. D.; Dartnell, L. R.; Ward, J.

2011-10-01

271

ESRO and the Deep Space - European Planetary Exploration Planning Before ESA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s and early 1970s the United States and the Soviet Union were racing each other in the space race whose main arena were piloted spaceflight, and in particular Moon missions, and, to a lesser extent, planetary exploration. During the same timeframe, several European states were trying to cooperate in the scientific exploration of space and in the design of space launchers. Undaunted by many difficulties, including the late start of the European space program, at least when compared with the efforts of the US and USSR, the relative lack of world class planetary scientists in Europe and the fear to duplicate the results of the two superpowers, European space planners prepared several studies of deep space missions. In the end, none of the European projects came to fruition, although some of these studies paved the way for successful missions such as Giotto and Ulysses. At the same time, some European countries elected to participate to the planetary exploration programs of the superpowers, thus maturing experiences that would turn out to be useful when European deep space missions finally took off in the 1980s.

Ulivi, P.

272

NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration home page provides information on current events at NASA, general information about NASA, and links to a plethora of NASA web sites, educational resources, and NASA Centers.

273

TRANSITION IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AT NASA  

E-print Network

knowledge, education, innovation, economic vitality, and stewardship of the Earth #12;TEN NASA CENTERS #12 Precipitation Measurement IRIS ­ Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph LADEE - Lunar Atmosphere and Dust #12;Clean pad Flexible Launch Capability Shuttle pad configuration OPF-3 Engine Shop OPF-3 Multi

274

Earth-based antenna network tradeoffs for NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a tradeoff study conducted for selection of the most viable Earth-based antenna network architecture for support of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) lunar and Mars missions are summarized. The study addressed the lunar mission support requirements, and examined the performance, operations, and cost tradeoffs of using either the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) large 34-m antennas or

F. Manshadi

1992-01-01

275

Planetary Exploration with a Raman Spectrometer: A Study of Carbonaceous Material Using Portable Instrumentation (532 and 785 nm)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposits of carbonaceous material (CM) in rock could indicate former habitats of living organisms. Here we present a Raman spectroscopy (532 and 785 nm) study of CM in Archaean chert and discuss implications for planetary exploration missions.

Harris, L. V.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Ingley, R.; Marshall, C. P.; Olcott Marshall, A.; Edwards, H. G. M.

2014-06-01

276

76 FR 41307 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-064] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-07-13

277

Exploration Roadmap Working Group (ERWG) Data Collection, NASA's Inputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews four areas for further space exploration: (1) Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, (2) Robotic Precursors targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) for Human Exploration, (3) Notional Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects and (4) Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Refueling to Augment Human Exploration. The first presentation reviews the goals and objectives of the Mars DRA, presents a possible mission profile, innovation requirements for the mission and key risks and challenges for human exploration of Mars. The second presentation reviews the objective and goals of the robotic precursors to the NEO and the mission profile of such robotic exploration. The third presentation reviews the mission scenario of human exploration of NEO, the objectives and goals, the mission operational drivers, the key technology needs and a mission profile. The fourth and last presentation reviews the examples of possible refueling in low earth orbit prior to lunar orbit insertion, to allow for larger delivered payloads for a lunar mission.

Drake, Bret; Landis, Rob; Thomas, Andrew; Mauzy, Susan; Graham, Lee; Culbert, Chris; Troutman, Pat

2010-01-01

278

Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

2009-01-01

279

Microwave Remote Sensing of Planetary Atmospheres: From Staelin and Barrett to the Nasa Juno Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early seminal contributions by Staelin helped initiate the field of microwave remote sensing as a key tool for the study of planetary atmospheres. Recent studies of the microwave emission from the neutral atmosphere of Venus have been used to identify the abundance and spatial distribution of microwave absorbing constituents such as sulfuric acid vapor and sulfur dioxide. A new mission

Paul G. Steffes; Bryan M. Karpowicz

2008-01-01

280

Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.

2004-01-01

281

Conceptualization and Realization Aspects of a Mini-Laser Raman Spectroscope (MLRS) for Planetary Surface Explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration is one of the vital aspects to be carried out for a better knowledge of a planet's interior or surface that paves the way in understanding the planet's evolution. Such a space application depends heavily on landers and rovers to carry highly specialized instruments to the surface of planetary bodies. Amidst the variety of instruments that were flown/to be flown in space missions, the instruments based on Raman spectroscopy are the best-suited tools for analyzing minerals on planetary surfaces with an additional advantage of detecting water, ice and hydrous minerals. Owing to the constraints space such as size, weight and power, instrument's adoptability to miniaturization too plays an important role in realization. Currently we are in an effort to realize a rover-based miniature Laser Raman Spectroscope (MLRS) to perform in-situ mineralogical studies. Here, in-situ corresponds to a distance in order of 200-300 mm, instead of meters of distance. This paper sheds the light on the realized areas like selection of laser source, schemes of illumination and collection optics geometry and theoretical aspects such as Raman scattering computations, signal-to-noise ratio estimations etc. First-cut experimental trails are performed to understand the suitability and efficacy of the instrument with the opted instrument geometries that would support the miniaturization

Rubeena, N. V.; Raja, V. L. N. Sridhar; Laxmiprasad, A. S.

2011-10-01

282

The SAO\\/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SAO\\/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

E. A. Henneken; A. Accomazzi; C. S. Grant; M. J. Kurtz; D. Thompson; E. Bohlen; S. S. Murray

2009-01-01

283

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

284

Space Applications of the FLUKA Monte-Carlo Code: Lunar and Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has recognized the need for making additional heavy-ion collision measurements at the U.S. Brookhaven National Laboratory in order to support further improvement of several particle physics transport-code models for space exploration applications. FLUKA has been identified as one of these codes and we will review the nature and status of this investigation as it relates to high-energy heavy-ion physics.

Anderson, V.; Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Elkhayari, N.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadoli, E.; Gazelli, M. V.; LeBourgeois, M.; Lee, K. T.; Mayes, B.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Rancati, T.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannocchio, D.; Smirnov, G.

2004-01-01

285

Refining the Ares V Design to Carry Out NASA's Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle is part of an overall architecture for u.S. space exploration that will span decades. The Ares V, together with the Ares I crew launch vehicle, Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander, will carry out the national policy goals of retiring the Space Shuttle, completing the International Space Station program, and expanding exploration of the Moon as a steps toward eventual human exploration of Mars. The Ares fleet (Figure 1) is the product of the Exploration Systems Architecture study which, in the wake of the Columbia accident, recommended separating crew from cargo transportation. Both vehicles are undergoing rigorous systems design to maximize safety, reliability, and operability. They take advantage of the best technical and operational lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle and more recent programs. NASA also seeks to maximize commonality between the crew and cargo vehicles in an effort to simplify and reduce operational costs for sustainable, long-term exploration.

Creech, Steve

2008-01-01

286

News and Views: Good publicity? Astrophysicists win Kavli Prizes; Maps for the planetary explorer; Small galaxies reveal property of dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inaugural Kavli Prizes, including the Astrophysics award, were marked by a ceremony in Oslo in 9 September, celebrating international scientific success. Planetary explorers may have the equivalent of SatNav to guide them, but to avoid ending up in the space equivalent of a double-decker bus wedged under a low bridge, they need proper maps. And the topographer who is mapping exploration targets has received an Exceptional Achievement medal from NASA for the quality of his work. How big is the smallest galaxy? About 10 million solar masses, according to researchers mapping the small faint galaxies around the Milky Way. And they think that this figure might indicate something about dark matter.

2008-10-01

287

Development of Spacecraft to Exploit Electric Propulsion for Outer Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outer planetary exploration spacecraft have relied on Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) to provide power. This is necessary as solar power is not useful beyond the inner planets. For propulsion these spacecraft have made use of chemical systems. A study was undertaken to look at the possibility of designing a spacecraft for outer planetary exploration that would use an RPS in combination with Electric Propulsion. That is, the RPS would be the sole power provider to the EP system. Recent improvements in RPS s have made Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) more of a possibility. The combined power and propulsion technologies of REP and a direct trajectory would potentially enable a new class of missions - high delta V, beyond Mars orbit for a small spacecraft primarily suited for small body capture (orbit capture or co-orbit). A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a REP spacecraft for a selected representative mission of this type. To evaluate the potential of these technologies, a design reference mission was established and a conceptual design of a spacecraft developed. The following paper describes the Ion Propulsion System, one particular subsystem onboard of the spacecraft.

Roche, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor); Noland, Jonathan

2005-01-01

288

Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration Missions in the 20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of traveling to the planets was science fiction at the beginning of the 20th Century and science fact at its end. The space age was born of the Cold War in the 1950s and throughout most of the remainder of the century it provided not just an adventure in the exploration of space but a suspenseful drama as the US and USSR competed to be first and best. It is a tale of patience to overcome obstacles, courage to try the previously impossible and persistence to overcome failure, a tale of both fantastic accomplishment and debilitating loss. We briefly describe the history of robotic lunar and planetary exploration in the 20th Century, the missions attempted, their goals and their fate. We describe how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation.

Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Moroz, V. I.; Shevalev, I. L.

2003-07-01

289

Demonstration of the feasibility of an integrated x ray laboratory for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification of minerals and elemental compositions is an important component in the geological and exobiological exploration of the solar system. X ray diffraction and fluorescence are common techniques for obtaining these data. The feasibility of combining these analytical techniques in an integrated x ray laboratory compatible with the volume, mass, and power constraints imposed by many planetary missions was demonstrated. Breadboard level hardware was developed to cover the range of diffraction lines produced by minerals, clays, and amorphous; and to detect the x ray fluorescence emissions of elements from carbon through uranium. These breadboard modules were fabricated and used to demonstrate the ability to detect elements and minerals. Additional effort is required to establish the detection limits of the breadboard modules and to integrate diffraction and fluorescence techniques into a single unit. It was concluded that this integrated x ray laboratory capability will be a valuable tool in the geological and exobiological exploration of the solar system.

Franco, E. D.; Kerner, J. A.; Koppel, L. N.; Boyle, M. J.

1993-01-01

290

An Optimization Framework for Global Planetary Surface Exploration CampaignsJBIS, Vol. 61, pp.487-498, 2008 1. INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

experiences from past mis- sions will make in-space transportation more reliable and easier to carry out exploration of a planetary body and each group wants to obtain information from distinct regions of the body of the surface exploration missions should be carried out such that total benefits from the missions can

de Weck, Olivier L.

291

NAC Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense July 8-9, 2010 CORRECTED 9/15/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)  

E-print Network

AGENDA: · Ad-Hoc Task Force Timeline · Fact Finding Report · Next Generation Ground-Based Search · Space-Based Search Options · Proposed Space-Based Infrared Near Earth Object (NEO) Search System · Short Term Warning-finding at NASA HQ. DISCUSSION Timeline for Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense A brief discussion reiterated

Waliser, Duane E.

292

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Arizona and NASA have joined to form the UA/NASA Space Engineering Research Center. The purpose of the Center is to discover, characterize, extract, process, and fabricate useful products from the extraterrestrial resources available in the inner solar system (the moon, Mars, and nearby asteroids). Individual progress reports covering the center's research projects are presented and emphasis is placed on the following topics: propellant production, oxygen production, ilmenite, lunar resources, asteroid resources, Mars resources, space-based materials processing, extraterrestrial construction materials processing, resource discovery and characterization, mission planning, and resource utilization.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

1990-01-01

293

NASA's Planned Fuel Cell Development Activities for 2009 and Beyond in Support of the Exploration Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.

Hoberecht, Mark A.

2010-01-01

294

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports covering the period from 1 Nov. 1991 to 31 Oct. 1992 and documenting progress at the NASA Space Engineering Research Center are included. Topics covered include: (1) processing of propellants, volatiles, and metals; (2) production of structural and refractory materials; (3) system optimization discovery and characterization; (4) system automation and optimization; and (5) database development.

1992-01-01

295

Decisional Autonomy of Planetary Rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve the ever increasing demand for science return, planetary exploration rovers require more autonomy to successfully perform their missions. Indeed, the communication delays are such that teleoperation is unrealistic. Although the current rovers (such as MER) demonstrate a limited navigation autonomy, and mostly rely on ground mission planning, the next generation (e.g. NASA Mars Science Laboratory and ESA Exomars)

Flix Ingrand; Simon Lacroix; Solange Lemai-Chenevier; Frederic Py

2007-01-01

296

Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

Doherty, Michael P.

1993-01-01

297

Opportunities within NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate for Engineering Students and Faculty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) launched two new Educational Projects: (1) The ESMID Space Grant Student Project ; and (2) The ESM1D Space Grant Faculty Project. The Student Project consists of three student opportunities: exploration-related internships at NASA Centers or with space-related industry, senior design projects, and system engineering paper competitions. The ESMID Space Grant Faculty Project consists of two faculty opportunities: (1) a summer faculty fellowship; and (2) funding to develop a senior design course.

Garner, Lesley

2008-01-01

298

NASA's Learning Technology Project: Developing Educational Tools for the Next Generation of Explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1996, NASA's Learning Technology has pioneered the use of innovative technology toinspire students to pursue careers in STEM(Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.) In the past this has included Web sites like Quest and the Observatorium, webcasts and distance learning courses, and even interactive television broadcasts. Our current focus is on development of several mission oriented software packages, targeted primarily at the middle-school population, but flexible enough to be used by elementary to graduate students. These products include contributions to an open source solar system simulator, a 3D planetary encyclopedia), development of a planetary surface viewer (atlas) and others. Whenever possible these software products are written to be 'open source' and multi-platform, for the widest use and easiest access for developers. Along with the software products, we are developing activities and lesson plans that are tested and used by educators in the classroom. The products are reviewed by professional educators. Together these products constitute the NASA Experential Platform for learning, in which the tools used by the public are similar (and in some respects) the same as those used by professional investigators. Efforts are now underway to incorporate actual MODIS and other real time data uplink capabilities.

Federman, A. N.; Hogan, P. J.

2003-12-01

299

Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research in Support of NASA Aeronautics and Exploration Mission Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research and Exploration Systems Missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the various CDB tasks in support of the NASA programs. The programmatic structure of the CDB activities is described along with a brief overview of each of the CDB tasks including research objectives, technical challenges, and recent accomplishments. These tasks include active control of propulsion system components, intelligent propulsion diagnostics and control for reliable fault identification and accommodation, distributed engine control, and investigations into unsteady propulsion systems.

Garg, Sanjay

2011-01-01

300

International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae  

PubMed Central

Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation. PMID:16592781

Aller, L. H.; Keyes, C. D.

1980-01-01

301

Automatic control in planetary exploration in the 1980s. [onboard spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an examination of the planetary missions in the 1980s and their related objectives, a broad assessment of the automatic control capabilities required for these missions is presented. The ten outer-planet, terrestrial-planet, and small-body missions considered involve various operations encompassing a complex series of modes including cruise, maneuver, and powered flight control. In addition to routine navigation and attitude control, onboard control is required to point scientific instruments and antennas with respect to the vehicle and to maneuver the spacecraft in time-constrained or hazardous environments. These 1980 missions aimed at exploring new areas of the solar system will be more demanding. New design philosophies and increased performance capabilities will be required to meet the constraints imposed by science requirements and mission-cost effectiveness.

Moore, J. W.

1973-01-01

302

Attitude determination of planetary exploration rovers using solar panels characteristics and accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose a new attitude determination system, which we call Irradiance-based Attitude Determination (IRAD). IRAD employs the characteristics and geometry of solar panels. First, the sun vector is estimated using data from solar panels including current, voltage, temperature, and the normal vectors of each solar panel. Because these values are obtained using internal sensors, it is easy for rovers to provide redundancy for IRAD. The normal vectors are used to apply to various shapes of rovers. Second, using the gravity vector obtained from an accelerometer, the attitude of a rover is estimated using a three-axis attitude determination method. The effectiveness of IRAD is verified through numerical simulations and experiments that show IRAD can estimate all the attitude angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) within a few degrees of accuracy, which is adequate for planetary explorations.

Ishida, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masaki

2014-12-01

303

NASA Exploration Team (NExT) In-Space Transportation Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides an overview of NASA Exploration Team's (NEXT) vision of in-space transportation in the future. Hurdles facing in-space transportation include affordable power sources, crew health and safety, optimized robotic and human operations and space systems performance. Topics covered include: exploration of Earth's neighborhood, Earth's neighborhood architecture and elements, Mars mission trajectory options, delta-v variations, Mars mission duration options, Mars mission architecture, nuclear electric propulsion advantages and miscellaneous technology needs.

Drake, Bret G.; Cooke, Douglas R.; Kos, Larry D.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

304

When astronauts rocket to the moon aboard NASA's Orion crew exploration  

E-print Network

nozzles designed to be flush with the contour of the vehicle that will propel the launch abort system awayWhen astronauts rocket to the moon aboard NASA's Orion crew exploration vehicle, they will lift off the rocket at a moment's notice and setting the stage for a safe landing. Making its first flights early

305

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

306

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

307

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

308

Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

2005-01-01

309

Enabling Laser and Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

2005-01-01

310

"Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

311

NAC Exploration Committee August 3-4, 2010 Minutes CORRECTED 9/27/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)  

E-print Network

development within NASA. ESMD has funding for Technology development and demonstrations. "We observe, cross purposes, and gaps, and may result in schedule and cost savings, and position NASA to moreNAC Exploration Committee August 3-4, 2010 Minutes ­ CORRECTED 9/27/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC

Waliser, Duane E.

312

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Using NASA NEO and ImageJ to Explore the Role of Snow Cover in Shaping Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images. TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Explore and animate satellite images of reflected short wave radiation, snow cover, and land surface temperature downloaded. Then observe, graph, and analyze the relationship between these three variables.

313

Argus: A concept study for an Io observer mission from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiters moon Io is the ideal target to study extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two major processes shaping the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose an Io Observer mission concept named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io). This concept was developed by the students of the August 2014 session of NASAs Planetary Science Summer School, together with the Jet Propulsion Laboratorys Team X.The science objectives of our mission are: (1) study the physical process of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (2) investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for volcanism on early Earth; (3) analyze the interaction between Io and the Jovian system via material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (4) study Ios chemistry and geologic history to gain insight into the formation and evolution of the Galilean satellites. Our mission consists of a Jupiter-orbiting spacecraft performing ten close flybys of Io. The orbital inclination of ~31 degrees minimizes the total radiation dose received, at the cost of having to perform fast flybys (13 km/s).The instrument payload includes: (1) IGLOO, a multi-band camera for regional (500 m/pixel) and high-resolution (50 m/pixel) imaging; (2) IoLA, a laser altimeter to measure the triaxial shape and diurnal tidal deformation, and topographic profiles of individual surface features; (3) IGNITERS, a thermal emission radiometer/spectrometer to map nighttime temperatures, thermal inertia, and characterize Ios atmosphere; (4) IoNIS, a near-infrared spectrometer to map global (10 km/pixel) and local (2 km/pixel) surface composition; (5) IoFLEX, a magnetometer and (6) IoPEX, a plasma particle analyzer to characterize the magnetic environment and understand the nature of Ios induced and possible intrinsic magnetic fields; (7) IRAGE, a gravity science experiment to probe Ios interior.Our spacecraft design is powered by solar arrays rather than nuclear MMRTGs, as a result of a careful cost/trade analysis driven by our science objectives.

Becerra, Patricio; Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Hays, Lindsay E.; Keane, James T.; Neveu, Marc; Basu, Ko; Davis, Byron; Mendez-Ramos, Eugina; Nelessen, Adam; Fox, Valerie; Herman, Jonathan F.; Parrish, Nathan L.; Hughes, Andrea C.; Marcucci, Emma; Scheinberg, Aaron; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

2014-11-01

314

Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Twilight Image Analysis for Determination of Planetary Boundary Layer and Dust Particle Size Parameters  

E-print Network

MARS EXPLORATION ROVER (MER) PANORAMIC CAMERA (PANCAM) TWILIGHT IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINATION OF PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER AND DUST PARTICLE SIZE PARAMETERS A Thesis by STEPHANIE BETH GROUNDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate... Camera (Pancam) Twilight Image Analysis for Determination of Planetary Boundary Layer and Dust Particle Size Parameters Copyright 2010 Stephanie Beth Grounds MARS EXPLORATION ROVER (MER) PANORAMIC CAMERA (PANCAM) TWILIGHT IMAGE ANALYSIS...

Grounds, Stephanie Beth

2012-02-14

315

Planetary Surface Exploration Using Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy on Rovers and Landers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration using laser spectroscopy has become increasingly relevant as these techniques become a reality on Mars surface missions. The ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is currently using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on a mast-mounted platform to measure elemental composition of target rocks. The RLS Raman Spectrometer is included on the payload for the ExoMars mission to be launched in 2018 and will identify minerals and organics on the Martian surface. We present a next-generation instrument that builds on these widely used techniques to provide a means for performing both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS in conjunction with microscopic imaging. Microscopic Raman spectroscopy with a laser spot size smaller than the grains of interest can provide surface mapping of mineralogy while preserving morphology. A very small laser spot size (~ 1 m) is often necessary to identify minor phases that are often of greater interest than the matrix phases. In addition to the difficulties that can be posed by fine-grained material, fluorescence interference from the very same material is often problematic. This is particularly true for many of the minerals of interest that form in environments of aqueous alteration and can be highly fluorescent. We use time-resolved laser spectroscopy to eliminate fluorescence interference that can often make it difficult or impossible to obtain Raman spectra. As an added benefit, we have found that with small changes in operating parameters we can include microscopic LIBS using the same hardware. This new technique relies on sub-ns, high rep-rate lasers with relatively low pulse energy and compact solid state detectors with sub-ns time resolution. The detector technology that makes this instrument possible is a newly developed Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The use of this solid state time-resolved detector offers a significant reduction in size, weight, power, and overall complexity - making time resolved detection feasible for planetary applications. We will discuss significant advances leading to the feasibility of a compact time-resolved spectrometer. We will present results on planetary analog minerals to demonstrate the instrument performance including fluorescence rejection and combined Raman-LIBS capability.

Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, Erik; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; Rossman, George

2013-04-01

316

Experimental Validation of Physics-Based Planning and Control Algorithms for Planetary Robotic Rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic planetary exploration is a major component of the United States' NASA space science program. The focus of our research is to develop rover planning and control algorithms for high-performance robotic planetary explorers based on the physics of these systems. Experimental evaluation is essential to ensure that unmodeled effects do not degrade algorithm performance. To perform this evaluation a low-cost

Karl Iagnemma; Robert Burn; Eric Wilhelm; Steven Dubowsky

1999-01-01

317

Exploring medium gravity icy planetary bodies: an opportunity in the Inner System by landing at Ceres high latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With potentially up to 25% of its mass as H2O and current indications of a differentiated morphology, 950km-wide "dwarf planet" Ceres is holding the promise to be our closest significant icy planetary body. Ceres is within easier reach than the icy moons, allowing for the use of solar arrays and not lying inside the deep gravity well of a giant planet. As such, it would represent an ideal step stone for future in-situ exploration of other airless icy bodies of major interest such as Europa or Enceladus. But when NASA's Dawn orbits Ceres and maps it in 2015, will we be ready to undertake the next logical step: landing? Ceres' gravity at its poles, at about one fifth of the Moon's gravity, is too large for rendezvous-like asteroid landing techniques to apply. Instead, we are there fully in the application domain of soft precision landing techniques such as the ones being developed for ESA's MoonNext mission. These latter require a spacecraft architecture akin to robotic lunar Landers or NASA's Phoenix, and differing from missions to comets and asteroids. If Dawn confirms the icy nature of Ceres under its regolith-covered surface, the potential presence of some ice spots on the surface would call for specific attention. Such spots would indeed be highly interesting landing sites. They are more likely to lie close to the poles of Ceres where cold temperatures should prevent exposed ice from sublimating and/or may limit the thickness of the regolith layer. Also the science and instruments suite should be fitted to study a large body that has probably been or may still be geologically active: its non-negligible gravity field combined with its high volatile mass fraction would then bring Ceres closer in morphology and history to an "Enceladus" or a frozen or near-frozen "Europa" than to a rubble-pile-structured asteroid or a comet nucleus. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Plantologie et Godynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary assessment of a mission to Ceres high latitudes. We present here why we think an in-situ mission to the polar areas of Ceres should be of interest in the near future. We dwell on the environmental factors and challenges for a Lander, both as specificities of Ceres and as a consequence of the high latitude targeted. Factors such as day duration, fine regolith, terrain hazards, optical contrasts, thermal gradients, planetary contamination... are reviewed. We then assess how the soft precision landing technologies being developed for other missions would apply in such an environment. We present a preliminary mission analysis and a concept for the Lander, with preliminary evaluation of mass and power resources for a fixed payload or for a mini-rover. The resulting mission design combines technological maturity and a launch mass that is found compatible with the moderate cost of a Soyuz launcher. Finally we conclude that a Ceres Polar Lander mission should be feasible, covered by automatic missions to the Moon in terms of difficulty of landing and by Dawn for the cruise. Lander missions to medium gravity bodies such as Ceres, Enceladus, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Iapetus, Triton in the [0.01-0.15g] range should be accounted for in the development roadmaps of landing techniques and be considered in their return on investment. The synergies with the soft landing missions to come on Mars and Moon should then make a Ceres lander affordable for the agencies within the end of the next decade and pave the way for in-situ missions to more distant icy bodies.

Poncy, J.; Grasset, O.; Martinot, V.; Tobie, G.

2009-04-01

318

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of a change in the NASA funding cycle, the present reporting period covers only the six months from March to September 1991. Nevertheless, remarkable progress was made in a number of areas, some of the most noteworthy of which are: (1) Engineering operation of a breadboard CO2 yields O2 demonstration plant that produced over 10 grams of oxygen per day during several runs of over 100 hours each with a single electrolytic cell. Complete automation of controls, monitoring of various inputs/outputs and critical internal variables, diagnostics, and emergency shutdown in an orderly manner were also included. Moreover, 4-cell and 16-cell units, capable of much higher rates of production, were assembled and tested. (2) Demonstration of a 200 percent increase in the carbothermal reduction of ilmenite through vapor deposition of carbon layers on particles of that material. (3) Demonstration of the deposition of strong iron films from carbonyl chemical vapor deposition, establishing the crucial role of additive gases in governing the process. (4) Discovery of an apparent 800 percent increase in the conversion rates of a modified ilmenite simulant in a plasma-augmented reactor, including direct enhancement by solar radiation absorption. (5) Proof that test specimens of lunar soil with small amounts of metallic additives, recrystallized at moderate temperatures, exhibit an improvement of several orders of magnitude in ductility/tensile strength. (6) Experiments establishing the feasibility of producing silicon-based polymers from indigenous lunar materials. (7) Application of CCD technology to the production of maps of TiO2 abundance, defining primary ilmenite deposits, on the disk of the full moon. (8) Attainment of a discovery rate of approximately 3 new near-Earth asteroids per month by Spacewatch, more than doubling the previous global rate. (9) Coordination of industry and university magma electrolysis investigations in a workshop designed to define remaining problem areas and propose critical experiments.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

1991-01-01

319

A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

Tavana, Madjid

2003-01-01

320

NASA Langley Research Center Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate Participation in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate (SACD) began studying human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) in the year 1999. This included participation in NASA s Decadal Planning Team (DPT), the NASA Exploration Team (NExT), Space Architect studies and Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) architecture studies that were used in formulating the new Vision for Space Exploration. In May of 2005, NASA initiated the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The primary outputs of the ESAS activity were concepts and functional requirements for the Crewed Exploration Vehicle (CEV), its supporting launch vehicle infrastructure and identification of supporting technology requirements and investments. An exploration systems analysis capability has evolved to support these functions in the past and continues to evolve to support anticipated future needs. SACD had significant roles in supporting the ESAS study team. SACD personnel performed the liaison function between the ESAS team and the Shuttle/Station Configuration Options Team (S/SCOT), an agency-wide team charged with using the Space Shuttle to complete the International Space Station (ISS) by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The most significant of the identified issues involved the ability of the Space Shuttle system to achieve the desired number of flights in the proposed time frame. SACD with support from the Kennedy Space Center performed analysis showing that, without significant investments in improving the shuttle processing flow, that there was almost no possibility of completing the 28-flight sequence by the end of 2010. SACD performed numerous Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) trades to define top level element requirements and establish architecture propellant needs. Configuration trades were conducted to determine the impact of varying degrees of segmentation of the living capabilities of the combined descent stage, ascent stage, and other elements. The technology assessment process was developed and implemented by SACD as the ESAS architecture was refined. SACD implemented a rigorous and objective process which included (a) establishing architectural functional needs, (b) collection, synthesis and mapping of technology data, and (c) performing an objective decision analysis resulting in technology development investment recommendations. The investment recommendation provided budget, schedule, and center/program allocations to develop required technologies for the exploration architecture, as well as the identification of other investment opportunities to maximize performance and flexibility while minimizing cost and risk. A summary of the trades performed and methods utilized by SACD for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESAS) activity is presented along with how SACD is currently supporting the implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration.

Keyes, Jennifer; Troutman, Patrick A.; Saucillo, Rudolph; Cirillo, William M.; Cavanaugh, Steve; Stromgren, Chel

2006-01-01

321

Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports are presented from volume 2 of the conference titled Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions, poster session. Topics included spacecraft fire suppression and fire extinguishing agents,materials flammability, various topics on the effects of microgravity including crystal growth, fluid mechanics, electric particulate suspension, melting and solidification, bubble formation, the sloshing of liquid fuels, biological studies, separation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU.

Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

2004-01-01

322

Potato and Human Exploration of Space: Some Observations from NASA-Sponsored Controlled Environment Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future space exploration by humans will require reliable supplies of food, oxygen and clean water to sustain the expeditions.\\u000a Potato is one of several crops being studied for such a life support role. Tests sponsored by the US National Aeronautics\\u000a and Space Administration (NASA) confirmed the well-known short day tendencies for tuberisation, but also revealed that some\\u000a cvs. (e.g., Norland,

Raymond M. Wheeler

2006-01-01

323

Implementing planetary protection requirements for sample return missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding the biological contamination of other solar system bodies and protecting the Earth against potential harm from materials returned from space. NASA's planetary protection program evaluates missions (with external advice from the US National Research Council and others) and imposes particular constraints on individual missions to achieve these objectives. In 1997 the National

J. D. Rummel

2000-01-01

324

Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) thermal detector array for Infrared Spectrometers and Cameras on Planetary Exploration Instruments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results from the 2-D array of MgB2 thermal detectors being currently developed at NASA Goddard are presented. NEP and sensitivity (D*) results show significant improvement compared to thermal detectors currently in use on planetary instruments. A MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized radiation absorber, has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The bolometer pixel, with no separate absorber, gave an optical detectivity D* = ~1.6 x 1010 cm?Hz/W operating at 30 Hz.

Lakew, B.; Brasunas, J.; Aslam, S.

2012-09-01

325

Calibration of carbonate composition using micro-Raman analysis: application to planetary surface exploration.  

PubMed

Stromatolite structures in Early Archean carbonate deposits form an important clue for the existence of life in the earliest part of Earth's history. Since Mars is thought to have had similar environmental conditions early in its history, the question arises as to whether such stromatolite structures also evolved there. Here, we explore the capability of Raman spectroscopy to make semiquantitative estimates of solid solutions in the Ca-Mg-Fe(+Mn) carbonate system, and we assess its use as a rover-based technique for stromatolite characterization during future Mars missions. Raman microspectroscopy analysis was performed on a set of carbonate standards (calcite, ankerite, dolomite, siderite, and magnesite) of known composition. We show that Raman band shifts of siderite-magnesite and ankerite-dolomite solid solutions display a well-defined positive correlation (r(2) > 0.9) with the Mg# = 100 x Mg/(Mg + Fe + Mn + Ca) of the carbonate analyzed. Raman shifts calibrated as a function of Mg# were used in turn to evaluate the chemical composition of carbonates. Raman analysis of a suite of carbonates (siderite, sidero-magnesite, ankerite, and dolomite) of hydrothermal and sedimentary origin from the ca. 3.2 Ga old Barite Syncline, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, and from the ca. 3.5 Ga old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, show good compositional agreement with electron microprobe analyses. These results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can provide direct information on the composition and structure of carbonates on planetary surfaces. PMID:20446870

Rividi, Nicolas; van Zuilen, Mark; Philippot, Pascal; Mnez, Bndicte; Godard, Gaston; Poidatz, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

326

Estimation of subsurface dielectric target depth for GPR planetary exploration: Laboratory measurements and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the accuracy of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the detection of subsurface targets for planetary exploration, a laboratory scale experiment is performed based on a 'sand box' setup using two different bistatic GPR commercial instruments. Specific attention is paid to the challenging case of buried dielectric scatterers whose location and dimensions are of the same order of magnitude of the GPR antenna separation and signal wavelengths. The target depth is evaluated by using the wave propagation velocity measured with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). By means of a proper modeling of the different wave-propagation contributions to the gathered signal, the position of buried targets is correctly estimated with both GPRs even for rather shallow and small-size scatterers in near-field conditions. In this frame, relevant results for a basalt block buried in a silica soil are discussed. The experimental configuration is also simulated with an ad-hoc numerical code, whose synthetic radar sections fully confirm the measured results. The acquired information is of paramount importance for the analysis of various scenarios involving GPR on-site application in future space missions.

Lauro, Sebastian Emanuel; Mattei, Elisabetta; Barone, Pier Matteo; Pettinelli, Elena; Vannaroni, Giuliano; Valerio, Guido; Comite, Davide; Galli, Alessandro

2013-06-01

327

Compact Neutron Generators for Medical Home Land Security andPlanetary Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

Reijonen, J.

2005-05-11

328

A micro seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer technology for planetary exploration  

SciTech Connect

This letter describes an implementation of micromachined seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET) technology. As opposed to a solid inertial mass, MET seismometer senses the movement of liquid electrolyte relative to fixed electrodes. The employment of micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques reduces the internal size of the sensing cell to 1{mu}m and improves the reproducibility of the device. For operating bias of 600 mV, a sensitivity of 809 V/(m/s{sup 2}) was measured under acceleration of 400{mu}g(g{identical_to}9.81m/s{sup 2}) at 0.32 Hz. A -115 dB (relative to (m/s{sup 2})/{radical}(Hz)) noise level at 1 Hz was achieved. This work develops an alternative paradigm of seismic sensing device with small size, high sensitivity, low noise floor, high shock tolerance, and independence of installation angle, which is promising for next generation seismometers for planetary exploration.

Huang, Hai; Tang, Rui [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Carande, Bryce; Oiler, Jonathan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Zaitsev, Dmitri; Agafonov, Vadim [Center of Molecular Electronics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Center of Molecular Electronics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yu, Hongyu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States) [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2013-05-13

329

Architecting the Communication and Navigation Networks for NASA's Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. A key objective of the missions is to grow, through a series of launches, a system of systems communication, navigation, and timing infrastructure at minimum cost while providing a network-centric infrastructure that maximizes the exploration capabilities and science return. There is a strong need to use architecting processes in the mission pre-formulation stage to describe the systems, interfaces, and interoperability needed to implement multiple space communication systems that are deployed over time, yet support interoperability with each deployment phase and with 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper we present a process for defining the architecture of the communications, navigation, and networks needed to support future space explorers with the best adaptable and evolable network-centric space exploration infrastructure. The process steps presented are: 1) Architecture decomposition, 2) Defining mission systems and their interfaces, 3) Developing the communication, navigation, networking architecture, and 4) Integrating systems, operational and technical views and viewpoints. We demonstrate the process through the architecture development of the communication network for upcoming NASA space exploration missions.

Bhassin, Kul B.; Putt, Chuck; Hayden, Jeffrey; Tseng, Shirley; Biswas, Abi; Kennedy, Brian; Jennings, Esther H.; Miller, Ron A.; Hudiburg, John; Miller, Dave; Jeffries, Alan; Sartwell, Tom

2007-01-01

330

Extensions to the Visual Odometry Pipeline for the Exploration of Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars represents one of the most important targets for space exploration in the next 10 to 30 years, particularly because of evidence of liquid water in the planet's past. Current environmental conditions dictate that any existing water reserves will be in the form of ice; finding and sampling these ice deposits would further the study of the planet's climate history, further the search for evidence of life, and facilitate in-situ resource utilization during future manned exploration missions. This thesis presents a suite of algorithms to help enable a robotic ice-prospecting mission to Mars. Starting from visual odometry---the estimation of a rover's motion using a stereo camera as the primary sensor---we develop the following extensions: (i) a coupled surface/subsurface modelling system that provides novel data products to scientists working remotely, (ii) an autonomous retrotraverse system that allows a rover to return to previously visited places along a route for sampling, or to return a sample to an ascent vehicle, and (iii) the extension of the appearance-based visual odometry pipeline to an actively illuminated light detection and ranging sensor that provides data similar to a stereo camera but is not reliant on consistent ambient lighting, thereby enabling appearance-based vision techniques to be used in environments that are not conducive to passive cameras, such as underground mines or permanently shadowed craters on the moon. All algorithms are evaluated on real data collected using our field robot at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, or at a planetary analogue site on Devon Island, in the Canadian High Arctic.

Furgale, Paul Timothy

331

2010 NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate: Lunabotics Mining Competition Systems Engineering Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fast growing approach in determining the best design concept for a problem is to hold a competition in which the rules are based on requirements similar to the actual problem. By going public with such competitions, sponsoring entities receive some of the most innovative engineering solutions in a fraction of the time and cost it would have taken to develop such concepts internally. Space exploration is a large benefactor of such design competitions as seen by the results of X-Prize Foundation and NASA lunar excavation competitions [1]. The results of NASA's past lunar excavator challenges has led to the need for an effective means of collecting lunar regolith in the absence of human beings. The 2010 Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Lunar Excavation Challenge was created "to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM, in a competitive environment that may result in innovative ideas and solutions, which could be applied to actual lunar excavation for NASA." [2]. The ESMD Challenge calls for "teams to use telerobotics or autonomous operations to excavate at least 10kg of lunar regolith simulant in a 15 minute time limit" [2]. The Systems Engineering approach was used in accordance with Auburn University's mechanical engineering senior design course (MECH 4240-50) to develop a telerobotic lunar excavator, seen in Fig. 1, that fulfilled requirements imposed by the NASA ESMD Competition Rules. The goal of the senior design project was to have a validated lunar excavator that would be used in the NASA ESMD lunar excavation challenge.

2010-01-01

332

An inside look at NASA planetology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Staffing, financing and budget controls, and research grant allocations of NASA are reviewed with emphasis on NASA-supported research in planetary geological sciences: studies of the composition, structure, and history of solar system planets. Programs, techniques, and research grants for studies of Mars photographs acquired through Mariner 6-10 flights are discussed at length, and particularly the handling of computer-enhanced photographic data. Scheduled future NASA-sponsored planet exploration missions (to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus) are mentioned.

Dwornik, S. E.

1976-01-01

333

NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

334

An Interactive Virtual 3D Tool for Scientific Exploration of Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an interactive 3D visualization tool for scientific analysis and planning of planetary missions. At the moment scientists have to look at individual camera images separately. There is no tool to combine them in three dimensions and look at them seamlessly as a geologist would do (by walking backwards and forwards resulting in different scales). For this reason a virtual 3D reconstruction of the terrain that can be interactively explored is necessary. Such a reconstruction has to consider multiple scales ranging from orbital image data to close-up surface image data from rover cameras. The 3D viewer allows seamless zooming between these various scales, giving scientists the possibility to relate small surface features (e.g. rock outcrops) to larger geological contexts. For a reliable geologic assessment a realistic surface rendering is important. Therefore the material properties of the rock surfaces will be considered for real-time rendering. This is achieved by an appropriate Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) estimated from the image data. The BRDF is implemented to run on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) to enable realistic real-time rendering, which allows a naturalistic perception for scientific analysis. Another important aspect for realism is the consideration of natural lighting conditions, which means skylight to illuminate the reconstructed scene. In our case we provide skylights from Mars and Earth, which allows switching between these two modes of illumination. This gives geologists the opportunity to perceive rock outcrops from Mars as they would appear on Earth facilitating scientific assessment. Besides viewing the virtual reconstruction on multiple scales, scientists can also perform various measurements, i.e. geo-coordinates of a selected point or distance between two surface points. Rover or other models can be placed into the scene and snapped onto certain location of the terrain. These are important features to support the planning of rover paths. In addition annotations can be placed directly into the 3D scene, which also serve as landmarks to aid navigation. The presented visualization and planning tool is a valuable asset for scientific analysis of planetary mission data. It complements traditional methods by giving access to an interactive virtual 3D reconstruction, which is realistically rendered. Representative examples and further information about the interactive 3D visualization tool can be found on the FP7-SPACE Project PRoViDE web page http://www.provide-space.eu/interactive-virtual-3d-tool/. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 312377 'PRoViDE'.

Traxler, Christoph; Hesina, Gerd; Gupta, Sanjeev; Paar, Gerhard

2014-05-01

335

Integration of planetary protection activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

Race, Margaret S.

1995-01-01

336

In-Space Propulsion Technology Products for NASA's Future Science and Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered, as well as having broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models: and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Flagship, and Exploration technology demonstration missions

Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.

2011-01-01

337

NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

2010-01-01

338

NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

2004-01-01

339

NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report lists 1878 video productions from the NASA STI Database. This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The listing of the entries is arranged by STAR categories. A complete Table of Contents describes the scope of each category. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

2002-01-01

340

NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

2005-01-01

341

NASA Video Catalog. Supplement 13  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI Database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

2003-01-01

342

Refinements in the Design of the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle for NASA's, Exploration Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the shuttle fleet, completing the International Space Station (ISS), and exploring the Moon on the way to eventual exploration of Mars and beyond. Programmatic and technical decisions during early architecture studies and subsequent design activities were focused on safe, reliable operationally efficient vehicles that could support a sustainable exploration program. A pair of launch vehicles was selected to support those goals the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. They will be the first new human-rated launch vehicles developed by NASA in more than 30 years (Figure 1). Ares I will be the first to fly, beginning space station ferry operations no later than 2015. It will be able to carry up to six astronauts to ISS or support up to four astronauts for expeditions to the moon. Ares V is scheduled to be operational in the 2020 timeframe and will provide the propulsion systems and payload to truly extend human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. (LEO).

Creech, Steve

2008-01-01

343

NAC Exploration Committee April 26-27 Minutes CORRECTED 5/24/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC)  

E-print Network

_100426_003: Exploration Committee and Commercial Committee should get together. May want to include SOMD Exploration component announced in President Obama's April 15 speech at Kennedy Space Center -- developmentNAC Exploration Committee April 26-27 Minutes ­ CORRECTED 5/24/10 1 NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL (NAC

Waliser, Duane E.

344

NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that begins in 2008. Comprehensive reviews of engineering data and business assessments by both internal and independent reviewers serve as decision gates to ensure that systems can fully meet customer and stakeholder requirements. This paper provides the current CLV and CaLV configuration designs and gives examples of the progress being made during the first year of this significant effort. Safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation systems are a foundational piece of America s future in space and the next step in realizing the plan for revitalizing lunar capabilities on the passageway to the human exploration of Mars. While building on legacy knowledge and heritage hardware for risk reduction, NASA will apply lessons learned from developing these new launch vehicles to the growth path for future missions. The elements for mission success and continued U.S. leadership in space have been assembled over the past year. As NASA designs and develops these two new systems over the next dozen years, visible progress, such as that reported in this paper, may sustain the national will to stay the course across political administrations and weather the inevitable trials that will be experienced during this challenging endeavor.

Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

2006-01-01

345

Extensions to the Visual Odometry Pipeline for the Exploration of Planetary Surfaces  

E-print Network

at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, or at a planetary analogue site on Devon Island-Mars Project Research Station, and community members from Grise Fiord, Pond Inlet, and Resolute Bay, Nunavut

Sislian, J. P.

346

Adaptive Bio-Inspired Wireless Network Routing for Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless mobile networks suffer connectivity loss when used in a terrain that has hills, and valleys when line of sight is interrupted or range is exceeded. To resolve this problem and achieve acceptable network performance, we have designed an adaptive, configurable, hybrid system to automatically route network packets along the best path between multiple geographically dispersed modules. This is very useful in planetary surface exploration, especially for ad-hoc mobile networks, where computational devices take an active part in creating a network infrastructure, and can actually be used to route data dynamically and even store data for later transmission between networks. Using inspiration from biological systems, this research proposes to use ant trail algorithms with multi-layered information maps (topographic maps, RF coverage maps) to determine the best route through ad-hoc network at real time. The determination of best route is a complex one, and requires research into the appropriate metrics, best method to identify the best path, optimizing traffic capacity, network performance, reliability, processing capabilities and cost. Real ants are capable of finding the shortest path from their nest to a food source without visual sensing through the use of pheromones. They are also able to adapt to changes in the environment using subtle clues. To use ant trail algorithms, we need to define the probability function. The artificial ant is, in this case, a software agent that moves from node to node on a network graph. The function to calculate the fitness (evaluate the better path) includes: length of the network edge, the coverage index, topology graph index, and pheromone trail left behind by other ant agents. Each agent modifies the environment in two different ways: 1) Local trail updating: As the ant moves between nodes it updates the amount of pheromone on the edge; and 2) Global trail updating: When all ants have completed a tour the ant that found the shortest route updates the edges in its path.

Alena, Richard I.; Lee, Charles

2004-01-01

347

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable, Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated December 2017. SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. For the United States current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. This version will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. SLS is designed to evolve to a 130 t lift capability that can reduce mission costs, simplify payload design, reduce trip times, and lower overall risk. Each vehicle element completed its respective Preliminary Design Reviews, followed by the SLS Program. The Program also completed the Key Decision Point-C milestone to move from formulation to implementation in 2014. NASA hasthorized the program to proceed to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Accomplihments to date include: manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. This paper will discuss SLS Program successes over the past year and examine milestones and challenges ahead. The SLS Program and its elements are managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

348

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2014-01-01

349

A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems and preparing to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as legacy knowledge gained from nearly 50 years' experience developing space hardware. Early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both Ares I and Ares V are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also discusses riskbased, management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it summarizes several notable accomplishments since October 2005, when the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

2007-01-01

350

The NASA research and technology program on space power: A key element of the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July 1989, President Bush announced his space exploration initiative of going back to the Moon to stay and then going to Mars. Building upon its ongoing research and technology base, NASA has established an exploration technology program to develop the technologies needed for piloted missions to the Moon and Mars. A key element for the flights and for the planned bases is power. The NASA research and technology program on space power encompasses power sources, energy storage, and power management.

Bennett, Gary L.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Atkins, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

351

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Askins, Bruce

2014-01-01

352

A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo Saturn (1961 to 1975) and Space Shuttle (1972 to 2010) programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as the vast amount of legacy knowledge gained from almost a half-century of hard-won experience in the space enterprise. Beginning early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both the Ares I and Ares V systems are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also touches on risk-based management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it gives a summary of several notable accomplishments over the past year, since the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off in October 2005, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

Sumrall, John P.

2006-01-01

353

Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Human Exploration Program: Benchmarking with "The Hydrogen Economy"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretically high efficiency and low temperature operation of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has motivated them to be the subject of much study since their invention in the 19th Century, but their relatively high life cycle costs kept them as a "solution in search of a problem" for many years. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a truly cost effective solution was that of providing a power source for NASA's human spaceflight vehicles in the 1960 s. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. This development program continues to place its highest priorities on requirements for minimum system mass and maximum durability and reliability. These priorities drive fuel cell power plant design decisions at all levels, even that of catalyst support. However, since the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of commercial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but, as these development efforts place their highest priority on requirements for minimum life cycle cost and field safety, these advances are yielding design solutions quite different at almost every level from those needed for spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's Human Exploration Program

Scott, John H.

2007-01-01

354

Space exploration - Scientific and technological aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current plans for solar system exploration are summarized, focusing on the robotic missions planned for the next decade. The areas in which these mission engage the legal community as regards planetary protection, launch and use in space of nuclear materials, and possession of planetary resources by telepresence are considered.

Pilcher, Carl B.

1993-01-01

355

Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

Coffin, R.

1994-01-01

356

Lunar Communication Terminals for NASA Exploration Missions: Needs, Operations Concepts and Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is conducting architecture studies prior to deploying a series of short- and long-duration human and robotic missions for the exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Vision for Space Exploration Initiative. A key objective of these missions is to establish and expand, through a series of launches, a system of systems approach to exploration capabilities and science return. The systems identified were Crew Exploration Vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, crew EVA suits, crew and cargo landers, habitats, mobility carriers, and small, pressurized rovers. Multiple space communication networks and systems, deployed over time, will support these space exploration systems of systems. Each deployment phase will support interoperability of components and provide 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper, we describe the modular lunar communications terminals needed for the emerging lunar mission operational scenarios. These lunar communication terminals require flexibility for use in stationary, integrated, and mobile environments. They will support links directly to Earth, to lunar relay satellites, to astronauts and to fixed and mobile lunar surface systems. The operating concepts and traffic models are presented for these terminals within variety of lunar scenarios. A preliminary architecture is outlined, providing for suitable long-duration operations in the harsh lunar environment.

Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Anderson, Lynn M.

2008-01-01

357

TOPS: Toward Other Planetary Systems. A report by the solar system exploration division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a general plan and the pertinent technological requirements for TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems), a staged program to ascertain the prevalence and character of other planetary systems and to construct a definitive picture of the formation of stars and their planets. The first stages focus on discovering and studying a significant number of fully formed planetary systems, as well as expanding current studies of protoplanetary systems. As the TOPS Program evolves, emphasis will shift toward intensive study of the discovered systems and of individual planets. Early stages of the TOPS Program can be undertaken with ground-based observations and space missions comparable in scale to those now being performed. In the long term, however, TOPS will become an ambitious program that challenges our capabilities and provides impetus for major space initiatives and new technologies.

1995-01-01

358

Lidar Past, Present, and Future in NASA's Earth and Space Science Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar is firmly entrenched in the family of remote sensing technologies that NASA is developing and using. Still a relatively new technology, lidar should continue to experience significant advances and progress. Lidar is used in each one of the major research themes, including planetary exploration, in the Earth Sciences Directorate at Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA has and will continue to generate new lidar applications from ground, air and space for both Earth science and planetary exploration.

Einaudi, Franco; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Abshire, James B.

2004-01-01

359

Robonaut 2 Maps The Way For Human Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

Robonaut 2 is one of the advanced robotic capabilities being developed by NASA to survey deep space and planetary surfaces, and to map the way for future human exploration. From working onboard the...

360

Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

361

Planetary protection, sample return missions and Mars exploration: History, status, and future needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the prospect grows for a Mars sample return mission early in the next millennium, it will be important to ensure that appropriate planetary protection (PP) controls are incorporated into the mission design and implementation from the start. The need for these pp controls is firmly based on scientific considerations and backed by a number of national and international agreements

Donald L. DeVincenzi; Margaret S. Race; Harold P. Klein

1998-01-01

362

Meteoric Material - One of the Least Explored Components of Planetary Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) continuously impact all the planets and their satellites in the solar system. In all planetary atmospheres IDPs leave their imprint as aerosols or smoke particles that are left behind when the IDPs do not ablate completely or when the ablated vapors recondense. In addition, in all atmospheres they produce ionization layers comprised of metallic ions, predominantly

J. I. Moses; J. M. Grebowsky; W. D. Pesnell; A. L. Weisman

2001-01-01

363

Breakthrough capability for the NASA Astrophysics Explorer Program: Reaching the darkest sky  

E-print Network

We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to ~13X increased photometric sensitivity and ~160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun-Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time ...

Greenhouse, M A; Falck, R D; Fixsen, D J; Gardner, J P; Garvin, J B; Kruk, J W; Oleson, S R; Thronson, H A

2012-01-01

364

The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been institutes without walls, fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASAs strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASAs Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

Schmidt, Gregory

365

The Scale of Exploration: Planetary Missions Set in the Context of Tourist Destinations on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What if the Apollo astronauts explored Washington, DC, or the Mars Exploration Rovers explored Disney World? We present educational versions of the traverse maps for Apollo and MER missions set in the context of popular tourist destinations on Earth.

Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, L. V.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Mest, S. C.; Williams, S. H.

2012-03-01

366

Planetary Science Division UpdatePlanetary Science Division UpdatePlanetary Science Division Update James L. GreenJames L. Green  

E-print Network

Planetary Science Division UpdatePlanetary Science Division UpdatePlanetary Science Division Update James L. GreenJames L. Green Director, Planetary ScienceDirector, Planetary Science NASA Headquarters;Planetary Science Program Content Notional #12;Planetary Funding Profiles FY11 and FY12 Requests President

Rathbun, Julie A.

367

Continued development of the radio science technique as a tool for planetary and solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible alternative to a spacecraft monostatic radar system for surface studies of Titan is introduced. The results of a short study of the characteristics of a bistatic radar investigation of Titan's surface, presented in terms of the Voyager 1 flyby and a proposed Galileo orbiter of Saturn are outlined. The critical factors which need to be addressed in order to optimize the radio occultation technique for the study of clouds and cloud regions in planetary atmospheres are outlined. Potential improvements in the techniques for measuring small-scale structures in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres are addressed. The development of a technique for vastly improving the radial resolution from the radio occultation measurements of the rings of Saturn is discussed.

1983-01-01

368

Testing of the Crew Exploration Vehicle in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a strategic, multi-facility test program, subscale testing of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle was conducted in both legs of NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate aerodynamic and surface pressure data over a range of supersonic Mach numbers and reentry angles of attack for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. To provide initial information on boundary layer transition at supersonic test conditions, transition studies were conducted using temperature sensitive paint and infrared thermography optical techniques. To support implementation of these optical diagnostics in the Unitary Wind Tunnel, the experiment was first modeled using the Virtual Diagnostics Interface software. For reentry orientations of 140 to 170 degrees (heat shield forward), windward surface flow was entirely laminar for freestream unit Reynolds numbers equal to or less than 3 million per foot. Optical techniques showed qualitative evidence of forced transition on the windward heat shield with application of both distributed grit and discreet trip dots. Longitudinal static force and moment data showed the largest differences with Mach number and angle of attack variations. Differences associated with Reynolds number variation and/or laminar versus turbulent flow on the heat shield were very small. Static surface pressure data supported the aforementioned trends with Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Borg, Stephen E.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Cole, Daniel R.; Schwartz, Richard J.

2007-01-01

369

In situ mineral identification - Raman technique in future robotic explorations on planetary surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Rover and lander missions are being continually planned for the characterization of planetary surface materials. With a series of simulated Raman measurements of lunar soils, rock chips and Martian analogues, we have demonstrated that mineral identification for the main phases in these planetary materials can be unambiguously achieved. We also obtained significant information on composition and structural features of important phases, such as the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ration in olivines, the dominant structural forms of pyroxenes, and the characteristics of hydrous components and cations in carbonates and sulfates, that are very important for Martian geology. Recent developments of Raman spectroscopic instrumentation make it possible to build a small, sensitive, and robust Raman system for rover and lander missions. Compared to other spectroscopic techniques (VIS-NIR, mid-IR and Moessbauer spectroscopy) that have been used or proposed for planetary application, Raman spectroscopy has many advantages, such as sharp, non-overlapping peaks in mineral spectra, no need for spectral deconvolution in order to identify the phases, and operation in visible spectral region. A rover Raman system could work nicely as a mineral indicator in future missions to Mars and Moon.

Wang, A.; Jolliff, B.L.; Haskin, L.A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

370

Exploration Launch Projects RS-68B Engine Requirements for NASA's Heavy Lift Ares V  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable of placing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown in Fig. 1. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet tall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 133,000 to 144,000 pounds to trans-lunar injection, depending on the length of loiter time on Earth orbit. This presentation will provide an overview of the Constellation architecture, the Ares launch vehicles, and, specifically, the latest developments in the RS-68B engine for the Ares V.

Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig; Lacey, Matt

2007-01-01

371

Evaluation of Advanced Composite Structures Technologies for Application to NASA's Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AS&M performed a broad assessment survey and study to establish the potential composite materials and structures applications and benefits to the Constellation Program Elements. Trade studies were performed on selected elements to determine the potential weight or performance payoff from use of composites. Weight predictions were made for liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks, interstage cylindrical shell, lunar surface access module, ascent module liquid methane tank, and lunar surface manipulator. A key part of this study was the evaluation of 88 different composite technologies to establish their criticality to applications for the Constellation Program. The overall outcome of this study shows that composites are viable structural materials which offer from 20% to 40% weight savings for many of the structural components that make up the Major Elements of the Constellation Program. NASA investment in advancing composite technologies for space structural applications is an investment in America's Space Exploration Program.

Tenney, Darrel R.

2008-01-01

372

Layered Metals Fabrication Technology Development for Support of Lunar Exploration at NASA/MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for missions to the Moon and beyond. In support of these missions, engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are developing technologies for ground-based and in-situ fabrication capabilities utilizing provisioned and locally-refined materials. Development efforts are pushing state-of-the art fabrication technologies to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, launch vehicle components and crew exercise equipment. This paper addresses current fabrication technologies relative to meeting targeted capabilities, near term advancement goals, and process certification of fabrication methods.

Cooper, Kenneth G.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

2007-01-01

373

Engaging Students from Minority Serving Institutions Through Research Internships in NASA Space Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an ongoing partnership with NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) the MESSENGER, New Horizons and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions have hosted science, engineering and computer science undergraduate and masters students in summer internships over the past several years. These programs have proved beneficial to students, their institutions and local communities, and to the NASA missions. The first internship opportunity was a highly successful partnership between MU-SPIN and the MESSENGER program where fifteen undergraduate and masters students were placed at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory during the testing and integration of the MESSENGER spacecraft in Summer 2003. Many of these students are either in NASA related jobs or are pursuing advanced degrees. For example, of the five students from City University of New York one is an Aerospace Engineer at Wallops Flight Facility, another received her MS in Computer Science and is working for the NSF Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program. One just received her BS in Math and was accepted to the NASA Academy at Glenn Research Center while another is continuing his studies in Computer Engineering at City College of New York. The only community college student intern is now a Space Grant Fellow at Penn State, majoring in aerospace engineering. Student interns from the MESSENGER program were also involved in community outreach following their internship. Several students from South Carolina State University presented their internship experiences to local science teachers during an in-service teacher workshop on the MESSENGER mission. The second internship program took place in Summer 2005 and placed students at Goddard Space Flight Center with LRO and at JHUAPL with the New Horizons mission. LRO interns worked with individual instrument teams while New Horizons interns were engaged in environmental testing and software development for the Pluto-bound spacecraft. The majority of the interns have expressed a desire to return next summer and at least two students were given the opportunity to continue work at JHUAPL. During our presentation, we will provide the results of follow-up interviews with the mentors and interns who took part in the 2005 internship program. We will also discussed lessons learned for those who are exploring implementing similar programs at their research centers or colleges and universities.

Stockman, S. A.; Harrington, J. L.

2005-12-01

374

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

375

Planetary Protection for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission Candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_J (see also L. Fletcher et al. in meeting C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_J, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will briefly describe the science objectives of the JUICE mission (see also C.~Erd et al. in session B0.3 ``Active Natural Satellites in the Solar System''), and will then discuss the baseline mission profile, which includes two Europa flybys, causing the mission to be in Planetary Protection Category III, requiring the probability of deposition of a viable organism to be <10^{-4}. The intended approach for complying with the planetary protection requirements is to avoid active sterilization measures by ensuring that the spacecraft's probability for critical failure is sufficiently low. The duration of critical contamination of Europa is limited by the fact that that the spacecraft's trajectory needs to be actively modified towards Europa for the flybys, and afterwards the spacecraft will be on a trajectory with higher pericenter, significantly reducing any accidental collision. The presentation will specifically discuss plans on mitigating the risk of contamination of Europa. It is intended as early information for planetary protection group and to seek comments and feed-back on the approach. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

376

FORUM | PLANETARY SCIENCE & ASTROBIOLOGY Jupiter exploration: high risk and high rewards  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DoE)/NASA programme to develop advanced radioisotope power sources and nuclear fission Europan life [e.g., Soare and Green, 2002]. Europa's low moment of inertia (0.346 ± 0.005 MR2) suggests is an orbiter using nuclear-electric propulsion: preliminary studies envisage a mass of 30 tonnes and a length

Kite, Edwin

377

Update on Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the new NASA conformal ablative TPS material was performed. Most notable were the 3- and 4-point bending tests and the aerothermal testing on seams and joints in shear. The material outperformed PICA.

Beck, R. A. S.; Arnold, J. O.; Gasch, M. J.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Venkatapathy, E.

2014-06-01

378

The Case of the Great Space Exploration: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2004-09-12-LARC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files" episode "The Case of the Great Space Exploration," the tree house detectives learn about NASA's new vision for exploring space. In four segments aimed at grades 3-5, students learn about a variety of aspects of space exploration. Each segment of the guide includes an overview, a set of objectives,

Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

2004-01-01

379

Field Testing of an In-Situ Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration: First Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the utility of using in-situ neutron spectroscopy to measure water content on planetary surfaces, we have developed a field site for carrying out neutron spectroscopy measurements. Specifically, our objectives in developing the field site are: 1) Demonstrate in-situ neutron measurements in a realistic field test scenario; 2) Demonstrate our ability to accurately model neutron measurements for various conditions and identify measurement factors that need to be controlled and/or accounted for such as detailed stratigraphy; 3) Provide a field test location for future in-situ neutron measurements using a variety of instrument and soil configurations.

Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, W. C.; Wiens, R. C.

2004-01-01

380

Determining the Relative Criticality of Diverse Exploration Risks in NASA's Human Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks, primarily in the context of Continuous Risk Management. Each risk is evaluated in terms of two missions (a six month stay on the Moon and a thirty month round trip to Mars) and three types of consequences (in-mission crew health, post-mission crew health, and in-mission performance). The lack of a common metric between the three consequence scales, such as financial costs or quality adjusted life years lost, makes it difficult to compare the relative criticality of the risks. We are, therefore, exploring the use of a ternary scale of criticality based on the common metric of influencing an operational decision. The three levels correspond to the level of concern the risk generates for a "go/no-go" decision to launch a mission: 1) no-go; 2) go with significant reservations; 3) go. The criticality of each of the 27 risks is scored for the three types of consequence in both types of mission. The scores are combined to produce an overall criticality rating for each risk. The overall criticality rating can then be used to guide the prioritization of resources to affect the greatest amount of risk reduction.

Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle; Anton, Wilma; Robotham, Kwesi

2009-01-01

381

78 FR 70963 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces...m. to 2:00 p.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: NASA Kennedy Space Center, Headquarters...

2013-11-27

382

Assessing planetary protection and contamination control technologies for planetary science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary protection and organic contamination control, like many technologically rich areas, continually progress. As a result of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey Report, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, the future focus is now on proposed Mars sample return missions. In addition to Mars exploration we now have the exciting possibility of a potential mission to the outer planets, most likely Europa. This paper reassesses planetary protection and organic contamination control technologies, which were evaluated in 2005, and provides updates based on new science results, technology development, and programmatic priorities. The study integrates information gathered from interviews of a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) scientists, systems engineers, planetary protection engineers, and consultants, as well as relevant documents, and focuses on the technologies and practices relevant to the current project mission set as presented in the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. This paper provides the status of planetary protection and contamination control technologies as they apply to potential future missions, and provides findings and recommendations to improve our capabilities as we further explore our solar system. It has become clear that linking planetary protection and contamination control requirements and processes together early in mission development and spacecraft design is key to keeping mission costs in check and returning high-quality samples that are free from biological and organic contaminants.

Beauchamp, Patricia; Belz, Andrea

383

A Reliable Service-Oriented Architecture for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Collaborative Information Portal (CIP) was enterprise software developed jointly by the NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's highly successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Both MER and CIP have performed far beyond their original expectations. Mission managers and engineers ran CIP inside the mission control room at JPL, and the scientists ran CIP in their laboratories, homes, and offices. All the users connected securely over the Internet. Since the mission ran on Mars time, CIP displayed the current time in various Mars and Earth time zones, and it presented staffing and event schedules with Martian time scales. Users could send and receive broadcast messages, and they could view and download data and image files generated by the rovers' instruments. CIP had a three-tiered, service-oriented architecture (SOA) based on industry standards, including J2EE and web services, and it integrated commercial off-the-shelf software. A user's interactions with the graphical interface of the CIP client application generated web services requests to the CIP middleware. The middleware accessed the back-end data repositories if necessary and returned results for these requests. The client application could make multiple service requests for a single user action and then present a composition of the results. This happened transparently, and many users did not even realize that they were connecting to a server. CIP performed well and was extremely reliable; it attained better than 99% uptime during the course of the mission. In this paper, we present overviews of the MER mission and of CIP. We show how CIP helped to fulfill some of the mission needs and how people used it. We discuss the criteria for choosing its architecture, and we describe how the developers made the software so reliable. CIP's reliability did not come about by chance, but was the result of several key design decisions. We conclude with some of the important lessons we learned form developing, deploying, and supporting the software.

Mak, Ronald; Walton, Joan; Keely, Leslie; Hehner, Dennis; Chan, Louise

2005-01-01

384

Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

2012-01-01

385

The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been "institutes without walls," fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes' international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA's strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA's Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

Schmidt, Gregory K.

2014-01-01

386

An Overview of NASA's IM&S Verification and Validation Process Plan and Specification for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) is implementing a management approach for modeling and simulation (M&S) that will provide decision-makers information on the model's fidelity, credibility, and quality. This information will allow the decision-maker to understand the risks involved in using a model's results in the decision-making process. This presentation will discuss NASA's approach for verification and validation (V&V) of its models or simulations supporting space exploration. This presentation will describe NASA's V&V process and the associated M&S verification and validation (V&V) activities required to support the decision-making process. The M&S V&V Plan and V&V Report templates for ESMD will also be illustrated.

Gravitz, Robert M.; Hale, Joseph

2006-01-01

387

Restructuring Planetary Science's Research & Analysis Program  

E-print Network

Restructuring Planetary Science's Research & Analysis Program James Green NASA, Planetary Science: An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences 2010: Community R&A survey 2010 2012: Planetary Workforce R&A program by the Planetary Sciences Subcommittee (PSS) as a Response to the NRC report ­ Ron

Rathbun, Julie A.

388

Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E\\/PO Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education\\/Public Outreach (E\\/PO) Program for NASA's CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral

M. L. Urquhart; M. R. Hairston

2010-01-01

389

A Study of Science Education Projects in the United States - NASA Explorer School's Initiative to Promote Interest in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 years, many reports have pointed out the necessity of reformation and improvement in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in the United States. STEM education is essential to maintain competitiveness in the highly technological and knowledge-based society of today. NASA Explorer Schools (NES) is a program that promotes and supports STEM education. NES is a

Shusuke Toda; Takahiro Kato; Haruo Kurokami

390

PLATO : PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of Stars - The Exoplanetary System Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLATOs objective is to characterize exoplanets and their host stars in the solar neighbourhood. While it builds on the heritage from CoRoT and Kepler, the major breakthrough will come from its strong focus on bright targets (mV ? 11). The PLATO targets will also include a large number of very bright (mV ? 8) and nearby stars. The prime science goals of PLATO are: (i) the detection and characterization of exoplanetary systems of all kinds, including both the planets and their host stars, reaching down to small, terrestrial planets in the habitable zone; (ii) the identification of suitable targets for future, more detailed characterization, including a spectroscopic search for bio-markers in nearby habitable exoplanets. These ambitious goals will be reached by ultra-high precision, long (few years), uninterrupted photometric monitoring in the visible of very large samples of bright stars, which can only be done from space. The resulting high quality light curves will be used on the one hand to detect planetary transits, as well as to measure their characteristics, and on the other hand to provide a seismic analysis of the host stars of the detected planets, from which precise measurements of their radii, masses, and ages will be derived. The PLATO space-based data will be complemented by ground-based follow-up observations, in particular very precise radial velocity monitoring, which will be used to confirm the planetary nature of the detected events and to measure the planet masses. The full set of parameters of exoplanetary systems will thus be measured, including all characteristics of the host stars and the orbits, radii, masses, and ages of the planets, allowing us to derive planet mean densities, and estimate their temperature and radiation environment. Finally, the knowledge of the age of the exoplanetary systems will allow us to put them in an evolutionary perspective.

Catala, C.; Arentoft, T.; Fridlund, M.; Lindberg, R.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Micela, G.; Pollacco, D.; Poretti, E.; Rauer, H.; Roxburgh, I.; Stankov, A.; Udry, S.

2010-10-01

391

The Exploration of Mars. Educational Brief: Planetary Science, Grades 8-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet gives a history of human observations of Mars, including observations made from U.S. unmanned spacecraft. Also included is a discussion, "Encountering a New World: How to Explore a Planet," which contains classroom discussion questions and four classroom activities. The classroom activities include: (1) How to explore a planet; (2)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

392

This is NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of NASA's first 20 years are described including the accomplishments of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics from its creation in 1915 until its absorption into NASA in 1958. Current and future activities are assessed in relation to the Federal R&D research plan for FY 1980 and to U.S. civil space policy. A NASA organization chart accompanies descriptions of the responsibilities of Headquarters, its various offices, and field installations. Directions are given for contacting the agency for business activities or contracting purposes; for obtaining educational publications and other media, and for tours. Manpower statistics are included with a list of career opportunities. Special emphasis is given to manned space flight, space launch vehicles, space shuttle, planetary exploration, and investigations of the stars and the solar system.

1979-01-01

393

Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. This volume contains papers presented at the Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments on 28-30 Apr. 1993. This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. Over the past several years, SDIO has sponsored a significant technology development program aimed, in part, at the production of instruments with these characteristics. This workshop provided an opportunity for specialists from the planetary science and DoD communities to establish contacts, to explore common technical ground in an open forum, and more specifically, to discuss the applicability of SDIO's technology base to planetary science instruments.

Appleby, John F. (editor)

1993-01-01

394

CanSat Competition: Contributing to the Development of NASA's Vision for Robotic Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The CanSat competition is designed for college, university and high school students wanting to participate in an applicable space-related competition. The objective of the CanSat competition is to complete space exploration missions by designing a specific system for a small sounding rocket payload which will follow and perform to a specific set of rules and guidelines for each year's competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, judging and competition. The mission guidelines are based from space exploration missions and include bonus requirement options which teams may choose to participate in. The fundamental goal of the competition is to educate future engineers and scientists. This is accomplished by students applying systems engineering practices to a development project that incorporates an end-to-end life cycle, from requirements analysis, through preliminary design, integration and testing, an actual flight of the CanSat, and concluding with a post-mission debrief. This is done specifically with space related missions to bring a unique aspect of engineering and design to the competition. The competition has been progressing since its creation in 2005. The competition was originally meant to purely convey the engineering and design process to its participants, but through many experiences the competition has also undergone a learning experience with respect to systems engineering process and design. According

Berman, Joshua; Berman, Timothy; Billheimer, Thomas; Biclmer. Elizabeth; Hood, Stuart; Neas, Charles

2007-01-01

395

Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (?, n) reactions between the ? particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious ? disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

Arias, F. J.

396

Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

2010-01-01

397

The Phobos Atlas and Geo-portal: geodesy and cartography approach for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Phobos mapping. Methods of image processing and modern GIS technologies provide the opportunity for high quality planetary mapping. The new Phobos DTM and global orthomosaic have been used for developing a geodatabase (Karachevtseva et al., 2012) which provides data for various surface spatial analyses: statistics of crater density, as well as studies of gravity field, geomorphology, and photometry. As mapping is the best way to visualize results of research based on spatial context we created the Phobos atlas. The new Phobos atlas includes: control points network which were calculated during photogrammetry processing of SRC images (Zubarev et al., 2012) and fundamental body parameters as a reference basis for Phobos research as well as GIS analyses of surface objects and geomorphologic studies. According to the structure of the atlas we used various scales and projections based on different coordinate system, including three-axial ellipsoid which parameters (a=13.24 km, b=11.49 km, c=9.48 km) derived from new Phobos shape model (Nadezhdina and Zubarev, 2014). The new Phobos atlas includes about 30 thematic original maps that illustrate the surface of the small body based on Mars Express data (Oberst et al., 2008) and illustrates results of various studies of Phobos:, geomorphology parameters of craters (Basilevsky et al., 2014), morphometry studies (Koknanov et al., 2012), statistics of crater size-frequency distributions based on multi-fractal approach (Uchaev Dm. et al., 2012). Phobos Geo-portal. The spatial data products which used for preparing maps for the Phobos atlas are available at the planetary data storage with access via Geo-portal (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/), based on modern spatial and web-based technologies (Karachevtseva et al., 2013). Now we are developing Geodesy and Cartography node which can integrate various types of information not only for Phobos data, but other planets and their satellites, and it can be used for geo-spatial support of future missions to celestial bodies. Our technological solutions are open-source, which makes it possible to increase the functionality of the system, for example, using 3D-modeling. Phobos Geo-portal provides access to results of calculation of the gravity field parameters (Uchaev Dm. et al., 2013); catalog of craters and calculations of surface roughness (Karachevtseva et al., 2012); surface compositional studies based on HRSC color-channel data (Patsyn et al., 2012). Acknowledgments: The Phobos study was supported by RBRF under grant for Geodesy, cartography and research satellites Phobos and Deimos (Helmholtz-Russia Joint Research Group), grant agreement ? 11-05-91323. References: Basilevsky A.T., Lorenz C.A., Shingareva T.V., Head J.W., Ramsley K.R., Zubarev A.E. Surface Geology and Geomorphology of Phobos, 2014, Elsevier, Planetary and Space Science, in press. Karachevtseva I. P., Shingareva K. B., Konopikhin A. A., Mukabenova B. V., Nadezhdina I. E., Zubarev A. E., 2012. GIS mapping of Phobos on the results of data processing of remote sensing satellite Mars Express, Modern problems of remote sensing of the Earth from Space. Space Research Institute, Moscow, 304-311 (in Russian). Karachevtseva I.P., Oberst J., Zubarev A.E., Nadezhdina I.E., Kokhanov A.A., Garov A. S. Uchaev D.V., Uchaev Dm.V., Malinnikov V.A., Klimkin N.D. 2014, The Phobos information system. Elsevier, Planetary and Space Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.015 Kokhanov A.A., Basilevsky A.T., Karachevtseva I.P., Nadezhdina I.E., Zubarev A.E. Depth/Diameter Ratio and Inner Walls Steepness of Large Phobos Craters. The 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, March 18-22, 2013. Abstracts [#2289]. Nadezhdina I.E., Zubarev A.E. Create reference coordinate network as a basis for studying the physical parameters of Phobos. 2014, Solar System Research, Moscow, Nauka, in press. Oberst J., Schwarz, G., Behnke, T., Hoffmann, H., Matz, K.-D., Flohrer, J., Hirsch, H., Roatsch, T., Scholten, F., Hauber, E., Brinkmann, B., Jaumann, R., W

Karachevtseva, Irina; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jrgen; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Konopikhin, Anatoliy; Garov, Andrey

398

Planetary exploration in the time of astrobiology: protecting against biological contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These are intriguing times in the exploration of other solar-system bodies. Continuing discoveries about life on Earth and the return of data suggesting the presence of liquid water environments on or under the surfaces of other planets and moons have combined to suggest the significant possibility that extraterrestrial life may exist in this solar system. Similarly, not since the Viking missions of the mid-1970s has there been as great an appreciation for the potential for Earth life to contaminate other worlds. Current plans for the exploration of the solar system include constraints intended to prevent biological contamination from being spread by solar-system exploration missions.

Rummel, J. D.

2001-01-01

399

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

400

Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) for Planetary Resource Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VAPoR instrument is a vacuum pyrolysis mass spectrometer designed to detect volatiles including water and organics released from regolith and is one technique that should be considered for future exploration of the Moon and other airless bodies.

Glavin, D. P.; Malespin, C. A.; ten Kate, I. L.; Getty, S. A.; Holmes, V. E.; Mumm, E.; Franz, H. B.; Noreiga, M.; Dobson, N.; Southard, A. E.; Feng, S. H.; Kotecki, C. A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Swindle, T. D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rice, J. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2012-10-01

401

Development of legged, wheeled, and hybrid rover mobility models to facilitate planetary surface exploration mission analysis  

E-print Network

This work discusses the Mars Surface Exploration (MSE) tool and its adaptation to model rovers featuring legged, wheeled, and hybrid mobility. MSE is a MATLAB based systems engineering tool that is capable of rapidly ...

McCloskey, Scott H. (Scott Haddon)

2007-01-01

402

Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Life at the Extreme" is an education and public outreach (E/PO) project that engaged teachers and 4-12th grade students (an in part, Prek-3rd grade students) in an internet-based, virtual expedition with scientists as they conducted experiments in a unique planetary analog environment in the Bolivian High-Andes at nearly 6,000 m (~20,000ft). Through high altitude diving and sampling, they explored the Licancabur volcano summit lake, which is one of the closest analogs to ancient lakes on Mars. Their goal was to characterize the environment and to study the defense strategies of life against extreme physical conditions in order to understand the biological potential of Mars and prepare future planetary missions. This "virtual field" was in the form of an interactive web site, live interactive discussions, a live video webcast with the San Francisco Exploratorium, and videotapes. Through this medium, about 2,700 students, 90 schools and teachers were able to directly participate and extend their knowledge of scientific processes as they explored an extreme and unique terrestrial environment. In the weeks leading up to the expedition, and during in-the-field activities, students were able to communicate with scientists as they prepared for and conducted scientific investigations. The general public could follow the expedition as well on the web. Overall, the website received ~70,000 hits from all over the world during the time of the expedition. Allowing this access to scientists as they performed their investigations proved invaluable as students understood the implications of scientific work. The broader impact of this experience provided ground work for other educational institutions to conduct similar activities with leading scientists and bridge the gap that often exists between scientists and education. The project was conducted in partnership with the NASA's Ames Research Center's expedition to the Licancabur volcano, located on the border between Chile and Bolivia and is the location of one of the least explored lakes in the world. K-12 educators played a key roll in the development and implementation of curriculum for this project. In 2002, a teacher accompanied the scientific team to the summit to document their research for the benefit of all k-12 educators both as the exploration occurs and as an ongoing educational enquiry. The virtual field experience was funded through an IDEAS (The Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science) grant. The 2002-03, and 2003-04 virtual field experience can be found at: http://www.extremeenvironment.com.

Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

2004-12-01

403

Planetary protection policy overview and application to future missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of planetary protection (quarantine) policy within NASA is discussed, together with the issues of planetary protection and back-contamination as related to future missions. The policy adopted by COSPAR in 1984 (and recently reaffirmed by the NASA Administrator) for application to all unmanned missions to other solar system bodies and all manned and unmanned sample return missions is examined. Special attention is given to the implementation of the policy and to the specific quarantine-related constraints on spacecraft involved in solar system exploration that depend on the nature of the mission and the identity of the target body.

Rummel, John D.

1989-01-01

404

Exploring planetary magnetic environments using magnetically unclean spacecraft: a systems approach to VEX MAG data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements of the magnetic field are vital to the study of many fundamental problems in planetary research. Therefore the magnetometer experiment is a key element of the payload of Venus Express. In addition to the interaction of the solar wind with Venus, these measurements are crucial for the study of atmospheric escape and detection of lightning. However, the methodology for the magnetic field measurements had to be different to the traditional approach, because Venus Express is not a magnetically clean spacecraft. A technique based on two-point simultaneous measurements of the magnetic field and systems identification software is used to separate the natural magnetic field from the spacecraft generated interference. In this paper an overview of the techniques developed to separate these two field types and the results achieved for 1 Hz Venus Express data are presented. Previous publications suggest that the resulting Venus Express cleaned data is of comparable quality to measurements made from onboard magnetically clean spacecraft (Zhang et al., 2008a, b; Slavin et al., 2009).

Pope, S. A.; Zhang, T. L.; Balikhin, M. A.; Delva, M.; Hvizdos, L.; Kudela, K.; Dimmock, A. P.

2011-04-01

405

78 FR 42805 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee...meeting of the Research Subcommittee...Exploration and Operations Committee...respect to the research activities within...Exploration and Operations Mission...

2013-07-17

406

Planetary protection policy (U.S.A.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. U.S. Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the Martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of earth's separation from the Martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive.

Rummel, John D.

1992-01-01

407

Planetary Protection Policy (U.S.A.).  

PubMed

Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the Earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and Earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. US Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of Earth's separation from the martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive. PMID:11538131

Rummel, J D

1992-01-01

408

Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

2008-01-01

409

Planetary Science Resource Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) is an educational site sharing the latest research on meteorites, planets, and other solar system bodies being made by NASA-sponsored scientists. The web site is supported by the Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and by Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium. The site features useful links related to planetary and space sciences. Links to internal pages as well as other sites are searchable by topic. The site also includes a glossary.

Taylor, G. J.; Martel, Linda M.; Planetary Science Research Discoveries, University O.

410

Driving rovers on Mars: challenges and opportunities associated with robotic planetary explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Science objectives: To determine the water, climate, and geologic history of two sites on Mars where evidence has been preserved for past and persistent liquid water activity that may have supported biotic or pre-biotic processes.

Baumgartner, Eric T.

2004-01-01

411

Calibration of Carbonate Composition Using Micro-Raman Analysis: Application to Planetary Surface Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromatolite structures in Early Archean carbonate deposits form an important clue for the existence of life in the earliest part of Earth's history. Since Mars is thought to have had similar environmental conditions early in its history, the question arises as to whether such stromatolite structures also evolved there. Here, we explore the capability of Raman spectroscopy to make semiquantitative

Nicolas Rividi; Mark van Zuilen; Pascal Philippot; Bndicte Mnez; Gaston Godard; Emmanuel Poidatz

2010-01-01

412

Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved) where the best models from each school or group are brought together for a celebratory showcase exhibit and judging. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning.

Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

2011-12-01

413

NASA program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major facts are given for NASA'S planned FY-1981 through FY-1985 programs in aeronautics, space science, space and terrestrial applications, energy technology, space technology, space transportation systems, space tracking and data systems, and construction of facilities. Competition and cooperation, reimbursable launchings, schedules and milestones, supporting research and technology, mission coverage, and required funding are considered. Tables and graphs summarize new initiatives, significant events, estimates of space shuttle flights, and major missions in astrophysics, planetary exploration, life sciences, environmental and resources observation, and solar terrestrial investigations. The growth in tracking and data systems capabilities is also depicted.

1980-01-01

414

Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

415

The International Space Analogue Rock Store (ISAR): A key tool for future planetary exploration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to prepare the next in situ space missions we have created a lithothque of analogue rocks for calibrating and testing future (and existing) space flight instruments. This rock collection is called the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR) and is hosted in the CNRS and the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en Region Centre (OSUC) in Orlans. For maximum science return, all instruments on a single mission should ideally be tested with the same suite of relevant analogue materials. The ISAR lithothque aims to fulfill this role by providing suitable materials to instrument teams [1]. The lithothque is accompanied by an online database of all relevant structural, textural, and geochemical data (www.isar.cnrs-orleans.fr).The data base will also be available during missions to aid interpretation of data obtained in situ. Mars is the immediate goal for MSL-2011 and the new international Mars 2018 mission. The lithothque thus presently contains relevant Mars-analogue rock and mineral samples, a preliminary range of which is now available to the scientific community for instrument testing [2]. The preliminary group of samples covers a range of lithologies to be found on Mars, especially those in Noachain/Hesperian terrains where MSL will land (Gale Crater) and where the 2018 landing site will most likely be located. It includes a variety of basalts (tephrite, primitive basalt, silicified basalt; plus cumulates), komatiites, artificially synthesized martian basalts [3], volcanic sands, a banded iron formation, carbonates associated with volcanic lithologies and hydrothermalism, the clay Nontronite, and hydrothermal cherts. Some of the silicified volcanic sands contain traces of early life that are good analogues for potential martian life [4]. [1] Westall F. et al., LPI contribution 1608, 1346, 42nd LPSC, 2011; [2] Bost N. et al., in review (Icarus); [3] Bost N. et al., in review (Meteoritics); [4] Westall et al., 2011, Planetary and Space Science 59. ISAR Team: N. Bost, F. Westall, C; Ramboz, F. Foucher, D. Pullan, T. Zegers, B. Hoffman, F. Rull, J. Bridges, A; Steele, H. Amundsen, R. Barbieri, A. Hubert, B. Cavalazzi, J. Bridges, M. Viso, J. Vago, S. Petit, A. Meunier, I. Fleischer, G. Klingelhfer, N. Arndt

Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.

2012-04-01

416

Searching for Planetary Transits in Galactic Open Clusters: EXPLORE/OC  

E-print Network

Open clusters potentially provide an ideal environment for the search for transiting extrasolar planets since they feature a relatively large number of stars of the same known age and metallicity at the same distance. With this motivation, over a dozen open clusters are now being monitored by four different groups. We review the motivations and challenges for open cluster transit surveys for short-period giant planets. Our photometric monitoring survey (EXPLORE/OC) of Galactic southern open clusters was designed with the goals of maximizing the chance of finding and characterizing planets, and of providing for a statistically valuable astrophysical result in the case of no detections. We use the EXPLORE/OC data from two open clusters NGC 2660 and NGC 6208 to illustrate some of the largely unrecognized issues facing open cluster surveys including severe contamination by Galactic field stars ($>$ 80%) and relatively low number of cluster members for which high precision photometry can be obtained. We discuss how a careful selection of open cluster targets under a wide range of criteria such as cluster richness, observability, distance, and age can meet the challenges, maximizing chances to detect planet transits. In addition, we present the EXPLORE/OC observing strategy to optimize planet detection which includes high-cadence observing and continuously observing individual clusters rather than alternating between targets.

K. von Braun; B. L. Lee; S. Seager; H. K. C. Yee; G. Mallen-Ornelas; M. D. Gladders

2004-09-27

417

The Challenges of Integrating NASA's Human, Budget, and Data Capital within the Constellation Program's Exploration Launch Projects Office  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to retire the Space Shuttle in 2010 and replace it with safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation systems for crew and cargo travel to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Such emerging space transportation initiatives face massive organizational challenges, including building and nurturing an experienced, dedicated team with the right skills for the required tasks; allocating and tracking the fiscal capital invested in achieving technical progress against an integrated master schedule; and turning generated data into usehl knowledge that equips the team to design and develop superior products for customers and stakeholders. This paper discusses how NASA's Exploration Launch Projects Office, which is responsible for delivering these new launch vehicles, integrates these resources to create an engineering business environment that promotes mission success.

Kidd, Luanne; Morris, Kenneth B.; Self, Tim

2006-01-01

418

Observations from over a decade of experience in developing faster, better, cheaper missions for the NASA small explorer program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small Explorer (SMEX) Project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has accumulated nearly a decade of experience building missions with the underlying philosophy of "Faster, Better, Cheaper" (FBC). Five satellites are now successfully operating on-orbit with only one serious instrument anomaly. Together this Project has accumulated 14.6 years of on-orbit experience without a spacecraft bus failure. Additionally, this project, under the Explorer Technology Infusion effort, has developed a protoflight version of a 21 st Century FBC spacecraft bus that has just completed environmental qualification and has been selected at the base spacecraft for NASA's Triana mission. Design and production of these six high performance spacecraft, in just ten years time, has provided a unique base of experience from which to draw lessons learned. This paper will discuss the fundamental practices that have been used by the SMEX Project in achieving this record of success.

Watzin, Jim

2001-03-01

419

78 FR 20358 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces...6:00 p.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

2013-04-04

420

From Sputnik to Voyager and Beyond: Planetary Exploration since the IGY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widely-remembered IGY event was the beginning of the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik in October 1957. The earliest spacecraft were earth-orbiting, with spaceprobes first reaching the moon in 1959 and Venus in 1962. Since then, spacecraft have visited all the terrestrial and giant planets in the solar system and many of their satellites. This remarkable era of exploration revealed a new view of the solar system that was largely unexpected when the Space Age began during the IGY fifty years ago.

Stone, E. C.

2006-12-01

421

Microbial functions in space: Mars transit to early planetary base exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial processing of liquid and solid wastes may play a role in the advanced life support systems of nearer term human exploration missions such as transit vehicles to Mars or initial surface bases on either the Moon or Mars. Recycling wastewater (urine, atmospheric condensate, hygiene water) is a critical component of reducing storage and resupply requirements on such missions, and microbial treatment of all or part of the waste stream may improve overall treatment efficiency. As small-scale plant systems (i.e., 5 10mperson) are used to supplement food storage, microbial processing of both wastewater and edible plant material will facilitate nutrient and water recycling through the biomass production systems.

Garland, J. L.

2007-02-01

422

Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiant Energy (OSPREy): Calibration and Validation of Current and Next-Generation NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal objective of the Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiance Energy (OSPREy) activity is to establish an above-water radiometer system as a lower-cost alternative to existing in-water systems for the collection of ground-truth observations. The goal is to be able to make high-quality measurements satisfying the accuracy requirements for the vicarious calibration and algorithm validation of next-generation satellites that make ocean color and atmospheric measurements. This means the measurements will have a documented uncertainty satisfying the established performance metrics for producing climate-quality data records. The OSPREy approach is based on enhancing commercial-off-the-shelf fixed-wavelength and hyperspectral sensors to create hybridspectral instruments with an improved accuracy and spectral resolution, as well as a dynamic range permitting sea, Sun, sky, and Moon observations. Greater spectral diversity in the ultraviolet (UV) will be exploited to separate the living and nonliving components of marine ecosystems; UV bands will also be used to flag and improve atmospheric correction algorithms in the presence of absorbing aerosols. The short-wave infrared (SWIR) is expected to improve atmospheric correction, because the ocean is radiometrically blacker at these wavelengths. This report describes the development of the sensors, including unique capabilities like three-axis polarimetry; the documented uncertainty will be presented in a subsequent report.

Hooker, Stanford B.; Bernhard, Germar; Morrow, John H.; Booth, Charles R.; Comer, Thomas; Lind, Randall N.; Quang, Vi

2012-01-01