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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

NASA and the planetary imperative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous, existing, and planned NASA planetary programs are reviewed, along with near-earth and solar system studies which still offer areas of significant exploration. The moon received initial concentrated attention and space technology efforts due to the presence of scientific knowledge which served to define specific questions. A Mariner mission to Mars was completed in 1962 and led to the Viking

J. A. van Allen

1982-01-01

2

NASA Planetary Visualization Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one of these color coded markers are clicked, it downloads the full image and displays it in the full context of its location on Earth. MODIS images are publication quality material at resolutions up to 250-meters-per-pixel. NASA World Wind provides a full catalog of countries, capitals, counties, cities, towns, and even historical references. The names appear dynamically, increasing in number as the user zooms in. World Wind is capable of browsing through and displaying GLOBE data based on any date one wishes planetary data for. That means one can download today's (or any previous day's) temperature across the world, or rainfall, barometric pressure, cloud cover, or even the GLOBE students' global distribution of collected data. This program is free and available for further development via the NASA Open Source Agreement guidelines.

Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

2004-12-01

3

Terrain Modelling for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers has demonstrated the important benefits that mobility adds to planetary exploration. Very soon, mission requirements will impose that planetary exploration rovers drive autonomously in unknown terrain. This will require an evolution of the methods and technologies currently used. This paper presents our approach to 3D terrain reconstruction from large sparse range data sets,

Ioannis M. Rekleitis; Jean-luc Bedwani; Sebastien Gemme; Tom Lamarche; Erick Dupuis

2007-01-01

4

NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The ``school'' consists of a one-week

Jennie M. Giron; A. Sohus

2006-01-01

5

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major subsections include latest news, newest images, a link to NASA research opportunities in space science, technology, missions, information on solar system bodies, the people who are involved in solar system exploration, and the history of solar system exploration in the space age. There is also a link to the NASA Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Forum. Members of the planetary science community are invited to contribute suggestions, comments, and content to the website, including links to their own institutions and research.

Sohus, A. M.

2000-10-01

6

NASA planetary programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Money to start work on the Venus Orbital Imaging Radar (Voir) mission and the Halley's comet\\/Tempel 2 project was deleted from NASA's 1981 budget, but according to NASA planners, the agency could still execute those missions with minimum delay through the use of alternative strategies.This year's version of the long-range plans that are drawn up annually by NASA divisions, and

Lee Greathouse

1980-01-01

7

NASA Planetary Visualization Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view

P. Hogan; R. Kim

2004-01-01

8

NASA and Planetary Science on the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation of planetary science on the World Wide Web is spotty at best. For example, a student searching Google to find the current number of known moons orbiting Jupiter would get answers ranging from 16 to 28 to 63 (the correct number as of Aug. 2004). Information on NASA-sponsored sites is often hard to find and out of date. NASA's websites are primarily mission-focused despite a general demand for information about the planets and solar systems in our galaxy (solar system is among the top 20 search terms on the NASA Portal: http://www.nasa.gov). With new discoveries coming at a rapid pace, the Internet seems the obvious place to present the latest information. Budget constraints prevent textbook publishers from printing new editions and, for the same reason, most public school systems can't supply students with updated textbooks. In an effort to present a more accurate and up-to-date account of the state of planetary science, the NASA Solar System Exploration Website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov) is seeking motivated scientists to "adopt" sections of the site to help maintain the content. Volunteers will help the site editor keep tabs on the latest research and discoveries, ensure the accuracy of planetary numbers and also answer questions from an inquisitive public. Interested scientists from all disciplines can sign up at http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/adopt.

Davis, P. W.

2004-11-01

9

NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

2006-12-01

10

NASA and the Search for Planetary Systems: An Historical Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically the search for planetary systems arose in three successive but overlapping contexts at NASA: 1) the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) in the 1970s; 2) the expansion of planetary science in the 1980s; and 3) studies in the 1990s that coalesced into the program known as the ``Astronomical Search for Origins." What began as workshops and ad hoc discussions in the early 1970s ended a quarter-century later in some of the most complex programs NASA had ever conceived, including detailed designs for real space missions. Under the realm of SETI, planetary detection techniques were discussed in three NASA-sponsored activities in the 1970s: the report of the workshops chaired by Philip Morrison, The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (1977), based on two smaller workshops chaired by Jesse Greenstein; David Black's 1976 Project Orion summer study to design a ground-based optical interferometer; and a 1979 workshop on planetary systems run by Black and William Brunk from NASA Headquarters. In the second area, by the mid-1980s, in the wake of the IRAS findings and the Beta Pictoris phenomenon, NASA's planetary science program was attempting to extend its reach from our solar system to other planetary systems. It did this through its own committees and the advisory capacity of the National Academy's Space Science Board (SSB). The NASA publication Planetary Exploration through the Year 2000: An Augmented Program (1986), the SSB's own study published in 1990, and the study known as Toward Other Planetary Systems (TOPS), were particularly important. By 1996 NASA's new ``Origins" program was announced, including NGST, SIM and TPF. Under the Origins program, the search for planetary systems was an integral part of the NASA space science enterprise guiding principle of cosmic evolution, an essential step in the search for life.

Dick, S. J.

2005-08-01

11

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Solar System Exploration website offers a wealth of information about the objects in our solar system, recent technology used to explore these worlds, space missions, and stories about the people behind the missions. Users will find image galleries, multimedia resources for teachers and learners, videos, animations, and other interactive features to explore the planets, comets, asteroids, the history of robotic exploration, and future missions.

2005-05-10

12

What Is NASA Explorer Schools?  

NASA Video Gallery

Let NASA Explorer Schools help you be the teacher who makes a difference with their students. With our unique videos, presentations, lessons, event and training, NASA Explorer Schools will help you keep your students’ curiosity alive. To learn more, please visit the NASA Explorer School website located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Sandra May

2011-01-11

13

Airships for Planetary Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping...

A. Colozza

2004-01-01

14

78 FR 21421 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pps04302013!. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Update on NASA Planetary Protection Activities --Mars 2020 Planning --Human Exploration Planetary Protection Plan It is imperative that the meeting be held on these dates to...

2013-04-10

15

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http:\\/\\/solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major

A. M. Sohus

2000-01-01

16

NASA's Exploration for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration for Life is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about kingdoms of life, environments on Earth and Mars, landforms, and the Mars Surveyor Program. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

17

Aerobots in planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic balloons (aerobots) may significantly change the future of in situ planetary exploration. On Mars, the aerobots can fill the gap in resolution\\/coverage between the orbiters and rovers. Powered aerobots (airships) can make controlled global flights for high-resolution radar, visible, infrared, thermal, magnetic, and neutron mapping; they can be used for deployment of network of surface stations. Tethered balloons could

V. V. Kerzhanovich; J. A. Cutts

2000-01-01

18

The Planetary Society: Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a guide to the solar system, lunar and planetary missions, and programs to find your weight on other planets and on different moons. There are planetary and space-related activites, including the Red Rover Goes to Mars (RRGTM) Project, which aims to connect students with Mars exploration; and the Red Rover, Red Rover Project where students build model Mars rovers out of LEGO kits. There is also an art gallery and a section on scientists and engineers involved in space missions.

19

Direct Areal Robot Explorers For Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DARE), which essentially are autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will follow the winds while in passive-exploring mode or steer across the winds towards regions of interest while in active-directed mode. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as micro probes (MIPs) delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high- resolution targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional micro probes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling (Jupiter, Saturn), or surface exploration (Mars, Venus, Titan), relaying data back to the balloons. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report on our progress towards the development of DARE.

Pankine, A.; Nock, K.; Heun, M.; Aaron, K.; Schlaifer, S.

20

Planetary exploration - A perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that only manned exploration of Mars retains the degree of mission flexibility that can ensure scientific success, and that a space station capable of serving as a platform for the support of such manned exploration efforts is of critical importance. Attention is given to major questions regarding the funding of such efforts, and to the recommendations of the Augustine Committee report of December, 1990. The structure of NASA funding apportionment among various realms of space research is discussed.

Martin, James S.

21

Planetary Exploration with Direct Aerial Robot Explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Aerospace Corporation is developing revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts. The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DARE), which essentially are long-duration autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloon platforms will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as micro probes delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional micro probes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We present conceptual analysis of DARE capabilities and potential science applications for Venus, Titan, Jupiter and Mars.

Pankine, A.; Aaron, K.; Heun, M.; Ingersoll, A.; Lorenz, R.; Nock, K.; Schlaifer, S.

2003-04-01

22

Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as microprobe delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report here results of the preliminary analysis of the trajectory control capabilities and potential applications for DARE platforms at Venus, Mars, Titan and Jupiter.

Pankine, A. A.; Aaron, K. M.; Heun, M. K.; Nock, K. T.; Schlaifer, R. S.; Wyszkowski, C. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

2004-01-01

23

NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase

Sarah Zielinski

2006-01-01

24

Planetary exploration by robotic aerovehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary aerobots are a new type of telerobotic science platform that can fly and navigate in a dynamic 3D atmospheric environment, enabling the exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Aerobots use planetary balloon altitude control which employs reversible-fluid changes to permit repeated excursions in altitude. Venus, Mars and Titan will be explored with aerobots using helium or hydrogen as their

J. A. Cutts; K. T. Nock; J. A. Jones; G. Rodriguez; J. Balaram

1995-01-01

25

Investments by NASA to build planetary protection capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA continues to invest in capabilities that will enable or enhance planetary protection planning and implementation for future missions. These investments are critical to the Mars Exploration Program and will be increasingly important as missions are planned for exploration of the outer planets and their icy moons. Since the last COSPAR Congress, there has been an opportunity to respond to the advice of NRC-PREVCOM and the analysis of the MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group. This stimulated research into such things as expanded bioburden reduction options, modern molecular assays and genetic inventory capability, and approaches to understand or avoid recontamination of spacecraft parts and samples. Within NASA, a portfolio of PP research efforts has been supported through the NASA Office of Planetary Protection, the Mars Technology Program, and the Mars Program Office. The investment strategy focuses on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce their costs. In this presentation we will provide an update on research and development supported by NASA to enhance planetary protection capability. Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Buxbaum, Karen; Conley, Catharine; Lin, Ying; Hayati, Samad

26

NASA'S Mars Exploration Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from NASA hosts a collection of science and news articles, images and animations, and resources for teachers and students. Information about various Martian missions and observational technologies are included as well as links to other NASA sites that relate to Mars.

Nasa

27

Lunar Colonization and NASA’s Exploration Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space colonization is not part of NASA’s mission planning. NASA’s exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA’s exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era

Raymond B. Gavert

2006-01-01

28

Planetary exploration by robotic aerovehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary aerobots are a new type of telerobotic science platform that can fly and navigate in a dynamic 3-dimensional atmospheric environment, thus enabling the global in situ exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Aerobots are enabled by a new concept in planetary balloon altitude control, developed at JPL, which employs reversible-fluid changes to permit repeated excursions in altitude. The essential

James A. Cutts; Kerry T. Nock; Jack A. Jones; Guillermo Rodriguez; J. Balaram

1995-01-01

29

NASA Robotics for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the 'Vision for S...

R. I. T. Fischer

2007-01-01

30

NASA Explorer Schools Teacher Recognition  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Explorer Schools not only provides access to high-quality STEM classroom resources and professional development but also recognizes teachers, schools and students who become highly engaged with all the NES project has to offer. Highly engaged participants have the opportunity to apply for unique recognition opportunities for teachers, students and schools. Visit the website @ explorerschools.nasa.gov for more information.

Sandra May

2011-11-17

31

Over-the-horizon, autonomous navigation for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of NASA's Mars exploration rovers has demonstrated the important benefits that mobility adds to planetary exploration. Very soon, mission requirements will impose that planetary exploration rovers drive over-the-horizon in a single command cycle. This require an evolution of the methods and technologies currently used. This paper presents experimental validation of our over-the-horizon autonomous planetary navigation. We present our

Ioannis M. Rekleitis; Jean-luc Bedwani; Erick Dupuis

2007-01-01

32

NASA planetary science summer school application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post doctoral and graduate students for its 18th Annual Planetary Science Summer School, which will hold two sessions this summer (24-28 July and 31 July 31-4 August) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. During the summer school, student teams will carry out the equivalent of an early concept study in response to a selected NASA Announcement of Opportunity, prepare a proposal authorization review presentation, present it to a review board, and receive feedback. At the end of the week, students will have a clearer understanding of the life cycle of a space mission; relationships between mission design, cost, and schedule; and the trade-offs necessary to stay within cost and schedule while preserving the quality of science.

2006-05-01

33

76 FR 75914 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Joint NASA-European Space Agency Mars Program. -- Update on Europa Jupiter System Mission Descope Options. -- Status of European Space Agency's Potential JUpitor ICy moon Explorer Mission. -- Status of Planetary Research and Analysis...

2011-12-05

34

76 FR 64387 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Division --Status of Joint NASA-European Space Agency Mars Program --Europa Jupiter System Mission Descope Options --Status of European Space Agency JUpitor ICy moon Explorer Potential Mission --Status of Planetary Research and Analysis...

2011-10-18

35

Progress in planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented in the areas of planetary structure and composition, comparative planetology, the space investigation of comets, asteroids and cosmic dust, planetary atmospheres, Venus observations, the outer planets, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. Specific topics include the magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus and Mars, the chemical composition and optical properties of terrestrial planet atmospheres, results

R. W. Shorthill; M. Ia. Marov; J. A. M. McDonnell

1981-01-01

36

NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-02-01

37

Progress in planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers are presented in the areas of planetary structure and composition, comparative planetology, the space investigation of comets, asteroids and cosmic dust, planetary atmospheres, Venus observations, the outer planets, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. Specific topics include the magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus and Mars, the chemical composition and optical properties of terrestrial planet atmospheres, results of the Pioneer fly-by of Saturn and its rings, the flux of earth-crossing and moon-cratering interplanetary objects, and the orbital dynamics of magnetospherically trapped lunar ejecta. Attention is also given to space-borne zodiacal light photometry, Pioneer Orbiter observations of equatorial clouds on Venus, the photoelectron spectrum in the Mars atmosphere, the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the shape of rapidly rotating asteroids, and dynamical planetary systems accounting for the structures and evolution of terrestrial-type planets.

Shorthill, R. W.; Marov, M. Ia.; McDonnell, J. A. M.

38

Future NASA Solar System Exploration Activities: A Framework for International Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primar...

B. M. French T. Ramlose G. A. Briggs

1992-01-01

39

Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era

Raymond B. Gavert

2006-01-01

40

Public Participation in Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years The Planetary Society has created several innovative opportunities for general public participation in the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life. The conduct of such exploration has traditionally been the province of a few thousand, at most, of professionally involved scientists and engineers. Yet the rationale for spending resources required by

Louis Friedman

2000-01-01

41

75 FR 57520 - NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research...Technology Working Group of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...CONTACT: Dr. Michael New, Planetary Science Division, National...

2010-09-21

42

76 FR 69292 - NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-113] NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces that the meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

2011-11-08

43

76 FR 62456 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-089] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

2011-10-07

44

76 FR 58303 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-081)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics...Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council...

2011-09-20

45

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This a...

1996-01-01

46

Planetary Exploration: An integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have developed and am currently teaching a course on Planetary Exploration. This integrated program is designed to help students: * use principles of science to think more intelligently about the universe they live in and about the current issues of science and technology * develop a lifelong awareness of the potential and limitations of science and technology * realize

Mark Brandreth

2002-01-01

47

Communication Research for NASA's Planetary Protection Program: Science, Risk, Models, Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary protection is the term used to describe policies and practices that are intended to prevent 1) contamination of extraterrestrial environments by microbial Earth life (forward contamination) and 2) contamination of Earth's environment by possible extraterrestrial microbial life (back contamination) in the course of solar system exploration. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) both have planetary protection policies in place. Because the practice of planetary protection involves many different disciplines and many different national and international and governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communication has always been an important element of the practice. Thus NASA Planetary Protection Office has a long-term communication research initiative under way, addressing legal and ethical issues relating to planetary protection, models and methods of science and risk communication, and communication strategy and planning. With the pace of solar system exploration picking up, the era of solar system sample return under way, and public concerns about biological contamination heightened, communication is an increasingly important concern in the planetary protection community. This paper will describe current activities in communication research for NASA's planetary protection program.

Billings, L.

2004-12-01

48

Design of hybrid mobile communication networks for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile exploration system project (MEX) at NASA Ames Research Center has been conducting studies into hybrid communication networks for future planetary missions. These networks consist of space-based communication assets connected to ground-based Internets and planetary surface-based mobile wireless networks. These hybrid mobile networks have been deployed in rugged field locations in the American desert and the Canadian arctic for

Richard L. Alena; John Ossenfort; Charles Lee; Edward Walker; Thom Stone

2004-01-01

49

Exploration of the Solar System: Achievements and Future Plans in NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus, ground-based and spacecraft observations of Comet Halley, and other NASA solar system exploration is reviewed. The Challenger tragedy significantly delayed the next NASA planetary mission, Galileo, as well as the Ulyss...

W. E. Brunk

1986-01-01

50

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

1996-08-01

51

Planetary surface exploration MESUR\\/autonomous lunar rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA\\/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first

Larry Stauffer; Matt Dilorenzo; Dave Austin; Raymond Ayers; David Burton; Joe Gaylord; Jim Kennedy; Richard Laux; Dale Lentz; Preston Nance

1992-01-01

52

Planetary Exploration in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed educational materials to seed a series of undergraduate level exercises on "Planetary Exploration in the Classroom." The goals of the series are to teach modern methods of planetary exploration and discovery to students having both science and non-science backgrounds. Using personal computers in a "hands-on" approach with images recorded by planetary spacecraft, students working through the exercises learn that modern scientific images are digital objects that can be examined and manipulated in quantitative detail. The initial exercises we've developed utilize NIH Image in conjunction with images from the Voyager spacecraft CDs. Current exercises are titled "Using 'NIH IMAGE' to View Voyager Images", "Resolving Surface Features on Io", "Discovery of Volcanoes on Io", and "Topography of Canyons on Ariel." We expect these exercises will be released during Fall 1997 and will be available via 'anonymous ftp'; detailed information about obtaining the exercises will be on the Web at "http://web.mit.edu/12s23/www/pec.html." This curriculum development was sponsored by NSF Grant DUE-9455329.

Slivan, S. M.; Binzel, R. P.

1997-07-01

53

Public Participation in Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years The Planetary Society has created several innovative opportunities for general public participation in the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life. The conduct of such exploration has traditionally been the province of a few thousand, at most, of professionally involved scientists and engineers. Yet the rationale for spending resources required by broad and far-reaching exploration involves a greater societal interest - it frequently being noted that the rationale cannot rely on science alone. This paper reports on the more notable of the opportunities for general public participation, in particular: 1) Visions of Mars: a CD containing the works of science fiction about Mars, designed to be placed on Mars as the first library to be found by eventual human explorers; 2) MAPEX: a Microelectronics And Photonics Experiment, measuring the radiation environment for future human explorers of Mars, and containing a electron beam lithograph of names of all the members of The Planetary Society at a particular time; 3) Naming of spacecraft: Involvement in the naming of spacecraft: Magellan, Sojourner; 4) The Mars Microphone: the first privately funded instrument to be sent to another world; 5) Red Rover Goes to Mars: the first commercial-education partnership on a planetary mission; 6) Student designed nanoexperiments: to fly on a Mars lander; and 7) SETI@home: a tool permitting millions to contribute to research and data processing in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A brief description of each of the projects will be given, and the opportunity it provided for public participation described. The evolving complexity of these projects suggest that more opportunities will be found, and that the role of public participation can increase at the same time as making substantive contributions to the flight missions. It will be suggested that these projects presage the day that planetary exploration will be truly and global and mass public enterprise, with people in their homes, and in schools, in direct communication, and even control, of robotic devices on other worlds. The effect of this on future human and robotic exploration plans is considered. Specific suggestions and plans for the Mars program will be offered - for the 2003, 2005 planned missions, for rovers, balloons and other aerostats, and for outposts leading to human flight. Partnerships among government and non-government organizations internationally and domestically and among different types of organizations contributing to education and public outreach will be discussed.

Friedman, Louis

2000-07-01

54

The NASA\\/USGS Planetary Geologic Mapping Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program (PGM) publishes geologic maps of the planets based on released, geodetically controlled spacecraft data. The general objectives of PGM include (1) production of geologic maps that will greatly increase our knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolution of Solar System bodies, and (2) geologic surveys of areas of special interest

K. Tanaka

2006-01-01

55

NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

Kolb, Vera M.

2005-09-01

56

75 FR 36445 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Group --Update on Progress of Planetary Science Technology Review...

2010-06-25

57

76 FR 7235 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Budget Request and Impact to Planetary Science Division --Discussion...

2011-02-09

58

76 FR 31641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...following topics: --Review of the Planetary Science Division Response to the...

2011-06-01

59

76 FR 10626 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...Administration announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...Discussion and Formulation of the Planetary Science Division's Response to...

2011-02-25

60

75 FR 80851 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY...announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory...following topics: --Update on the Planetary Science Division. --Update from...

2010-12-23

61

78 FR 64253 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...topics: --Planetary Protection at NASA; Issues and Status --Planetary Protection for Cached Mars Samples --Planetary Science Update --Mars Science Laboratory Lessons Learned Status It is imperative that the meeting be held on these...

2013-10-28

62

Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

2001-01-01

63

The NASA/USGS Planetary Geologic Mapping Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program (PGM) publishes geologic maps of the planets based on released, geodetically controlled spacecraft data. The general objectives of PGM include (1) production of geologic maps that will greatly increase our knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolution of Solar System bodies, and (2) geologic surveys of areas of special interest that may be investigated by future missions. Although most map authors are from U.S. institutions, some European investigators have also served as authors. PGM is sponsored by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program (PGG) and has been supported by personnel of the Astrogeology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for more than 40 years. PGG also supports the Astrogeology Team to prepare and distribute controlled data products necessary for the production of geologic maps. USGS coordination and outreach activities for PGM include developing new planetary geologic map series, managing existing map series, generating geologic mapping databases and packages for individual mapping investigators, providing oversight and expertise in meeting the requirements of USGS map standards, providing editorial support in map reviews and revisions, supporting map pre-press production, and maintaining an informative planetary geologic mapping web page (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/). The Astrogeology Team also provides a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) web site (Planetary Interactive GIS on the Web Analyzable Database, or PIGWAD) to facilitate distribution and analysis of spatially registered, planetary geologic data primarily in vector form. USGS now publishes planetary geologic map data in GIS format. Geologic maps of planetary bodies published by USGS through 2005 include 80 of the Moon from 1:10K to 1:5M scale, 93 of Mars from 1:500K to 1:15M scale, 18 of Venus at 1:5M and 1:15M scales, 9 of Mercury at 1:5M scale, and 16 of the Galilean satellites at 1:1M to 1:15M scales. Dozens of additional planetary geologic maps overseen by PGM are in progress, including global maps of Io, Europa, and Ganymede and various quadrangles and special regions of Venus, Mars, and the Moon.

Tanaka, K.

64

NASA’s Planetary Data System—An Accumulating Archive developed by Scientists for Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) was formed in 1986 to ensure that digital data from our planetary missions are efficiently and effectively archived, and to provide the planetary science community access to that data. The archive now includes almost 60 years of data from NASA’s missions. The PDS is a distributed system with individual nodes with expertise tailored to meet the needs of specific discipline areas (from planetary geology to space physics). The PDS has multiple roles. First we work with NASA Flight Programs and missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to organize the data, including documentation to ensure that the data sets obtained will be useful for both current and future generations. This process includes peer-review by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented (and searchable). Another role of the PDS is to make the data in our accumulating archives easily searchable so that members of the science community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. A third role of the PDS (and a sister organization, the NSSDC) is to ensure long term preservation. As new capabilities in Information Technology (IT) become available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), it is necessary for the PDS to adapt to the current IT environment. A major new effort by the PDS, known as PDS4, was released in September, 2013. The first two NASA missions to archive under this new PDS4 system are LADEE and MAVEN.

Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W. P.; Vilas, F.; Crichton, D. J.

2013-10-01

65

Explore Mars from the NASA Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Here we show how to explore Mars based on data obtainable from the NASA website. The analysis and calculations of some physics questions provide interesting and useful examples of inquiry-based learning.|

Zhaoyao, Meng

2005-01-01

66

NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Cr...

A. R. Lavoie B. A. Cohen J. M. Horack P. A. Gilbert

2008-01-01

67

Planetary protection for human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human astronauts have unique capabilities that could greatly facilitate scientific exploration of other planets. However, when searching for life beyond Earth, these capabilities can be utilized effectively only if the biological contamination associated with human presence is monitored and minimized. This is termed planetary protection, and is a critical element in human exploration beyond Earth. Planetary protection must be incorporated

Catharine A. Conley; John D. Rummel

2010-01-01

68

Planetary Exploration: An integrated Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have developed and am currently teaching a course on Planetary Exploration. This integrated program is designed to help students: * use principles of science to think more intelligently about the universe they live in and about the current issues of science and technology * develop a lifelong awareness of the potential and limitations of science and technology * realize the important role that science will play in their personal and professional lives This program addresses the following essential questions: * What physical and chemical systems of earth can support life? * What physical and chemical systems exist on the planets of our solar system? * Can other planets support Life? * How do scientists explore the solar system and beyond? * How do solar systems and galaxies evolve? * What is the origin of the universe? Students apply the fundamental concepts of earth science, astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics, and technology as they examine the Earth, our solar system, the Milky Way, other galaxies and the universe to answer these questions. In additions to many hands-on activities to further stimulate student learning and interest, they are guided through these questions in a Socratic, discussion format, working from student's prior knowledge and misconceptions.

Brandreth, Mark

69

NASA's Small Explorer Program: Review Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Small Explorer Program is a level of effort program within the Office of Space Science (OSS). Solicitations for proposals are issued through Announcements of Opportunity. OSS intends to launch a Small Explorer mission every twelve months within the Small Explorer funding profile (\\\\$69M in FY97 dollars.) All proposals go through an extensive review process before a final selection is

H. Hasan

1998-01-01

70

Planetary surface exploration: MESUR\\/autonomous lunar rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover

Larry Stauffer; Matt Dilorenzo; Dave Austin; Raymond Ayers; David Burton; Joe Gaylord; Jim Kennedy; Dale Lentz; Richard Laux; Preston Nance

1992-01-01

71

Future NASA solar system exploration activities: A framework for international cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primary missions comprising the program are described.

Bevan M. French; Terri Ramlose; Geoffrey A. Briggs

1992-01-01

72

NASA: Innovate, Explore, Discover, Inspire  

NASA Video Gallery

The President's Fiscal Year 2014 budget ensures the United States will remain the world's leader in space exploration and scientific discovery for years to come, while making critical advances in aerospace and aeronautics to benefit the American people.

Gary Daines

2013-04-09

73

NASA Solar System Exploration: Galileo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains details on the Galileo spacecraft mission to Jupiter. Galileo operated from 1989-2003 and sent back valuable information about Jupiter and its moons before being destroyed in Jupiter's atmosphere. Information on the mission, photos, explorations, news articles, and educational links are available.

Harvey, Samantha

2003-10-10

74

NASA Mars Exploration Program: Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this site information can be found that deals with issues pertaining to the possiblity of life on Mars. It explains exactly what conditions in the environment are needed so that life can exist. It discusses the climate of Mars, both in the past and the present day. The geology of Mars is also mentioned and how by looking at the rocks the existence of life in the past can be suggested. And finally the a few comments on man exploring Mars.

2005-04-15

75

NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs,

T. K. Gregg

2008-01-01

76

NASA Explorer Schools: School Recognition Opportunities  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Explorer Schools not only provides access to high-quality STEM classroom resources and professional development but also recognizes teachers, schools and students who become highly engaged with all the NES project has to offer. Each year, NES will recognize schools where highly engaged NES teachers work together to bring NES activities and materials to a broad school population. NES teachers from recognized schools will have the unique opportunity to participate in a Reduced Gravity Flight. More information can be found on the website at: http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-03-22

77

77 FR 53919 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity Update --Mars Program Planning Group Update --Discovery Program Update --Planetary...

2012-09-04

78

FAST ONBOARD TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture analysis holds significant promise for improving the science return of remote planetary exploration. Com- munications with exploration spacecraft suffer significan t latency and bandwidth constraints; onboard image un- derstanding can summarize large datasets and select rep- resentative images for transmission. We present image texture descriptors that satisfy the strict computational requirements of flight processors. We use the integral image

David R. Thompson; Nathalie A. Cabrol

79

Budgeting for Exploration: the History and Political Economy of Planetary Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of financial resources continues to be one of the greatest limiting factors to NASA’s planetary science agenda. Historians and members of the space science community have offered many explanations for the scientific, political, and economic actions that combine to form NASA’s planetary science efforts, and this essay will use budgetary and historical analysis to examine how each of these factors have impacted the funding of U.S. exploration of the solar system. This approach will present new insights into how the shifting fortunes of the nation’s economy or the changing priorities of political leadership have affected government investment in science broadly, and space science specifically. This paper required the construction of a historical NASA budget data set displaying layered fiscal information that could be compared equivalently over time. This data set was constructed with information collected from documents located in NASA’s archives, the Library of Congress, and at the Office of Management and Budget at the White House. The essay will examine the effects of the national gross domestic product, Federal debt levels, the budgets of other Federal agencies engaged in science and engineering research, and party affiliation of leadership in Congress and the White House on the NASA budget. It will also compare historic funding levels of NASA’s astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science efforts to planetary science funding. By examining the history of NASA’s planetary science efforts through the lens of the budget, this essay will provide a clearer view of how effectively the planetary science community has been able to align its goals with national science priorities.

Callahan, Jason

2013-10-01

80

Data Management in Planetary Exploration and Space Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary exploration and space physics approach data management in very different ways. In this talk we will compare the approaches in these two disciplines with emphasis on how each has dealt with the problems of locating and accessing distributed data. We also will outline the data management challenges each will face in the next decade. Sixteen years ago the NASA Solar System Exploration Division founded the Planetary Data System (PDS) to coordinate the data activities of planetary missions, provide the scientific community with access to planetary data and preserve the data from planetary missions for future analysis. PDS is organized into "nodes" by scientific sub-disciplines (Atmospheres, Geoscience, Plasma Interactions, Rings and Small Bodies) and experimental technique (Imaging and Radio Science). In addition the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) addresses data issues involving navigation and instrument pointing. All planetary data from NASA missions are prepared to the same metadata standards that include a common data dictionary. Initially access to the data was by sub-discipline although within a sub-discipline the access was to all missions and instrument types. More recently planetary science has become more interdisciplinary and now PDS is moving toward a system that supports cross discipline access. Data are available either on online or on hard media (CDROM or DVD). In recent years space physics data access has been organized by missions. Some missions support data systems through which all of the data from the mission can be accessed while for others the data are available from individual principal investigator sites. In general the space physics missions support an open data policy and much of the data is available online. There are no discipline wide metadata standards. Different missions support different data dictionaries, schemas and interfaces. The data come in a variety of formats. In the near future both planetary science and space physics will be challenged with massive volumes of data from new missions (approximately 1015 bytes). In both disciplines the need for comparative research across missions or sub-disciplines is becoming more common. Both will have to support data structures that allow users to readily locate, access, and use data from distributed and diverse sources. Both disciplines must address the issue of how to distribute these massive data sets to the science community. Distributable media (DVD) are too expensive due to their limited storage capacity and the network bandwidth is unlikely to be able to support online distribution.

Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.; King, T. A.

2003-12-01

81

NASA Explorer Schools Teachers Selected for 2011 School Recognition Award  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Explorer Schools project announces this year's schools selected for recognition. These schools showed exemplary classroom practices and innovative use of NASA. Explorer Schools resources to engage students across the nation in STEM activities.

Sandra May

2011-09-21

82

Mars--NASA Explores the Red Planet: Science Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website lays out NASA's four goals for the exploration of Mars. Each goal is described on a separate webpage--most with illustrations. The webpage for the fourth goal describes preparation for possible human exploration of Mars.

2012-08-27

83

Scientific field training for human planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts’ scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve

D. S. S. Lim; G. L. Warman; M. L. Gernhardt; C. P. McKay; T. Fong; M. M. Marinova; A. F. Davila; D. Andersen; A. L. Brady; Z. Cardman; B. Cowie; M. D. Delaney; A. G. Fairén; A. L. Forrest; J. Heaton; B. E. Laval; R. Arnold; P. Nuytten; G. Osinski; M. Reay; D. Reid; D. Schulze-Makuch; R. Shepard; G. F. Slater; D. Williams

2010-01-01

84

77 FR 22807 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Budgetary and Programmatic Impacts on the Planetary Science Division; --Status of the Joint NASA-European Space Agency Mars and Outer Planets Programs; --Status Updates from the Analysis Groups. It is imperative that the meeting be held on...

2012-04-17

85

75 FR 12310 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the capacity of the room. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Reports From Program Analysis Groups --Assessment of the Planetary Science Division...

2010-03-15

86

NASA - "Explorer Generation Music Video" (2003)  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

87

Middle School Adventures in Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1998 the UW-Madison Office of Space Science Education (OSSE) developed and implemented a pilot summer school program to improve the math and science performance of middle school students. The program focused on the subject of solar system exploration for the summer school offered by the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for middle school students. OSSE staff collaborated with science, math, and technology teachers from two middle schools (Milwaukee Education Center and Bell Middle School) to expand upon a series of hands-on, interdisciplinary lesson plans originally developed to accompany the Planetary Society's Red Rover, Red Rover Program. For six weeks, sixty inner city middle school students had the opportunity to explore new worlds as far reaching as Mars, Mercury, Titania, Uranus and Pluto with the assistance of Planetary Scientists and staff from the UW-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Students were provided with computers and internet connections by AT&T to conduct on-line research on their own research topic relating to planetary exploration. Based on their own research efforts, teams of five or six students wrote a mission statement and then proceeded to create a terrain resembling their desired planetary target. Team engineers then built a computer operated Lego Dacta rover designed especially for exploring the unique features of their targeted planet. In addition to strengthening their science and math skills, students also focused on the improvement of their communication skills by maintaining a daily journal of their experiences, tribulations and successes. Students were tested in the beginning and again at the end of the program. An independent group from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee performed overall assessment of the summer program. Based on the overall success in achieving performance enchmarks, the Milwaukee Public Schools and UW-Extension Learning Innovations Center have elected to collaborate with the OSSE to expand the pilot space science curriculum for the academic school year. This effort was supported by a grant from the AT&T Educational Foundation.

Limaye, S. S.; Pertzborn, R. A.

1998-09-01

88

Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: A Workshop Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four Antarctic explorers were invited to a workshop at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide expert assessments of NASA's current understanding of future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. These explorers had been on relatively sophisticated, extensive Antarctic expeditions with sparse or nonexistent support infrastructure in the period following World War II through the end of the International Geophysical Year. Their experience was similar to that predicted for early Mars or other planetary exploration missions. For example: one Antarctic a expedition lasted two years with only one planned resupply mission and contingency plans for no resupply missions should sea ice prevent a ship from reaching them; several traverses across Antarctica measured more than 1000 total miles, required several months to complete, and were made without maps (because they did not exist) and with only a few aerial photos of the route; and the crews of six to 15 were often international in composition. At JSC, the explorers were given tours of development, training, and scientific facilities, as well as documentation at operational scenarios for future planetary exploration. This report records their observations about these facilities and plans in answers to a series of questions provided to them before the workshop.

Hoffman, Stephen J.

2002-04-01

89

NASA's Spitzer Marks Beginning of New Age of Planetary Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA press release describes results from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The instrument detected a dip in the infrared light curve as a planet passes behind a star. This is the first direct detection of light from an extrasolar planet.

2005-04-19

90

NASA remote sensing plans for Mars exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's early period of Mars remote sensing was highlighted by the Mariner (4, 6, 7) flybys and the Mariner 9 and Viking (1, 2) orbiters. In the mid 1990s, NASA returned to Mars with orbiters designed to take advantage of technological breakthroughs in imaging and spectroscopy. Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera took 1.4 m\\/pixel resolution images while the Mars

Robert A. Fogel; Michael A. Meyer; J. Douglas McCuistion; Stephen Saunders

2005-01-01

91

Planetary Surface Exploration Using Raman Spectroscopy on Rovers and Landers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to probe the composition of rocks has recently become a reality with the operation of the mast-mounted ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Following this success, Raman spectroscopy has steadily gained support as a means for using laser spectroscopy to identify not just composition but mineral phases, without the need for sample preparation. The RLS Raman Spectrometer is included on the payload for the ExoMars mission, and a Raman spectrometer has been included in an example strawman payload for NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. Raman spectroscopy has been identified by the community as a feasible means for pre-selection of samples on Mars for subsequent return to Earth. We present a next-generation instrument that builds on the widely used green-Raman technique to provide a means for performing Raman spectroscopy without the background noise that is often generated by fluorescence of minerals and organics. Microscopic Raman spectroscopy with a laser spot size smaller than the grains of interest can provide surface mapping of mineralogy while preserving morphology. A very small laser spot size 1 µm) is often necessary to identify minor phases that are often of greater interest than the matrix phases. In addition to the difficulties that can be posed by fine-grained material, fluorescence interference from the very same material is often problematic. This is particularly true for many of the minerals of interest that form in environments of aqueous alteration and can be highly fluorescent. We use time-resolved laser spectroscopy to eliminate fluorescence interference that can often make it difficult or impossible to obtain Raman spectra. We will discuss significant advances leading to the feasibility of a compact time-resolved spectrometer, including the development of a new solid-state detector capable of sub-ns time resolution. We will present results on planetary analog minerals to demonstrate the instrument performance including fluorescence rejection.

Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, E.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.; Rossman, G. R.

2013-10-01

92

Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

93

Planetary surface exploration: MESUR/autonomous lunar rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray instruments (APX). The system is to be launched with the sixteen MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker was developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian surface. While on Mars the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar-terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation which NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. A detailed description of the designs, methods, and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs are included.

Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Lentz, Dale; Laux, Richard; Nance, Preston

1992-06-01

94

Planetary Exploration Panel PEX: Support for lunar exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new era of space exploration will be international, human-centric, transdisciplinary and participatory. It will also provide an opportunity to inspire, motivate, and involve an ever increasing number of countries. The objective of the COSPAR Panel on Space Exploration (PEX) is to provide the best, independent, input to support the development of worldwide space exploration programs and to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system objects. The input will be drawn from expertise provided via the contacts maintained by COSPAR's various Associates within the international community and scientific entities. For lunar exploration, the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) and the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), as well as other committees, represent important foci for an even broader base of expertise. Seven NASA Lunar Science Institute nodes are actively supporting space exploration in the US. In addition, the International Space Exploration Coordination group ISECG was established to implement the Global Exploration Strategy GES, contained in a document that was elaborated by representatives of 14 space agencies. PEX provides synergies of existing documents and roadmaps of each of these bodies to support existing space exploration groups, foster transnational alliances and support joint research and education.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale

2010-05-01

95

77 FR 4837 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Status of Budget and Programmatic Impacts on the Planetary Science Division. --Status of the Joint NASA-European Space Agency Mars Program. It is imperative that the meeting be held on this date to accommodate the scheduling priorities of the key...

2012-01-31

96

Planetary Protection Constraints For Planetary Exploration and Exobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London \\/ Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related planetary protection Cospar

A. Debus; R. Bonneville; M. Viso

2002-01-01

97

NASA's Kepler Spacecraft Discovers Extraordinary New Planetary System  

NASA Website

Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth.

98

Overview of the Planetary Data System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active archive that provides high quality, usable planetary science data products to the science community. This system evolved in response to scientists' requests for improved availability of planetary data from NASA missions, with increased scientific involvement and oversight. It is sponsored by the NASA Solar System Exploration Division, and includes seven university\\/research

Susan K. McMahon

1996-01-01

99

Mars--NASA Explores the Red Planet: Program Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site contains a statement of NASA's strategy to investigate life on Mars. The main page has an image of Mars captured by a spacecraft flying by in 1965. The Science Overview section provides a description of the four science goals of the entire Mars exploration initiative, extending well into the future. The page for Goal 4 links to the January 2004 statement by President George W. Bush on human exploration of space.

2012-08-28

100

MIDAS: Advanced Remote Sensing for Planetary Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) is a revolutionary approach to planetary remote sensing. The integration of optical interferometric techniques and distributed aperture technology enables MIDAS to perform as a diffraction-limited, wide-field imaging spectrometer with simultaneous high spatial and spectral resolution. Here we describe the results of a science and technical feasibility study of MIDAS prototypes funded under the NASA High Capability Instrument Concepts and Technology (HCICT) program as a potential science payload for missions to the outer planets and their moons. Activities include testbed demonstrations in the lab during which the spatial and spectral capabilities of MIDAS-derived approaches have been explored, using both source imagery and materials relevant to outer planet environments. The high spatial resolution capabilities of MIDAS combined with nm spectral resolution will greatly advance our understanding of surface composition in terms of minerals, organics, volatiles, and their mixtures. Utilizing cm scale spatial resolution in the visible from a 100 km orbit, features such as crack movements and other indicators of tidal forcing could be resolved on the surface of Europa. At higher altitudes MIDAS engages in global, high resolution imaging spectroscopy with meter-scale resolution. Beyond traditional remote sensing, MIDAS is well suited to active techniques including remote Raman, Flourescence, and IR illumination investigations in order to resolve surface composition and explore otherwise dim regions. Other applications for MIDAS include remote sensing measurements on the Moon and Mars, where orders of magnitude advances beyond the resolutions of current data sets are possible.

Delory, G. T.; de Pater, I.; Manga, M.; Lipps, J.; Dalton, J.; Pitman, J.; UCB CIPS Collaboration; MIDAS Team

2005-12-01

101

Terrain Classification and Classifier Fusion for Planetary Exploration Rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical properties of terrain surrounding a planetary exploration rover can be used to allow a rover system to fully exploit its mobility capabilities. Here a study of multi-sensor terrain classification for planetary rovers in Mars and Mars-like environments is presented. Two classification algorithms for color, texture, and range features are presented based on maximum likelihood estimation and

Ibrahim Halatci; Christopher A. Brooks; Karl Iagnemma

2007-01-01

102

NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs, the students are not housed together, but are paired, one-on-one, with a PI at his or her home institution. PGGURP interns have worked at sites ranging from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Through NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, the interns' travel and lodging costs are covered, as are a cost-of-living stipend. Approximately 30% of the undergraduate PGGURP participants continue on to graduate school in the planetary sciences. We consider this to be an enormous success, because the participants are among the best and brightest undergraduates in the country with a wide range of declared majors (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology, as well as geology). Furthermore, those students that do continue tend to excel, and point to the internship as a turning point in their scientific careers. The NASA PIs who serve as mentors agree that this is a valuable experience for them, too, and many of them have been hosting interns annually for well over a decade. The PI obtains enthusiastic and intelligent undergraduate, free of charge, for a summer, while having the opportunity to work closely with today's students who are the future of planetary science. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, TX, also sponsors a summer undergraduate internship. Approximately 12 students are selected to live together in apartments located near the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Johnson Space Center. Similar to PGGURP, the LPI interns are carefully selected to work one-on-one for ~10 weeks during the summer with one of the LPI staff scientists. Many LPI Summer Intern graduates have forged geoscience or planetary science careers after this rewarding experience.

Gregg, T. K.

2008-12-01

103

75 FR 50783 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update; --Mars Exploration Program Update. It is imperative that the meeting be held on this date to accommodate the scheduling...

2010-08-17

104

78 FR 56246 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...password PSS@Oct2. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Government Performance and Results Act Presentation and Scoring --Assessment Group Updates...

2013-09-12

105

78 FR 39341 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Budget and Programmatic Impacts on the Planetary Science Division --Briefing from the Mars Exploration Program Regarding the Recommendations of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team It is imperative that the meeting be held on this date to...

2013-07-01

106

78 FR 15378 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Planetary Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity Update --Research and Analysis Update --Reports from Assessment...

2013-03-11

107

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES: THE 50 YEARS FROM MARINER 2 TO NASA-JUNO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2012, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of spacecraft-based exploration of planets and satellites other our own. The first successful interplanetary mission (Mariner 2) included the first spaceborne microwave radiometer for studying planetary atmospheres which measured the 1.3 and 2.0 cm emission spectrum of Venus (also known as the Cytherean spectrum), These measurements, plus accompanying earth-based observations of the centimeter-wavelength spectrum were used to establish early models of the composition and structure of Venus. Shortly thereafter, measurements of the microwave emission spectrum of Jupiter (also known as the Jovian spectrum) from 1.18 to 1.58 cm were conducted. In both sets of observations, wavelengths near the 1.35 cm water-vapor resonance were selected in hope of detecting the spectral signature of water vapor, but none was found. Thus the question remained, “where’s the water?” The NASA-Juno mission is the first mission since Mariner 2 to carry a microwave radiometer instrument designed specifically for atmospheric sensing. It is expected to finally detect water in the Jovian atmosphere.

Steffes, Paul G.

2013-10-01

108

NASA Solar System Exploration: Galileo Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During its 14-year odyssey, the NASA spacecraft Galileo took thousands of images. In addition to extensively photographing the Jovian system, Galileo also turned its cameras on asteroids, Venus, Earth, and its Moon. Galileo also captured the only direct view of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments smashing into Jupiter in July 1994. This image gallery is separated by the various planets and moons visited by Galileo (Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Earth & Moon, Venus, Asteroids, and Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9) as well as the geographical and atmospheric features of the visited objects (Atmospheric Haze, Topography, Volcanic Features, Aurora, Great Red Spot, Lightning, White Ovals) and collected data from its instruments (Hot Spots, Temperature Data, and Cloud Height Data). It provides a wealth of images for either the casual viewer or the instructor seeking images that display particular phenomena.

109

Mars exploration. Plan for two rovers squeezes NASA budget.  

PubMed

NASA's decision last week to send two rovers to Mars in 2003 is being hailed by researchers as affirming the agency's commitment to exploring the Red Planet. But once the applause dies down, cash-strapped space science managers will be forced to make tough decisions about how to shoulder the added $200 million cost of a second mission, starting with $96 million that must come out of NASA's 2001 budget. PMID:10970217

Lawler, A; MacNeil, J

2000-08-18

110

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These su...

A. R. Ghavimi F. Serricchio B. Dolgin F. Y. Hadaegh

2000-01-01

111

Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these ...

A. E. Southard C. Malespin C. A. Kotecki D. P. Glavin E. Mumm H. B. Franz I. L. Ten Kate J. E. Bleacher J. P. Dworkin J. W. Rice M. Noreiga N. Dobson P. R. Mahaffy S. A. Getty S. H. Feng T. D. Swindle V. E. Holmes

2012-01-01

112

A subjective assessment of alternative mission architectures for the human exploration of Mars at NASA using multicriteria decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate signi.cant new scienti.c knowledge. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks cannot be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and bene.ts must be established for

Madjid Tavana

2004-01-01

113

A Review of Technology Development for NASA's Planetary Science Division Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has made tremendous progress in addressing critical questions about our solar system but often the knowledge gained raises new and more challenging questions. Future robotic space missions need to be endowed with more capable instruments, spacecraft subsystems and ground support on order to be able to answer the new and more difficult questions that lay before us. Developing future instrument, spacecraft subsystem, or ground support technologies for robotic planetary missions is a complicated and challenging endeavor. Recognizing this, the Planetary Science Division (PSD) in NASA's Science Mission Directorate has chartered a panel to review its current technology development programs and provide recommendations on process and policy improvements that will enable better utilization of technology. This paper discusses the work and findings of that panel, known as the Planetary Science Technology Review (PSTR) panel. The paper discusses the technology development challenges faced by the PSD as well as panel findings and observations about the current programs and processes employed. The paper also discusses the potential recommendations that may be considered by the Planetary Science Division in future technology development efforts.

Beauchamp, Patricia; Clarke, J. T.; Lorenz, R.; Kremic, T.; Hughes, P.; Perry, B.; Singleton, J.

2010-10-01

114

ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with

R. C. OBrien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

2010-01-01

115

The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular, we present detailed interpretations of the results by the radial velocity method. With the launch of some specific small satellites, we can predict the discovery of a large number of candidates of the extra-solar planetary systems. We can expect that the exploring of extra-solar planetary systems will have a prospective era in the near future.

Liu, Yu-Juan; Zhao, Gang

2005-09-01

116

Budgetary Implications of NASA's Current Plans for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2004, President Bush announced his Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, which called for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop new vehicles for spaceflight that would allow humans to return to the moon by 2020. In response, ...

2009-01-01

117

NASA Selects Next Generation of Space Explorers; Google+ Hangout Today  

NASA Website

After an extensive year-and-a-half search, NASA has a new group of potential astronauts who will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system, including an asteroid and Mars.

118

Analysis of planetary exploration spacesuit systems and evaluation of a modified partial-gravity simulation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on prior experience during Apollo, NASA now plans to send humans back to the Moon and then on to Mars as part of its Vision for Space Exploration. An integral component for enabling this plan is the development of advanced spacesuit systems. A planetary exploration spacesuit system consists of an astronaut, a spacesuit, and the associated surface systems designed to enable completion of mission objectives. This thesis addresses all three aspects, beginning with an examination of the effects of locomotion stability in lunar and Mars gravity from a metabolic energy expenditure standpoint. An experiment to determine the effects of stability on running in reduced gravity was performed with a modified vertical offload partial gravity device. Operations scenarios were also developed, along with engineering analysis to understand the forces and moments involved in partial gravity locomotion. Analysis is presented to assess the applicability of terrestrial exploration systems and to adapt them for planetary exploration. Access systems for partial gravity planetary explorations are described that may allow humans in spacesuits to safely access scientifically significant terrain on the Moon and Mars. Contingency scenarios for effective rescue of astronauts from flat and sloped terrain were also analyzed. Conclusions and recommendations are offered regarding the effectiveness of the simulation technique developed. An Earth-based field testing program plan is presented with the intent of including access systems in the lunar surface system architecture requirements early enough to allow synergies in component design.

Chappell, Steven Patrick

119

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled materials, makes the sampling operation a tedious task and quite challenging. This paper highlights the recent advancements in the sample acquisition control system design and development for the in situ scientific exploration of planetary and small interplanetary missions.

Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Dolgin, Ben; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

2000-01-01

120

Breakthrough capability for the NASA astrophysics explorer program: reaching the darkest sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to ~13X increased photometric sensitivity and ~160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun- Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has strong applicability to SMD Planetary Science community-proposed missions. SEP is a stated flight demonstration priority for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This new mission architecture for astrophysics Explorers enables an attractive realization of joint goals for OCT and SMD with wide applicability across SMD science disciplines.

Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garvin, James B.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

2012-09-01

121

NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could support NASA's RPS technology development planning, and provide an understanding of fuel need trades over the next three decades.

Balint, Tibor S.

2007-01-01

122

Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop  

PubMed Central

Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8–10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond “science protection” per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address “harmful contamination” beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Extraterrestrial life—Life in extreme environments—Environment—Habitability. Astrobiology 12, 1017–1023.

Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

2012-01-01

123

Planetary protection issues and human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of the Space Exploration Initiative involves human missions to Mars. The report describing the initiative cites the search for life on Mars, extant or extinct, as one of the five science themes for such an endeavor. Because of this, concerns for planetary protection (PP) have arisen of two fronts: (1) forward contamination of Mars by spacecraft-borne terrestrial

D. L. Devincenzi

1991-01-01

124

New Carriers and Sensors for Robotic Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robotic element of planetary exploration missions does play a crucial role for a successful mission completion. The development of reliable and rugged systems with at the same time low resource requirements and a generous acceptance of harsh environmental conditions is an important constituent of supportive research and development programs. This paper introduces a selection of new technologies developed by

J. Romstedt; A. Schiele; N. Boudin; P. Coste; R. Lindner

2006-01-01

125

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled

Ali R. Ghavimi; Frederick Serricchio; Ben Dolgin; Fred Y. Hadaegh

1999-01-01

126

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled

Ali R. Ghavimi; Frederick Serricchio; Ben Dolgin; Fred Y. Hadaegh

2000-01-01

127

Planetary Surface Exploration Mesur/Autonomous Lunar Rover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied t...

L. Stauffer M. Dilorenzo D. Austin R. Ayers D. Burton

1992-01-01

128

Planetary Surface Exploration: MESUR/Autonomous Lunar Rover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the pro...

L. Stauffer M. Dilorenzo D. Austin R. Ayers D. Burton

1992-01-01

129

Vibration-based terrain classification for planetary exploration rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe, autonomous mobility in rough terrain is an important requirement for planetary exploration rovers. Knowledge of local terrain properties is critical to ensure a rover's safety on slopes and uneven surfaces. Visual features are often used to classify terrain; however, vision can be sensitive to lighting variations and other effects. This paper presents a method to classify terrain based on

Christopher A. Brooks; Karl Iagnemma

2005-01-01

130

Low-frequency electromagnetic methods for planetary subsurface exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Earth has been used for decades for science and resource exploration, but has seen limited planetary application. The inductive foundation of low-frequency electromagnetics has much greater investigation depth than surface-penetrating radar, at the expense of poorer resolution. Ambient EM energy from the solar wind, ionosphere, magnetosphere, or lightning provides natural sources for deep sounding, and can be measured using simple magnetometers and/or electrometers. Artificial sources (transmitters) yield higher SNR in shallower investigations. Planetary applications include crust and mantle structure, temperature, and composition, characterization of groundwater or interior oceans, mapping of shallow ice deposits, and potentially even detection of extant biosignatures.

Grimm, R. E.

131

Middle School Adventures in Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1998 the UW-Madison Office of Space Science Education (OSSE) developed and implemented a pilot summer school program to improve the math and science performance of middle school students. The program focused on the subject of solar system exploration for the summer school offered by the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for middle school students. OSSE staff collaborated

S. S. Limaye; R. A. Pertzborn

1998-01-01

132

NASA Now Minute: Technology and Design: The Future of Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

John Connolly, deputy manager of the Exploration Missions and Systems Office, describes the physics and environmental differences engineers must consider when designing crewed exploration missions to destinations in space. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-12-05

133

Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles: Three Planetary Bodies and Four Conceptual Design Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Ames Research Center has been studying the feasibility of vertical lift aerial vehicles to support planetary science and exploration missions. Besides Earth, it appears that there are three planetary bodies within our solar system where vertical flig...

E. W. Aiken L. A. Young

2001-01-01

134

Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.  

PubMed

With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

2012-10-24

135

ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

2010-09-01

136

Your Planetary Protection Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief article about John Rummel, NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. It explains the purpose of planetary protection (to prevent contamination of Earth by alien life forms and of space by Earth's life forms), gives some historical background about NASA's planetary protection policies, and gives examples of recent protocols for sterilization of spacecraft. There are links to the Planetary Protection Office website, the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Bodies, and updated policy guidelines.

Koerner, Brendan I.; Slate

137

Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution m...

H. S. Wright J. S. Levine M. A. Croom W. C. Edwards G. D. Qualls J. F. Gasbarre

2004-01-01

138

NASA's Mars Exploration Program: Characterize the Geology of Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study of the geology of Mars should reveal answers to such questions as how Mars developed into the planet we see today and what accounts for the differences and similarities between Earth and Mars. Visitors to this site can learn about ancient magnetism recently discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor that suggests the planet was once more dynamic and Earth-like with a magnetic field shielding the surface from cosmic radiation. They can read about the importance of studying the age and composition of Martian rocks, particularly those rocks and minerals which might have been formed in the presence of water. This is part of NASA's presentation of four science goals for its Mars Exploration Program, a science-driven effort to discover whether Mars was, is, or can be, a habitable world.

139

Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian-made instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) is young brother of another Russian instrument HEND (High Energy Neutron Detector), which continues to perform well in its fifth year of science measurements onboard NASA Mars Odyssey. LEND and HEND have similar types of neutron sensors, and valuable science data from HEND about Martian water resources has proved adequate selection of these sensors for purposes of orbital neutron spectroscopy of the planet. The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) has been selected for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to provide the global search of hydrogen distribution through 1-2 meters of lunar subsurface from 50 km circular polar orbit of LRO. The most important property of LEND is its capability to provide high spatial resolution mapping of epithermal neutrons with collimated neutron detectors. LEND is able to detect hydrogen-rich spot at a pole with about 100 ppm of hydrogen with spatial resolution of 5 km (Half Width Half Maximum) and to produce global mapping of hydrogen content with resolution of 5-20 km. If hydrogen is associated with water, detection limit of 100 ppm of hydrogen corresponds to ~ 0.1 wt% of water in the regolith. Neutron radiation from the regolith could have as large an impact on astronaut safety as energetic charged particles from Galactic Comic Rays and Solar Particle Events. LEND will have a full set of sensors for thermal, epithermal and high energy neutrons to provide data for neutron component of radiation environment in the broad range of more than 9 decades of energy.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Schvetsov, V. N.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Vostrukhin, A.

2006-12-01

140

NASA eClips™: Chandra - Exploring the Invisible Universe  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

141

Benefit of Small Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of smaller spacecraft over the last decade, in combination with studies of potential science applications, has suggested the need for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) yielding much lower power levels than the 100 watt-scale devices used in the past. Small milliwatt to multiwatt-scale RPS units have the potential to extend the capability of small science payloads and instruments, and to enable many new mission applications. Such units could also find application in future human exploration missions involving use of monitoring stations and autonomous devices, similar to the ALSEP units deployed on the Moon during the Apollo program. Although flight-qualified RPS units in this size and power range do not presently exist, their potential to support a broad range of exploration tasks has led NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider the development of small-RPS units such that they might be available for missions by the early part of next decade. This paper summarizes the results of activities to date and provides possible options for future development.

Schmidt, George R.; Abelson, Robert D.; Wiley, Robert L.

2005-02-01

142

PDS and NASA Tournament Laboratory Progress in Engaging Developers to Provide New Access to the Nation’s Planetary Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Data System (PDS), working through the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) and TopCoder® , used challenge-based competition to generate an optimized data base and API for comet data at the PDS Small Bodies Node (SBN). Additional, follow-on contests challenged the competitors to create new, transparent, agile tools for public access to NASA’s planetary data, where “public” includes not just researchers, but also students and educators. Since the initial start-up last year, the installation at SBN now provides ready access to the comet data holdings of the SBN, and has introduced new users and new developers to PDS data. We report on recent developments arising from that first success. Specifically, the experience gained in that process is being applied to establishing a second installation at the PDS Planetary Rings Node (Rings), to serve as the basis for a new series of challenges - this time to develop similar access tools at Rings to make the growing archive of CASSINI images available through the API; and to develop a crowd-sourcing project with eventual application across the PDS holdings.

Raugh, Anne C.; LaMora, A.; Erickson, K.; Gordon, M.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Morgan, T. H.; Showalter, M.; Knopf, W.

2013-10-01

143

Application of radioactive sources in analytical instruments for planetary exploration.  

PubMed

Radioactive isotopes have been used in analytical instrumentation for planetary exploration since the very beginning of the space age. An Alpha Scattering Instrument (ASI) on board the Surveyor 5, 6 and 7 spacecrafts used the isotope (242)Cm to obtain the chemical composition of the lunar surface material in 1960s. The Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) used on several mission to Mars (Pathfinder, Mars-96, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the next mission to Mars in 2011 and on the Rosetta mission to a comet) are improved derivatives of the original ASI, complimented with an X-ray mode and using the longer lived (244)Cm isotope. (57)Co, (55)Fe and many other radioisotopes have been used in several missions carrying XRF and Mössbauer instruments. In addition, (238)Pu isotope is exclusively being used in most of the space missions for heating and power generation. PMID:19850487

Economou, Thanasis E

2009-09-19

144

Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary

Henry S. Wright; Joel S. Levine; Mark A. Croom; William C. Edwards; Garry D. Qualls; Joseph F. Gasbarre

145

Measurements from an aerial vehicle: a new tool for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary

Henry S. Wright; Joel S. Levine; Mark A. Croom; William C. Edwards; Garry D. Qualls; Joseph F. Gasbarre

2004-01-01

146

High-Performance Micro-Rover for Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary robotic missions rely on rovers to produce surface mobility for multiple sites sampling and exploration. For example, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have been extremely successful in the exploring a wide area of the Martian surface in the past four years. Each of the MER has the size of a golf car and weights ~170 kg. They both result in a massive launch of nearly 1100 kg. Small rovers (5-30 kg) can help to provide moderate surface traverse and greatly reduce cost of the mission, e.g. the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder mission. There is a growing interest in the micro-rover design and how to maximize performance of a miniaturized system. For example, the rover traversability and locomotion capability will be compromised if the objective is to reduce the size of the vehicle. Undoubtedly, this affects the rover performance in terms of mobility and usefulness to the mission. We propose to overcome this problem by investigating a new generation of rover chassis design to maximize its terrian capability. This paper presents a chassis concept suited for a micro-rover system and negotiating with different planetary terrains such as the Moon and Mars. The proposed tracked-wheel is motivated by bringing together advantages of wheels and tracks, in the same time keeping the design simple and easy to implement. The chassis is built based on four tracked-wheels and offers 10 DOF for the vehicle. Analysis based on Bekker theories suggests this design can generate larger tractive effort (drawbar pull) compared to the wheeled design for the same rover dimensions. As a result, a more effective and efficent chassis can be achieved and leave a large design margin for the science payload.

Gao, Y.; Chen, X.

2009-04-01

147

76 FR 21411 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting will be open to the public up to the capacity of the room. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: -- Mars Missions: Status and Plans -- Planetary Science Decadal Survey -- Planetary Protection Context for International and...

2011-04-15

148

78 FR 42805 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting...announces a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations...Systems Overview --Human Research Program...

2013-07-17

149

NASA unit sets ambitious course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After two decades of spectacular successes, planetary exploration has fallen upon hard times. It has been five years since a new spacecraft was launched toward the planets, and NASA has under current development only one planetary mission—Galileo, which will orbit Jupiter and probe its atmosphere in 1988. The intellectual challenge of understanding the planets and their common origin and evolution has not, of course, declined, and a great deal of exciting work is being accomplished using data (and samples) from past missions. But planetologists fear the demise of their discipline within a few years if momentum cannot be restored to NASA's program of planetary exploration.

Morrison, David

150

Developments towards a filter wheel hyperspectral camera for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits of hyperspectral imaging in remote sensing applications are well established and it is now routinely exploited in terrestrial applications. However the restrictions imposed on mass and power consumption and the extreme operating conditions encountered in extra-terrestrial environments have limited its widespread use for planetary exploration. Instead multispectral camera systems with typically 10-12 discrete filters are employed, providing only coarse spectral information. By exploiting the properties of interference filters off axis it is possible to obtain additional spectral information. Recent advances in filter technology have made it possible to develop a simple and lightweight wide angle hyperspectral camera employing a filter wheel. The theory of operation and early test results from a prototype camera system are presented.

Gunn, M.; Langstaff, D. P.; Barnes, D.

2011-10-01

151

Who Has Control: The Battle Between NASA and Congress Over the Space Shuttle to Vision for Space Exploration Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA rests under the Executive Branch as 2005 NASA Authorization Act and Aeronautics and Space act of 1958 fund NASA. NASA Authorization Acts and The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) signed by President Bush in 2004 signaled the end of space explorations. Both Congress and the President are trying to assert control over future human space flight programs as Congress

Ashley Walker

2008-01-01

152

Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or develo...

C. R. Lunsford A. P. Smith W. W. Cooper A. D. Mundra A. E. Gross L. F. Audenaerd B. E. Killian

2004-01-01

153

Don't Leave Home Without It: Planetary Protection for Robotic and Human Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planetary exploration and the search for life beyond Earth, the unique capabilities provided by human explorers will be advantageous to science only if the biological contamination associated with human presence is understood and controlled. The practice of preventing cross- contamination between the Earth and other planetary bodies is called planetary protection. NASA has a planetary protection policy in place

C. A. Conley; L. Billings

2008-01-01

154

Robotic automation for space: planetary surface exploration, terrain-adaptive mobility, and multirobot cooperative tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, there has been significant progress toward a supervised autonomous robotic capability for remotely controlled scientific exploration of planetary surfaces. While planetary exploration potentially encompasses many elements ranging from orbital remote sensing to subsurface drilling, the surface robotics element is particularly important to advancing in situ science objectives. Surface activities include a direct characterization of geology, mineralogy,

Paul S. Schenker; Terrance L. Huntsberger; Paolo Pirjanian; Eric T. Baumgartner; Hrand Aghazarian; Ashitey Trebi-Ollennu; Patrick C. Leger; Yang Cheng; Paul G. Backes; Edward Tunstel; Steven Dubowsky; Karl D. Iagnemma; Gerard T. McKee

2001-01-01

155

The Explorer's Guide to the Universe. A Reading List for Planetary and Space Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reading list for planetary and space science presents general references and bibliographies intended to supply background to the non-scientist, as well as more specific sources for recent discoveries. Included are NASA publications and those which have been commercially produced. References are sectioned into these topics: (1) general…

Zucker, Sandy, Comp.; And Others

156

75 FR 15743 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Exploration, Exploration Systems Mission...Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-03-30

157

Planetary protection and humans on Mars: NASA\\/ESA workshop results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary protection requirements for future human missions to Mars will strongly influence mission and spacecraft designs, particularly those related to the operation of advanced life support systems (ALS), extravehicular activity (EVA), laboratory and in situ sampling operations, and associated environmental monitoring and control systems. In order to initiate communication, understanding and working relations among the ALS, EVA, and planetary protection

Margaret S. Race; Gerhard Kminek; John D. Rummel

2008-01-01

158

76 FR 69768 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...telephone. The WebEx link is http://tinyurl.com/3zo5v3r. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Mars Missions: Status and Plans. --Technology Needs for Returning Planetary Samples to Earth. --Agency Planetary...

2011-11-09

159

Content based retrieval of images for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary missions generate a large quantity of image data. In flight operations or on servers such as Planetary Data Systems (PDS) these data products are only searchable by keys such as the Sol, spacecraft clock, or rover motion counter index, with little connection to the semantic content of the images. During mission science operations the science team typically pores over

Céline Meyer; Matthew Deans

2007-01-01

160

Advanced Analytical Instrument Facility for Analysis of Return Samples from NASA Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mass spectrometer with laser post-ionization of neutral species constructed at Argonne National Lab is well suited for analyses of return samples from NASA space exploration missions because of its high useful yield and analytical resolutions.

Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.

2006-03-01

161

NASA Exploration Team (NExT) In-Space Transportation Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation provides an overview of NASA Exploration Team's (NEXT) vision of in-space transportation in the future. Hurdles facing in-space transportation include affordable power sources, crew health and safety, optimized robotic and human operatio...

B. G. Drake D. R. Cooke L. D. Kos

2002-01-01

162

75 FR 52375 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee AGENCY...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Jane Parham, Exploration Systems Mission...Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-08-25

163

75 FR 80081 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting...Aeronautics and Space Administration...Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the...Bette Siegel, Exploration Systems Mission...Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-12-21

164

Planetary protection issues and the future exploration of Mars.  

PubMed

A primary scientific theme for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the search for life, extant or extinct, on Mars. Because of this, concerns about Planetary Protection (PP), the prevention of biological cross-contamination between Earth and other planets during solar system exploration missions, have arisen. A recent workshop assessed the necessity for, and impact of, PP requirements on the unmanned and human missions to Mars comprising the SEI. The following ground-rules were adopted: 1) information needed for assessing PP issues must be obtained during the unmanned precursor mission phase prior to human landings; 2) returned Mars samples will be considered biologically hazardous until proven otherwise; 3) deposition of microbes on Mars and exposure of the crew to Martian materials are inevitable when humans land; and, 4) human landings are unlikely until it is demonstrated that there is no harmful effect of Martian materials on terrestrial life forms. These ground-rules dictated the development of a conservative PP strategy for precursor missions. Key features of the proposed strategy include: 1) for prevention of forward contamination, all orbiters will follow Mars Observer PP procedures for assembly, trajectory, and lifetime. All landers will follow Viking PP procedures for assembly, microbial load reduction, and bioshield; and, 2) for prevention of back contamination, all sample return missions will have PP requirements which include fail-safe sample sealing, breaking contact chain with the Martian surface, and containment and quarantine analysis in an Earth-based lab. In addition to deliberating on scientific and technical issues, the workshop made several recommendations for dealing with forward and back contamination concerns from non-scientific perspectives. PMID:11538130

DeVincenzi, D L

1992-01-01

165

75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting will be open to the public up to the capacity of the room. The agenda for the meeting includes the following topics: --Mars Mission: Status and Plans. --Cassini Extended Mission Implementation Plan. --Agency Planetary Protection...

2010-07-13

166

Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reference Mission was developed over a period of several years and was published in NASA Special Publication 6107 in July 1997. The purpose of the Reference Mission was to provide a workable model for the human exploration of Mars, which is described in enough detail that alternative strategies and implementations can be compared and evaluated. NASA is continuing to develop the Reference Mission and expects to update this report in the near future. It was the purpose of the Reference Mission to develop scenarios based on the needs of scientists and explorers who want to conduct research on Mars; however, more work on the surface-mission aspects of the Reference Mission is required and is getting under way. Some aspects of the Reference Mission that are important for the consideration of the surface mission definition include: (1) a split mission strategy, which arrives at the surface two years before the arrival of the first crew; (2) three missions to the outpost site over a 6-year period; (3) a plant capable of producing rocket propellant for lifting off Mars and caches of water, O, and inert gases for the life-support system; (4) a hybrid physico-chemical/bioregenerative life-support system, which emphasizes the bioregenerative system more in later parts of the scenario; (5) a nuclear reactor power supply, which provides enough power for all operations, including the operation of a bioregenerative life-support system as well as the propellant and consumable plant; (6) capability for at least two people to be outside the habitat each day of the surface stay; (7) telerobotic and human-operated transportation vehicles, including a pressurized rover capable of supporting trips of several days' duration from the habitat; (7) crew stay times of 500 days on the surface, with six-person crews; and (8) multiple functional redundancies to reduce risks to the crews on the surface. New concepts are being sought that would reduce the overall cost for this exploration program and reducing the risks that are indigenous to Mars exploration. Among those areas being explored are alternative space propulsion approaches, solar vs. nuclear power, and reductions in the size of crews.

Connolly, John

1998-01-01

167

Database of Raman Mineral Spectra for Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A database of Raman mineral spectra is presented, which will be posted on line. It includes representatives of the most important mineral groups, especially those for the in-situ mineralogical investigation of planetary materials.

Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Freeman, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

2006-03-01

168

Database of Raman Mineral Spectra for Planetary Surface Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of Raman mineral spectra is presented, which will be posted on line. It includes representatives of the most important mineral groups, especially those for the in-situ mineralogical investigation of planetary materials.

K. Kuebler; A. Wang; J. J. Freeman; B. L. Jolliff

2006-01-01

169

Operational Support Issues for the new NASA Exploration Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent proposal for NASA to fly astronauts to the Moon and Mars is both very exciting and, at the same time, daunting. Any flight away from the protection of the Earth's magnetic field poses special problems for space weather operational support providers such as NOAA's Space Environment Center. Since the Apollo flights in the 1960's, SEC has provided forecasts and warnings of important space weather to NASA at Johnson Space Center. The NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) receives SEC products and services to aid them in their function of safeguarding the astronaut's health and safety. But to travel away from the Geo-magnetosphere and then the Sun-Earth line, new services will be necessary to insure the warning of imminent solar energetic particle (SEP) events, a severe threat to astronaut safety. Currently SEP forecasts are marginally accurate and must be improved. These SEP add to perhaps the most serious threat to safety, the constant bombardment of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). Fortunately, the GCR behavior, though variable, is well understood. The presentation will consist first of a status report on the state of the predictive art for the near-Earth environment. That report will include both data and models currently used at SEC, as well as prediction verification statistics. Following that, there will be a look into future time on issues related to a lunar flight and a stay on the moon. Lastly some thoughts will be given on what may be required to provide adequate operational support for a flight to and from, and habitation on Mars.

Kunches, J.; Balch, C.; Murtagh, W.

2004-12-01

170

Current NASA studies for a Far Ultraviolent Spectrographic Explorer (FUSE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA plans for FUSE, a satellite which obtains spectra with resolutions between 100,000 and 100 in the spectral regions from 912 to 1216A and 100 to 912A, are outlined. Scientific problems which can be tackled by FUSE, but not by IUE or the Space Telescope, are discussed. A grazing incidence echelle and a hybrid echelle design are presented. They have high throughput, large simultaneous spectral range, and low background photon counting statistics. The satellite operational organization is similar to that of IUE.

Linsky, J.; Boggess, A.; Bowyer, S.; Caldwell, J.; Cash, W.; Cohen, J.; Dupree, A.; Green, R.; Jenkins, E.; Jura, M.; Leckrone, D.; Moos, H. W.; Savage, B.; Shull, M.; Snow, T.; Timothy, J. G.; Weiler, E.; York, D.

1982-06-01

171

Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx): an infrastructure to bridge space missions data and computational models in planetary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FP7-SPACE project Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx) has started in June 2011. The aim of the project is the Creation of an integrated interactive IT framework where data from space missions will be interconnected to numerical models, providing a possibility to 1) simulate planetary phenomena and interpret spacecraft data; 2) test and improve models versus experimental data; 3) fill gaps in measurements by appropriate modelling runs; 4) solve technological tasks of mission operation and preparation. Data analysis and visualization within IMPEx will be based on the advanced computational models of the planetary environments. Specifically, the 'modeling sector' of IMPEx is formed of four well established numerical codes and their related computational infrastructures: 1) 3D hybrid modeling platform HYB for the study of planetary plasma environments, hosted at FMI; 2) an alternative 3D hybrid modeling platform, hosted at LATMOS; 3) MHD modelling platform GUMICS for 3D terrestrial magnetosphere, hosted at FMI; and 4) the global 3D Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model for simulation of magnetospheres of different Solar System objects, hosted at SINP. Modelling results will be linked to the corresponding experimental data from space and planetary missions via several online tools: 1/ AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) which provides cross-linked visualization and operation of experimental and numerical modelling data, 2/ 3DView which will propose 3D visualization of spacecraft trajectories in simulated and observed environments, and 3/ "CLWeb" software which enables computation of various micro-scale physical products (spectra, distribution functions, etc.). In practice, IMPEx is going to provide an external user with an access to an extended set of space and planetary missions' data and powerful, world leading computing models, equipped with advanced visualization tools. Via its infrastructure, IMPEx will enable to merge spacecraft data bases and scientific modelling tools, providing their joint interconnected operation for the better understanding of related space and planetary physics phenomena.

Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Génot, V. N.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Topf, F.; Schmidt, W.; Alexeev, I. I.; Modolo, R.; André, N.; Gangloff, M.; Belenkaya, E. S.

2012-04-01

172

76 FR 16841 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Science Division Including an Update on the NASA/ESA Bilateral --Decadal Survey --Outer Planets Working Group Report --Mars Working Group Report It is imperative that the meeting be held on these dates to accommodate the scheduling priorities of...

2011-03-25

173

78 FR 64024 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...notification due to the recent Federal Government shutdown which forced NASA to cancel a...performance goals, required by the Government Performance and Results Modernization...place. Due to the length of the shutdown a teleconference will be...

2013-10-25

174

NASA Viz iPad App Expands Coverage Across Universe  

NASA Video Gallery

The NASA Visualization Explorer app has broadened its scope to include more awe-inspiring discoveries beamed back to Earth from the agency's entire fleet of satellites, spacecraft and space telescopes. Expect stories each week that cover all four fields of NASA’s science research: planetary, heliophysics, astrophysics and Earth. > Related story > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-03-12

175

Servant Leadership: How does NASA Serve the Interests of Humankind in Aerospace Exploration and the Role STEM Plays in it.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation provides a description of technology efforts illustrative of NASA Glenn Research Center Core competencies and which exemplifies how NASA serves the interest of humankind in aerospace exploration. Examples are provided as talking points t...

F. A. Miranda

2013-01-01

176

A New Paradigm for Planetary Exploration — The Mars Tumbleweed Rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Langley Research Center Mars Tumbleweed rover is a concept for a lightweight, spherical, deployable structure that captures the Martian wind for mobility to conduct distributed geophysical and meteorological surveys of broad areas on Mars.

Antol, J.; Hajos, G. A.

2012-06-01

177

Impact of the Columbia supercomputer on NASA space and exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer gained worldwide recognition in 2004 for increasing the space agency's computing capability ten-fold, and enabling U.S. scientists and engineers to perform significant, breakthrough simulations. Columbia has amply demonstrated its capability to accelerate NASA 's key missions in space operations, exploration systems, science, and aeronautics. Columbia is part of an integrated high-end computing (HEC) environment comprised of

Rupak Biswas; Dochan Kwak; Cetin Kiris; Scott Lawrence

2006-01-01

178

EXPLORING THE HABITABLE ZONE FOR KEPLER PLANETARY CANDIDATES  

SciTech Connect

This Letter outlines a simple approach to evaluate habitability of terrestrial planets by assuming different types of planetary atmospheres and using corresponding model calculations. Our approach can be applied for current and future candidates provided by the Kepler mission and other searches. The resulting uncertainties and changes in the number of planetary candidates in the HZ for the Kepler 2011 February data release are discussed. To first order, the HZ depends on the effective stellar flux distribution in wavelength and time, the planet albedo, and greenhouse gas effects. We provide a simple set of parameters which can be used for evaluating future planet candidates from transit searches.

Kaltenegger, L. [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sasselov, D., E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-08-01

179

Microwave Remote Sensing of Planetary Atmospheres: From Staelin and Barrett to the Nasa Juno Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early seminal contributions by Staelin helped initiate the field of microwave remote sensing as a key tool for the study of planetary atmospheres. Recent studies of the microwave emission from the neutral atmosphere of Venus have been used to identify the abundance and spatial distribution of microwave absorbing constituents such as sulfuric acid vapor and sulfur dioxide. A new mission

Paul G. Steffes; Bryan M. Karpowicz

2008-01-01

180

Lunar and planetary landers for human exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes characteristics of lunar and planetary landers and mission profiles. Requirements are discussed, and propulsion and aerodynamic features are described. The paper covers recent history of concepts, configuration design drivers, propulsion, aerodynamics and aeroheating as applicable, structural and launch packaging factors, a summary of mission profiles, a description of the evolution of concepts, and reasons why the evolution

Gordon Woodcock; Michael Cupples; Ben Donahue; Rob Fowler; Kauser Imtiaz; Stephen Ledoux; Jill Nordwall; Irwin Vas

1992-01-01

181

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of a change in the NASA funding cycle, the present reporting period covers only the six months from March to September 1991. Nevertheless, remarkable progress was made in a number of areas, some of the most noteworthy of which are: (1) Engineering...

K. Ramohalli J. S. Lewis

1991-01-01

182

NASA's Learning Technology Project: Developing Educational Tools for the Next Generation of Explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1996, NASA's Learning Technology has pioneered the use of innovative technology toinspire students to pursue careers in STEM(Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.) In the past this has included Web sites like Quest and the Observatorium, webcasts and distance learning courses, and even interactive television broadcasts. Our current focus is on development of several mission oriented software packages, targeted primarily at the middle-school population, but flexible enough to be used by elementary to graduate students. These products include contributions to an open source solar system simulator, a 3D planetary encyclopedia), development of a planetary surface viewer (atlas) and others. Whenever possible these software products are written to be 'open source' and multi-platform, for the widest use and easiest access for developers. Along with the software products, we are developing activities and lesson plans that are tested and used by educators in the classroom. The products are reviewed by professional educators. Together these products constitute the NASA Experential Platform for learning, in which the tools used by the public are similar (and in some respects) the same as those used by professional investigators. Efforts are now underway to incorporate actual MODIS and other real time data uplink capabilities.

Federman, A. N.; Hogan, P. J.

2003-12-01

183

The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative studies of planetary, cometary, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interaction with the Sun and solar variability. Through such studies, we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur.

R. J. Oliversen; W. M. Harris

2002-01-01

184

The Regional Planetary Image Facility Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Regional Planetary Image Facilities are data and information centers for browsing, studying, and selecting planetary data including images, maps, supporting documentation, and outreach materials.

Hagerty, J. J.; Rpif Network Node Directors; Managers

2012-03-01

185

Harsh environment microtechnologies for NASA and terrestrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tremendous progress has been made in recent years in the development of microtechnologies for use in harsh environments, these technologies are mostly in the research domain. Space exploration missions provide a rich application area for these technologies, given the diversity of interesting planetary exploration targets identified by NASA. Also, miniaturization is very important for NASA missions and many terrestrial

T. George; K. A. Son; R. A. Powers; L. Y. Del Castillo; R. Okojie

2005-01-01

186

Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector for NASA’s LRO mission: instrument concept and first data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft will be presented. This instrument can measure both the neutron emission from the lunar surface and the local neutron background in orbit. Since neutron emission from the Moon is strongly affected by the presence of hydrogen in the regolith, analysis of these data will make a significant contribution to the search for possible water bearing regions. The measurement of the lunar neutron flux will also help to determine the lunar neutron radiation environment, which is of great importance in the planning and operation of future human missions to the Moon. To provide neutron data with high spatial resolution, the instrument has four high pressure 3He proportional counters each with a Cd foil cover (CSETN1 - 4) inside four holes of the Module of Collimation (MC). The fifth collimated sensor with stilbene (organic crystal scintillator) measures high energy neutrons (SHEN). It is placed within the central hole of the MC. The collimator is constructed from polyethylene and boron isotope, 10B. The physical design is such that the collimator defines a surface footprint of 10 km diameter (FWHM) for a spacecraft mapping orbit of 50 km. To characterize the neutron environment at the spacecraft in orbit, the LEND also carries four additional 3He detectors external to MC: one sensor of epithermal neutrons (SETN) and three sensors of thermal neutrons (STN 1 - 3). The sensors STN 1 and 2 measure thermal neutrons with velocity vectors parallel and anti-parallel to the LRO flight direction and analysis of these data will be performed using the Doppler filter method for distinguishing the local background of the spacecraft from neutron emission of the Moon. The first mapping data of Moon neutron emission will be presented from observations on the commissioning orbit. Results of neutron measurements will be discussed for the representative sample of about 40 permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) around the south pole with sufficiently large areas of >100 km2. Statistics of these PSRs is enough for testing the signature of enhancement of hydrogen in the regolith of these regions in comparison with illuminated surface around them. LEND data for hydrogen content will be discussed in more details for the site of LCROSS impact in comparison with measurements by another space instruments and Earth-based observatories.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Mokrousov, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Shevchenko, V.; Shvecov, V.; Starr, R. D.; Tomlina, T.; Tretyakov, V.; Trombka, J.; Varenikov, A.; Vostrukhin, A. A.

2009-12-01

187

A Solar Electric Propulsion Cargo Vehicle to Support NASA Lunar Exploration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the President's 2004 Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, two NASA funded efforts were initiated for the development of critical propulsion technologies required for high-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) cargo vehicles. Results show that a high power SEP system is capable of delivering over twice the mass to the lunar surface as compared to a cryogenic chemical system.

Ronald Spores; Jeff Monheiser; Brian P. Dempsey; Darren Wade; Kenneth Creel; David Jacobson; Geoff Drummond

188

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under U.S. President Bush's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews fro...

J. A. Robinson D. A. Thomas

2006-01-01

189

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of ISS. We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015 2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA's Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-06-01

190

Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for NASA and DoD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and

Sarita Thakoor; Javaan Chahl; M. V. Srinivasan; L. Young; Frank Werblin; Butler Hine; Steven Zornetzer

2003-01-01

191

Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for NASA and DoD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01%% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and

Sarita Thakoor; Javaan S. Chahl; Mandyam V. Srinivasan; L. Young; Frank Werblin; Butler Hine; Steven Zornetzer

2002-01-01

192

"Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)|

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

193

New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle ...

J. P. Sumrall

2006-01-01

194

NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA): Capabilities for Planetary and Exoplanetary Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) enables high angular and spectral resolution observations with its seven first-generation instruments: 3 cameras, 3 spectrometers, and a high-speed photometer. These capabilities make SOFIA a powerful facility for advancing understanding of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres, star and planet formation processes, and chemistry of the protosolar nebula and protoplanetary disks. SOFIA's Early Science program, using the FORCAST mid-IR camera (PI Terry Herter, Cornell), the GREAT far-IR spectrometer (PI Rolf Guesten, MPIfR), and the HIPO occultation photometer (PI Ted Dunham, Lowell Observatory), is now complete. Some Early Science results were published in special issues of Ap.J.Letters (v.749) and Astronomy & Astrophysics (v.542). Regarding solar system targets, SOFIA obtained mid-IR images of Jupiter and of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 (the latter observations were part of Earth-based support for the EPOXI mission). On 23 June 2011, SOFIA intercepted the center of Pluto's shadow that crossed the Pacific at nearly 30 km/sec. The occultation light curve was observed from SOFIA simultaneously by the HIPO photometer and the Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC; PI Juergen Wolf, DSI). HIPO is specifically intended for planetary science, including stellar occultations by solar system bodies and extrasolar planet transits. HIPO can be co-mounted with the near-IR camera FLITECAM (PI Ian McLean, UCLA) to provide simultaneous photometric coverage in two bands (0.3-1 and 1-5 microns); this was first demonstrated in October 2011. At longer wavelengths SOFIA will make unique contributions to the characterization of astrochemical processes and molecular contents of planets, exoplanets, and protoplanetary disks with a mid-IR spectrometer, a far-IR imaging spectrometer, and a far-IR camera with grism that are soon to be commissioned.

Backman, Dana E.; Reach, W. T.; Dunham, E. W.; Wolf, J.; Rho, J.; SOFIA Science Team

2012-10-01

195

NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

196

75 FR 33838 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION...National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...CONTACT: Ms. Jane Parham, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-06-15

197

75 FR 15742 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION...National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces...CONTACT: Ms. Jane Parham, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2010-03-30

198

Autonomous Hopping Robotic Systems: Long Range Mobility and Extended Lifetime for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is significant potential for more mobile planetary surface science exploration vehicles. This is especially true for Mars, where the ability to cross challenging terrain, access areas of higher elevation, visit diverse geological regions and perform long traverses of up to 200 km supports the search for past water and life. Vehicles capable of a ballistic 'hop' have been proposed in the past, but proposals using in-situ acquired propellants offer the prospect of a significant step change in planetary exploration. This paper considers a mission concept termed "Mars Reconnaissance Lander". An approach is described for a mission where planetary science requirements that cannot be met by a conventional rover and are used to derive vehicle and mission requirements.

Ambrosi, R.; Williams, H. R.; Bridges, J. C.; Bannister, N. P.; Perkinson, M.-C.; Reed, J.; Peacocke, L.; Stuttard, M.; Howe, S. D.; O'Brien, R. C.; Klein, A. C.

2012-09-01

199

Slip-ratio-coordinated control of planetary exploration robots traversing over deformable rough terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheeled exploration robots are prone to slip during locomotion on deformable rough planetary terrain, which leads to loss of velocity and extra consumption of energy. Experimental results show that the power required for driving a wheel is an increasing function of its slip ratio; further, the tractive efficiency decreases rapidly after it reaches a peak value when the slip ratio

Liang Ding; Haibo Gao; Zongquan Deng; Zhen Liu

2010-01-01

200

A study of visual and tactile terrain classification and classifier fusion for planetary exploration rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical properties of terrain sur rounding a planetary exploration rover can be used to allow a rover syst em to fully exploit its mobility capabilities. Terrain classification methods provid e semantic descriptions of the physical nature of a given terrain region. These de scriptions can be associated with nominal numerical physical parameters, and\\/or nominal traversability estimates, to

Ibrahim Halatci; Christopher A. Brooks; Karl Iagnemma

2008-01-01

201

Planetary Rover Developments Supporting Mars Exploration, Sample Return and Future Human-Robotic Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview our recent research on planetary mobility. Products of this effort include the Field Inte- grated Design & Operations rover (FIDO), Sample Return Rover (SRR), reconfigurable rover units that function as an All Terrain Explorer (ATE), and a multi-Robot Work Crew of closely cooperating rovers (RWC). FIDO rover is an advanced technology prototype; its design and field testing support

Paul S. Schenker; Terrance L. Huntsberger; Paolo Pirjanian; Eric T. Baumgartner; Edward Tunstel

2003-01-01

202

Robotic Airships for Exploration of Planetary Bodies with an Atmosphere: Autonomy Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic unmanned aerial vehicles have great potential as surveying and instrument deployment platforms in the exploration of planets and moons with an atmosphere. Among the various types of planetary aerovehicles proposed, lighter-than-atmosphere (LTA) systems are of particular interest because of their extended mission duration and long traverse capabilities. In this paper, we argue that the unique characteristics of robotic airships

Alberto Elfes; Samuel S. Bueno; Marcel Bergerman; Ely C. de Paiva; José R. Azinheira

2003-01-01

203

MarsVac: Pneumatic Sampling System for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are proposing a Mars Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. Unlike prior developments that used suction to collect fines, the proposed system uses positive pressure to move the regolith. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander. Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can be opened to acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The entire MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the most recent study related to lunar excavation and funded under the NASA SBIR program we have shown that it is possible lift over 3000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas at 1atm. Tests conducted under Mars atmospheric pressure conditions (5 torr). In September of 2008, we will be performing tests at 1/6thg (Moon) and 1/3g (Mars) to determine mass lifting efficiencies in reduced gravities.

Zacny, K.; Mungas, G.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Davis, K.

2008-12-01

204

An Evaluation Study of the Effectiveness of Modeling NASA Swarm-Based Exploration Missions with ASSL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the effectiveness of using the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) to model ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology\\u000a Swarm), a NASA concept swarm-based exploration mission. In this study, we draw upon our preliminary results of modeling some\\u000a of the autonomic features of ANTS, to discuss and evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of this approach. Moreover, this\\u000a paper, which documents the results

Mike Hinchey; Emil Vassev

2008-01-01

205

New Vehicle for Planetary Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The surface of Mars is currently being explored with a combination of orbiting spacecraft, stationary landers and wheeled rovers. However, only a small portion of the Martian surface has undergone in-situ examination. Landing sites must be chosen to insur...

J. Antol

2005-01-01

206

Slope traversal controls for planetary exploration rover on sandy terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two control approaches are presented for exploration rovers traversing sandy-sloped terrain. One of the proposed controls is a model-based feed-forward control using a characteristic diagram, called a thrust-cornering characteristic diagram. It consists of various characteristic curves of wheel forces for varied wheel slip conditions. An appro- priate steering maneuver for slope traversal can be found using the

Genya Ishigami; Keiji Nagatani; Kazuya Yoshida

2009-01-01

207

Solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the

Geoffrey A. Briggs; William L. Quaide

1986-01-01

208

Science Friday: Planetary Exploration / McNeil's Nebula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides two radio broadcasts: an update on several space missions and a discussion of McNeil's Nebula. The first 33-minute broadcast discusses space missions exploring the planets in our solar system, such as Cassini in its orbit around Saturn, the twin Mars rovers, and Messenger, soon to lift off for the planet Mercury. The second, a 15-minute clip, discusses how a newborn star is shining some light on McNeil's Nebula and on the origin of our solar system.

209

Field Testing of an Integrated Surface\\/Subsurface Modeling Technique for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there has been much interest in developing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for rover-based planetary exploration, relatively little work has been done on the data collection process. Starting from the manual method, we fully automate GPR data collection using only sensors typically found on a rover. Further, we produce two novel data products: (1) a three-dimensional, photorealistic surface model coupled

Paul Timothy Furgale; Timothy D. Barfoot; Nadeem Ghafoor; Kevin Williams; Gordon Osinski

2010-01-01

210

ESRO and the Deep Space - European Planetary Exploration Planning Before ESA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s and early 1970s the United States and the Soviet Union were racing each other in the “space race” whose main arena were piloted spaceflight, and in particular Moon missions, and, to a lesser extent, planetary exploration. During the same timeframe, several European states were trying to cooperate in the scientific exploration of space and in the design of space launchers. Undaunted by many difficulties, including the late start of the European space program, at least when compared with the efforts of the US and USSR, the relative lack of “world class” planetary scientists in Europe and the fear to duplicate the results of the two superpowers, European space planners prepared several studies of deep space missions. In the end, none of the European projects came to fruition, although some of these studies paved the way for successful missions such as Giotto and Ulysses. At the same time, some European countries elected to participate to the planetary exploration programs of the superpowers, thus maturing experiences that would turn out to be useful when European deep space missions finally took off in the 1980s.

Ulivi, P.

211

News and Views: Good publicity? Astrophysicists win Kavli Prizes; Maps for the planetary explorer; Small galaxies reveal property of dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inaugural Kavli Prizes, including the Astrophysics award, were marked by a ceremony in Oslo in 9 September, celebrating international scientific success. Planetary explorers may have the equivalent of SatNav to guide them, but to avoid ending up in the space equivalent of a double-decker bus wedged under a low bridge, they need proper maps. And the topographer who is mapping exploration targets has received an Exceptional Achievement medal from NASA for the quality of his work. How big is the smallest galaxy? About 10 million solar masses, according to researchers mapping the small faint galaxies around the Milky Way. And they think that this figure might indicate something about dark matter.

2008-10-01

212

Development of a biochip dedicated to planetary exploration. First step: resistance studies to space conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For upcoming exploration missions, space agencies advocate the development of a new promising technique to search for traces of extent or extinct life: the biochip use. As space is a hazardous environment, a main concern relies on the resistance of this device to a panel of harsh constraints. Within the framework of the BiOMAS (Biochip for Organic Matter Analysis in Space) project, our team is currently developing a biochip especially designed for planetary exploration. We present here the methodology adopted and the beginning experiments to select the best constituents, to determine resistance levels and to define well-adapted protection for the biochip.

Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; Incerti, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Seznec, H.; Desorgher, L.; Santin, G.; Nieminen, P.; Dartnell, L.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Coussot, G.

2007-07-01

213

NASA reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, both ongoing and planned, are described by NASA administrative personnel from the offices of Space Science and Applications, Space Systems Development, Space Flight, Exploration, and from the Johnson Space Center. NASA's multi-year strategic plan, called Vision 21, is also discussed. It proposes to use the unique perspective of space to better

John E. Obrien; Lennard A. Fisk; Arnold A. Aldrich; Thomas E. Utsman; Michael D. Griffin; Aaron Cohen

1992-01-01

214

From the APOLLO legacy to Mars, what can the manned exploration programme bring to planetary science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned space began with the promise of setting foot on the Moon in the first decade of the space age; this was done by the APOLLO project which combined unprecedented technological innovation with space and moon science. The scientific results of APPOLO will be briefly reviewed together with the lessons to be learnt from this unique experience. In the last 34 years, manned space was limited to low earth orbit and it can be reasonably argued that the science return from continuing will be to the maximum incremental, however, the full use of the present space station could still be considered for external instrument platforms as, for example, a planetary telescope. Independently of the science objectives, the Presidential Vision in the United States and the Lisbon declaration of the European Union have led to new manned exploration programmmes returning to the Moon, going to Mars and beyond. The current status of these ambitious projects and their return for planetary science will be reviewed.

Muller, C.

215

Planetary Geosciences, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in under...

M. T. Zuber J. L. Plescia O. B. James G. Macpherson

1989-01-01

216

Explore! To the Moon and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities and resources are related to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and were developed for use by libraries. The module is part of Lunar and Planetary Institute's Explore! program.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

217

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: A Step Toward Interstellar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space. The maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program is laying the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion systems operating in the 5-10 kW range, to solar sail propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called “propellantless” because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of those propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies that will most significantly advance our exploration of deep space.

Johnson, L.; James, B.; Baggett, R.; Montgomery, E. E., IV

218

Measurements from an aerial vehicle: a new tool for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air." Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

2004-12-01

219

Engaging Students from Minority Serving Institutions Through Research Internships in NASA Space Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an ongoing partnership with NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) the MESSENGER, New Horizons and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions have hosted science, engineering and computer science undergraduate and masters students in summer internships over the past several years. These programs have proved beneficial to students, their institutions and local communities, and to the NASA missions. The first internship opportunity was a highly successful partnership between MU-SPIN and the MESSENGER program where fifteen undergraduate and masters students were placed at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory during the testing and integration of the MESSENGER spacecraft in Summer 2003. Many of these students are either in NASA related jobs or are pursuing advanced degrees. For example, of the five students from City University of New York one is an Aerospace Engineer at Wallops Flight Facility, another received her MS in Computer Science and is working for the NSF Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program. One just received her BS in Math and was accepted to the NASA Academy at Glenn Research Center while another is continuing his studies in Computer Engineering at City College of New York. The only community college student intern is now a Space Grant Fellow at Penn State, majoring in aerospace engineering. Student interns from the MESSENGER program were also involved in community outreach following their internship. Several students from South Carolina State University presented their internship experiences to local science teachers during an in-service teacher workshop on the MESSENGER mission. The second internship program took place in Summer 2005 and placed students at Goddard Space Flight Center with LRO and at JHUAPL with the New Horizons mission. LRO interns worked with individual instrument teams while New Horizons interns were engaged in environmental testing and software development for the Pluto-bound spacecraft. The majority of the interns have expressed a desire to return next summer and at least two students were given the opportunity to continue work at JHUAPL. During our presentation, we will provide the results of follow-up interviews with the mentors and interns who took part in the 2005 internship program. We will also discussed lessons learned for those who are exploring implementing similar programs at their research centers or colleges and universities.

Stockman, S. A.; Harrington, J. L.

2005-12-01

220

International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae  

PubMed Central

Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

Aller, L. H.; Keyes, C. D.

1980-01-01

221

Studying Active Galactic Nuclei with NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) launched into low-Earth orbit on 14 December 2009 and completed mapping the entire sky in four mid-infrared passbands six months later. I present criteria for selecting AGN using the full-sky WISE data. Simple mid-infrared criteria that identify ~120 robust AGN candidates per square degree at W2<17.11, nearly six times the surface density of quasars from optical surveys such as Sloan, despite both WISE and Sloan being sensitive to sources of comparable luminosity. The difference is that WISE identifies both obscured and unobscured AGN. I discuss the general properties of WISE-selected AGN using the deep data available in the COSMOS and NDWFS Bootes extragalactic fields, highlighting the inferred distribution of dust extinction in AGN.

Assef, Roberto J.; Stern, D.; WISE Extragalactic Team; AGES; MAGES

2013-01-01

222

Mars Exploration with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms

Alexey A. Pankine; Kim M. Aaron; Matthew K. Heun; Kerry T. Nock; R. Stephen Schlaifer; Andrew P. Ingersoll; Ralph D. Lorenz

2004-01-01

223

Considering the Ethical Implications of Space Exploration and Potential Impacts on Planetary Environments and Possible Indigenous Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early days of the Outer Space Treaty, a primary concern of planetary protection policy has been to avoid contamination of planetary environments by terrestrial microbes that could compromise current or subsequent scientific investigations, particularly those searching for indigenous life. Over the past decade robotic missions and astrobiological research have greatly increased our understanding of diverse planetary landscapes and altered our views about the survivability of terrestrial organisms in extreme environments. They have also expanded notions about the prospect for finding evidence of extraterrestrial life. Recently a number of different groups, including the COSPAR Planetary Protection Workshop in Montreal (January 2008), have questioned whether it is advisable to re-examine current biological planetary protection policy in light of the ethical implications and responsibilities to preserve planetary environments and possible indigenous life. This paper discusses the issues and concerns that have led to recent recommendations for convening an international workshop specifically to discuss planetary protection policy and practices within a broader ethical and practical framework, and to consider whether revisions to policy and practices should be made. In addition to including various international scientific and legal organizations and experts in such a workshop, it will be important to find ways to involve the public in these discussions about ethical aspects of planetary exploration.

Race, Margaret

224

Evaluation of dual multi-mission space exploration vehicle operations during simulated planetary surface exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pair of small pressurized rovers (multi-mission space exploration vehicles, or MMSEVs) is at the center of the Global Point-of-Departure architecture for future human lunar exploration. Simultaneous operation of multiple crewed surface assets should maximize productive crew time, minimize overhead, and preserve contingency return paths.

Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jadwick, Jennifer

2013-10-01

225

Driving Directions to the Exploration Center at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

226

The Case of the Great Space Exploration: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2004-09-12-LARC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files" episode "The Case of the Great Space Exploration," the tree house detectives learn about NASA's new vision for exploring space. In four segments aimed at grades 3-5, students learn about a variety of aspects of space exploration. Each segment of the guide includes an overview, a set of objectives,…

Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

2004-01-01

227

An update on the NASA Planetary Science Division R&A Program: Historical trends, ROSES 2012 statistics, and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will provide historical trends of the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) awards for the Planetary Science Division’s R&A program, including a detailed analysis of the 2012 call selections (and lessons learned). An overview of the submission process via NSPIRES will be provided, as well as an overview of the review process and information on how to volunteer for review panels (via the SARA site). Additional details will be provided on the Cassini Data Analysis Program (CDAPS) and Origins of Solar System Program (SSO, Planetary Science Division), for which Dr. Richey is the Program Officer.

Richey, Christina

2013-10-01

228

Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations team the opportunity to gain insight into functional hardware requirements via lessons learned from executing the Desert RATS field test missions. This paper will detail the mission control team structure that was used during the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS Lunar analog missions. It will also present a number of the lessons learned by the operations team during these field tests. Major lessons learned involved Mission Control Center (MCC) operations, pre-mission planning and training processes, procedure requirements, communication requirements, and logistic support for analogs. This knowledge will be applied to future Desert RATS field tests, and other Earth based analog testing for space exploration, to continue the evolution of manned space operations in preparation for human planetary exploration. It is important that operational knowledge for human space exploration missions be obtained during Earth-bound field tests to the greatest extent possible. This allows operations personnel the ability to examine various flight control and crew operations scenarios in preparation for actual space missions.

Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

2013-10-01

229

Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX), a high-accuracy linear spectropolarimeter measuring from 400 to 800 nm (with 2 nm intensity resolution), that is compact (~ 1 liter), robust and lightweight. This is achieved by employing the unconventional spectral polarization modulation technique, optimized for linear polarimetry. The polarization modulator consists of an achromatic quarter-wave retarder and a multiple-order retarder, followed by a polarizing beamsplitter, such that the incoming polarization state is encoded as a sinusoidal modulation in the intensity spectrum, where the amplitude scales with the degree of linear polarization, and the phase is determined by the angle of linear polarization. An optimized combination of birefringent crystals creates an athermal multiple-order retarder, with a uniform retardance across the field of view. Based on these specifications, SPEX is an ideal, passive remote sensing instrument for characterizing planetary atmospheres from an orbiting, air-borne or ground-based platform. By measuring the intensity and polarization spectra of sunlight that is scattered in the planetary atmosphere as a function of the single scattering angle, aerosol microphysical properties (size, shape, composition), vertical distribution and optical thickness can be derived. Such information is essential to fully understand the climate of a planet. A functional SPEX prototype has been developed and calibrated, showing excellent agreement with end-to-end performance simulations. Calibration tests show that the precision of the polarization measurements is at least 2 • 10-4. We performed multi-angle spectropolarimetric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from the ground in conjunction with one of AERONET's sun photometers. Several applications exist for SPEX throughout the solar system, a.o. in orbit around Mars, Jupiter and the Earth, and SPEX can also be part of a ground-based aerosol monitoring network.

van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H. H.; Smit, J. Martijn; de Boer, Jozua; Diamantopoulou, Renia; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Stam, Daphne M.; Keller, Christoph U.; Laan, Erik C.; Verlaan, Ad L.; Vliegenthart, Willem A.; Ter Horst, Rik; Navarro, Ramón; Wielinga, Klaas; Hannemann, Sandro; Moon, Scott G.; Voors, Robert

2011-09-01

230

Using Participatory Exploration to Engage Classrooms in STEM Learning: A Case Study Using NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Mars Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program have partnered with Mars mission teams and Mars Principal Investigator Dr. Phil Christensen to develop and promote an ongoing STEM-based opportunity for students to become active participants in the exploration of the Red Planet. The Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) has, since 2002, given over 15,000 students from grades 5

S. L. Klug; P. R. Christensen; P. Graff; M. Viotti; C. Bowman

2010-01-01

231

Planetary Ionospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper presents a summary of the lectures on planetary ionospheres given at NASA’s 1st Asia Pacific School on International Heliophysical Year conducted at Indian Institute of Astrophysics,\\u000a Kodaikanal, India during 10–22 December 2007. Following an introduction, the paper describes the structure of the ionospheres,\\u000a theory of Earth’s ionosphere including the effects of diffusion, neutral wind and electric field, and

Nanan Balan

2010-01-01

232

Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (?, n) reactions between the ? particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious ? disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

Arias, F. J.

233

Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

2008-01-01

234

A micro seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer technology for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter describes an implementation of micromachined seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET) technology. As opposed to a solid inertial mass, MET seismometer senses the movement of liquid electrolyte relative to fixed electrodes. The employment of micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques reduces the internal size of the sensing cell to 1?m and improves the reproducibility of the device. For operating bias of 600 mV, a sensitivity of 809 V/(m/s2) was measured under acceleration of 400?g(g?9.81m/s2) at 0.32 Hz. A -115 dB (relative to (m/s2)/Hz) noise level at 1 Hz was achieved. This work develops an alternative paradigm of seismic sensing device with small size, high sensitivity, low noise floor, high shock tolerance, and independence of installation angle, which is promising for next generation seismometers for planetary exploration.

Huang, Hai; Carande, Bryce; Tang, Rui; Oiler, Jonathan; Zaitsev, Dmitri; Agafonov, Vadim; Yu, Hongyu

2013-05-01

235

Study of a thermal drill head for the exploration of subsurface planetary ice layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently discovered water vapor plumes on Saturn's moon Enceladus, the polar caps of planet Mars and the possible ice volcanism on the Jovian satellites call for suitable techniques to explore deep ice layers of the solar system bodies. This paper presents a novel approach to deliver scientific probes into deeper layers of planetary ice. Several existing locomotion concepts and techniques for such probes are presented. After studying the mathematical framework of the melting locomotion process, melting tests with different head forms were done to evaluate the influence of the head's geometry on the melting process. This work led to a novel concept of a thermal drill head, using heat and mechanical drill in combination to penetrate the ice. We compare the performance of such a hybrid concept versus the melting penetration alone by a mathematical model and tests in ice with a prototype of the melting drill head.

Weiss, P.; Yung, K. L.; Ng, T. C.; Kömle, N.; Kargl, G.; Kaufmann, E.

2008-07-01

236

NASA Mission: The Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

237

NASA's Interstellar Probe Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sending a spacecraft beyond the heliopause to begin the exploration of our local galactic neighborhood will be one of the grand scientific enterprises of the next century. NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. In the mission concept developed in 1999 by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ~15 AU/year. The principal objectives of the Interstellar Probe mission would be to (1) explore the nature of the ISM and its implications for the origin and evolution of matter in our galaxy and the universe; (2) explore the influence of the ISM on the solar system and its dynamics and evolution; (3) explore the impact of the solar system on the ISM as an example of a stellar system with its environment; and (4) explore the outer solar system in search of clues to its origin and to the nature of other planetary systems. To achieve these broad, interdisciplinary objectives, Interstellar Probe will include a suite of advanced, low-power instruments designed to measure the detailed properties of the plasma, neutral atoms, energetic particles, magnetic fields, and dust in the outer heliosphere and nearby ISM. This talk will summarizes the conceptual mission design and the technological challenges presented by this ambitious mission.

Liewer, P. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.

2002-05-01

238

Validation of the measuring condition for a planetary subsurface explorer robot that uses peristaltic crawling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface exploration is required to obtain resources such as oil and minerals, and to construct buildings and houses. It would also be necessary in any future expansion of human activity on the Moon or other planets. We have developed a small unmanned planetary subsurface explorer suitable for nascent stages of exploration. The subsurface excavator consists of both propulsion and excavation units, and its movements are based on those of an actual earthworm. The prototype excavator showed good performance in excavation experiments, and it could excavate at the same depth as in its own weight in the case of an excavator that is 1/6th of its own weight using counterweights. It was difficult to obtain and evaluate an underground environment and the right condition for an excavator in the excavation process. Therefore, we improved a propulsion unit equipped with sensors to detect the pushing force in a radial direction and then performed excavation experiments using the improved excavator from a launcher. We discuss data obtained from sensors, the excavation depth and motor torque. Our excavator showed good performance.

Omori, H.; Murakami, T.; Nagai, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kubota, T.

239

NASA Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Images was created through a partnership between NASA and the Internet Archive, a non-profit digital library based in San Francisco, to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The site contains everything from classic photos to educational programming and HD video, and is growing all the time as its creators continue to gain both new and archived media from all of NASA's centers. This effort aimes to promote education and facilitate scholarship in math and the sciences at all levels, and to build general interest and excitement around space exploration, aeronautics, and astronomy.

2009-01-01

240

Ethical Considerations and Planetary Protection for Future Space Exploration - Starting with the Basics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As COSPAR scientists deliberate what types of frameworks and policy approaches may be applicable to future activities by various sectors in space exploration, it also needs to consider the challenging question of what ethical values and foundations should be used in dealing with life, objects and activities in outer space. A 2010 COSPAR Workshop Report on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration recommended that it is appropriate to maintain the existing PP policy aimed at scientific concerns even as we begin to explore various practical approaches to future contamination avoidance policies. It is also appropriate to examine in parallel the ethical considerations applicable to potential indigenous extraterrestrial life, non-living extraterrestrial features and environments, and planned uses and activities involving diverse life from Earth. Since numerous sectors have begun to propose activities raising varied ethical concerns (e.g., protection and management on the moon, strip mining, space synthetic biology, space code of conduct, and commercial space transport), it is timely to initiate serious international discussions about the appropriate ethical foundations and questions applicable to future space exploration. Plans are underway for convening interdisciplinary work groups to explore and deliberate on the values (e.g., intrinsic and instrumental) and ethical foundations that are appropriate for use in deliberations involving potential indigenous extraterrestrial life and the different classes of target objects and environments in our solar system. More than ever, information on bioethics, environmental ethics and geoethics will provide helpful guidance and foundational approaches of relevance to future policy deliberations that seek to go beyond science protection per se.

Race, Margaret

2012-07-01

241

Antarctic Exploration Parallels for Future Human Planetary Exploration: Science Operations Lessons Learned, Planning, and Equipment Capabilities for Long Range, Long Duration Traverses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose for this workshop can be summed up by the question: Are there relevant analogs to planetary (meaning the Moon and Mars) to be found in polar exploration on Earth. The answer in my opinion is yes or else there would be no reason for this worksh...

S. J. Hoffman

2012-01-01

242

Nasa Supported Research Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the scientific NASA grants and achievements accomplished by the University of California, Los Angles, is presented. The development of planetary and space sciences as a major curriculum of the University, and statistical data on graduate prog...

W. F. Libby

1975-01-01

243

Planetary Surface Exploration Using Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy on Rovers and Landers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary surface exploration using laser spectroscopy has become increasingly relevant as these techniques become a reality on Mars surface missions. The ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is currently using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on a mast-mounted platform to measure elemental composition of target rocks. The RLS Raman Spectrometer is included on the payload for the ExoMars mission to be launched in 2018 and will identify minerals and organics on the Martian surface. We present a next-generation instrument that builds on these widely used techniques to provide a means for performing both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS in conjunction with microscopic imaging. Microscopic Raman spectroscopy with a laser spot size smaller than the grains of interest can provide surface mapping of mineralogy while preserving morphology. A very small laser spot size (~ 1 µm) is often necessary to identify minor phases that are often of greater interest than the matrix phases. In addition to the difficulties that can be posed by fine-grained material, fluorescence interference from the very same material is often problematic. This is particularly true for many of the minerals of interest that form in environments of aqueous alteration and can be highly fluorescent. We use time-resolved laser spectroscopy to eliminate fluorescence interference that can often make it difficult or impossible to obtain Raman spectra. As an added benefit, we have found that with small changes in operating parameters we can include microscopic LIBS using the same hardware. This new technique relies on sub-ns, high rep-rate lasers with relatively low pulse energy and compact solid state detectors with sub-ns time resolution. The detector technology that makes this instrument possible is a newly developed Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The use of this solid state time-resolved detector offers a significant reduction in size, weight, power, and overall complexity - making time resolved detection feasible for planetary applications. We will discuss significant advances leading to the feasibility of a compact time-resolved spectrometer. We will present results on planetary analog minerals to demonstrate the instrument performance including fluorescence rejection and combined Raman-LIBS capability.

Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, Erik; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; Rossman, George

2013-04-01

244

Impact of the Columbia Supercomputer on NASA Space and Exploration Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer gained worldwide recognition in 2004 for increasing the space agency's computing capability ten-fold, and enabling U.S. scientists and engineers to perform significant, breakthrough simulations. Columbia has ...

R. Biswas D. Kwak C. Kiris S. Lawrence

2006-01-01

245

The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships of several overlapping flows in a limited area and also shows the challenge of exploring expansive (100-1000’s square kilometers) volcanic terrains on other planets. The Zuni-Bandera field represents one style of geologic processes (volcanic field development) and in essence is an “end-member” of volcanic field analogs. Results from these studies must be considered with comparable results from other geologic terrains to better represent the complexities of exploring other planetary surfaces.

Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.

2010-12-01

246

Astrobiological and Planetary Exploration Implications of Microbial Ichnofossils in Terrestrial Basaltic Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated that terrestrial basaltic glass in pillow rims and hyaloclastites are suitable microbial habitats. Microbes rapidly begin colonizing the glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks that have been exposed to water. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass leads to the alteration and modification of the rocks to produce characteristic granular and/or tubular bioalteration textures. The early precipitation of sub-micron titanite grains within the biologically etched alteration structures serves as an agent for preservation that may persist for geologically extended periods of time in the absence of later penetrative deformation. These microbial alteration structures have been observed in several Archean greenstone belts including the Abitibi greenstone belt (2.7 Ga), Pilbara craton (3.35 Ga), and the Barberton greenstone belt (3.5 Ga). Archean subaqueous volcanic rocks provide an excellent analogue for a potential habitat for possible early Martian life, given that basaltic rocks are a major component of the Martian crust. A wide variety of recent evidence strongly suggests the long-term existence of abundant liquid water on ancient Mars. Recent orbiter, lander, and rover missions have found evidence for the presence of transient liquid water on Mars, perhaps persisting to the present day. Beyond Mars, other solar system bodies, notably Europa, Enceladus, and other icy satellites, may well host subaqueous basaltic glasses. We will explore the implications of the newly discovered geological record of basaltic glass bioalteration and basaltic glass as a microbial habitat for planetary exploration and astrobiology.

Bridge, N. J.; Izawa, M. M.; Banerjee, N. R.; Flemming, R. L.; Schultz, C.

2009-05-01

247

IYA2009 NASA Programs: Midyear Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) celebration of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 was kicked off in January 2009 with a sneak preview of a multi-wavelength image of M101, and of other images from NASA's space science missions. Since then some of the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics, which has been given an IYA2009 flavor, has been made available to students, educators and the public worldwide. Some examples of the progress of NASA's programs are presented. The Visions of the Universe traveling exhibit of NASA images to public libraries around the country has been a spectacular success and is being extended to include more libraries. NASA IYA Student Ambassadors met at summer workshop and presented their projects. NASA's Afterschool Universe has provided IYA training to community-based organizations, while pre-launch teacher workshops associated with the Kepler and WISE missions have been designed to engage educators in the science of these missions. IYA activities have been associated with several missions launched this year. These include the Hubble Servicing Mission 4, Kepler, Herschel/Planck, and LCROSS. The NASA IYA website continues to be popular, getting visitors spanning a wide spectrum. NASA's IYA programs have captured the imagination of the public and continue to keep it engaged in the scientific exploration of the universe.

Hasan, H.; Smith, D. A.

2010-08-01

248

(Nearly) Seven Years on Mars: Adventure, Adversity, and Achievements with the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA successfully landed twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, on Mars in January 2004, in the most ambitious mission of robotic exploration attempted to that time. Each rover is outfitted as a robot field geologist with an impressive array of scientific instruments--cameras, spectrometers, other sensors--designed to investigate the composition and geologic history of two distinctly-different landing sites. The sites were chosen

J. F. Bell

2010-01-01

249

Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Life at the Extreme" is an education and public outreach (E/PO) project that engaged teachers and 4-12th grade students (an in part, Prek-3rd grade students) in an internet-based, virtual expedition with scientists as they conducted experiments in a unique planetary analog environment in the Bolivian High-Andes at nearly 6,000 m (~20,000ft). Through high altitude diving and sampling, they explored the Licancabur volcano summit lake, which is one of the closest analogs to ancient lakes on Mars. Their goal was to characterize the environment and to study the defense strategies of life against extreme physical conditions in order to understand the biological potential of Mars and prepare future planetary missions. This "virtual field" was in the form of an interactive web site, live interactive discussions, a live video webcast with the San Francisco Exploratorium, and videotapes. Through this medium, about 2,700 students, 90 schools and teachers were able to directly participate and extend their knowledge of scientific processes as they explored an extreme and unique terrestrial environment. In the weeks leading up to the expedition, and during in-the-field activities, students were able to communicate with scientists as they prepared for and conducted scientific investigations. The general public could follow the expedition as well on the web. Overall, the website received ~70,000 hits from all over the world during the time of the expedition. Allowing this access to scientists as they performed their investigations proved invaluable as students understood the implications of scientific work. The broader impact of this experience provided ground work for other educational institutions to conduct similar activities with leading scientists and bridge the gap that often exists between scientists and education. The project was conducted in partnership with the NASA's Ames Research Center's expedition to the Licancabur volcano, located on the border between Chile and Bolivia and is the location of one of the least explored lakes in the world. K-12 educators played a key roll in the development and implementation of curriculum for this project. In 2002, a teacher accompanied the scientific team to the summit to document their research for the benefit of all k-12 educators both as the exploration occurs and as an ongoing educational enquiry. The virtual field experience was funded through an IDEAS (The Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science) grant. The 2002-03, and 2003-04 virtual field experience can be found at: http://www.extremeenvironment.com.

Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

2004-12-01

250

Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Heights Derived From NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Data Acquired During TexAQS/GoMACCS, CHAPS, and MILAGRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B-200 King Air aircraft in the Mexico City metropolitan area during the Mega-city Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March 2006; in the Houston metropolitan area during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) in August and September 2006; and in the Oklahoma City area during Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) in June 2007. The HSRL instrument measures profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter and depolarization. The height of the Planetary Boundary Layer was derived by identifying sharp gradients in the HSRL 532-nm aerosol backscatter signal profiles using an automated technique based on Brooks (2003) [I.M. Brooks, Finding Boundary Layer Top: Application of Wavelet Covariance Transform to Lidar Backscatter Profiles. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 20, 1092-1105, 2003]. The technique uses a Haar wavelet covariance transform with multiple wavelet dilation values to adapt to non-ideal conditions where there can be gradients in the background signals and the boundary layer can be ill defined. The technique also identifies the top and bottom of the transition (i.e. entrainment) zone. We have further modified the algorithm to find PBL heights using HSRL backscatter data acquired during GoMACCS and MILAGRO, where complex terrain and overlying aerosol layers further complicate identifying the boundary layer. In addition, PBL heights are derived from HSRL backscatter data acquired during the CHAPS campaign, in another urban environment where the terrain is not as complex. We will describe the algorithm modifications we have made and show boundary layer heights and transition zone thicknesses for HSRL measurements over the Oklahoma City, Houston, and Mexico City areas during CHAPS, TexAQS/GoMACCS, and MILAGRO.

Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R. R.

2007-12-01

251

NASA Kepler Curriculum Products Via FOSS, GEMS, And HOU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Kepler EPO is contributing to the creation of three major curriculum projects: Full Option Science System (FOSS) - Planetary Science Units for middle school Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) - Space Science Sequences for grades 3-5 and for grades 6-8 Hands-On Universe (HOU) high school curriculum, A Changing Cosmos. Both the GEMS and the FOSS units

Alan Gould

2008-01-01

252

NASA telerobotics technology highlights  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s (NASA`s) Telerobotics Program, part of the over-all research program of the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT), is to develop the technology in space-borne systems that enables new space tasks in Earth-orbiting satellite and platform servicing; robotic tending of science payloads and instruments; and planetary surface exploration, scientific sampling, and in situ analysis. Our objective is that by 2004, 50% of the extra-vehicular activity (EVA)-required operations on orbit and on planetary surfaces may be conducted via remote operation. The technologies developed for space have important dual uses for commercial areas such as medical robotics, agriculture, and subsea welding; this synergy is being actively encouraged. Moreover, mutually reciprocal collaboration with international partners (e.g., Japan and Russia) has received increasing attention. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some of the ongoing program activities, which are described briefly.

Weisbin, C.R.; Lavery, D.

1994-12-31

253

Calibration of carbonate composition using micro-Raman analysis: application to planetary surface exploration.  

PubMed

Stromatolite structures in Early Archean carbonate deposits form an important clue for the existence of life in the earliest part of Earth's history. Since Mars is thought to have had similar environmental conditions early in its history, the question arises as to whether such stromatolite structures also evolved there. Here, we explore the capability of Raman spectroscopy to make semiquantitative estimates of solid solutions in the Ca-Mg-Fe(+Mn) carbonate system, and we assess its use as a rover-based technique for stromatolite characterization during future Mars missions. Raman microspectroscopy analysis was performed on a set of carbonate standards (calcite, ankerite, dolomite, siderite, and magnesite) of known composition. We show that Raman band shifts of siderite-magnesite and ankerite-dolomite solid solutions display a well-defined positive correlation (r(2) > 0.9) with the Mg# = 100 x Mg/(Mg + Fe + Mn + Ca) of the carbonate analyzed. Raman shifts calibrated as a function of Mg# were used in turn to evaluate the chemical composition of carbonates. Raman analysis of a suite of carbonates (siderite, sidero-magnesite, ankerite, and dolomite) of hydrothermal and sedimentary origin from the ca. 3.2 Ga old Barite Syncline, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, and from the ca. 3.5 Ga old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, show good compositional agreement with electron microprobe analyses. These results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can provide direct information on the composition and structure of carbonates on planetary surfaces. PMID:20446870

Rividi, Nicolas; van Zuilen, Mark; Philippot, Pascal; Ménez, Bénédicte; Godard, Gaston; Poidatz, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

254

Estimation of subsurface dielectric target depth for GPR planetary exploration: Laboratory measurements and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the accuracy of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the detection of subsurface targets for planetary exploration, a laboratory scale experiment is performed based on a 'sand box' setup using two different bistatic GPR commercial instruments. Specific attention is paid to the challenging case of buried dielectric scatterers whose location and dimensions are of the same order of magnitude of the GPR antenna separation and signal wavelengths. The target depth is evaluated by using the wave propagation velocity measured with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). By means of a proper modeling of the different wave-propagation contributions to the gathered signal, the position of buried targets is correctly estimated with both GPRs even for rather shallow and small-size scatterers in near-field conditions. In this frame, relevant results for a basalt block buried in a silica soil are discussed. The experimental configuration is also simulated with an ad-hoc numerical code, whose synthetic radar sections fully confirm the measured results. The acquired information is of paramount importance for the analysis of various scenarios involving GPR on-site application in future space missions.

Lauro, Sebastian Emanuel; Mattei, Elisabetta; Barone, Pier Matteo; Pettinelli, Elena; Vannaroni, Giuliano; Valerio, Guido; Comite, Davide; Galli, Alessandro

2013-06-01

255

Compact Neutron Generators for Medical Home Land Security andPlanetary Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

Reijonen, J.

2005-05-11

256

Calibration of Carbonate Composition Using Micro-Raman Analysis: Application to Planetary Surface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromatolite structures in Early Archean carbonate deposits form an important clue for the existence of life in the earliest part of Earth's history. Since Mars is thought to have had similar environmental conditions early in its history, the question arises as to whether such stromatolite structures also evolved there. Here, we explore the capability of Raman spectroscopy to make semiquantitative estimates of solid solutions in the Ca-Mg-Fe(+Mn) carbonate system, and we assess its use as a rover-based technique for stromatolite characterization during future Mars missions. Raman microspectroscopy analysis was performed on a set of carbonate standards (calcite, ankerite, dolomite, siderite, and magnesite) of known composition. We show that Raman band shifts of siderite-magnesite and ankerite-dolomite solid solutions display a well-defined positive correlation (r2 > 0.9) with the Mg# = 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe + Mn + Ca) of the carbonate analyzed. Raman shifts calibrated as a function of Mg# were used in turn to evaluate the chemical composition of carbonates. Raman analysis of a suite of carbonates (siderite, sidero-magnesite, ankerite, and dolomite) of hydrothermal and sedimentary origin from the ca. 3.2 Ga old Barite Syncline, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, and from the ca. 3.5 Ga old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, show good compositional agreement with electron microprobe analyses. These results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can provide direct information on the composition and structure of carbonates on planetary surfaces.

Rividi, Nicolas; van Zuilen, Mark; Philippot, Pascal; Ménez, Bénédicte; Godard, Gaston; Poidatz, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

257

Nanobiomimetic Active Shape Control - Fluidic and Swarm-Intelligence Embodiments for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts of Active Shape Control ( ASC ) and of Generalized Quantum Holography ( GQH ), respectively embodying a closer approach to biomimicry than the current macrophysics-based attempts at bioinspired robotic systems, and realizing a non-connectionistic, life-like kind of information processing that allows increasingly depths of mimicking of the biological structure-function solidarity, which have been formulated in physical terms in previous papers, are here further investigated for application to bioinspired flying or swimming robots for planetary exploration. It is shown that nano-to-micro integration would give the deepest level of biomimicry, and that both low and very low Reynolds number ( Re ) fluidics would involve GQH and Fiber Bundle Topology ( FBT ) for processing information at the various levels of ASC bioinspired robotics. While very low Re flows lend themselves to geometrization of microrobot dynamics and to FBT design, the general design problem is geometrized through GQH , i.e. made independent of dynamic considerations, thus allowing possible problems of semantic dyscrasias in highly complex hierarchical dynamical chains of sensing information processing actuating to be overcome. A roadmap to near- and medium-term nanostructured and nano-to-micro integration realizations is suggested.

Santoli, S.

258

NASA's Learning Technology Project: Developing Educational Tools for the Next Generation of Explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, NASA's Learning Technology has pioneered the use of innovative technology toinspire students to pursue careers in STEM(Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.) In the past this has included Web sites like Quest and the Observatorium, webcasts and distance learning courses, and even interactive television broadcasts. Our current focus is on development of several mission oriented software packages, targeted primarily

A. N. Federman; P. J. Hogan

2003-01-01

259

Extending the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model to Explore Mars’ Middle Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) upper boundary has been extended to ~120 km altitude (p ~10-5 mbar). The extension of the MGCM upper boundary initiates the ability to understand the connection between the lower and upper atmosphere of Mars through the middle atmosphere 70 - 120 km). Moreover, it provides the opportunity to support future missions (i.e. the 2013 MAVEN mission). A major factor in this extension is the incorporation of the Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) heating (visible) and cooling (infrared). This modification to the radiative transfer forcing (i.e., RT code) has been significantly tested in a 1D vertical column and now has been ported to the full 3D Mars GCM. Initial results clearly show the effects of NLTE in the upper middle atmosphere. Diagnostic of seasonal mean fields and large-scale wave activity will be shown with insight into circulation patterns in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, sensitivity tests with the resolution of the pressure and temperature grids, in which the k-coefficients are calculated upon, have been performed in the 1D RT code. Our progress on this research will be presented. Brecht is supported by NASA’s Postdoctoral Program at the Ames Research Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

Brecht, Amanda; Hollingsworth, J.; Kahre, M.; Schaeffer, J.

2013-10-01

260

NASA Science For Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Science Education Program creates products using NASA's results in Earth Science, Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics research. The program sponsors educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education to provide opportunities for learners to investigate their world and their universe using unique NASA resources. There are links to a number of related education projects and workshops, and a solar system ambassadors program.

261

Perspectives on exploration - From the scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status evaluation of NASA space and planetary exploration activities notes that the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) must seek its funding on the basis of realistic scientific aims and schedules for their implementation. The robotic elements of the Initiative must be especially carefully integrated into the program so that it may furnish vital support for the manned exploration element.

Marc S. Allen

1992-01-01

262

78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting...a meeting of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations...with respect to the research activities within the Human Exploration and...

2013-04-05

263

Student Planetary Investigators: Students Exploring the Moon Through Mini-RF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Student Planetary Investigator Program was created by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department EPO office, where teams of high school students analyze data from the Moon through the Mini-RF insturment.

Grigsby, B.; Turney, D.; Patterson, W.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Neish, C.; Spudis, P.; Beisser, K.

2012-03-01

264

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid

Art B. Chmielewski; Jon S. Pyle

1991-01-01

265

Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

266

Photo-realistic Terrain Modeling and Visualization for Mars Exploration Rover Science Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern NASA planetary exploration missions employ complex systems of hardware and software managed by large teams of engineers and scientists in order to study remote environments. The most complex and successful of these recent projects is the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The Computational Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center delivered a 3D visualization program, Viz, to the MER mission

Laurence Edwards; Michael Sims; Clayton Kunz; David Lees; Judd Bowman

2005-01-01

267

A Two-Stream Model for the Mars Exploration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Exploration Program represents an unprecedented opportunity to study and explore a planet and an environment beyond our own. While this opportunity represents the most important development in planetary exploration since the initial robotic survey of the Solar System, it presents organizational and architectural challenges that have simply not been faced in the NASA robotic exploration endeavor to date.

M. I. Richardson; I. J. McEwan; A. R. Vasavada

2000-01-01

268

Bringing Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration to Underrepresented and Underutilized Student Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reach the nation's best talent and brainpower, NASA must inform and inspire all populations including those that have been underutilized and underserved in the past, such as females, African-Americans and Native Americans.

Levine, A. S.

2007-03-01

269

Planetary Science Resource Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) is an educational site sharing the latest research on meteorites, planets, and other solar system bodies being made by NASA-sponsored scientists. The web site is supported by the Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and by Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium. The site features useful links related to planetary and space sciences. Links to internal pages as well as other sites are searchable by topic. The site also includes a glossary.

Taylor, G. J.; Martel, Linda M.; Planetary Science Research Discoveries, University O.

270

Comparing Apollo and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Operations Paradigms for Human Exploration During NASA Desert-RATS Science Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare results from Desert-RATS field tests that utilize models based on science conducted for Apollo (integrated science backroom) and the Mars Exploration Rovers (science backroom split into tactical and strategic tasks).

Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Ming, D. W.; Eppler, D. B.

2011-03-01

271

NASA Google+ Hangouts  

NASA Website

Hangout with NASA on Google+ to get a unique perspective on America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.

272

NASA International Environmental Partnerships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the In...

P. Lewis S. Valek

2010-01-01

273

today@nasa.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today@nasa.gov, contains the latest information and news releases from NASA missions. Visitors can also find out information about NASA's four strategic enterprises: Aeronautics, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Mission to Planet Earth, and Space Science. NASA related sites describe current happenings at NASA and also provide homepages of NASA missions including the Cassini space probe, the Mars Global Surveyor and, most recently, the launch of the Columbia space shuttle. Space exploration provides clues to how the solar system was formed, why life exists on earth and not on other known planets, and what the structures of the universe, matter, and energy are.

1998-01-01

274

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid drop radiator experiment. The following experiments are currently in the experiment definition phase: an integrated two-phase thermal experiment, an electrolysis performance experiment, and a sodium sulfur battery experiment. Three In-STEP experiments are entering the hardware fabrication phase: thermal energy storage technology, solar array module plasma interaction, and heat pipe performance experiments. Each of these experiments is described, with an emphasis on the benefits of technology validation.

Chmielewski, Art B.; Pyle, Jon S.

275

Evolutionary Strategy for the Use of Nuclear Electric Propulsion in Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract. Given the recent advancements in power generation, waste heat rejection systems and electric propulsion, a reassessment of the benefits of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) is provided. Six different planetary missions are evaluated: a Pluto rendezvous, a Europa rendezvous, a TitadSaturn sample return, a Europa sample return, a fast Mars piloted mission and a fast Neptune piloted mission. These

Muriel Noca; James E. Polk; Roger Lenard

276

Planetary protection, sample return missions and Mars exploration: History, status, and future needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the prospect grows for a Mars sample return mission early in the next millennium, it will be important to ensure that appropriate planetary protection (PP) controls are incorporated into the mission design and implementation from the start. The need for these pp controls is firmly based on scientific considerations and backed by a number of national and international agreements

Donald L. DeVincenzi; Margaret S. Race; Harold P. Klein

1998-01-01

277

Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

2013-10-01

278

NASA Now Minute: Model Aircraft  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, Sam James discusses why NASA engineers build model aircraft as well as the materials and steps involved in the building process. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-05-29

279

77 FR 6825 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Crew Vehicle, Ground System Development and Operations Exploration Technology Development International Space Station and Robotics Status of Commercial Crew/Cargo The meeting will be open to the public up to the seating capacity of the room. This...

2012-02-09

280

Far Travelers: The Exploring Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program of lunar and planetary exploration produced a flood of scientific information about the moon, planets and the environment of interplanetary space. This book is an account of the people, machines, and the events of this scientific enterprise. It is a story of organizations,…

Nicks, Oran W.

281

OPPORTUNITIES IN SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Office of Space Science launches several space missions a year and is always looking for technology development that will enable return of new and interesting data. The Division of Solar System Exploration has several technology development programs that solicit proposals for new or improved instruments, including thermal detectors. The Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program solicits ideas for low

Susan M. Niebur

282

NASA's Formulation of Two Multiple Spacecraft Missions To Explore the Ionosphere and Thermosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has formulated two ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) spacecraft missions to solve major unresolved I-T problems. These missions are the three or four spacecraft Geospace Electrodynamic Connections (GEC) mission and NASA's Living with a Star Program's two spacecraft Ionosphere-Thermosphere Storm Probes (I-TSP) mission. The spacecraft on these missions will measure in situ all of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere properties, including densities, temperatures and the ion and neutral velocities, needed to understand the local state and dynamics of the system. The two I-TSP spacecraft will focus on the middle latitudes. The goal of I-TSP is to understand the physics of communications-affecting ionospheric structures. On the other hand, the multiple spacecraft of GEC will also carry electric field and energetic charged particle instruments to measure the magnetospheric energy inputs and carry sufficient propulsion to make several weeklong deep-dipping campaigns to below 150 km. GEC's objective is to resolve how the ionosphere-thermosphere system responds to magnetospheric energy inputs and how in turn it feeds back on the magnetosphere. There has been a dearth of missions to this upper regime of our atmosphere and these two planned missions would provide the means to finally resolve key space weather and compelling science problems.

Grebowsky, J.; Sibeck, D.

2009-06-01

283

Melting probes as a means to explore planetary glaciers and ice caps  

Microsoft Academic Search

On many planetary bodies thick layers of frozen volatiles cover the surface. Examples are: The polar ice caps of Earth and Mars, consisting of H2O-ice and an mixture of H2O- and CO2-ice, respectively; Neptune's satellite Triton, whose polar areas are composed of nitrogen (N2)-ice, and the icy satellites of Jupiter (in particular Europa), which most probably host liquid layers below

N. I. Kömle; G. Kargl; M. Steller

2002-01-01

284

Implementing planetary protection requirements for sample return missions.  

PubMed

NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding the biological contamination of other solar system bodies and protecting the Earth against potential harm from materials returned from space. NASA's planetary protection program evaluates missions (with external advice from the US National Research Council and others) and imposes particular constraints on individual missions to achieve these objectives. In 1997 the National Research Council's Space Studies Board published the report, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations, which reported advice to NASA on Mars sample return missions, complementing their 1992 report, The Biological Contamination of Mars Issues and Recommendations. Meanwhile, NASA has requested a new Space Studies Board study to address sample returns from bodies other than Mars. This study recognizes the variety of worlds that have been opened up to NASA and its partners by small, relatively inexpensive, missions of the Discovery class, as well as the reshaping of our ideas about life in the solar system that have been occasioned by the Galileo spacecraft's discovery that an ocean under the ice on Jupiter's moon Europa might, indeed, exist. This paper will report on NASA's planned implementation of planetary protection provisions based on these recent National Research Council recommendations, and will suggest measures for incorporation in the planetary protection policy of COSPAR. PMID:12038481

Rummel, J D

2000-01-01

285

Passengers on Voyages of Exploration: The Beautiful and Surprising Work Amateurs Can Do With Raw Image Data from Planetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many recent planetary science missions, including the Mars Exploration Rovers, Cassini-Huygens, and New Horizons, have instituted a policy of the rapid release of "raw" images to the Internet within days or even hours of their acquisition. The availability of these data, along with the increasing power of home computers and availability of high-bandwidth Internet connections, have stimulated the development of a worldwide community of armchair planetary scientists, who are able to participate in the everyday drama of exploratory missions' encounters with new worlds and new landscapes. Far from passive onlookers, many of these enthusiasts have taught themselves image processing techniques and have even written software to perform automated processing and mosaicking of these raw data sets. They rapidly produce stunning visualizations and then post them to their own blogs or online forums, where they also engage in discussing scientific observations and inferences about the data sets, broadening missions' public outreach efforts beyond their direct contact. These amateur space scientists feel a deep sense of involvement in and connection to space missions, which makes them enthusiastic (and occasionally demanding) supporters of space exploration. The presentation will include examples of amateurs' work, guides to the resources available to space enthusiasts interested in following active missions through their raw image data sets, and suggestions for how the science community can efficiently engage the amateur community and promote its development.

Lakdawalla, Emily

2008-05-01

286

Passengers on Voyages of Exploration: The Beautiful and Surprising Work Amateurs Can do with Raw Image Data from Planetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many recent planetary science missions, including the Mars Exploration Rovers, Cassini-Huygens, and New Horizons, have instituted a policy of the rapid release of ``raw'' images to the Internet within days or even hours of their acquisition. The availability of these data, along with the increasing power of home computers and availability of high-bandwidth Internet connections, have stimulated the development of a worldwide community of armchair planetary scientists, who are able to participate in the everyday drama of exploratory missions' encounters with new worlds and new landscapes. Far from passive onlookers, many of these enthusiasts have taught themselves image processing techniques and have even written software to perform automated processing and mosaicking of these raw data sets. They rapidly produce stunning visualizations and then post them to their own blogs or online forums, where they also engage in discussing scientific observations and inferences about the data sets, broadening missions' public outreach efforts beyond their direct reach. These amateur space scientists feel a deep sense of involvement in and connection to space missions, which makes them enthusiastic (and occasionally demanding) supporters of space exploration.

Lakdawalla, E. S.

2008-11-01

287

The Center for Earth and Planetary Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WWW server at The Center for Earth and Planetary Studies and its Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF), at the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. This NASA supported RPIF acts as a reference library providing planetary science researchers with access to the extensive collection of image data from planetary missions.

288

The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres,

Edward Guinness; Susan Slavney; Reta Beebe; Daniel Crichton

2008-01-01

289

Planetary Protection for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission Candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_J (see also L. Fletcher et al. in meeting C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_J, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will briefly describe the science objectives of the JUICE mission (see also C.~Erd et al. in session B0.3 ``Active Natural Satellites in the Solar System''), and will then discuss the baseline mission profile, which includes two Europa flybys, causing the mission to be in Planetary Protection Category III, requiring the probability of deposition of a viable organism to be <10^{-4}. The intended approach for complying with the planetary protection requirements is to avoid active sterilization measures by ensuring that the spacecraft's probability for critical failure is sufficiently low. The duration of critical contamination of Europa is limited by the fact that that the spacecraft's trajectory needs to be actively modified towards Europa for the flybys, and afterwards the spacecraft will be on a trajectory with higher pericenter, significantly reducing any accidental collision. The presentation will specifically discuss plans on mitigating the risk of contamination of Europa. It is intended as early information for planetary protection group and to seek comments and feed-back on the approach. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

290

Exploring Extra-Solar Planetary Interiors: New Chemistry at Extreme Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and transport properties of silicate and oxide melts at extreme pressures and temperatures are critical for understanding early planetary evolution and the aftermath of late-stage giant impacts such as that believed to have formed the Moon. Here we report on a suite of laser-driven shock experiments on major mineral phases of significance to the terrestrial mantle and extra-solar rocky planets SiO2, MgO and MgSiO3. Experiments on two polymorphs of SiO2 were used to validate experimental technique and are compared to previous results. We extend Hugoniot equation of state measurements for MgO and MgSiO3 to 6.4 and 9.5 Mbar, respectively, constraining controversial predications for the ultra-high pressure melt curves. Experiments on amorphous and crystalline MgSiO3 starting materials show the first evidence of a liquid-liquid phase transition with a volume reduction of 5-8% near 3.5 Mbar and over a range of temperature of at least 7000 K, suggesting the potential for unexpectedly complex chemistry in silicate liquids. Transport properties are extracted from time-resolved optical reflectivity data and imply that the distinction between silicate and metallic constituents are blurred in deep planetary interiors with potential implications for coupling across the present-day core-mantle boundary.

Spaulding, Dylan

2011-06-01

291

Robotic Thin Section Sample Preparation Device for In Situ Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrographic thin sections are used on Earth to identify minerals. The data from thin sections together with chemical rock data could result in a much better interpretation of planetary geology. A petrographic thin section is a well polished thin (~30 micron) sample of rock mounted on a glass slide. When viewed under a polarizing microscope one can quickly observe minerals from the interference colors. With unpolarized light some textural and structural features can be identified. Making of thin section is an art that takes many years of experience to acquire. All thin sections on Earth have been done manually. The Colorado School of Mines and Honeybee Robotics have been developing a robotic thin section device that one day may be used on planetary surface missions to autonomously slice, grind and polish a piece of rock. In particular, we have been developing methods for rough cutting, epoxy/slide application, and grinding/polishing of a rock to thin section quality. Examination of rock surface finish was done quantitatively using surface roughness measurement and qualitatively by a thin section expert. Here we report on the progress to date.

Dreyer, C. B.; Zacny, K.; Skok, J.; Steele, J.; Paulsen, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Schwendeman, J.; Carrell, T.; Szczesiak, M.

2008-12-01

292

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1994-07-01

293

NASA Now Minute: Extremophiles  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA research scientists Dr. Margarita Marinova and Dr. Alfonso Davila discuss how scientists study microbes that live in Earth's extreme environments to better understand places where life might exist in our solar system, such as Mars! NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Sandra May

2011-04-08

294

Performance of a Borehole X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and constructed a borehole X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program (http:\\/\\/marstech.jpl.nasa.gov\\/content\\/detail.cfm?Sect=MTP&Cat=base&subCat=SSA&subSubCat=&TaskID=2256). It can be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary requirements and performance metrics for the instrument are to obtain parts-per-million (ppm) lower limits of detection over

W. C. Kelliher; I. A. Carlberg; W. T. Elam; E. Willard-Schmoe

2008-01-01

295

In-situ exploration of planetary upper atmospheres with balloons ejected from sounding rockets and space probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balloon missions have been used extensively on Earth to study a large variety of atmospheric characteristics and phenomena. Of primary interest are in situ temperature, pressure and density profiles and wind velocities. The first planetary balloons were flown in the mid 1980s with the Vega 1 and 2 missions to Venus. Since then, balloons have been further developed and planed for, e.g., Mars and Titan. Testing those technologies first on Earth made sense because Earths upper (neutral) atmosphere provides many similarities to Mars atmosphere. The aim of this presentation is to provide a brief overview of the current state in scientific ballooning, and in particular report on the expertise obtained through the MIRIAM (Main Inflated Re-entry Into the Atmosphere Mission Test) Mars balloon near space deployment experiments. The test ballute MIRIAM was flown on board a REXUS 4 sounding rocket from ESRANGE in northern Sweden on October 22nd, 2008. The balloon was deployed at about 140 km altitude. On board were optical instruments, magnetometers, temperature sensors and barometers for atmospheric studies. The data gathered during decent was used to validate inflation, deployment concepts and planetary balloon technologies. Based on those results a new ballute probe MIRIAM-2 is under construction. Its aim is the recording atmospheric parameters which will be then compared to Earth upper atmospheric models. Finally, we address and discuss future prospects for balloon in situ exploration of Mars atmosphere.

Danielides, Michael; Griebel, Hannes; Bayler, Klaus; Herholz, J.

296

Biological contamination studies of lunar landing sites: implications for future planetary protection and life detection on the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and microbiological studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface during the Apollo missions could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans and planetary protection requirements for a human mission to Mars. NASA and ESA have outlined new visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic missions

D. P. Glavin; J. P. Dworkin; M. Lupisella; G. Kminek; J. D. Rummel

2004-01-01

297

Proposal to revise the planetary protection policy language for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose revisions to the planetary protection policy language related to Mars exploration. Analysis of the planetary protection policy documents from both NASA and COSPAR reveals that particular phrases (or sections) associated with the Category III and Category IV requirements are ambiguous and/or potentially misleading. Therefore, revised language for specific sections of NASA NPR 8020.12D and the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy will be presented. For NASA NPR 8020.12D, the proposed language changes will revise and extend upon the sections relating to organic materials reporting and archiving (2.3.1C), the Mars impact requirements for orbiters, flybys, and cruise stages (5.3.1.2), the numerical bioburden requirements for Mars orbiters (5.3.1.4), and the bioburden limits for Mars landers (5.3.2.1-5.3.2.4). Further, our proposed change to the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy centers upon the total bioburden limits for off-nominal landings in the Martian special regions. Together, the proposed language changes will ultimately serve to update, clarify, and better coordinate the domestic and international policy documents for planetary protection.

Mogul, Rakesh; Stabekis, Pericles

2012-07-01

298

NASA's Earth Day Video Contest  

NASA Video Gallery

Everyone knows NASA as the space exploration agency. It's easy to forget that exploring Earth is also exploring a celestial body. It is, in fact, the only planet we've ever been to -- our Home Frontier. To learn about NASA's Earth Day video contest, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/earth-videos.html

gsfcvideo

2011-04-21

299

From the Moon to NEAR and Beyond: Developing future remote X-ray spectrometry tools for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific results from current work combined with technological developments in instrumentation and computing are advancing the use of X-ray spectrometry for remote planetary exploration. Remote X-ray spectrometry now plays a key role in the exploration of: 1) the Moon, the intended target of the ESA Smart-1 mission; 2) the large, S-class asteroid Eros, now the target of the NEAR mission; and 3) Mercury, the intended target of the Messenger mission. Missions have also been proposed for other small bodies. At present, primary requirements for remote X-ray spectrometry are: 1) The target has little or no atmosphere. 2) An X-ray source, generally the sun, is monitored onboard. 3) The source generates a sufficient signal/noise. This constraint is much less stringent for the intrinsically low cosmic ray induced background solid state detectors which are now replacing proportional counters. 3) The spacecraft trajectory has readily deducible target viewing geometries. Detailed knowledge of the source, spacecraft, target body, footprint positions and characteristics (e.g., roughness, degree of illumination, shadowing), as well as adequate (and possibly lengthy) signal integration times must be available. This necessitates more careful determination of acceptable trade-offs in spacecraft and instrument pointing capability, tracking frequency, fuel for active pointing, and cost than allowed by exclusively cheaper/ faster/ better approaches. Considerable improvements in data handling have resulted from our recent experience with large data volume and complex viewing geometries, including: 1) high speed interactive graphics capability for near real-time data monitoring; 2) the integration of models for source X-ray production with spatial information and real-time observations; 3) the incorporation of recently released high energy spectral analysis packages with background removal and peak detection assumptions that are flexible enough to be appropriate; and 4) the development of an interactive compositional database (Nittler et al, 2000) for analogous planetary materials which greatly enhances interactive modeling capabilities.

Clark, P. E.; Murphy, M. E.; McClanahan, T. P.

2000-10-01

300

The Exploration of Mars. Educational Brief: Planetary Science, Grades 8-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet gives a history of human observations of Mars, including observations made from U.S. unmanned spacecraft. Also included is a discussion, "Encountering a New World: How to Explore a Planet," which contains classroom discussion questions and four classroom activities. The classroom activities include: (1) How to explore a planet; (2)…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

301

To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground-based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1996-01-01

302

Onboard Adaptive Learning for Planetary Surface Rover Control in Rough Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current and future NASA robotic missions to planetary surfaces are tending toward longer duration and are becoming more ambitious for rough terrain access. For a higher level of autonomy in such missions, the rovers will require behavior that must also adapt to declining rover health and unknown environmental conditions. The MER (Mars Exploration Rovers) called Spirit and Opportunity have both

Terry Huntsberger; Hrand Aghazarian; Edward Tunstel

2005-01-01

303

Monolithic photolithographically patterned Fluorocur PFPE membrane valves and pumps for in situ planetary exploration.  

PubMed

Photolithographically defined monolithic membrane valves utilizing Fluorocur perfluoropolyether (PFPE) were fabricated and characterized to be essentially unaltered after one million actuations and exposure to the environmental stresses associated with in situ exploration of Mars. PMID:18584073

Willis, Peter A; Greer, Frank; Lee, Michael C; Smith, J Anthony; White, Victor E; Grunthaner, Frank J; Sprague, Jacob J; Rolland, Jason P

2008-05-22

304

Tsuki Wakusei Tansa Misshon No Gijutsu Kadai (Technical Problems on Lunar and Planetary Exploration Mission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical problems on unmanned lunar mission, manned lunar mission, and unmanned Mars exploration missions are outlined. Topics discussed include: attitude and orbit control profile for transient orbit injection; attitude control at lunar revolving orbit ...

T. Iwata K. Oota T. Kawazoe Y. Kaneko Y. Takano

1992-01-01

305

Calibration of Carbonate Composition Using Micro-Raman Analysis: Application to Planetary Surface Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromatolite structures in Early Archean carbonate deposits form an important clue for the existence of life in the earliest part of Earth's history. Since Mars is thought to have had similar environmental conditions early in its history, the question arises as to whether such stromatolite structures also evolved there. Here, we explore the capability of Raman spectroscopy to make semiquantitative

Nicolas Rividi; Mark van Zuilen; Pascal Philippot; Bénédicte Ménez; Gaston Godard; Emmanuel Poidatz

2010-01-01

306

Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of

Brian Crucian; Pascal Lee; Raymond Stowe; Jeff Jones; Rainer Effenhauser; Raymond Widen; Clarence Sams

2007-01-01

307

Planetary exploration in the time of astrobiology: Protecting against biological contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

These are intriguing times in the exploration of other solar-system bodies. Continuing discoveries about life on Earth and the return of data suggesting the presence of liquid water environments on or under the surfaces of other planets and moons have combined to suggest the significant possibility that extraterrestrial life may exist in this solar system. Similarly, not since the Viking

John D. Rummel

308

Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Juno mission will launch in 2011 and explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions and its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. The science mission is concluded with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction due to impact into an icy body.

Bernard, Douglas; Abelson, Robert; Johannesen, Jennie; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William; Newlin, Laura

309

The International Space Analogue Rock Store (ISAR): A key tool for future planetary exploration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to prepare the next in situ space missions we have created a « lithothèque » of analogue rocks for calibrating and testing future (and existing) space flight instruments. This rock collection is called the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR) and is hosted in the CNRS and the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en Region Centre (OSUC) in Orléans. For maximum science return, all instruments on a single mission should ideally be tested with the same suite of relevant analogue materials. The ISAR lithothéque aims to fulfill this role by providing suitable materials to instrument teams [1]. The lithothèque is accompanied by an online database of all relevant structural, textural, and geochemical data (www.isar.cnrs-orleans.fr).The data base will also be available during missions to aid interpretation of data obtained in situ. Mars is the immediate goal for MSL-2011 and the new international Mars 2018 mission. The lithothèque thus presently contains relevant Mars-analogue rock and mineral samples, a preliminary range of which is now available to the scientific community for instrument testing [2]. The preliminary group of samples covers a range of lithologies to be found on Mars, especially those in Noachain/Hesperian terrains where MSL will land (Gale Crater) and where the 2018 landing site will most likely be located. It includes a variety of basalts (tephrite, primitive basalt, silicified basalt; plus cumulates), komatiites, artificially synthesized martian basalts [3], volcanic sands, a banded iron formation, carbonates associated with volcanic lithologies and hydrothermalism, the clay Nontronite, and hydrothermal cherts. Some of the silicified volcanic sands contain traces of early life that are good analogues for potential martian life [4]. [1] Westall F. et al., LPI contribution 1608, 1346, 42nd LPSC, 2011; [2] Bost N. et al., in review (Icarus); [3] Bost N. et al., in review (Meteoritics); [4] Westall et al., 2011, Planetary and Space Science 59. ISAR Team: N. Bost, F. Westall, C; Ramboz, F. Foucher, D. Pullan, T. Zegers, B. Hoffman, F. Rull, J. Bridges, A; Steele, H. Amundsen, R. Barbieri, A. Hubert, B. Cavalazzi, J. Bridges, M. Viso, J. Vago, S. Petit, A. Meunier, I. Fleischer, G. Klingelhöfer, N. Arndt…

Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.

2012-04-01

310

Lunette: A Dual Lander Mission to the Moon to Explore Early Planetary Differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is critical for understanding fundamental aspects of how terrestrial planets formed and evolved. The Moon’s size means that a record of early planetary differentiation has been preserved. However, data from previous, current and planned missions are (will) not (be) of sufficient fidelity to provide definitive conclusions about its internal state, structure, and composition. Lunette rectifies this situation. Lunette is a solar-powered, 2 identical lander geophysical network mission that operates for at least 4 years on the surface of the Moon. Each Lunette lander carries an identical, powerful geophysical payload consisting of four instruments: 1) An extremely sensitive instrument combining a 3-axis triad of Short Period sensors and a 3-axis set of Long Period sensors, to be placed with its environmental shield on the surface; 2) A pair of self-penetrating “Moles,” each carrying thermal and physical sensors at least 3 m below the surface to measure the heat flow from the lunar interior; 3) Lunar Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: A high-precision, high-performance corner cube reflector for laser ranging between the Earth and the Moon; and 4) ElectroMagnetic Sounder: A set of directional magnetometers and electrometers that together probe the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the interior. The 2 landers are deployed to distinct lunar terranes: the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) and the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) on the lunar nearside. They are launched together on a single vehicle, then separate shortly after trans-lunar injection, making their way individually to an LL2 staging point. Each lander descends to the lunar surface at the beginning of consecutive lunar days; the operations team can concentrate on completing lander checkout and instrument deployments well before lunar night descends. Lunette has one primary goal: Understand the early stages of terrestrial planet differentiation. Lunette uses Apollo knowledge of deep moonquake nests and Earth-based nearside impact flash monitoring (IFM) to enable a 2-station mission to address this goal. IFM provides known seismic sources, allowing detailed seismic study of the lunar interior from a 2-station network, representing a major advance since Apollo. The instruments and support systems are designed to operate for much longer than four years and therefore could be integrated into any future international lunar geophysical network. Modeling undertaken demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for seismic data. Using the Apollo seismic record, the sensitivity and broadband nature of the seismometer is shown to be able to address the challenges of seismic scattering, low frequency seismology, detection of core phases (e.g. PKP, ScS), and meteoroid impact characterization to achieve the primary mission goal.

Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, B.; Jones, M.; Elliott, J.; Alkalai, L.; Turyshev, S.; Lognonné, P.; Kobayashi, N.; Grimm, R. E.; Spohn, T.; Weber, R. C.; Lunette Science; Instrument Support Team

2010-12-01

311

NASA Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, NASA Quest has been connecting students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website--Learning Technology Channel, Space Team Online, Aerospace Team Online, and Women of NASA. The NASA Ques

Ashby, Susanne

2000-09-01

312

Using the mass media to inform and educate the public about planetary protection and exploration risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the foreseeable future, the public will continue to learn piecemeal about the latest advances in Astrobiology through headlines and mass media coverage of missions, discoveries or controversies. Journalists and reporters are themselves unschooled in this emerging interdisciplinary field, yet play a critical role in explaining details to the public. While it is important to develop curricular materials for future use in formal educational settings, it is equally important to find novel ways for educating and updating journalists in this fast paced field. Risk communication plans for Mars exploration and other solar system missions should include special efforts aimed at assisting mass media professionals in both their informational and educational roles. If journalists and reporters have a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the science and societal issues associated with missions, the result may well be more accurate explanations, improved public understanding, and continued support for exploration.

Race, M.

313

NASA Earth Science Enterprise Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Science Enterprise is taking active steps in supporting NASA's mission: To understand and protect our home planet To explore the Universe and search for life To inspire the next generation of explorers .as only NASA can. The role that scientists and engineers play in the Enterprise's educational endeavor will be discussed.

Wei, M.; Asrar, G.

2002-12-01

314

NASA Now Minute: Balloon Research  

NASA Video Gallery

In this NASA Now program, Debbie Fairbrother discusses two types of high-altitude balloons that NASA is using to test scientific instruments and spacecraft. She also talks about the Ideal Gas Law and the interaction between temperature and pressure when a balloon has constant volume. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-05-01

315

Microbial functions in space: Mars transit to early planetary base exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial processing of liquid and solid wastes may play a role in the advanced life support systems of nearer term human exploration missions such as transit vehicles to Mars or initial surface bases on either the Moon or Mars. Recycling wastewater (urine, atmospheric condensate, hygiene water) is a critical component of reducing storage and resupply requirements on such missions, and microbial treatment of all or part of the waste stream may improve overall treatment efficiency. As small-scale plant systems (i.e., 5 10mperson) are used to supplement food storage, microbial processing of both wastewater and edible plant material will facilitate nutrient and water recycling through the biomass production systems.

Garland, J. L.

2007-02-01

316

Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal settings. We will also show how their use as embedded assessments in classroom instruction to identify and address naïve conceptions of scale in the Solar System. For the International Year of the Solar System, we are sharing these resources with teachers through several teacher professional development programs at The University of Texas at Dallas and at area and state science teacher conferences. All CINDI E/PO materials including our popular "Cindi in Space" comic book, the new "Cindi in the Electric Atmosphere" comic book for high school, and our resource on "How Big is a Million?" are all available for free downloads from our website or on CD.

Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

2010-12-01

317

NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet  

NASA Video Gallery

In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand this world without equal.

gsfcvideo

2010-07-01

318

"NASA's Ready, Let's Go"  

NASA Video Gallery

What's it like to be a NASA engineer who's tackling the challenge of improving air traffic flow across the United States? NASA's Todd Farley shows us that dedication and teamwork are just as necessary for improving life every day on Earth as much as they are for exploring space. › See Typical 24 Hours of U.S. Air Traffic › See Other 'Faces of NASA' Videos

Christopher O

2013-03-07

319

NASA: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Popular Topics section of the main NASA site, this collection of NASA resources is jam-packed with great photos, learning tools, announcements, and NASA agency news. Anyone interested in learning more about the solar system or the United States' efforts in space exploration (both manned and unmanned) will want to check out this great resource. In addition to the features on the main page, be sure to check out the Archives section for even more.

320

Exploring Strange New Worlds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun and simple hands-on astronomy activity lets learners explore model planets (that they or an educator will create), using methods NASA scientists use to explore our Solar System. Learners role play teams of scientists living on a planet orbiting a distant star, who must explore their planetary system for the first time. This activity encourages creative thinkingâsuch as scenting a planet model with an aroma or freezing it, and creating a mission budget and radio message.The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, and links to background information. Prep time will depend on learners' age and the extent of detail in their planet models.

Pacific, Astronomical S.

2008-01-01

321

Progress in planetary exploration; Proceedings of the Symposium and Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, June 2-14, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented in the areas of planetary structure and composition, comparative planetology, the space investigation of comets, asteroids and cosmic dust, planetary atmospheres, Venus observations, the outer planets, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. Specific topics include the magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus and Mars, the chemical composition and optical properties of terrestrial planet atmospheres, results

R. W. Shorthill; M. Ia. Marov; J. A. M. McDonnell

1981-01-01

322

Learning About 'Veggie' at the NASA Social  

NASA Website

Physical Sciences Division Director at NASA Headquarters, talks about the human body in microgravity and other life sciences at a NASA Social exploring science on the International Space Station at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 ...

323

Surface and Downhole Prospecting Tools for Planetary Exploration: Tests of Neutron and Gamma Ray Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future exploration of the Moon and Mars will include searching for in situ resources for living off the land, and assessing the ease with which such resources can be extracted and used. Moreover, on Mars the search includes identification of biomarkers, ancient or contemporary habitats, and understanding the three- dimensional distribution and physical state of water. The ability to detect, localize and characterize hydrogenous materials is key to both successful resource prospecting and exploration science. Equally important is the ability to do so without disturbing the target materials. We discuss three instruments specifically aimed at detecting and assessing deposits such as water ice or other hydrogenous materials. The Surface Neutron Probe (SNeuP) identifies locales with near-surface hydrogen-bearing deposits. Mounted on a rover, SNeuP provides a record of average hydrogen abundance with position and time during a traverse. Lightweight and non-intrusive, the instrument measures neutrons produced by cosmic-ray interaction with nearby soils and rocks. There is no need for the additional mass, power and operational risk of an active neutron source. Once SNeuP has identified a promising prospect, the drill-integrated Borehole Neutron Probe (BNeuP) explores the third dimension, depth, and logs hydrogenous layers, such as water ice or hydrous minerals. Both instruments sense the presence of hydrogenous materials by measuring variations in the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes. We have carried out tests of the SNeuP instrument, and have demonstrated its ability to detect and locate near-surface hydrogen-bearing deposits. These tests have shown that it is possible to estimate depth and hydrogen abundance remotely, while roving. We have also tested BNeuP in a drilling configuration and have demonstrated its ability to locate and quantify the water-equivalent hydrogen content of layered deposits. We describe a BNeuP field test in layered Snake River basalts near Idaho National Laboratory at Idaho Falls, in which a log extending to ~ 15 meters depth was obtained. Finally, we describe initial results in developing a small, drill-integrated gamma-gamma well-logging tool. This device uses a low-intensity Cs-137 gamma ray source (100 microCuries) to interrogate surrounding materials in a borehole. Photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering of the source gamma rays produce a spectrum containing information about the density and average atomic number of the nearby materials.

Elphic, R. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Prettyman, T.; Chu, P.; Podgorney, R. K.; Hubbell, J. M.; Johnson, J. B.

2006-12-01

324

(Nearly) Seven Years on Mars: Adventure, Adversity, and Achievements with the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA successfully landed twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, on Mars in January 2004, in the most ambitious mission of robotic exploration attempted to that time. Each rover is outfitted as a robot field geologist with an impressive array of scientific instruments--cameras, spectrometers, other sensors--designed to investigate the composition and geologic history of two distinctly-different landing sites. The sites were chosen because of their potential to reveal clues about the past history of water and climate on Mars, and thus to provide tests of the hypothesis that the planet may once have been an abode for life. In this presentation I will review the images, spectra, and chemical/mineralogic information that the rover team has been acquiring from the landing sites and along the rovers' 7.7 and 22.7 km traverse paths, respectively. The data and interpretations have been widely shared with the public and the scientific community through web sites, frequent press releases, and scientific publications, and they provide quantitative evidence that liquid water has played a role in the modification of the Martian surface during the earliest part of the planet's history. At the Spirit site in Gusev Crater, the role of water appears to have been relatively minor in general, although the recent discovery of enigmatic hydrated sulfate salt and amorphous silica deposits suggests that locally there may have been significant water-rock interactions, and perhaps even sustained hydrothermal activity. At the Opportunity site in Meridiani Planum, geologic and mineralogic evidence suggests that liquid water was stable at the surface and shallow subsurface for significant periods of early Martian geologic history. An exciting implication from both missions is that localized environments on early Mars may have been "habitable" by some terrestrial standards. As of early September 2010, the rovers had operated for 2210 and 2347 Martian days (sols), respectively, with the Spirit rover in an assumed intentional state of "hibernation" since mid-April 2010. and the Opportunity rover actively embarking on a long (> 12 km) drive to the 22-km diameter crater Endeavour. This presentation will provide an update on the status of the expected return to operations of the Spirit rover this summer or fall, and the team's plans to continue to explore the potential hydrothermal environment in the region around the ancient volcanic feature known as Home Plate. I will also provide an update on the progress of Opportunity's drive to Endeavour, and the team's plans to study clay mineral (phyllosilicate) deposits that have been identified on the rim of Endeavour from orbital remote sensing observations. A key point of this presentation is that despite this being a robotic mission, it isn't really the rovers that are exploring Mars; rather, it is a large team of people here on Earth (as well as the interested public) that have spent nearly 7 years "virtually" roving across the red planet using some amazing and highly capable robotic tools.

Bell, J. F.; Mars Exploration Rover Science; Engineering Teams

2010-12-01

325

Planetary Scientist Profile: Lynn Carter  

NASA Video Gallery

The dry, ancient surfaces of the moon, Venus, and Mars look nothing like the dynamic planet we live on, but the same forces that shape our world have also driven the evolution of our closest neighbors. As part of NASA’s Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory, scientist Lynn Carter discusses her passion for volcanoes, impact cratering, and tectonic activity throughout the solar system. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-10-16

326

Moon and Mars gravity environment during parabolic flights: a new European approach to prepare for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballis-tic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 more than fifty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 600 experiments were conducted spanning several fields in Physical Sciences and Life Sciences, namely Fluid Physics, Combustion Physics, Ma-terial Sciences, fundamental Physics and Technology tests, Human Physiology, cell and animal Biology, and technical tests of Life Sciences instrumentation. Since 1997, ESA uses the Airbus A300 'Zero G', the largest airplane in the world used for this type of experimental research flight and managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the French space agency CNES. From 2010 onwards, ESA and Novespace will offer the possibility of flying Martian and Moon parabolas during which reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars will be achieved repetitively for periods of more than 20 seconds. Scientists are invited to submit experiment proposals to be conducted at these partial gravity levels. This paper presents the technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 Zero-G aircraft used by ESA to support and conduct investigations at Moon-, Mars-and micro-gravity levels to prepare research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions. Some Physiology and Technology experiments performed during past ESA campaigns at 0, 1/6 an 1/3 g are presented to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations.

Pletser, Vladimir; Clervoy, Jean-Fran; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe; Rosier, Patrice

327

Surface and downhole prospecting tools for planetary exploration: tests of neutron and gamma ray probes.  

PubMed

The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon's poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to "illuminate" surrounding materials and gauge the instruments' efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>or=10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition. PMID:18554085

Elphic, R C; Chu, P; Hahn, S; James, M R; Lawrence, D J; Prettyman, T H; Johnson, J B; Podgorney, R K

2008-06-01

328

NASA balloon technology developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program's technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, ballooncraft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

Fairbrother, D. A.

329

Planetary Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

330

NASA Facts, Voyager.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

331

Bring NASA's Year of the Solar System into Your Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Year of the Solar System ( http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) is a celebration of our exploration of the solar system, which began in October 2010 and continues for one Martian year (687 Earth days) ending in late summer 2012. The diverse planetary missions in this period create a rare opportunity to engage students and the public, using NASA missions to reveal new worlds and new discoveries. Each month focuses on a particular topic, such as the scale of the solar system, its formation, water in the solar system, volcanism, atmospheres, and more! All educators are invited to join the celebration; indeed, the EPO community is needed in order for this event to be successful! Participants at the 2011 ASP Conference surveyed a variety of thematic activities, received resources and implementation ideas, and were invited to share their own experiences and upcoming events!

Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; LaConte, K.; Dalton, H.; Buxner, S.; Boonstra, D.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

2012-08-01

332

Solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described.

Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Quaide, William L.

333

Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit nasa.gov/yss> to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to share the exciting planetary science discoveries as they’re uncovered during this unprecedented period of solar system exploration!

Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

2013-01-01

334

A Science Rationale for Mobility in Planetary Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last several decades, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) has advocated a systematic approach to exploration of the solar system; that is, the information and understanding resulting from one mission provide the scientific foundations that motivate subsequent, more elaborate investigations. COMPLEX's 1994 report, An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010,1 advocated an approach to planetary studies emphasizing "hypothesizing and comprehending" rather than "cataloging and categorizing." More recently, NASA reports, including The Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan2 and, in particular, Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery-A Mission and Technology Roadmap,3 have outlined comprehensive plans for planetary exploration during the next several decades. The missions outlined in these plans are both generally consistent with the priorities outlined in the Integrated Strategy and other NRC reports,4-5 and are replete with examples of devices embodying some degree of mobility in the form of rovers, robotic arms, and the like. Because the change in focus of planetary studies called for in the Integrated Strategy appears to require an evolutionary change in the technical means by which solar system exploration missions are conducted, the Space Studies Board charged COMPLEX to review the science that can be uniquely addressed by mobility in planetary environments. In particular, COMPLEX was asked to address the following questions: (1) What are the practical methods for achieving mobility? (2) For surface missions, what are the associated needs for sample acquisition? (3) What is the state of technology for planetary mobility in the United States and elsewhere, and what are the key requirements for technology development? (4) What terrestrial field demonstrations are required prior to spaceflight missions?

1999-01-01

335

A Scientific Rationale for Mobility in Planetary Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last several decades, the COMmittee on Planetary and Lunar EXploration (COMPLEX) has advocated a systematic approach to exploration of the solar system; that is, the information and understanding resulting from one mission provide the scientific foundations that motivate subsequent, more elaborate investigations. COMPLEX's 1994 report, An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010,1 advocated an approach to planetary studies emphasizing "hypothesizing and comprehending" rather than "cataloging and categorizing." More recently, NASA reports, including The Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan' and, in particular, Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery-A Mission and Technology Roadmap, 3 have outlined comprehensive plans for planetary exploration during the next several decades. The missions outlined in these plans are both generally consistent with the priorities outlined in the Integrated Strategy and other NRC reports,4,5 and are replete with examples of devices embodying some degree of mobility in the form of rovers, robotic arms, and the like. Because the change in focus of planetary studies called for in the Integrated Strategy appears to require an evolutionary change in the technical means by which solar system exploration missions are conducted, the Space Studies Board charged COMPLEX to review the science that can be uniquely addressed by mobility in planetary environments. In particular, COMPLEX was asked to address the following questions: 1. What are the practical methods for achieving mobility? 2. For surface missions, what are the associated needs for sample acquisition? 3. What is the state of technology for planetary mobility in the United States and elsewhere, and what are the key requirements for technology development? 4. What terrestrial field demonstrations are required prior to spaceflight missions?

1999-01-01

336

NASA Now Minute: Nanotechnology and Space  

NASA Video Gallery

In this NASA now program, Dr. Mike Oye describes the scale of nanotechnology, how properties of matter change and how nanowires could be used in future space exploration. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-05-17

337

Europa planetary protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore Jupiter and its near environment starting in 2016. Planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design. In particular Juno's polar orbit, which enables scientific investigations of parts of Jupiter's environment never before visited, also greatly assist avoiding close flybys of Europa and the other Galilean satellites. The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

2013-08-01

338

Development of miniaturized instrumentation for Planetary Exploration and its application to the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication is presented the current development of some miniaturized instruments developed for Lander and Rovers for Planetary exploration. In particular, we present a magnetometer with resolution below 10 nT and mass in the range of 45 g; a sun irradiance spectral sensor with 10 bands (UV-VIS-near IR) and a mass in the range of 75 g. These are being developed for the Finnish, Russian and Spanish MetNet Mars Precursor Mission, to be launched in 2011 within the Phobos Grunt (Sample Return). The magnetometer (at present at EQM level) has two triaxial magnetometers (based on commercial AMR technologies) that operate in gradiometer configuration. Moreover has inside the box there a triaxial accelerometer to get the gravitational orientation of the magnetometer after its deployment. This unit is being designed to operate under the Mars severe conditions (at night) without any thermal conditioning. The sun irradiance spectral irradiance sensor is composed by individual silicon photodiodes with interference filters on each, and collimators to prevent wavelength shifts due to oblique incidence. In order allow discrimination between direct and diffuse ambient light, the photodiodes are deployed on the top and lateral sides of this unit. The instrument is being optimized for deep UV detection, dust optical depth and Phobos transits. The accuracy for detecting some atmospheric gases traces is under study. Besides, INTA is developing optical wireless link technologies modules for operating on Mars at distances over 1 m, to minimize harness, reduce weight and improve Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) tasks. Actual emitter/receiver modules are below 10 g allowing data transmission rates over 1 Mbps.

Guerrero, Hector

2010-05-01

339

NASA future missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA astrophysics programs are outlined. The Hubble Space Telescope; the infrared background explorer, COBE; the Shuttle-based Astro-1/BBXRT UV and X-ray experiments; the extreme ultraviolet explorer, EUVE, the diffuse X-ray experiment, DXS, and the Gamma Ray Observatory, are described, and NASA involvement in ROSAT, exploring the X-ray sky, and ORFEUS, exploring the UV sky, is shown; SCOUT-class explorers are mentioned. Suborbital science obtained from aircraft and rockets will continue and expand; supporting research and technology will also continue and substantial effort will be expended on improvement of data systems to promote data accessibility and ease of use.

Pellerin, Charles J.; Stachnik, Robert V.

1988-06-01

340

Overview of NASA’s Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) are responsible for facilitating and coordinating community input into the development and execution of NASA’s three astrophysics science themes: Cosmic Origins (COPAG), Exoplanet Exploration (ExoPAG), and Physics of the Cosmos (PhysPAG). The PAGs provide a community-based, interdisciplinary forum for analyses that support and inform planning and prioritization of activities within the Astrophysics Division’s programs. The Astrophysics PAGs report their input and findings to NASA through the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, of which all the PAG Chairs are members. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the ongoing activities of NASA’s Astrophysics PAGs in the context of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the Astrophysics Division. NASA Headquarters representatives for the COPAG, ExoPAG, and PhysPAG will all be present and available to answer questions about the programmatic role of the Astrophysics PAGs.

Hudgins, Douglas M.; Perez, M. R.; Sambruna, R. M.

2013-01-01

341

Overview of the Mars Exploration Rovers' Autonomous Mobility and Vision Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers have set the standard for autonomous robotic exploration of planetary sur- faces. Their abilities to detect and avoid geometric hazards, and measure and compensate for slip or heading changes, have made it possible to drive farther and in highly sloped areas, increasing the science return of the mission. Software updates that took place during the

Mark W. Maimone; P. Chris Leger; Jeffrey J. Biesiadecki

342

Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments

K. Zacny; P. W. Bartlett; D. Glaser

2005-01-01

343

MyMoon: Engaging the ``Missing Link'' in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public's interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists -

A. Shaner; C. Shupla; S. S. Shipp; A. Eriksson

2009-01-01

344

NASA Nationwide and the Year of the Solar System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA depends on the efforts of several volunteer networks to help implement its formal and informal education goals, to disseminate its key messages related to space and Earth science missions and to support broad public initiatives such as the upcoming Year of the Solar System (YSS), sponsored by the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF). These highly leveraged networks include programs such as Solar System Ambassadors, Solar System Educators, Night Sky Network, and NASA Explorer Schools. Founded in June 2008, NASA Nationwide: A Consortium of Formal and Informal Education Networks is a program that brings together these volunteer networks by creating an online community and shared resources which broadens the member networks’ base of support and provides opportunities to coordinate, cooperate, and collaborate with each other. Since its inception, NASA Nationwide has grown to include twelve NASA-funded volunteer networks as members and collaborates with three other NASA networks as affiliates. NASA Nationwide’s support for the Year of the Solar System includes management of several recently completed Solar System Nights kits, which will be made available regionally to collaborative teams of volunteers and affiliates for use in connecting with students in underserved, underrepresented and rural populations. In the latter part of 2010, the program will be further enhanced by the debut of the public NASA Nationwide website to showcase the successful efforts of these volunteers, provide information about member organizations and advertise their upcoming events in support of the Year of the Solar System. Through its broad reach and the dedicated enthusiasm of its members, NASA Nationwide will be an essential factor utilized to help achieve Year of the Solar System goals and ensure the ultimate success of the initiative.

Ferrari, K.

2010-12-01

345

Planetary Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the "mind-boggling mysteries" of our solar system. The article opens with a quick review of what we know about our solar system and how we've gathered that information. Students then "explore the mystery" of each planet within our solar system, which is presented though fun facts, evidence, theories, and NASA missions. The article ends with a nine-question quiz that gives students a fun way to test what they've learned.

346

Planetary regolith surface analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a method for a determination of the global set of parameters involved in Hapke's model for planetary surface analogs when dealing with a set of angular conditions representative of the usual range of observation in planetary exploration for spaceborne optical instruments. The present approach is founded on a genetic algorithm: the whole set of Hapke parameters is

Aurélien M. Cord; Patrick C. Pinet; Yves Daydou; Serge D. Chevrel

2003-01-01

347

NASA NOW Minute: Expedition 26  

NASA Video Gallery

In this installment of NASA Now, meet associate International Space Station program scientist Tara Ruttley, who talks about the complexity of conducting research from this one-of-a-kind orbiting science lab. The program focus is on biology and biotechnology experiments being conducted on Expedition 26. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-02-09

348

NASA Now Minute: Black Holes  

NASA Video Gallery

In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnaude dispels many common misconceptions about black holes and the nature of the environment surrounding the feature. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-02-09

349

A successful failure: NASA’s crisis communications regarding Apollo 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1970, NASA faced its second major crisis when an explosion on board Apollo 13 threatened the lives of its three astronauts. NASA’s handling of the crisis not only would determine the fate of the three astronauts, but also the image of the space agency and possibly the future of American manned space exploration. This paper examines NASA’s crisis

James Kauffman

2001-01-01

350

Progress in planetary exploration; Proceedings of the Symposium and Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, June 2-14, 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers are presented in the areas of planetary structure and composition, comparative planetology, the space investigation of comets, asteroids and cosmic dust, planetary atmospheres, Venus observations, the outer planets, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. Specific topics include the magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus and Mars, the chemical composition and optical properties of terrestrial planet atmospheres, results of the Pioneer fly-by of Saturn and its rings, the flux of earth-crossing and moon-cratering interplanetary objects, and the orbital dynamics of magnetospherically trapped lunar ejecta. Attention is also given to space-borne zodiacal light photometry, Pioneer Orbiter observations of equatorial clouds on Venus, the photoelectron spectrum in the Mars atmosphere, the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the shape of rapidly rotating asteroids, and dynamical planetary systems accounting for the structures and evolution of terrestrial-type planets.

Shorthill, R. W.; Marov, M. Ia.; McDonnell, J. A. M.

351

Planetary Image Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab and the Planetary Data System, this site is designed to eventually serve as a single interface for searching, displaying, and downloading images and data from a number of planetary missions. In the meantime, the site acts as a portal to the older individual mission collections. These include Galileo, Mars Pathfinder, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, Magellan, and Clementine. The site and the data featured are meant primarily for scientists in related fields, but a number of images and mosaics that are available may interest non-specialists.

352

The NASA astrobiology program.  

PubMed

The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. PMID:12448992

Morrison, D

2001-01-01

353

In-situ exploration of planetary upper atmospheres with balloons ejected from sounding rockets and space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloon missions have been used extensively on Earth to study a large variety of atmospheric characteristics and phenomena. Of primary interest are in situ temperature, pressure and density profiles and wind velocities. The first planetary balloons were flown in the mid 1980s with the Vega 1 and 2 missions to Venus. Since then, balloons have been further developed and planed

Michael Danielides; Hannes Griebel; Klaus Bayler; J. Herholz

2010-01-01

354

Flash Lidars for Planetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball Aerospace has developed multiple flash lidar technologies which can benefit planetary exploration missions. This paper describes these developments, culminating in a successful flight demonstration on STS-134.

Dissly, R. W.; Weimer, C.; Masciarelli, J.; Weinberg, J.; Miller, K. L.; Rohrschneider, R.

2012-10-01

355

Preliminary Results from NEOWISE: An Enhancement to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Solar System Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the WISE data processing system called \\

A. Mainzer; J. Bauer; T. Grav; J. Masiero; R. M. Cutri; J. Dailey; P. Eisenhardt; R. S. McMillan; E. Wright; R. Walker; R. Jedicke; T. Spahr; D. Tholen; R. Alles; R. Beck; H. Brandenburg; T. Conrow; T. Evans; J. Fowler; T. Jarrett; K. Marsh; F. Masci; H. McCallon; S. Wheelock; M. Wittman; P. Wyatt; E. DeBaun; G. Elliott; D. Elsbury; T. Gautier IV; S. Gomillion; D. Leisawitz; C. Maleszewski; M. Micheli; A. Wilkins

2011-01-01

356

Mars Exploration with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons when over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. A conceptual analysis of DARE capabilities and science applications for Mars is presented. Initial results of simulations indicate that a relatively small trajectory control wing can significantly change planetary balloon flight paths, especially during summer seasons in Polar Regions. This opens new possibilities for high-resolution observations of crustal magnetic anomalies, polar layered terrain, polar clouds, dust storms at the edges of the Polar caps and of seasonal variability of volatiles in the atmosphere.

Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

2004-02-01

357

Emerging issues in cospar's planetary protection policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the World Space Congress in October 2002 the COSPAR Bureau and Council approved a new, consolidated planetary protection policy for COSPAR. This document has subsequently been made available via the Internet on COSPAR's website , with the intention that it be used as an international consensus standard regarding the prevention of biological contamination due to solar system exploration missions. The availability of this policy has been quite useful in forging the terms for international partnerships involving such missions, as well, and NASA now routinely references the COSPAR policy as the basis for planetary protection activities in cooperative missions to other solar system bodies. Nonetheless, in the extremely dynamic (and beneficial) circumstances that solar system exploration has been dealing with, there are good reasons to suggest improvements to the existing policy at this time. Some of these improvements are related to minor inconsistencies, flaws, or oversights in the existing document, some are called for by new mission concepts and technology, and others are suggested by the overarching goals and expanded mission set being considered by the world's space agencies since the consolidated policy was issued. This paper will identify issues in all of these categories, and suggest items that will later be addressed in the work of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection - either at this meeting of COSPAR, or subsequent to further deliberations involving meetings, workshops, or symposia sponsored by the Panel.

Rummel, J. D.; Stabekis, P. D.

358

NASA Now Minute: Cryogenics Test Laboratory  

NASA Video Gallery

Find out why NASA researchers study fluids and materials at super cold temperatures for applications on Earth and in space. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-05-22

359

NASA Now Minute: Biology: Extreme Green Biofuels  

NASA Video Gallery

Learn about a NASA indoor laboratory and outdoor greenhouse facility used to study the basic biology of plants as renewable energy sources. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-03-05

360

Planetary Data in Education: Tool Development for Access to the Planetary Data System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In keeping with NASA's emphasis on "inspiring the next generation of explorers", the Planetary Data System (PDS) has begun work on a new intuitive web interface that will provide easy access to data collected by planetary exploration spacecraft. The ultimate goal of this tool is to allow more citizens and students to become active participants in the exploration of space. The simple interface allows the user to define collections of data based on intuitive search criteria, such as geographic coordinates, feature names (Valles Marineris) and features types (craters). The interface allows the user to download files in numerous image file formats, including JPEG, TIFF, GIF, BMP, PNG and raw pixels. The user can access the collection for subsequent integration with their educational tool or curriculum. In this session we will describe and demonstrate the interface and its capabilities, walk through user scenarios, discuss the relationship of this interface to the PDS access tools and functions developed for the scientific community, and discuss the potential for its utilization in K-14 formal and informal (museums, amateur groups, etc.) settings. The tool discussed in the session is designed to provide a foundation for access to planetary data and test for the basic, broad scope needs of the formal and informal educational communities.

Atkinson, C. H.; Andres, P. M.; Liggett, P. K.; Lowes, L. L.; Sword, B. J.

2003-12-01

361

NASA's First in-Space Optical Gyroscope: A Technology Experiment on the X ray Timing Explorer Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technology experiment on the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft to determine the feasibility of Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscopes for space flight navigation is described. The experiment consists of placing a medium grade fiber optic gyroscope in par...

G. Unger D. M. Kaufman M. Krainak G. Sanders B. Taylor

1993-01-01

362

Educational Potential of NLSI: The Planetary Society and the International Space University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two institutions provide worldwide outlets for educational information from the NASA Lunar Science Institute: First, The Planetary Society; second, the International Space University. TPS is a public-interest organization operating throughout the world, serving both professionals and the public interested in lunar and planetary exploration and the search for extraterrestrial life. ISU is a graduate-level institution headquartered in Strasbourg, France, with more than 3000 alumni worldwide. ISU's goal is to prepare young people for future leadership positions in the space sector. In this paper we aim to show how connections among NLSI, TPS and ISU can be developed to propagate NLSI's interdisciplinary knowledge throughout the world.

Burke, J. D.; Lakdawalla, E. S.

2011-12-01

363

Reference Mission Version 3.0 Addendum to the Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Addendum to the Mars Reference Mission summarizes changes and updates to the Mars Reference Missions that were developed by the Exploration Office since the final draft of SP 6107 'Human Exploration of Mars...' (N19980037039) was printed in early 199...

1998-01-01

364

NASA Academies  

NASA Website

[Students Higher Education] [Available: Nationally & Internationally] The NASA Academy is an intensive ten-week leadership development project for highly motivated and successful undergraduate and graduate students.

365

Game theory basis for control of long-lived lunar\\/planetary surface robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current and future NASA robotic missions to planetary surfaces are tending toward longer duration and are becoming more ambitious\\u000a for rough terrain access. For a higher level of autonomy in such missions, the rovers will require behavior that must also\\u000a adapt to declining health and unknown environmental conditions. The MER (Mars Exploration Rovers) called Spirit and Opportunity\\u000a have both passed

Terry L. Huntsberger; Abhijit Sengupta

2006-01-01

366

Overview of the 2008 COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2008 the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection held a Policy Workshop in Mont?al, Canada to consider a number of recommendations that had been suggested at prior e Panel business meetings for updating and clarifying the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy that had been adopted at the World Space Congress in 2002. One particular element of the Policy that was due for clarification was the definition of "Special Regions" on Mars, which was discussed by the Panel at a Special Regions Colloquium in Rome in September 2008, and which was recommended for updating by both the US National Research Council's Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars and by a Special Regions Science Analysis Group organized by NASA under its Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group in 2006. In other business, the Workshop also discussed and adopted wording to reflect the planetary protection considerations associated with future human missions to Mars (subsequent to several NASA and ESA workshops defining those), and addressed the planetary protection categorizations of both Venus and the Earth's Moon. The Workshop also defined a plan to move forward on the categorization of Outer Planet Satellites (to be done in conjunction with SC's B and F), and revised certain portions of the wording of the 1983 version of the COSPAR policy statement, emphasized full participation by all national members in planetary protection decisions and the need to study the ethical considerations of space exploration, and provided for a traceable version of the policy to be assembled and maintained by the Panel. This talk will review the Mont?al Workshop, and use its themes to introduce the remaining speakers in the session. e

Rummel, John

367

NASA Museum Alliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Museum Alliance is a nationwide network of informal educators at museums, science centers, and planetariums that present NASA information to their local audiences. Begun in 2002 as the Mars Museum Visualization Alliance with advisors from a dozen museums, the network has grown to over 300 people from 200 organizations, including a dozen or so international partners. The network has become a community of practice among these informal educators who work with students, educators, and the general public on a daily basis, presenting information and fielding questions about space exploration. Communications are primarily through an active listserve, regular telecons, and a password-protected website. Professional development is delivered via telecons and downloadable presentations. Current content offerings include Mars exploration, Cassini, Stardust, Genesis, Deep Impact, Earth observations, STEREO, and missions to explore beyond our solar system.

Sohus, Anita

2006-12-01

368

Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute for the period July to December 1984 are discussed. Functions of its departments and projects are summarized. These include: planetary image center; library information center; computer center; production services; scientific staff; visitors program; scientific projects; conferences; workshops; seminars; publications and communications; panels, teams, committees and working groups; NASA-AMES vertical gun range (AVGR); and lunar and planetary science council.

1985-05-01

369

NASA Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators and students can find a variety of materials designed for support in the areas of science, mathematics, and technology on the NASA Education website. Resources are available on NASA education programs including specific areas for kids, students and educators in the elementary, secondary, higher and informal education arenas.

Canright, Shelley

2011-06-30

370

NASA Now Minute: Exercise Physiology: Countermeasures  

NASA Video Gallery

Aaron Weaver, a biomedical engineer, discusses the importance of doing exercise while in space and provides a glimpse into one of NASA’s laboratories developing and improving the exercise equipment for astronauts on board the International Space Station. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-11-29

371

Future Exploration of Titan and Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future exploration of Titan and Enceladus has become very important for the planetary community. The study conducted last year of the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) led to an announcement in which ESA and NASA prioritized future OPF missions, stating that TSSM is planned after EJSM (for details see http:\\/\\/www.lpi.usra.edu\\/opag\\/). TSSM consists of a TSSM Orbiter that would carry

D. L. Matson; A. Coustenis; J. Lunine; J. Lebreton; K. Reh; P. Beauchamp

2009-01-01

372

Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ? 850–1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (? 3–10), the NTR can also be configured as a “dual mode” system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present,

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke

1994-01-01

373

Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present,

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke

1994-01-01

374

NASA at the crossroad  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the quarter-century that Technology in Society has been published, great strides have been made in planetary exploration and space flight in near-Earth orbit, both with robotic spacecraft and with piloted space vehicles. Robotic spacecraft have visited every planet in the solar system and several hundred people have been in space learning how to live and work in that environment.

Hans Mark

2004-01-01

375

Outer Planet Assessment Group (OPAG) Recommended Exploration Strategy for the Outer Planets 2013-2022  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Outer Solar System provides critical clues to how solar systems form and evolve, how planetary systems become habitable, and how life has evolved in our solar system. NASA's Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) was established to identify scientific priorities and pathways for Outer Solar System exploration. Fundamental new discoveries are best made with a mixture of mission sizes that

William B. McKinnon

2010-01-01

376

Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning (REAL) is an innovative and new approach to student learning that thoughtfully integrates the excitement of space science discovery with science and mathematics. Students explore NASA images of planetary surfaces using the contexts of crater density, cratering rates, and surface age while developing critical thinking skills in science and mathematics that can be applied to any number of real life situations. Project REAL participants develop, implement, and evaluate an integrated astronomy curriculum designed for middle level students that focuses on the tools necessary for astronomy research concerning the origins and evolution of surface features on planetary bodies within our Solar System. Through the REAL curriculum, students experience the excitement of exploration by becoming authentic space science researchers. Students are provided with opportunities to: • Engage in hands-on space science research • Both quantitatively and qualitatively understand the phases of the Moon, and the origins and evolution of specific features on the surfaces of planetary bodies within our Solar System • Communicate their own scientific thinking and to understand others’ scientific thinking We present year one's findings concerning the state and effectiveness of this REAL curriculum funded by a NASA-IDEAS grant.

Wilhelm, Jennifer; Wilhelm, R.

2007-12-01

377

NASA: a path dependent organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission agencies like NASA are complex systems, connecting people with science and technology to accomplish the desired tasks. Path dependence can help explain why NASA and other mission agencies often sacrifice long-term capabilities for short-term survival. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, followed by President Kennedy’s challenge, catapulted NASA to the moon, encouraged human exploration, and sped up

David Bruggeman

2002-01-01

378

Planetary rings  

SciTech Connect

Among the topics discussed are the development history of planetary ring research, the view of planetary rings in astronomy and cosmology over the period 1600-1900, the characteristics of the ring systems of Saturn and Uranus, the ethereal rings of Jupiter and Saturn, dust-magnetosphere interactions, the effects of radiation forces on dust particles, the collisional interactions and physical nature of ring particles, transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms, and collision-induced transport processes in planetary rings. Also discussed are planetary ring waves, ring particle dynamics in resonances, the dynamics of narrow rings, the origin and evolution of planetary rings, the solar nebula and planetary disk, future studies of the planetary rings by space probes, ground-based observatories and earth-orbiting satellites, and unsolved problems in planetary ring dynamics.

Greenberg, R.; Brahic, A.

1984-01-01

379

Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In his letter introducing the new 2011 Strategic Plan for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the administrator of NASA referred to the importance of laying the groundwork for a sustainable program of exploration and innovation (NASA...

2011-01-01

380

Nasa Langley Research Center Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Publications, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following are presented: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Charter; Exploring NASA's Roots, the History of NASA Langley Research Center; NASA Langley's National Historic Landmarks; The Mustang Story: Recollections of the XP-51; Testing t...

1992-01-01

381

The Planetary Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This non-profit organization seeks to inspire the people of Earth through education, research, and public participation to explore other worlds and seek other life. Their website offers special sections on: taking political action in support of space exploration; the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI); near-earth objects, such as asteroids and comets; the Red Rover Goes to Mars (RRGTM) Project, which aims to connect students with Mars exploration; the Red Rover, Red Rover Project, where students build model Mars rovers out of LEGO kits; and much more. The Learning Center provides guides to the solar system and lunar and planetary missions, a student activities section, and a planetary art gallery.

382

Planetary Ionospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most planets and many satellites in our solar system are surrounded by envelopes of gravitationally bound gases. The interaction of solar radiation and charged particles of solar wind and planetary magnetospheric origin with these gases produces weak IONIZATION that creates planetary ionospheres embedded within the more dense PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. Additional sources of ionization which are relat...

Strobel, D.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

383

NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

384

Operation of the Planetary Plasma Interactions Node of the Planetary Data System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five years ago NASA selected the Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) Node at UCLA to help the scientific community locate, access and preserve particles and fields data from planetary missions. We propose to continue to serve for 5 more years. During the ...

R. J. Walker

1997-01-01

385

Professional Development Workshops for K-8 Teachers at the Planetary Science Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using NASA data sets, results of currently funded NASA research investigations, and a team of Earth and space scientists and educators, the Planetary Science Institute (PSI), in partnership with the Tucson Regional Science Center (RSC), is offering a series of professional development workshops targeting elementary and middle school teachers within the Tucson, Arizona region. Capitalizing on the curiosity, enthusiasm, and inspiration created by NASA missions, images, and data, we are encouraging interest in planetary science and space exploration to enhance Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) learning and teaching. Workshop participants are given the opportunity to improve their content knowledge and conceptual understanding of fundamental concepts in astronomy, geology, and planetary science, which in turn leads to their greater scientific confidence and more positive attitudes towards science. Teacher interaction with scientists during and after our workshops helps them to better model science practices and to identify potential career paths for their students. The current program includes offering three workshops: The Moon-Earth System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, and Impact Cratering with a plan to develop additional workshops (e.g., Volcanoes of the Solar System) and to increase distribution to locations other than southern Arizona.

Lebofsky, L. A.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Caniso, T. L.; Croft, S. K.; Crown, D. A.; Pierazzo, E.

2009-12-01

386

Requirements for Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the exploration of other planets and the search for life outside of Earth, the unique capabilities provided by human astronauts will only be advantageous if the biological contamination associated with human presence is understood and controlled. Thus, Planetary Protection is a critical element in the human exploration of other solar system bodies, and should be incorporated from the earliest stages of mission planning and development. The issues covered by Planetary Protection involve both 'forward contamination,' or the contamination of other solar system bodies by Earth microbes and organic materials, and 'backward contamination,' which is the contamination of Earth systems by potential alien life. Forward contamination concerns include contamination that might invalidate current or future scientific exploration of a particular solar system body, and/or might disrupt the planetary environment or a potential endogenous (alien) ecosystem. Backward contamination concerns include both immediate and long-term effects on the health of the astronaut explorers from possible biologically-active materials encountered during exploration, as well as the possible contamination of the Earth. Although some degree of forward contamination associated with human astronaut explorers is inevitable, the principles and policies of Planetary Protection that have been imposed on robotic missions by the 1967 Outer Space Treaty should be followed to the greatest extent possible when humans are exploring space. A number of national and international workshops held over the last six years have generated a consensus framework on Planetary Protetction policies and requirements for human missions to Mars, and a 2007 workshop held by NASA has considered the issues and benefits to Planetary Protection that might be offered by a return to the Moon. Conclusions from these workshops are presented and synthesized in the context of future international missions of human exploration.

Conley, Catharine

387

NASA Mission: The Universe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four ch...

1990-01-01

388

International Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal Planetary Database Development Project 'the International Planetary Data Alliance'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formed under COSPAR in 2008, is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive standards that make it easier to share data across international boundaries. In June - July 2009, we held the 4th Steering Committee meeting. Thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions in the world, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA & N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. The projects demonstrated the feasibility of sharing data and emphasized the importance of developing common data standards to ensure world-wide access to international planetary archives. The Venus Express Interoperability project leveraged standards and technology efforts from both the Planetary Data System (PDS) and IPDA in order to deliver a new capability for data sharing between NASA/PDS and ESA/PSA. This project demonstrated a model and framework for linking compliant planetary archive systems for future international missions. The next step for IPDA, during the 2009-2010 period, will be to work with NASA/PDS to review and participate in an upgrade of its standards to improve both the consistency of the standards to build compliant international archives as well as improve long-term usability of the science data products. This paper presents the achievements and plans, which will be summarized in the paper which will appear in 'Space Research Today' in December 2009.

Kasaba, Yasumasa; Crichton, D.; Capria, M. T.; Beebe, R.; Zender, J.

2009-09-01

389

Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration.  

PubMed

This paper uses a finite element method (FEM) to compare predictions of the attenuation and sound speeds of acoustic modes in a fluid-filled pipe with those of the analytical model presented in the first paper in this series. It explains why, when the predictions of the earlier paper were compared with experimental data from a water-filled PMMA pipe, the uncertainties and agreement for attenuation data were worse than those for sound speed data. Having validated the FEM approach in this way, the versatility of FEM is thereafter demonstrated by modeling two practical applications which are beyond the analysis of the earlier paper. These applications model propagation in the mercury-filled steel pipework of the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee), and in a long-standing design for acoustic sensors for use on planetary probes. The results show that strong coupling between the fluid and the solid walls means that erroneous interpretations are made of the data if they assume that the sound speed and attenuation in the fluid in the pipe are the same as those that would be measured in an infinite volume of identical fluid, assumptions which are common when such data have previously been interpreted. PMID:21877784

Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin; Leighton, Timothy G

2011-08-01

390

Overview of NASA Cryocooler Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises, as well as augmenting existing capabilities in space exploration. An over-view is presented of on-going efforts at the Goddard Space Flight ...

R. F. Boyle R. G. Ross

2001-01-01

391

Hands-on Activities for Exploring the Solar System in K-14 Formal and Informal Education Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Activities developed by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. Educators may choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum from activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to exploring the solar system. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help

J. S. Allen; K. W. Tobola

2004-01-01

392

Highlighting Your Science to NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effort is underway to provide greater visibility within NASA headquarters, and to those who provide funding to NASA, of the outstanding work that is being performed by scientists involved in the Solar System Exploration Research and Analysis Programs, most of whom are DPS members. In support of this effort, a new feature has been developed for the NASA Headquarters Solar System Exploration Division web site whereby researchers can provide a synopsis of their current research results. The site (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/spotlight/ - Username: your email address Password: sse) is an online submission area where NASA-funded scientists can upload the results of their research. There they provide their contact information, briefly describe their research, and upload any associated images or graphics. The information is available to a limited number of reviewers and writers at JPL. Each month, one researcher's work will be chosen as a science spotlight. After a writer interviews the scientist, a brief Power Point presentation that encapsulates their work will be given to Dr. Colleen Hartman at NASA headquarters. She will then present the exciting findings to Associate Administrator for Space Science, Dr. Ed Weiler. The information from some of these highlights can serve as a basis to bring Principal Investigators to NASA Headquarters for exposure to media through Space Science Updates on NASA television. In addition, the science results may also be incorporated into briefing material for the Office of Management and Budget and congressional staffers. Some spotlights will also be converted into feature stories for the Solar System Exploration website so the public, too, can learn about exciting new research. The site, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/, is one of NASA's most visited. Over the past decade, there has been a trend of flat budgets for Research and Analysis activities. By giving more visibility to results of Solar System research, our goal is to encourage higher program funding levels from Congress and demonstrate the relevance of NASA research to the American public in general.

Sharkey, C.

2003-12-01

393

Comparing Apollo and Mars Exploration Rover (MER)/phoenix operations paradigms for human exploration during NASA Desert-RATS science operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field tested two models of human-in-the-loop remote field geology: one based on the Apollo science backroom that integrated tactical and strategic decisions, and one that separated tactical and strategic processes as utilized during the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and Mars Phoenix Scout missions. The 2010 D-RATS field test was the first attempt at integrating best practices from these two models, to determine how best to maximize science return from future missions.The Apollo model was utilized in 2008 and 2009 as a way to integrate science into field analog studies; the model allowed for real time communications between the crew on the surface and the scientists in the backroom. This model greatly improved efficiency of field operations and scientific return, but did not allow sufficient time for hypotheses to mature to the point where they could inform operations. The MER/Phoenix model, adapted for the 2010 D-RATS test, divided the responsibilities and processes of tactical science and strategic science. This division provided opportunities to discuss science results in greater detail so that the overall planning of science observations could be iterative rather than static. However, because of the nearly complete separation of the two science teams, there was a great deal of repeated effort as the strategic team had no prior knowledge of the tactical process and the observations that led to certain tactical decisions.Lessons learned from 2010 D-RATS science operations include: (1) well-trained geologists on the crew and a science backroom with which that crew can interact are both critical components for maximizing science return; (2) sufficient time or another mechanism that increases time available to be spent on science analysis must be built into the system to allow free rein to the scientific process; (3) data flow must be improved so that time is not wasted in repetitive review of acquired datasets; and (4) stable, high-fidelity communication must be available for any science activity where humans are in the loop.

Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Ming, D. W.; Eppler, D. B.

2013-10-01

394

NASA: Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this NASA website, kids will enjoy learning about astronomy through fun games, articles, and activities. Through online storybooks, users can learn about ancient sundials and our sun. The website offers matching games, a short video about Earth's daily cycle, and crossword puzzles. Students can learn how to make sundials, models of planets, solar oven, and many other space science-related tools and phenomena. The website furnishes links to kids' websites for many of NASA's missions, where users can find numerous additional activities, interesting stories, and fun facts.

395

NASA Now Minute: Engineering: Friction Stir Welding  

NASA Video Gallery

Shane Brooke, welding engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discusses friction stir welding and its use in the engineering of spacecraft. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2013-01-30

396

NASA Now Minute: EARTH DAY -- Smog Blogger  

NASA Video Gallery

Dr. Raymond Hoff defines smog and describes how it affects the quality of the air we breathe. Learn how to find the amount of air pollution on any given day where you live. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-04-25

397

Planetary Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Space Science Data Center of NASA, the Planetary Fact Sheets Web site contains helpful information for students studying astronomy. The site lists links to all of the planets, their satellites, and their rings, as well as to tables comparing all the planets. The planet pages contain a photograph and a simple list of dozens of facts such as mass, volume, distance to the earth, temperature, and much more. Although not flashy, the information provided by this site can be very useful to anyone wanting to learn more about our solar system.

1969-12-31

398

Reviewing NASA research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent report by NASA's Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee cautions against assigning the space agency's research and analysis efforts a lower priority than flight operations. If pre- and post-mission science continue to take a back seat to the actual building and launching of spacecraft, the report warns, it may eventually compromise NASA's ability to ensure U.S. leadership in space science.The report was written by a working group consisting of both NASA personnel and earth and space scientists from the academic community. The group was asked in May 1983 to examine the health of the research and analysis (R&A) program conducted by NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) in the earth and space sciences. While the group found that the quality of research management by scientists at NASA Headquarters was “impressive,” it also identified a critical shortage of cash for R&A programs. According to the report, “the immediate requirements involve an increase of about $10 million in each of the Astrophysics, Earth Science and Applications, and Solar System Exploration divisions, thereby establishing a new base funding level for these activities.”

399

NASA's Astrophysics Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environment in which NASA and other Government agencies are operating is constantly changing. It is significantly different from the environment assumed by the recent 2010 Decadal Survey. NASA has described its plans for responding to the Decadal Survey in its 2012 Astrophysics Implementation Plan (http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/documents/). The NASA Astrophysics Division plans to: Enable the science and priorities identified by the Decadal Survey with new activities as well as through ongoing missions, including large missions, medium missions, and Explorers; Invest in the Astrophysics Research Program for developing the science cases and technologies of new missions and for maximizing the scientific return from operating missions; Engage in effective international and interagency partnerships that leverage NASA resources and extend the reach of our science results; Conduct studies of WFIRST and candidate probes that derive from the activities prioritized in the Decadal Survey and are responsive to the Decadal Survey science questions; Be prepared to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the Decadal Survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope.

Hertz, Paul L.

2013-04-01

400

Rediscovering Kepler's laws using Newton's gravitation law and NASA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were originally discovered by using data acquired from Tycho Brache's naked eye observations of the planets. We show how Kepler's third law can be reproduced using planetary data from NASA. We will also be using Newton's Gravitational law to explain why Kepler's three laws exist as they do.

Paul Springsteen; Jason Keith

2010-01-01

401

NASA Now Minute: MESSENGER in Orbit  

NASA Video Gallery

In this week's NASA Now episode, Dr. Larry Evans, Senior Scientist for MESSENGER, discusses the difficulty of getting to Mercury, the challenges of visiting a planet so close to the sun and what we hope to discover when the spacecraft gets there. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-03-11

402

Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z  

SciTech Connect

Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Not Available

1993-01-01

403

NASA Now Minute: Earth and the Solar System: Juno  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, Tracy Drain, a Juno systems engineer from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., discusses the Juno spacecraft and what scientists hope to learn when it reaches Jupiter. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-06-12

404

NASA Now Minute: The Mechanics of Solar Panels  

NASA Video Gallery

Solar energy is the primary source of power for today's NASA missions. In this NASA Now, Jeremiah McNatt, electrical engineer at NASA's Glenn Research Center, will demonstrate how solar cells are made and used on the International Space Station. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-02-09

405

Visualization of Space-Time Ambiguities to be Explored by the NASA GEC Mission with a Critique of Synthesized Measurements for Different GEC Mission Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this grant was to study how a multi-satellite mission configuration can be optimized for maximum exploratory scientific return. NASA's Solar Terrestrial Probe (STP) concept mission Geospace Electrodynamic Connections (GEC) was the target ...

J. J. Sojka L. Zhu T. J. Fuller-Rowell

2005-01-01

406

NASA space photovoltaic research and technology programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA programs for increasing conversion efficiency, reduced mass and cost, and extending operating life of photovoltaic converters and arrays and for evaluating advanced solar array concepts are outlined. Research into radiation resistance and annealing, development of thin blankets, high-power low-cost arrays, and lightweight structures for near-Earth and planetary applications are discussed.

Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

1982-06-01

407

Improving Access to Planetary Data for Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the years the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has collected an enormous amount of observational data from space missions. Using this scientific data in high school or college science education courses can be invaluable. Factors that impeded wide spread use of NASA planetary data in science education include accessibility to data and freely available software tools used to analyze and visually model planetary data sets. To address these issues we created a Graphical Analyses and Visualization Software Tool for Planetary Data (GAVPD). GAVPD is a web based software tool that can be used to visualize and analyze planetary data over the internet. GAVPD has a simple web based interface that allows users to create visual projections of altimeter data and make 2D and 3D surface measurements graphically. GAVPD is in currently a prototype and work is underway to extend its capability to other types of data sets.

Montgomery, J.

2005-12-01

408

NASA: Habitable Worlds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Habitable Worlds website encourages visitors to "search the solar system for signs of life," by selecting a "World to Explore." This creatively designed website smartly displays our solar system's colorful planets or worlds amidst the dark background of space. In order to gain in-depth information specific to each planet, users simply click on the world of their choosing. Each planet page provides beautiful images and information about habitability, moons, and more.

409

Scaling Up Decision Theoretic Planning to Planetary Rover Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of communication limits, planetary rovers must operate autonomously during consequent durations. The ability to plan under uncertainty is one of the main components of autonomy. Previous approaches to planning under uncertainty in NASA application...

N. Meuleau R. Dearden R. Washington

2004-01-01

410

ARTEMIS, A Two Spacecraft, Planetary and Heliospheric Lunar Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARTEMIS is re-targeting two of NASA's five THEMIS satellites into coordinated, lunar equatorial orbits. It will make the first systematic, two-point observations of the lunar space and planetary environment starting in April 2011.

Angelopoulos, V.; Lillis, R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Halekas, J.; Delory, G. T.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J.; Larson, D.

2010-03-01

411

Planetary Protection Considerations for Human And Robotic Missions to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating planetary protection into human missions, as supported by NASA Policy Directive NPD 8020.7G, is essential to preventing the forward contamination of Mars, ensuring astronaut health, and preventing backward contamination of Earth.

Mogul, R.; Stabekis, P. D.; Race, M. S.; Conley, C. A.

2012-06-01

412

Planetary Space Sciences and Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of planetary data archives is governed largely by data producers and data archivists. Because each group possesses a nearly unique domain knowledge, it is important for these groups to interact in early mission planning phases, and to continue collaboration through the data acquisition phase and beyond. When communication between the groups is limited, the value of the science data can suffer. This abstract discusses ways in which early and regular interaction between the Planetary Data System and data producers is beneficial. NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS)—-a federation of discipline and support nodes—-provides expertise to guide and assist missions, programs, and individuals to organize and document digital data that can be used to support NASA's goals in planetary science and Solar System exploration. Then, PDS makes these data accessible to users in the scientific community, and ensures the long-term preservation and usability of the data. Data archiving requirements for NASA planetary missions are written into mission announce-ments of opportunity. PDS provides a pre-proposal briefing on data archiving requirements to potential proposers, and the proposal data archiving section is reviewed by PDS. After a mission is selected, one PDS node is designated the "lead node", i.e., the primary PDS group that interacts with mission personnel. At this point, data archiving working groups are formed, and project data management and archive plans are developed to define data to be archived. Additional documents are created that detail data product and archive volume structure. Archive documents and sample data are peer-reviewed by the science community prior to data acquisition. During the active data acquisition phase, raw and processed data products, labels (metadata) and documentation are produced by the mission science team. Preliminary and quick-look data often are made accessible via project and PDS web pages. Data products submitted for archiving are validated by PDS. Liens found at this stage—-typically few, due to previous work carried out between the data producer and PDS—-are corrected prior to public release. At public release, data products are added to the PDS archive and are made available online. These data are maintained by means of periodic media refreshes. PDS provides data, documentation, and science expertise to users. In addition, PDS works with data providers to make available new and updated data products. One example of the effectiveness of this approach is the Phoenix Mars Lander mission. The PDS Geosciences Node served as the lead archiving node for this mission. During the mission proposal phase, PDS provided an explanation of data archiving requirements. After the mission was selected, PDS and the Phoenix science team collaborated to produce the archive and data management plan that guided the mission's data archiving process. A data archive working group was formed to assist the mission science team with the archive process. During the prelaunch mission phase for Phoenix the PDS worked with members of the science team to create archive-ready data products that supported the mission objectives and the needs of the science community. At the same time, PDS used input from the science team when creating the Analyst's Notebook for Phoenix, a web-based interface for accessing the mission data archives by integrating sequence information, science data, and documentation. The Phoenix science team invited PDS to be involved in a number of science team meetings, and the Analyst's Notebook was used by the mission science team during operations. Feedback from the team was incorporated into updates and enhancements within the Analyst's Notebook prior to its public release (http://an.rsl.wustl.edu). The importance of producer-archivist interaction is evident in the archives of the Phoenix and other missions with similar strong collaborations, such as Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Global Surveyor.

Stein, Thomas

413

PDS (Planetary Data System) Geosciences Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website provides access to archived and digital data related to the study of the surfaces and interiors of terrestrial planetary bodies (i.e. Mars, Venus, Moon, Earth and Asteroids). Organized by planetary body and mission, this site provides links to copious amounts of data, including links to all of the Mars-related data sets. The data sets are listed by mission, such as Odyssey, Pathfinder, etc.

Louis, Washington U.; Administration, National A.

414

Planetary protection for Mars sample return  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Mars Exploration Program has recently adopted a plan that includes a first Mars sample return (MSR) mission in 2013. Such a mission would deal with two new categories of planetary protection requirements: (1) assuring a very low probability of inadvertent release of the sample in order to provide extra protection against the extremely unlikely possibility of biological hazards in the returned material and (2) keeping the samples free of round-trip Earth organisms to facilitate confirmation of safety after return to Earth. This presentation describes the planetary-protection-related technical challenges awaiting any MSR mission and provides an update on work in progress to develop capabilities needed to meet these challenges. Containment assurance would require breaking the chain of contact with Mars: the exterior of the sample container must not be contaminated with Mars material either during the loading process or during launch from the Mars surface. Also, the sample container and its seals must survive Earth impacts corresponding to the candidate mission profiles, the Earth return vehicle must provide accurate delivery to the Earth entry corridor, and the Earth entry vehicle must withstand the thermal and structural rigors of Earth atmosphere entry (all with an unprecedented degree of confidence). Round-trip Earth organisms must be avoided by sterilizing the entire spacecraft, a challenge with modern avionics, or by sterilizing the sample collection and containment gear and then isolating it from other parts of the spacecraft.

Gershman, R.

415

Surface and Downhole Prospecting Tools for Planetary Exploration: Tests of Neutron and Gamma Ray Probes - Research Paper  

SciTech Connect

The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon’s poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to “illuminate” surrounding materials and gauge the instruments’ efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition.

R. C. Elphic; P. Chu; S. Hahn; M. R. James; D. J. Lawrence; T. H. Prettyman; J. B. Johnson; R. K. Podgorney

2008-06-01

416

NASA Shuttle-Mir Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shuttle/Mir site describes the cooperation, investigation, and operation components of the Shuttle/Mir project. Visitors can also find the latest space station news, information on the crew, videos, photos, and tracking information (through Hot Borsht). NASA related sites describe current happenings at NASA and also provide homepages of NASA missions including the Cassini space probe, the Mars Global Surveyor and, most recently, the launch of the Columbia space shuttle. Space exploration provides clues to how the solar system was formed, why life exists on earth and not on other known planets, and what the structures of the universe, matter, and energy are.

1998-01-01

417

The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Space Science (OSS) recently created a new Education ``Ecosystem'' structure to reach out to the K-14 and general public communities with the wonder and excitement of NASA discoveries. As part of this Ecosystem, four Education Forums are being established at major institutions active in each of the space science themes: the Structure and Evolution of the Universe; the Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems; Solar System Exploration; and the Sun-Earth Connection. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of California at Berkeley have formed an innovative partnership to become the Education Forum for the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) theme. Our goal is to tap SEC NASA science knowledge and mission discoveries to: (a) excite and inspire students of all backgrounds and ages to the wonders of space and solar physics in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their daily lives; (b) achieve significant and sustained enhancement of science, mathematics, and technology education at K-14 (kindergarten through community college) levels; (c) provide tools and assistance to educators; (d) help develop an appreciation of the analytical approach of science; and (e) contribute to the scientific and technological literacy of the general public. We will present a summary of the expected scope and timeline of the SEC Forum, with particular emphasis on how the Forum structure will benefit and assist solar and space physicists and other SEC scientists in the context of their education outreach activities.

Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.; Alcorn, K.; Thieman, J.

1997-12-01

418

A space-based end-to-end prototype geographic information network for lunar and planetary exploration and emergency response (2002 and 2003 field experiments)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communications and imaging experiments conducted in the Arizona desert during July of 2002 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) helped to identify a fundamental suite of scientific instruments focused on surface composition and temperature determination for the calibration and validation of NASA and USGS spaceborne and airborne sensors and to integrate

Richard A. Beck; Robert K. Vincent; Doyle W. Watts; Marc A. Seibert; David P. Pleva; Michael A. Cauley; Calvin T. Ramos; Theresa M. Scott; Dean W. Harter; Mary Vickerman; David Irmies; Al Tucholski; Brian Frantz; Glenn Lindamood; Isaac Lopez; Gregory J. Follen; Thaddeus J. Kollar; Jay Horowitz; Robert Griffin; Raymond Gilstrap; Marjory J. Johnson; Kenneth Freeman; Celeste Banaag; Joseph Kosmo; Amy Ross; Kevin Groneman; Jeffrey Graham; Kim Shillcutt; Robert Hirsh; Nathan Howard; Dean B. Eppler

2005-01-01

419

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Cameras (LROC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2008 as part of NASA s Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and is the first spacecraft to be built as part of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration The orbiter will be equipped with seven scientific instrument packages one of which is LROC The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

M. Robinson; A. McEwen; E. Eliason; B. Joliff; H. Hiesinger; M. Malin; P. Thomas; E. Turtle; S. Brylow

2006-01-01

420

Understanding the Heliospheric Environment for NASA's Spacefleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently the U S National Aeronautics and Space Administration has more than 50 active robotic science satellites seven active communications satellites and the manned International Space Station With this investment NASA has a responsibility to protect its space assets throughout the solar system For humans this function is performed by the Space Radiation Analysis Group at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas But for robotic explorers this function is performed only on an ad hoc basis Space environmental awareness is missing for much of the existing fleet beyond Earth-orbit and it is required for anomaly resolution and good stewardship of our national assets Engineers require this information to make a complete assessment of the root cause of operational anomalies Threats to space assets arise from many sources on a wide range of timescales direct effects of radiation and energetic particles on robotic and human explorers indirect and delayed effects on the heliosphere e g MHD shocks on planetary magnetospheres e g transient radiation belts and on atmospheres e g aerobraking and long term solar cycle predictions Because environmental assessment throughout the heliosphere is not yet operational it requires interpretation of data heterogeneous in form and quality groundbased and spacebased as well as interaction with sophisticated numerical models A conceptual study of environmental conditions was done on an ad hoc basis for a failure at Mars in 2004 Here we will describe recent efforts and discuss near-term plans at

St. Cyr, O. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Rowland, D. E.; Hesse, M.

421

Planetary geodesy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in planetary geodesy in the United States during the period 1975–1978 has benefitted from data obtained by a number of U.S. planetary spacecraft and from some exciting ground-based and aircraft-based observations. Continuing analyses of data from the Mariner 9 orbiter of Mars obtained in 1971 and 1972, the Pioneer 10 and 11 fly-bys of Jupiter in 1973 and 1974,

William H. Michael

1979-01-01

422

Exoplanet Science from NASA’s Kepler Mission  

SciTech Connect

NASA's exoplanet mission is the world's premier instrument for the discovery and study of planets orbiting distant stars. As the nominal mission comes to a close, Kepler has discovered nearly 2500 planet candidates, confirmed dozens of multi-planet systems, provided important insights into the orbital architectures of planetary systems, identified specific systems that challenge theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution, has revolutionized our understanding of stellar interiors, and is gearing to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars in its extended mission phase. I present the most recent results from the Kepler mission.

Steffen, Jason [Northwestern University

2012-09-12

423

Approaches for Promoting Lunar and Planetary Science in Higher Education Curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE) at the Lunar and Planetary Institute has formed a higher-education consortium comprising a group of educators throughout the states of Texas and Oklahoma, all of who are committed to furthering the inclusion of lunar and planetary science in university-level curricula. Members of the Consortium represent the spectrum of higher-educational venues, from research universities to small colleges. They also teach planetary science in a range of settings, from specialized graduate/undergraduate courses to introductory undergraduate courses in general science that incorporate a wide range of other topics. One of the top-level goals of the Consortium is to provide an online forum and a network of educators that can share teaching materials, including: illustrations and animations of scientific concepts; syllabi and lesson plans; and laboratory and other exercises. These materials are being shared with the entire community through the CLSE website (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/), and a series of workshops has been held with participating members of the Consortium to continue to develop and solicit content. A specific avenue of bringing lunar and planetary content into the classroom that has been discussed and experimented with over the past two years involves planetary analogs. Participatory exercises developed around the author's work with NASA analog field tests has been used in several classroom lab exercises in a planetary science course, a remote sensing course, and a introductory geologic mapping course. These efforts have proven fruitful in engaging the students in lunar and planetary exploration science.

Hurtado, J. M.; Center for Lunar Science Education; Higher Education Consortium

2011-12-01

424

Mars orbiter planetary protection: requirements, implementation, and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Planetary Protection requirements are consistent with COSPAR Policy on Planetary Protection. In the case of Mars orbital missions, the policy stipulates that an orbiter mission may meet requirements either by meeting orbital lifetime requirements or meeting Viking lander presterilization bioburden levels. For both Mars Global Surveyor and 2002 Mars Odyssey, the projects elected to meet orbital lifetime requirements, and

M. Meyer

2002-01-01

425

The Planetary Data System (PDS) and Cassini's Historic Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Planetary Data System (PDS) is the chosen repository in which data from NASA's historic Cassini Mission to Saturn is archived. Not one, but several nodes of the PDS contain the data: the Imaging Node, the Rings Node, the Atmospheres Node, and the Planetary Plasma Interactions Node. Other relevant PDS nodes for the purposes of making best use of the

C. J. Alexander; R. F. Beebe; R. T. Pappalardo

2009-01-01

426

ExoMars: Planetary Protection Status and Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ExoMars Program will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Decla-ration and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Two missions are foreseen within the ExoMars program for 2016 and 2018 launch opportunities to Mars: 2016 mission with ESA Orbiter Module (OM) providing communication with the Earth and carrying NASA scientific instruments and the ESA Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator (EDM, 600kg); NASA lead 2018 mission with an ESA Rover Module (RM, 300 kg) accommodated in the Sky Crane together with NASA rover. The EDM will test the Entry, Descent and Landing of a payload on the surface of Mars. The ESA RM will travel several kilometers performing environmental investigations and looking for traces of past and present life signs, by collecting and analyzing samples from within surface rocks and from the subsurface. The planetary protection pol-icy of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the particular sensitivity of the life detection investigations establish stringent contamination control constraints for the two Exo-Mars missions. Particulate, molecular and bioburden contamination control beyond the level of standard spacecraft is required for the flight system as well as for the assembly, test, and launch environment. The ExoMars mission can be classified as Planetary Protection Category III for the OM and Category IVa for the EDM in 2016. The Rover Module in 2018 is part of a Category IVb mission. Main scientific objective of the 2018 mission is searching for traces of past or extant life in terms of amino acids and other organic molecules by using on board instruments characterized by an extremely high sensitivity. This mission would hence permit a great improvement of the knowledge about the Red Planet environment and the identification of possible surface hazards for future human exploration missions. During the mission, samples of Mars soil will be acquired down to a depth of 2 meters by using a robotic drill mounted on the Rover vehicle. Once acquired, the samples will be conveyed inside the vehicle core and provided to an Analytical Laboratory Drawer (ALD) where they will be crushed and analyzed. While the Planetary Protection implementation approach of the 2016 mission could be considered similar to those of previous Landers (e.g.: PTF, MER, Phoenix), the highly sensitive direct search for life in 2018 mission poses many challenges for implementation of the practical issues associated with achieving the extremely high levels of bioburden and contamination control. This paper describes the technical implementation of the planetary protection and cleanliness and contamination requirements proposed by the Prime Contractor for the ExoMars missions.

Guarnieri, Vincenzo

427

Simultaneous observations of the Martian atmosphere by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on Mars Express and Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Exploration Rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere of Mars from simultaneous observations performed by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) aboard the Mars Express spacecraft and the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Thermal infrared spectra were collected in both the upward and downward looking geometries from the surface and from orbit, respectively. We used two sets of criteria to select PFS observations. These criteria took into account the location around the landing sites of the rovers, the local time (LT), and the solar longitude (Ls) corresponding to the Martian solar day (sol). The first set of criteria included PFS measurements carried out within ±1° in latitude and longitude, within 1 h in local time, and on the same sol. From the restricted set of measurements we conclude that the PFS data are consistent with the Mini-TES data. The next set of criteria covered the area 5° × 5° around the landing sites, within 1 h in local time and within 9 sols. The latter criteria allow us to study the variation of parameters LT, distance, and Ls and their influence on changes of temperature profiles. This comparison for the group with relaxed criteria showed also that local time has strongest effect on temperature differences. The main purpose of this study is to confirm the validity of PFS temperature profiles close to the surface. Atmospheric temperatures below 5 km are retrieved from satellite measurements with a large uncertainty because of poor pieces of information in the wings of the CO2 absorption band at 667 cm-1. The Mini-TES temperature profiles span atmospheric layers below 2 km. The good correspondence observed in a number of cases confirms the possibility of using PFS measurements to investigate the lower atmosphere.

Wolkenberg, P.; Grassi, D.; Formisano, V.; Rinaldi, G.; D'Amore, M.; Smith, M.

2009-04-01

428

NASA study grants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To expand human exploration of the Solar System, the Office of Exploration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has awarded 20 contracts for ideas, concepts, devices, systems, and trajectory, operation and implementation plans. Winning proposals came from five industry-related firms, two organizations in the space-support business, and thirteen universities; they were chosen from 115 entries.Geophysical studies to be supported include site characterization of the Oregon moonbase (Oregon L-5 Society, Inc., Oregon City), evolution of design alternatives for exploration of Mars by balloon (Titan Systems, Inc., San Diego, Calif.), design considerations of a lunar production plant (Boston University, Chestnut Hill, Mass.), planetary materials and resource utilization (Michigan Technological University, Houghton), Mars tethered sample return study (University of Colorado, Boulder), Teleprospector, a teleoperated robotic field geologist (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque), and the International Lunar Polar Orbiter (International Space University, Boston, Mass.).

429

NASA Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Headquarters Library is perfect for anyone doing research or for those would like to find scholarly articles, journals, books, maps, databases, videos, people, websites, or audio files in the fields of Aerospace or Space Science. With dozens of topics to choose from, the user can quickly and easily browse or search for a scholarly journal or article. The site provides the data sorted by area of interest or topic and the lists of the articles and journals are also followed by their respective citation in proper format. Since it is a library, users can request the aid of a librarian to find exactly what he or she is looking for. The site includes links to other similar sites.

2006-11-15

430

NASA Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Oceanography site contains remotely sensed satellite data and modeling techniques to enable the global mapping of seasonal changes in ocean surface topography, currents, waves, winds, phytoplankton content, sea-ice extent, rainfall, sunlight reaching the sea, and sea surface temperature. Studying these patterns at a global scale help forecast and mitigate the disastrous effects of floods and drought. Images generated by ocean observing satellite missions tell us volumes about the most fundamental climate changes. Many of the data resources provide data that tell us about: Ocean surface Topography or Wave Height, Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Surface Winds, Ocean Currents, Ocean Color, and Sea Surface Salinity. The missions profiled include the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM); the Salinity Sea Ice Working Group; and sea surface winds, ocean color, and ocean surface topography/wave height missions.

431

Hypersonic waveriders for planetary atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a hypersonic waverider for application in foreign planetary atmospheres is explored, particularly in regard to aero-assist for space vehicle trajectory modification. The overall concept of hypersonic waveriders is discussed in tutorial fashion. A review of past work is given, and the role of a new family of waveriders - the viscous optimized waveriders generated at the University of Maryland - is highlighted. The mechanics of trajectory modification by aerodynamic vehicles with high lift-to-drag ratios in planetary atmospheres is explored. Actual hypersonic waverider designs for Mars and Venus atmospheres are presented. These are the first waveriders ever presented for foreign planetary atmospheres. Moreover, they exhibit very high lift-to-drag ratios, as high as 15 in the Venus atmosphere. These results graphically demonstrate that a hypersonic waverider is a viable candidate for aero-assist maneuvers in foreign planetary atmospheres.

Anderson, John D., Jr.; Lewis, Mark J.; Kothari, Ajay P.; Corda, Stephen

1990-01-01

432

Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal planetary database development project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formally formed under COSPAR (Formal start: from the COSPAR 2008 at Montreal), is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive stan-dards that make it easier to share the data across international boundaries. In 2008-2009, thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. 'IPDA 2009-2010' is important, especially because the NASA/PDS system reformation is now reviewed as it develops for application at the international level. IPDA is the gate for the establishment of the future infrastructure. We are running 8 projects: (1) IPDA Assessment of PDS4 Data Standards [led by S. Hughes (NASA/JPL)], (2) IPDA Archive Guide [led by M.T. Capria (IASF/INAF) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], (3) IPDA Standards Identification [led by E. Rye (NASA/PDS) and G. Krishna (ISRO)], (4) Ancillary Data Standards [led by C. Acton (NASA/JPL)], (5) IPDA Registries Definition [led by D. Crichton (NASA/JPL)], (6) PDAP Specification [led by J. Salgado (ESA/PSA) and Y. Yamamoto (JAXA)], (7) In-teroperability Assessment [R. Beebe (NMSU) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], and (8) PDAP Geographic Information System (GIS) extension [N. Hirata (Univ. Aizu) and T. Hare (USGS: thare@usgs.gov)]. This paper presents our achievements and plans summarized in the IPDA 5th Steering Com-mittee meeting at DLR in July 2010. We are now just the gate for the establishment of the Infrastructure.

Kasaba, Yasumasa; Capria, M. T.; Crichton, D.; Zender, J.; Beebe, R.

433

NASA Science Mission Directorate's Year of the Solar System: An Opportunity for Scientist Involvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between October 2010 and August 2012 - across a Martian year - a large number of Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) planetary missions will pass milestones (e.g., EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, MESSENGER, Dawn, Juno, GRAIL, and Mars Science Laboratory), with many other missions continuing to explore (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, Cassini, New Horizons, and Voyager). This Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) community an opportunity to collaborate with each other and the science community. Based on audience needs from formal and informal educators, YSS is structured to have monthly thematic topics that are driven by mission milestones, as well as observing opportunities. YSS will connect to ongoing and planned events nationwide. A website for YSS is in development and will be hosted off of the existing JPL Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/index.cfm). Once live, scientists, educators, and E/PO professionals will have a place to interact and collaborate. YSS will tie to NASA's Big Questions in Planetary Science - how did the Sun's family of planets and minor bodies originate and how have they evolved? - how did life begin and evolve on Earth, is it elsewhere, and what characteristics of the solar system lead to the origins of life? The thematic topics are broad in order to encompass many missions and planetary bodies each month, as well as address the Big Questions. YSS will kick off in October with the theme "Solar System Components and Scale” and a national event involving building solar system scale models across the country. Scientists are encouraged to contact schools, museums, planetaria, etc. in their communities to give presentations, provide science content, and collaborate on educational materials and events related to YSS.

Dalton, Heather; Shipp, S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; LaConte, K.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Bachman, R.; Science E/PO Community, Planetary

2010-10-01

434

Planetary Magnetospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of interaction between a planetary object and the surrounding plasma depends on the properties of both the object and the plasma flow in which it is embedded. A planet with a significant internal magnetic field forms a magnetosphere that extends the planet's influence beyond its surface or cloud tops. There are seven objects in the solar system that presently have internally generated magnetic fields: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the satellite Ganymede. A planetary object without a significant internal dynamo can interact with any plasma flowing past via remanent magnetization of the crust and/or currents associated with local ionization or induced in an electrically conducting ionosphere or layer of water. Venus, Mars, Titan, Io, Enceladus, and Europa have strong interactions with their surroundings. Planetary magnetospheres span a wide range of sizes but involve similar basic principles and processes.

Bagenal, Fran

435

NASA Now Minute: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing  

NASA Video Gallery

The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electronic devices. The results of this research assist NASA scientists and engineers design future spacecraft. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: ›  http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-03-26

436

NASA Now Minute: Electromagnetic Spectrum: NuSTAR  

NASA Video Gallery

Astrophysicist Ann Hornschemeier explains how NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, uses high-energy X-rays to search for and take pictures of the densest, hottest and most energetic regions in the universe! NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-01-31

437

NASA Now Minute: STS-134 -- Search for Antimatter  

NASA Video Gallery

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer searches for antimatter. Trent Martin, project manager for the AMS experiment at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, explains how NASA will try to answer one of the fundamental questions in modern physics: "What happened to the primordial antimatter?" NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Sandra May

2011-04-29

438

Assessing the potential of stratospheric balloons for planetary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in high altitude balloon platform capabilities, specifically long duration flights in excess of 50 days at over 100,000 ft and precision pointing with performance at the arc sec level or better have raised the question whether this platform can be utilized for high-value planetary science observations. In January of 2012 a workshop was held at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio to explore what planetary science can be achieved utilizing such a platform. Over 40 science concepts were identified by the scientists and engineers attending the workshop. Those ideas were captured and then posted to a public website for all interested planetary scientists to review and give their comments. The results of the workshop, and subsequent community review, have demonstrated that this platform appears to have potential for high-value science at very competitive costs. Given these positive results, the assessment process was extended to include 1) examining, in more detail, the requirements for the gondola platform and the mission scenarios 2) identifying technical challenges and 3) developing one or more platform concepts in enough fidelity to enable accurate estimating of development and mission costs. This paper provides a review of the assessment, a summary of the achievable science and the challenges to make that science a reality with this platform.

Kremic, T.; Hibbitts, K.; Young, E.; Landis, R.; Noll, K.; Baines, K.

439

Planetary Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section gives a extensive introduction to planetary science. Topics in this portion of the website include properties of planets, such as distance, mass, volume, density, and composition. There is also explanations on escape velocity, temperature, and gravity and how they affect planetary bodies. Other topics included are: the meanining of atmospheric colors, magnetic fields, the magnetic dynamo theory, seismology, differences between Mars, Earth, and Venus, and the properties of rings and moons in our solar system.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

440

NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 2011 NASA Desert RATS analog activities, NASA HQ provided support to develop an education pilot project with student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, as well as educator training.

Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

2012-03-01

441

NASA Invites Media to View Space Launch System Progress  

NASA Website

NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations William Gerstenmaier and other agency officials will debut a new machine for manufacturing NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and check on development progress with the heavy-lift ...

442

Data from NASA Rover's Voyage to Mars Aids Planning  

NASA Website

Measurements taken by NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission as it delivered the Curiosity rover to Mars in 2012 are providing NASA the information it needs to design systems to protect human explorers from radiation exposure on deep-space ...

443

NASA: Home and City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site attempts to answer a question everyone has probably asked themselves: How does space exploration impact their daily life? NASA has provided this website dedicated to help answer that query. To start, visitors can click on the drawing of the house, on the left side of the screen. Once selected, visitors will hear realistic birds chirping, dogs barking, and birds coming out of the leafy tree to alight on the lawn. The two tabs that appear that say "Rotate", on either side of the screen, can be clicked on to rotate the house, to discover the rooms in which space exploration has had an impact. Visitors can pick a room, such as the kitchen, bathroom, or living room, and will find a list of items that have been invented or improved upon due to space exploration. The kitchen boasts "Enriched Baby Food", "Water Purification", and "Freeze-Dried Technology". Visitors can choose one of the items and listen to a brief video about it. After the video, a tab entitled "Click Here to Learn More" allows the visitor to read official documents relating to the discovery or enhancement, from NASA's Scientific and Technical Information website.

444

Planetary geology and terrestrial analogs in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2011 PERC Planetary Geology Field Symposium;Kitakyushu City, Japan, 5-6 November 2011 In spite of the extremely diverse geological settings that exist in Asia, relatively little attention has previously been paid to this region in terms of terrestrial analog studies for planetary application. Asia is emerging as a major center of studies in planetary geology, but no attempt had been made in the past to organize a broadly based meeting that would allow planetary geologists in Asia to meet with ones from more advanced centers, such as the United States and Europe, and that would include the participation of many geologists working primarily on terrestrial research. The Planetary Exploration Research Center (PERC) of the Chiba Institute of Technology hosted the first planetary geology field symposium in Asia to present results from recent planetary geology studies and to exchange ideas regarding terrestrial analogs (http://www.perc.it-chiba.ac.jp/meetings/pgfs2011/index.html).

Komatsu, Goro; Namiki, Noriyuki

2012-04-01

445

Planetary magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of planetary magnetism has advanced rapidly over the last four years. In fact it was not deemed necessary to review this subject in the last quadrennial report. This advance has resulted both from new data and of refined analyses of existing data files. New data have become available from Mariner 10 at Mercury, from Venera 9 and 10

C. T. Russell

1979-01-01

446

Planetary Geomorphology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

Baker, Victor R.

1984-01-01

447

Planetary Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in our view and understanding of planetary rings. We now know that each of the giant planets in the Solar System possesses a complex and unique ring system. Recent studies have identified complex gravitational interactions between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see

M. K. Gordon; S. Araki; G. J. Black; A. S. Bosh; A. Brahic; S. M. Brooks; S. Charnoz; J. E. Colwell; J. N. Cuzzi; L. Dones; R. H. Durisen; L. W. Esposito; C. Ferrari; M. Festou; R. G. French; S. M. Giuliatti-Winter; A. L. Graps; D. P. Hamilton; M. Horanyi; R. M. Karjalainen; A. V. Krivov; H. Krueger; S. M. Larson; H. F. Levison; M. C. Lewis; J. J. Lissauer; C. D. Murray; F. Namouni; P. D. Nicholson; C. B. Olkin; F. Poulet; N. J. Rappaport; H. J. Salo; J. Schmidt; M. R. Showalter; F. Spahn; L. J. Spilker; R. Srama; G. R. Stewart; P. Yanamandra-Fisher

2002-01-01

448

NASA - NASA eClips™: Contrails  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

449

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

450

Exploring Planets with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. This paper focuses on a conceptual analysis of the DARE architecture capabilities and science applications for Venus, Titan and Jupiter. Preliminary simulations with simplified atmospheric models show that a relatively small trajectory control wing can enable global coverage of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan by a single balloon over a 100-day mission. This presents unique opportunities for global in situ sampling of the atmospheric composition and dynamics, atmospheric profiling over multiple sites with small dropsondes and targeted deployment of surface microprobes. At Jupiter, path guidance capabilities of the DARE platforms permits targeting localized regions of interest, such as ``hot spots'' or the Great Red Spot. A single DARE platform at Jupiter can sample major types of the atmospheric flows (zones and belts) over a 100-day mission. Observations by deployable probes would reveal if the differences exist in radiative, dynamic and compositional environments at these sites.

Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

2004-02-01

451

Small planetary mission plan: Report to Congress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document outlines NASA's small planetary projects plan within the context of overall agency planning. In particular, this plan is consistent with Vision 21: The NASA Strategic Plan, and the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) Strategic Plan. Small planetary projects address focused scientific objectives using a limited number of mature instruments, and are designed to require little or no new technology development. Small missions can be implemented by university and industry partnerships in coordination with a NASA Center to use the unique services the agency provides. The timeframe for small missions is consistent with academic degree programs, which makes them an excellent training ground for graduate students and post-doctoral candidates. Because small missions can be conducted relatively quickly and inexpensively, they provide greater opportunity for increased access to space. In addition, small missions contribute to sustaining a vital scientific community by increasing the available opportunities for direct investigator involvement from just a few projects in a career to many.

1992-04-01

452

In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary COSPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

2010-12-01

453

Bringing Terramechanics to bear on Planetary Rover Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thus far, planetary rovers have been successfully operated on the Earth's moon and on Mars. In particular, the two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) ,Spirit' and ,Opportunity' are still in sustained daily operations at two sites on Mars more than 3 years after landing there. Currently, several new planetary rover missions are in development targeting Mars (the US Mars Science Lab vehicle for launch in 2009 and ESA's ExoMars rover for launch in 2013), with lunar rover missions under study by China and Japan for launches around 2012. Moreover, the US Constellation program is preparing pre-development of lunar rovers for initially unmanned and, subsequently, human missions to the Moon with a corresponding team dedicated to mobility system development having been set up at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Given this dynamic environment, it was found timely to establish an expert group on off-the-road mobility as relevant for robotic vehicles that would involve individuals representing the various on-going efforts on the different continents. This was realized through the International Society of Terrain-Vehicle Systems (ISTVS), a research organisation devoted to terramechanics and to the ,science' of off-the-road vehicle development which as a result is just now establishing a Technical Group on Terrestrial and Planetary Rovers. Members represent space-related as well as military research institutes and universities from the US, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The group's charter for 2007 is to define its objectives, functions, organizational structure and recommended research objectives to support planetary rover design and development. Expected areas of activity of the ISTVS-sponsored group include: the problem of terrain specification for planetary rovers; identification of limitations in modelling of rover mobility; a survey of existing rover mobility testbeds; the consolidation of mobility predictive models and their state of validation; sensing and real-time processing issues; improvements in modelling of vehicle slippage and traction; study of methods to achieve rover design robustness. This paper will present the charter of the ISTVS Rovers Technical Group and its upcoming activities and therefore will be of a programmatic nature.

Richter, L.

2007-08-01

454

A planetary quarantine laboratory on the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January of 2004 NASA was directed by the President of the United States to setting a goal to establish a permanent human tended scientific outpost on the Moon by 2015-2020. Discussions on what kind of facilities on the Moon would be most beneficial to science have already begun. One of the highest priority goals for the NASA Mars exploration program has been how to proceed with the return of Martian soil and rock samples directly to Earth for extensive laboratory analysis. However scientific debates exist on how to obtain pristine samples from Mars without introducing terrestrial contaminants and also for preventing the back contamination of the Earth"s biosphere by putative Martian microbes. In 1976, the Viking Labeled Release experiment provided peer-reviewed scientific evidence for possible microbial activity in the upper soil layers of Mars in two different locations on the planet. Although the LR evidence is not considered as absolute proof of life on Mars by many in the scientific community, the Viking LR data should be taken seriously as an important signpost that life, either as dormant endospores (which may have been revived on the addition of the LR nutrient solution), or found as a currently thriving microbial community, might pose a serious risk to the terrestrial biosphere in the event of a sample return spacecraft failure. Examples of spacecraft technological failures include most recently the British built Beagle 2 lander, the NASA Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander. These examples show there is no guarantee of a 100% foolproof spacecraft. In 2001 the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council published that the likelihood of life on Mars is low, "but it is not zero" and proposed the construction of a level-4 biohazard containment facility "like no other on the Earth". Since at this time we cannot guess whether any putative Martian organisms would be toxic or pathogenic to Earth life, every effort should be made to ensure that the terrestrial biosphere is not contaminated. Recent Mars Sample Return (MSR) scenarios have focused on a direct return to the surface of the Earth by means of a passive reentry capsule similar to the Stardust sample capsule but designed to use atmospheric friction and ablating to slow its decent instead of a parachute. This scenario offers less planetary protection than LEO examination by a specially trained scientific crew aboard the ISS or space shuttle. While a number of Mars Sample Return strategies have been published since the 1976 Viking mission, probably the most comprehensive concerning examination in LEO is the 1981 The Antaeus Report: Orbiting Quarantine Facility (NASA SP-454). Although the Antaeus Report demonstrated the feasibility of examining planetary samples in LEO it did not offer Earth's biosphere maximum protection against back contamination hazards due to possible catastrophic failure and reentry of the orbiting quarantine facility or space shuttle. A human tended Planetary Quarantine Laboratory as part of a scientific outpost on the Moon would offer 100% protection of Earth's biosphere against any toxic or pathogenic bioactive materials from Mars or any other solar system samples returned.

DiGregorio, Barry E.

2004-11-01

455

NASA Team Captures Hayabusa Spacecraft Reentry  

NASA Video Gallery

A group of astronomers from NASA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and other organizations had a front row seat to observe the Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery plunge into Earth's atmosphere. The team flew aboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory, packed with cameras and other imaging instruments, to capture the high-speed re-entry over an unpopulated area of central Australia.

Jerry Colen

2010-06-13

456

Overview of NASA space cryocooler programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA’s Earth and Space Science Enterprises, as well as augmenting existing capabilities in space exploration. An overview is presented of ongoing efforts at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development.

R. F. Boyle; R. G. Ross

2002-01-01

457

Mars Exploration Program: Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website provides a summary of past, current and future NASA missions to explore Mars, and links to the individual mission websites. Each linked site describes the science and technology of the mission.

2004-07-17

458

Adjustable Autonomy with NASA Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Exploration missions will require more effective use of human resources in space and on Earth. The use of automation to perform routine or hazardous tasks can free humans for other tasks. But increased use of automation must be done without compromising human safety or introducing unnecessary risk. At JSC we have developed technology for incrementally increasing the level of

Debra Schreckenghost; R. Peter Bonasso; David Kortenkamp; Scott Bell; Tod Milam; Carroll Thronesbery

459

NASA Capability Roadmaps Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the result of eight months of hard work and dedication from NASA, industry, other government agencies, and academic experts from across the nation. It provides a summary of the capabilities necessary to execute the Vision for Space Explor...

D. Coulter G. Varsi H. Thronson J. Crooke R. Mueller R. Willcoxon T. Inman V. Regenie

2005-01-01

460

Planetary Elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Owen Gingerich wasn’t in Prague on August 24, 2006. He followed the bizarre ‘planetary elections’ at the General Assembly\\u000a of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) via the IAU’s webcast. And it was pretty depressing. Right up to the last minute,\\u000a Gingerich – Professor Emeritus of Astronomy and of the History of Science at Harvard University – had argued for Pluto

Govert Schilling