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1

OVERVIEW OF NASA’S SPACE RADIATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT NASA is developing ,the knowledge required ,to accurately predict and to efficiently manage ,radiation risk in space. The strategy employed ,has three research ,components: (1) ground- based simulation ,of space ,radiation components ,to develop ,a science-based understanding ,of radiation ,risk; (2) space-based measurements,of the ,radiation environment ,on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms

Walter Schimmerling

2

The NASA Space Radiation Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

3

NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

2013-01-01

4

NASA's life sciences and space radiation biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for the various missions in which men and women are expected to participate during the next 10 years are outlined. Such missions include flights of up to three months duration in low earth orbit as well as possible short excursions to geosynchronous orbit. Research activities are described which cover the full spectrum of physiological and psychological responses to space flight. These activities are shown to contribute to the ongoing Shuttle program and the future Space Station. The paper includes a summary of the major technical thrusts needed to support extended habitation in space.

Rambaut, P.; Nicogossian, A.

1984-01-01

5

NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue teams will highlight progress and important new knowledge gained. Red teams will challenge the Blue teams on proposed highlights and point to Gaps not considered. We will review the current space radiation Risks and Gaps under investigation at NASA, critical data sets and research highlights anticipated, and possible goals for future research at NSRL.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2010-01-01

6

The NASA Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to assist NASA in the selection of radiation hardened microelectronic parts for insertion in NASA space systems through radiation testing and research. Prior to presenting examples of the research and testing on Single Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, the space radiation environment and radiation requirements for the CRAFT/Cassini program, a typical JPL space project, are discussed.

Barnes, C.; Coss, J.; Nichols, D.; Shaw, D.

1991-01-01

7

Technical developments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.  

PubMed

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a center for space radiation research in both the life and physical sciences. BNL is a multidisciplinary research facility operated for the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNL scientific research portfolio supports a large and diverse science and technology program including research in nuclear and high-energy physics, material science, chemistry, biology, medial science, and nuclear safeguards and security. NSRL, in operation since July 2003, is an accelerator-based facility which provides particle beams for radiobiology and physics studies (Lowenstein in Phys Med 17(supplement 1):26-29 2001). The program focus is to measure the risks and to ameliorate the effects of radiation encountered in space, both in low earth orbit and extended missions beyond the earth. The particle beams are produced by the Booster synchrotron, an accelerator that makes up part of the injector sequence of the DOE nuclear physics program's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Ion species from protons to gold are presently available, at energies ranging from <100 to >1,000 MeV/n. The NSRL facility has recently brought into operation the ability to rapidly switch species and beam energy to supply a varied spectrum onto a given specimen. A summary of past operation performance, plans for future operations and recent and planned hardware upgrades will be described. PMID:17211657

Lowenstein, D I; Rusek, A

2007-06-01

8

NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

2007-01-01

9

RESULTS OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY BEAM STUDIES PROGRAM AT BNL.  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. The purpose of the NSRL Beam Studies Program is to develop a clear understanding of the beams delivered to the facility, to fully characterize those beams, and to develop new capabilities in the interest of understanding the radiation environment in space. In this report we will describe the first results from this program.

BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.ET AL.

2004-07-05

10

NASA\\/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength normalized to the equatorial\\/minimum value on the field line B\\/B sub 0\\/ for either solar maximum or solar minimum conditions. The most recent versions of the

John D. Gaffey Jr.; Dieter Bilitza

1994-01-01

11

A Review of NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the RHESE technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of these advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2008-01-01

12

EVENT DRIVEN AUTOMATIC STATE MODIFICATION OF BNL'S BOOSTER FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY SOLAR PARTICLE SIMULATOR.  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests.

BROWN, D.; BINELLO, S.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; TSOUPAS, N.

2005-05-16

13

The Space Radiation Environment and Its Implication for Designing Reliable Electronic Systems: A NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents include the following: The space radiation environment. The effects on electronics. The environment in action NASA approaches to commercial electronics: flight projects; and proactive research. Living with a star space environment testbed status. Final thoughts: atomic interactions; direct ionization; interaction with nucleus.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

14

The NASA\\/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped

Vette

1991-01-01

15

PERFORMANCE AND CAPABILITIES OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL was commissioned in October 2002 and the facility became operational in July 2003. NSRL was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. NSRL can accept a wide variety of ions from BNL's AGS Booster; these are slow extracted with kinetic energies ranging from 0.3 to 3 GeV/n. Fast extraction from Booster to NSRL has also been developed and used. Many different beam conditions have been produced for experiments at NSRL, including very low intensity. In this report we will describe the facility and its performance over the eight experimental run periods that have taken place since it became operational. We will also describe the current and future capabilities of the NSRL.

BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; CHIANG, I.H.; GARDNER, C.; GASSNER, D.; HAMMONS, L.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; SAMPSON, P.; SIVERTZ, M.; TSOUPAS, N.; ZENO, K.

2006-06-23

16

Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

Speth, Randall C.

1998-01-01

17

Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP, 2000, 2006). However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2007), transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

2012-01-01

18

Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluation the Radiation Environment Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware design environments for NASA's Constellation Program-the Vision for Space Exploration program to design and build new vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit and the Moon and beyond-have been developed that are necessarily conservative in nature to assure robust hardware design and development required to build space systems which will meet operational goals in a wide range of space environments, This presentation will describe the rationale used to establish the space radiation and plasma design environments specified for a variety of applications including total ionizing radiation dose, dose rate effects, and spacecraft charging and will compare the design environments with "space weather" variability to evaluate the applicability of the design environments and potential vulnerabilities of the system to extreme space weather events.

Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret; Howard, James W.

2008-01-01

19

Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model1 reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties--2010 . The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables. The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

2012-01-01

20

RESULTS OF THE FIRST RUN OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The results of commissioning of this new facility were reported in [l]. In this report we will describe the results of the first run. The NSRL is capable of making use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. Many modes of operation were explored during the first run, demonstrating all the capabilities designed into the system. Heavy ion intensities from 100 particles per pulse up to 12 x 10{sup 9} particles per pulse were delivered to a large variety of experiments, providing a dose range up to 70 Gy/min over a 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} area. Results presented will include those related to the production of beams that are highly uniform in both the transverse and longitudinal planes of motion [2].

BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BRENNAN,J.M.ET. AL.

2004-07-05

21

BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

2003-05-12

22

NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential effectiveness of radiation mitigator's. The NSRM- 2014 approaches to model radiation quality dependent lethality and NTE's will be described. CNS effects include both early changes that may occur during long space missions and late effects such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD effects 50% of the population above age 80-yr, is a degenerative disease that worsens with time after initial onset leading to death, and has no known cure. AD is difficult to detect at early stages and the small number of low LET epidemiology studies undertaken have not identified an association with low dose radiation. However experimental studies in mice suggest GCR may lead to early onset AD. We discuss modeling approaches to consider mechanisms whereby radiation would lead to earlier onset of occurrence of AD. Biomarkers of AD include amyloid beta (A(Beta)) plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) made up of aggregates of the hyperphosphorylated form of the micro-tubule associated, tau protein. Related markers include synaptic degeneration, dentritic spine loss, and neuronal cell loss through apoptosis. Radiation may affect these processes by causing oxidative stress, aberrant signaling following DNA damage, and chronic neuroinflammation. Cell types to be considered in multi-scale models are neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. We developed biochemical and cell kinetics models of DNA damage signaling related to glycogen synthase kinase-3(Beta) (GSK3(Beta)) and neuroinflammation, and considered multi-scale modeling approaches to develop computer simulations of cell interactions and their relationships to A(Beta) plaques and NFTs. Comparison of model results to experimental data for the age specific development of A(Beta) plaques in transgenic mice will be discussed.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

2013-01-01

23

NASA's Space Visualization Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Scientific Visualization Studio is to facilitate scientific inquiry and outreach within NASA programs through visualization. To that end, the SVS works closely with scientists in the creation of visualization products, systems, and processes in order to promote a greater understanding of Earth and Space Science research activities at Goddard Space Flight Center and within the NASA research community.

24

The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991  

SciTech Connect

The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

Vette, J.I.

1991-11-01

25

The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

Vette, James I.

1991-01-01

26

NASA's Space Grant program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

Dasch, E. Julius

1990-01-01

27

NASA Space Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, dedicated to upper elementary children, highlights some of NASA's most exciting missions through video clips, games, hands-on activities, and digital explorations. Resources are aimed at helping kids understand the science behind the technologies and getting them motivated to learn more about earth and space science. Topics include basic astronomy, telescopes and imaging devices, orbits, lasers, satellite launches, galleries of space images, and the quest to find planets. Some sections of the site are devoted to parents and educators.

2013-11-23

28

NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) recently completed a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network that is part of NASA's contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). This system is designed to produce the higher quality data required to establish and maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and future generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. The prototype core site is at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center and includes co-located, state of-the-art, systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). A system for monitoring of the "ties" between these four systems is an integral part of the core site development concept and this specific prototype. When fully implemented, this upgraded global network will benefit in addition to the ITRF, all other network products (e.g. Precision Orbit Determination, local & regional deformation, astrometry, etc.), which will also be improved by at least an order of magnitude, with concomitant benefits to the supported and tracked missions, science projects, and engineering applications. We present the results of the prototype site demonstration and describe the NASA plans for implementing its next generation network.

Merkowitz, S.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; Mcgarry, J.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F.

2013-12-01

29

NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is completing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network that is part of NASA's contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The goal of this system is to produce the higher quality data required to establish and maintain the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and future generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. The prototype core site at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center includes co-located, state of-the-art, systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). A system for monitoring of the "ties" between these four systems is an integral part of the core site development concept and this specific prototype. We present the status and performance of the prototype site as well as results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; Mcgarry, J.; Murphy, D. W.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F.

2013-05-01

30

NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network that is part of NASA's contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). This system is designed to produce the higher quality data required to establish and maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and future generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center and includes co-located, state of-the-art, systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). A novel system for near-real time monitoring of the "ties" between these four systems is an integral part of the core site development concept and this specific prototype. We present the status and performance of the prototype site as well as results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, Stephen; Desai, Shailen; Gross, Richard; Hilliard, Lawrence; Lemoine, Frank; Long, James; Ma, Chopo; McGarry, Jan; Murphy, David; Noll, Carey; Pavlis, Erricos; Pearlman, Michael; Stowers, David; Webb, Frank

2013-04-01

31

NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a broad overview of NASA's Space Enivronments and Effects (SEE) Program. The purpose of the program is to protect spacecraft and their systems from damage by radiation, spacecraft charging, micrometeoroids, contamination,...

B. Kauffman D. Hardage J. Minor J. Barth K. LaBel

2003-01-01

32

NASA Connect: 'Earth From Space'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the 1997-98 'NASA Connect' series. Show entitled 'Earth From Space' Ozone, a naturally occuring special form of oxygen, helps protect us from harmfull Solar radiation. In this clip we see how a NASA Langley scientist makes Ozone in the laboratory. In this CONNECT program, students will explore how scientists have used satellites to study the impact of human activities on the global climate and will examine the mathematics behind the collected data from space-based instruments to study Earth's environment. Students will observe featured student 'researchers' from the Portsmouth Public Schools (Portsmouth, VA) conducting an experiment to investigate the differences in distances traveled by rubber-band rockets when the launch angle and the amount of force vary. By working in pairs or small groups during the Challenge Point portion of the program, viewers will better understand how research teams must work together to conduct investigations.

1999-01-01

33

NASA Space Human Factors Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

1992-01-01

34

The NASA Radiation Health Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA program for determining the impact of cosmic radiation on health is described in terms of its long-term goal of reducing the uncertainty of radiation-model prediction to +/- 25 percent by 2010. The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is intended to address fundamental issues for establishing a scientific basis for human radiation protection: (1) the prediction of the probability of biological effects from radiation; (2) the reduction of uncertainty in predicted highly charged energetic particles; and (3) the characterization of background flux from Galactic cosmic rays. Another key objective is to develop related technologies for ground- and space-based solar monitoring to predict events involving solar energetic particles. Although substantial uncertainties are involved in the prediction of such events, the SRHP is essential for determining crucial variables related to launching mass and humans into orbit.

Nicogossian, A. E.; Schimmerling, W.

1991-01-01

35

Space debris modeling at NASA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris

Nicholas L. Johnson

2001-01-01

36

A NASA Perspective and Validation and Testing of Design Hardening for the Natural Space Radiation Environment (GOMAC Tech 03)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the dearth of dedicated radiation hardened foundries, new and novel techniques are being developed for hardening designs using non-dedicated foundry services. In this paper, we will discuss the implications of validating these methods for the natural space radiation environment issues: total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE). Topics of discussion include: Types of tests that are required, Design coverage (i.e., design libraries: do they need validating for each application?) A new task within NASA to compare existing design. This latter task is a new effort in FY03 utilizing a 8051 microcontroller core from multiple design hardening developers as a test vehicle to evaluate each mitigative technique.

Day, John H. (Technical Monitor); LaBel, Kenneth A.; Howard, James W.; Carts, Martin A.; Seidleck, Christine

2003-01-01

37

From Mice and Men to Earth and Space: Joint NASA-NCI Workshop on Lung Cancer Risk Resulting from Space and Terrestrial Radiation  

PubMed Central

On June 27–28, 2011 scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NASA, and academia met in Bethesda to discuss major lung cancer issues confronting each organization. For NASA – available data suggest lung cancer is the largest potential cancer risk from space travel for both men and women and quantitative risk assessment information for mission planning is needed. In space the radiation risk is from high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei (such as Fe) and high energy protons from solar flares and not from gamma radiation. By contrast the NCI is endeavoring to estimate the increased lung cancer risk from the potential wide-spread implementation of computed tomography (CT) screening in individuals at high risk for developing lung cancer based on the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST). For the latter, exposure will be x-rays from CT scans from the screening (which uses “low dose” CT scans) and also from follow-up scans used to evaluate abnormalities found during initial screening. Topics discussed included the risk of lung cancer arising after HZE particle, proton, and low dose Earth radiation exposure. The workshop examined preclinical models, epidemiology, molecular markers, “omics” technology, radiobiology issues, and lung stem cells (LSC) that relate to the development of lung cancer.

Shay, Jerry W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Coleman, C. Norman; Minna, John D.

2011-01-01

38

From mice and men to earth and space: joint NASA-NCI workshop on lung cancer risk resulting from space and terrestrial radiation.  

PubMed

On June 27-28, 2011, scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NASA, and academia met in Bethesda to discuss major lung cancer issues confronting each organization. For NASA, available data suggest that lung cancer is the largest potential cancer risk from space travel for both men and women and quantitative risk assessment information for mission planning is needed. In space, the radiation risk is from high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei (such as Fe) and high-energy protons from solar flares and not from gamma radiation. In contrast, the NCI is endeavoring to estimate the increased lung cancer risk from the potential widespread implementation of computed tomographic (CT) screening in individuals at high risk for developing lung cancer based on the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST). For the latter, exposure will be X-rays from CT scans from the screening (which uses "low-dose" CT scans) and also from follow-up scans used to evaluate abnormalities found during initial screening. Topics discussed included the risk of lung cancer arising after HZE particle, proton, and low-dose exposure to Earth's radiation. The workshop examined preclinical models, epidemiology, molecular markers, "omics" technology, radiobiology issues, and lung stem cells that relate to the development of lung cancer. PMID:21900398

Shay, Jerry W; Cucinotta, Francis A; Sulzman, Frank M; Coleman, C Norman; Minna, John D

2011-11-15

39

NASA's access to space study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA study to identify and assess the major alternatives for a long range direction for space transportation is summarized. The scope of this 'access to space' study was to support all U.S. needs for space transportation for several decades into the future, including civilian, commercial, and defense needs.

Aldrich, Arnold D.

1994-01-01

40

NASA Space Grant Contacts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication provides an overview of two NASA funding programs, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (Space Grant) and the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCOR). A listing of contacts for these programs in all 50 states (20 states for EPSCOR), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is provided, as well as a link to the Space Grant homepage.

41

Space Science News Headlines: NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) keeps the public abreast of recent breakthroughs in space science via Space Science News Headlines, an almost daily email service. Recent stories cover SOHO, the Leonid meteor storm, and Europa's frigid oceans. Space Science News Headlines reaches beyond the scientific community; advances and discoveries in space studies are relayed in an understandable, jargon-free manner. Interested readers can browse through past news archives or subscribe to future news stories via the homepage.

42

NASA's approach to space commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Office of Commercial Programs fosters private participation in commercially oriented space projects. Five Centers for the Commercial Development of Space encourage new ideas and perform research which may yield commercial processes and products for space ventures. Joint agreements allow companies who present ideas to NASA and provide flight hardware access to a free launch and return from orbit. The experimenters furnish NASA with sufficient data to demonstrate the significance of the results. Ground-based tests are arranged for smaller companies to test the feasibility of concepts before committing to the costs of developing hardware. Joint studies of mutual interest are performed by NASA and private sector researchers, and two companies have signed agreements for a series of flights in which launch costs are stretched out to meet projected income. Although Shuttle flights went on hold following the Challenger disaster, extensive work continues on the preparation of commercial research payloads that will fly when Shuttle flights resume.

Gillam, Isaac T., IV

1986-01-01

43

GEANT4 Applications for NASA Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geant4 is nowadays widely adopted as the simulation engine for NASA space missions. We will review three major application areas of Geant4: apparatus simulation, including pre-launch design and post-launch analysis; planetary scale simulation, including radiation spectra; micro-dosimetry simulation, including single-event effects on electronics components.

Makoto Asai; Robert A. Reed; Robert A. Weller

2006-01-01

44

Emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues: a NASA approach for space flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft performance requirements drive the utilization of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and emerging technologies in systems. The response of these technologies to radiation is often complex. This engenders a set of emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues which include displacement damage in optocouplers, high-precision and hybrid devices, enhanced low dose rate (ELDR) and proton damage enhancement (PDE) in linear circuits, linear

Kenneth A. LaBel; Allan H. Johnston; Janet L. Barth; Robert A. Reed; Charles E. Barnes

1998-01-01

45

NASA - Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2006-01-01

46

NASA programs in space photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.

Flood, D.J.

1992-01-01

47

NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in the safety, reliability and affordability of current and future space transportation systems must be achieved if NASA is to perform its mission and if the U.S. space industry is to reach its full commercial potential. In response to Presidential Policy in 1994, NASA, working with our industrial partners, initiated several efforts including the X-33, X-34, X-37 and Advanced Space Transportation programs with the goal of demonstrating the technologies that could enable these goals. We have learned that emerging technologies will enable the needed advancements but that more development along multiple, competing paths is needed. We have learned that developing requirements diligently and in partnership with industry will allow us to better converge with commercial capabilities. We have learned that commercial markets are not growing as fast as projected earlier, but there are still possibilities in the near-term to pursue alternate paths that can make access to space more robust. The goal of transitioning NASA's space transportation needs to commercial launch vehicles remains the key aim of our efforts and will require additional investment to reduce business and technical risks to acceptable levels.

Cook, Stephen A.

2000-01-01

48

NASA's integrated space transportation plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements in the safety, reliability and affordability of current and future space transportation systems must be achieved if NASA is to perform its mission and if the U.S. space industry is to reach its full potential. In response to Presidential Policy in 1994, NASA, working with our industrial partners, initiated several efforts including the X-33, X-34, X-37 and Advanced Space Transportation programs with the goal of demonstrating the technologies that could enable these goals. We have learned that emerging technologies will enable the needed advancements but that more development along multiple, competing paths is needed. We have learned that developing requirements diligently and in partnership with industry will allow us to better converge with commercial capabilities. We have learned that commercial markets are not growing as fast as projected earlier, but there are still possibilities in the near-term to pursue alternate paths that can make access to space more robust. The goal of transitioning NASA's space transportation needs to commercial launch vehicles remains the key aim of our efforts and will require additional investment to reduce business and technical risks to acceptable levels.

Cook, Stephen; Dumbacher, Daniel

2001-03-01

49

NASA space shuttle lightweight seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

1996-01-01

50

Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

Evans, Austin Lewis

1988-01-01

51

NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a broad overview of NASA's Space Enivronments and Effects (SEE) Program. The purpose of the program is to protect spacecraft and their systems from damage by radiation, spacecraft charging, micrometeoroids, contamination, and other hazards posed by aerospace environments. The presentation profiles SEE activities to address each of these hazards. SEE is responsible for overseeing research and product development with a variety of partners.

Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody; Barth, Janet; LaBel, Ken

2003-01-01

52

The NASA Space Biology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion is presented of the research conducted under the auspices of the NASA Space Biology Program. The objectives of this Program include the determination of how gravity affects and how it has shaped life on earth, the use of gravity as a tool to investigate relevant biological questions, and obtaining an understanding of how near-weightlessness affects both plants and animals in order to enhance the capability to use and explore space. Several areas of current developmental research are discussed and the future focus of the Program is considered.

Halstead, T. W.

1982-01-01

53

NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.  

PubMed

The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously. PMID:19580503

Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

2009-07-01

54

NASA's first dexterous space robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a robotic device that can be teleoperated under constant command of a human operator or run by itself under human supervision. Plans call for the FTS to assist the astronauts in the assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection of Space Station Freedom. The FTS project is driven by five major objectives: to reduce Space Station dependence on crew EVA, improve crew safety, enhance crew utilization, promote remote servicing capabilities for platforms, and accelerate technology transfer from research to U.S. industry. Another part of the FTS project is a ground system that will support operations and system evolution. Not only will the FTS provide a needed operational capability during the assembly and operation of Space Station Freedom, it will also provide an expanding foundation for proving more advanced robotic and telepresence concepts in space.

Mccain, Harry G.

1990-01-01

55

The NASA Space Radiobiology Risk Assessment Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current first phase (2006-2011) has the three major goals of: 1) optimizing the conventional cancer risk models currently used based on the double-detriment life-table and radiation quality functions; 2) the integration of biophysical models of acute radiation syndromes; and 3) the development of new systems radiation biology models of cancer processes. The first-phase also includes continued uncertainty assessment of space radiation environmental models and transport codes, and relative biological effectiveness factors (RBE) based on flight data and NSRL results, respectively. The second phase of the (2012-2016) will: 1) develop biophysical models of central nervous system risks (CNS); 2) achieve comphrensive systems biology models of cancer processes using data from proton and heavy ion studies performed at NSRL; and 3) begin to identify computational models of biological countermeasures. Goals for the third phase (2017-2021) include: 1) the development of a systems biology model of cancer risks for operational use at NASA; 2) development of models of degenerative risks, 2) quantitative models of counter-measure impacts on cancer risks; and 3) indiviudal based risk assessments. Finally, we will support a decision point to continue NSRL research in support of NASA's exploration goals beyond 2021, and create an archival of NSRL research results for continued analysis. Details on near term goals, plans for a WEB based data resource of NSRL results, and a space radiation Wikepedia are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice; Ponomarev, Artem; Patel, Zarana; Kim, Myung-Hee

56

NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) is the basis of the agency's new Space Launch Initiative (SLI). ISTP was developed to provide a structured methodology and framework to enable the next generation of reusable launch systems which will operate at orders of magnitude lower operating costs and higher levels of reliability and safety. Created in the fall of 1999, ISTP is the culmination of a series of Space Transportation Architecture Studies (STAS I, II, and III) which identified requirements, developed candidate architectures, and identified sets of technologies required to enable those architectures. The studies were conducted as a partnership between NASA and industry. Both new designs and shuttle-derived concepts were examined. Architectures were identified for 2" Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which would reach first operational capability in 2010, and 3rd Generation RLV, which will become operational in the 2025 timeframe, Second Generation RLV's have a goal of placing payloads in low earth orbit (LEO) at a cost of S 1,000/Ibm, and a safety goal of 1/10000 probability of loss of crew, The Third Generation RLV launch system will deliver payloads to LEO at $ 100/Ibm and approach airline-like reliability and safety, with a 1/ 10(exp 6) probability of loss of crew.

Anderson, David M.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

57

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs - A 2003 Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments

R. G. Ross; R. F. Boyle; P. Kittel

2004-01-01

58

NASA's Aero-Space Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews the three pillars and the associated goals of NASA's Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. The three pillars for success are: (1) Global Civil Aviation, (2) Revolutionary Technology Leaps, (3) Advanced Space Transportation. The associated goals of the first pillar are to reduce accidents, emissions, and cost, and to increase the aviation system capacity. The goals of the second pillar are to reduce transoceanic travel time, revolutionize general aviation aircraft, and improve development capacity. The goals associated with the third pillar are to reduce the launch cost for low earth orbit and to reduce travel time for planetary missions. In order to meet these goals NASA must provide next-generation design capability for new and or experimental craft which enable a balance between reducing components of the design cycle by up to 50% and or increasing the confidence in design by 50%. These next-generation design tools, concepts, and processes will revolutionize vehicle development. The presentation finally reviews the importance of modeling and simulation in achieving the goals.

Milstead, Phil

2000-01-01

59

NASA Beams Beatles Song to Space  

NASA Video Gallery

The transmission over NASA's Deep Space Network will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the day The Beatles recorded the song, as well as the 50th anniversary of NASA's founding and the group's be...

60

High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate 'Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments' Technology Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performanc...

D. Hyde E. Kolawa G. Bolotin J. McCabe K. Label M. Johnson T. Ng W. Powell

2007-01-01

61

High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate "Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments" Technology Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performance Processors for Space Environments project will address this challenge by significantly advancing the sustained throughput and processing efficiency of high-per$ormance radiation-hardened processors, targeting delivery of products by the end of FY12.

Johnson, M.; Label, K.; McCabe, J.; Powell, W.; Bolotin, G.; Kolawa, E.; Ng, T.; Hyde, D.

2007-01-01

62

The NASA Radiation Health Program  

SciTech Connect

The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is defined in terms of motivation and methodology with specific reference given to the impacts of HZE particles and solar energetic particles. The biological hazards are mentioned that can be associated with the two particle types and ionizing radiation in general. The lack of data on the impact of such radiation and effective shielding countermeasures is identified as the primary motivation for worst-case assumptions. However, the resulting shielding designs can potentially overestimate the thickness by a factor of 10 and add unnecessarily to vehicle take-off mass. A space-based validation system is proposed to complement ground-based investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation in interplanetary space. The Lifesat satellite is proposed as a part of the SRHP effort to determine the requirements for protection and future shielding specifications.

Schimmerling, W. (JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1991-07-01

63

NASA Space Flight Human System Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems specifications (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook

Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn; Russo, Dane; Stroud, Ken; Connolly, Jan; Foley, Tico

2007-01-01

64

Space Radiation Cancer Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation cancer risk relies on the three assumptions of linearity, additivity, and scaling along with the use of population averages. We describe uncertainty estimates for this model, and new experimental data that sheds light on the accuracy of the underlying assumptions. These methods make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, i.e., the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including lunar station, deep space outpost, and a Mars mission. Factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties and application of this approach to assess candidate mitigation approaches are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

65

Why Is NASA Boiling Fluids in Space?  

NASA Video Gallery

Convection and buoyancy work differently in space than on Earth. Learn how NASA uses this information and applies it to everyday life. Boiling fluids in space is easier than it is on Earth. Learn m...

66

Future Plans for NASA's Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to space exploration, and future planned improvements to the communication capabilities that the network allows, in terms of precision, and communication power.

Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

2008-01-01

67

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-01-01

68

NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

69

NASA and the practice of space law  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

Hosenball, S. N.

1985-01-01

70

Space radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

Gregory, J. C.

1986-01-01

71

NASA NASA CONNECT: Special World Space Congress. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. This video presents the World Space Congress 2002, the meeting of the decade for space professionals. Topics discussed range from the discovery of distant planets to medical advancements,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

72

Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2001-01-01

73

Status of NASA`s Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

1994-09-01

74

National Directory of NASA Space Grant Contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Congress enacted the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant). NASA's Space Grant Program funds education, research, and public service programs in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico through 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia form a network of colleges and universities, industry partners, State and local Government agencies, other Federal agencies, museum and science centers, and nonprofit organizations, all with interests in aerospace education, research, and training. Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public. Each year approximately one-third of the NASA Space Grant funds support scholarships and fellowships for United States students at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Typically, at least 20 percent of these awards go to students from underrepresented groups, and at least 40 percent go to women. Most Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists or engineers. Space Grant consortia also fund curriculum enhancement and faculty development programs. Consortia members administer precollege and public service education programs in their States. The 52 consortia typically leverage NASA funds with matching contributions from State, local, and other university sources, which more than double the NASA funding. For more information, consult the Space Grant Web site at http://education.nasa.gov/spacegrant/

2002-01-01

75

Modelling the performance of the monogroove with screen heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code to model the steady-state performance of a monogroove heat pipe for the NASA Space Station is presented, including the effects on heat pipe performance of a screen in the evaporator section which deals with transient surges in the heat input. Errors in a previous code have been corrected, and the new code adds additional loss terms in order to model several different working fluids. Good agreement with existing performance curves is obtained. From a preliminary evaluation of several of the radiator design parameters it is found that an optimum fin width could be achieved but that structural considerations limit the thickness of the fin to a value above optimum.

Evans, Austin Lewis

1987-01-01

76

The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

2006-01-01

77

Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

2012-12-01

78

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA SLR Operational Center is responsible for: 1) NASA SLR network control, sustaining engineering, and logistics; 2) ILRS mission operations; and 3) ILRS and NASA SLR data operations. NASA SLR network control and sustaining engineering tasks include technical support, daily system performance monitoring, system scheduling, operator training, station status reporting, system relocation, logistics and support of the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group. These activities ensure the NASA SLR systems are meeting ILRS and NASA mission support requirements. ILRS mission operations tasks include mission planning, mission analysis, mission coordination, development of mission support plans, and support of the ILRS Missions Working Group. These activities ensure than new mission and campaign requirements are coordinated with the ILRS. Global Normal Points (NP) data, NASA SLR FullRate (FR) data, and satellite predictions are managed as part of data operations. Part of this operation includes supporting the ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group. Global NP data operations consist of receipt, format and data integrity verification, archiving and merging. This activity culminates in the daily electronic transmission of NP files to the CDDIS. Currently of all these functions are automated. However, to ensure the timely and accurate flow of data, regular monitoring and maintenance of the operational software systems, computer systems and computer networking are performed. Tracking statistics between the stations and the data centers are compared periodically to eliminate lost data. Future activities in this area include sub-daily (i.e., hourly) NP data management, more stringent data integrity tests, and automatic station notification of format and data integrity issues.

Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

2000-01-01

79

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs-An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. An overview is presented of ongoing efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Goddard Space Flight Center in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. Highlights of the past year include the launch into space of three new cryocooler systems aboard

R. G. Ross

80

Networking at NASA. Johnson Space Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of viewgraphs on computer networks at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are given. Topics covered include information resource management (IRM) at JSC, the IRM budget by NASA center, networks evolution, networking as a strategic tool, the Informatio...

J. R. Garman

1991-01-01

81

NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

2009-01-01

82

NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

1977-01-01

83

NASA Space Sciences Strategic Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.

Crane, Philippe

2004-01-01

84

Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1991-01-01

85

Dosimetry of space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harmful effects of space radiation are discussed. Radiation dosimetry methods are given. Dosimetry monitoring is investigated. Methods for measuring space radiation by ionization, thermoluminescence, and nuclear photographic emulsions are described.

Arkhangelskiy, V. V.; Markelov, V. V.; Skvortsov, S. S.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Turkin, V. N.; Chernykh, I. V.

1973-01-01

86

NASA's space platform technology program and planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative, NASA has established a space platform technology program which encompasses two ongoing programs as well as active planning for new platform initiatives in such areas as advanced heat rejection technologies, advanced space suits, advanced life support, and better support equipment (refrigerators, furnaces, etc.). Platform technology is extremely important because it provides both the basis for future missions and enhanced national competitiveness in space.

Bennett, Gary L.; Cykoski, Russell C.

1993-01-01

87

NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp...

1995-01-01

88

Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

2012-01-01

89

NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration home page provides information on current events at NASA, general information about NASA, and links to a plethora of NASA web sites, educational resources, and NASA Centers.

90

Space Images for NASA/JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

2010-01-01

91

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

92

NASA Goddard's Application of Lasers in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at NASA Goddard have been applying lasers for space measurements for over 4 decades, starting with satellite laser ranging in the mid 1960s. This talk will briefly review the history of Goddard's application to lasers to the scientific exploration of space, provide an overview of its ongoing laser-related programs, and give some possibilities for the future.

Abshire, James B.; Krainak, Michael A.; Degnan, John J.

2007-01-01

93

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the

L. Johnson; J. Robinson

2004-01-01

94

Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard

2012-01-01

95

Space radiation health program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

1991-01-01

96

Space radiation health program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

Not Available

1991-11-01

97

Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and

R. K. Tripathi; J. W. Wilson; F. A. Cucinotta; J. E. Nealy; M. S. Clowdsley; M.-H. Y. Kim

2002-01-01

98

NASA Earth and Space Science Reviewed Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Earth and Space Science Reviewed Collection provides educators and students with a direct line of access to quality products reviewed through the NASA product review. The resources have been rigorously reviewed by an independent peer review of teachers, curriculum and design specialists, teacher trainers, and scientists. The review of the learning resources is based on their scientific accuracy, educational value, documentation, ease of use, their power to engage or motivate students, their robustness/sustainability as a digital resource, and ability to foster mastery of significant understandings or skills. Resources in the collection support the NASA Science Mission Directorate: Earth Science education missions.

2003-07-07

99

NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's activities and purposes. MSFC seeks to build on previous contacts and relationships with Russian rocket institutions, to better understand Russian rocket products and technical capabilities. The US launch vehicle and spacecraft industry are already using many Russian propulsion products and MSFC needs better technical knowledge and understanding of these products as this use increases. Further details are given on MSFC's role in determining and developing the scope of space propulsion, NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan, Earth to Orbit propulsion systems, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, proposed Shuttle safety upgrades, and in-space propulsion systems. MSFC's role in the construction and support of the International Space Station is also described.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

100

NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

2011-01-01

101

NASA's SDR Standard: Space Telecommunications Radio System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.

2007-01-01

102

The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

2007-01-01

103

Space science at NASA - Retrospect and prospect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following a brief overview of past accomplishments in space science, a status report is given concerning progress toward recovering from the Challenger accident and a number of trends are described which are likely to have a major influence on the future of the NASA Space Science program. Key changes in process include a trend toward a program centered on the use of large, long-lived facilities, the emergence of strong space capabilities outside the U.S., and steps being taken toward the diversification of NASA's launch capability. A number of recent planning activities are also discussed. Major considerations which will specifically need to be taken into account in NASA's prgram planning include the need for provision of a spectrum of flight activities and the need to recognize likely resource limitations and to do more realistic program planning.

Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

1988-01-01

104

NASA's new university engineering space research programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.

Sadin, Stanley R.

1988-01-01

105

NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

106

Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Jospeh I.; Parker, L. Neergaard; Suggs, Robert M.

2013-01-01

107

Modelling the performance of the monogroove with screen heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code to model the steady-state performance of a monogroove heat pipe for the NASA Space Station is presented, including the effects on heat pipe performance of a screen in the evaporator section which deals with transient surges in the heat input. Errors in a previous code have been corrected, and the new code adds additional loss terms in

Austin Lewis Evans

1987-01-01

108

NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

2012-01-01

109

77 FR 67028 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...Thomas W. Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Mission...

2012-11-08

110

78 FR 42111 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...David M. Lengyel, Human Exploration and Operations Mission...

2013-07-15

111

75 FR 11200 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington...and dialogue with the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and the Space Operations Mission...

2010-03-10

112

78 FR 10213 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...Thomas W. Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Mission...

2013-02-13

113

Ground antennas in NASA's deep space telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground antennas are the major visible components of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The role, key characteristics, and performance of these antennas in deep-space telecommunications are described. The system analyses and tradeoffs to optimize the overall ground-to-spacecraft link and to define future missions are elaborated from an antenna perspective. Overall performance of receiving systems is compared using the widely accepted

WILLIAM RAFFERTY; STEPHEN D. SLOBIN; CHARLES T. STELZRIED; MILES K. SUE

1994-01-01

114

EPCOT, NASA and plant pathogens in space.  

PubMed

Cooperative work between NASA and Walt Disney World's EPCOT Land Pavilion is described. Joint efforts include research about allelopathy in multi-species plant cropping in CELSS, LEDs as light sources in hydroponic systems, and the growth of plant pathogens in space. PMID:11540338

White, R

1996-01-01

115

Benefit assessment of NASA space technology goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The socio-economic benefits to be derived from system applications of space technology goals developed by NASA were assessed. Specific studies include: electronic mail; personal telephone communications; weather and climate monitoring, prediction, and control; crop production forecasting and water availability; planetary engineering of the planet Venus; and planetary exploration.

1976-01-01

116

Networking at NASA. Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of viewgraphs on computer networks at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are given. Topics covered include information resource management (IRM) at JSC, the IRM budget by NASA center, networks evolution, networking as a strategic tool, the Information Services Directorate charter, and SSC network requirements, challenges, and status.

Garman, John R.

1991-01-01

117

History of the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program for the joint USAF/NASA CRRES mission. Part 1. From the origins through the launch, 1981-1990. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The history narrates the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program from its origins in 1981 through the launch of the SPACERAD experiments on the USAF/NASA Combined Release/Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) on July 25, 1990 and the initial data results in October 1990. The SPACERAD Program comprised a coordinated schedule of space-and-ground testing of state-of-the-art microelectronics, together with new satellite measurements of the Earth's radiation belts. The goals for the program were to produce improved standards and procedures for ground-testing future space microelectronics and new dynamic models of the radiation belts. The history discusses programmatic, management and funding issues that arose in the course of its realization.

Liebowitz, R.P.

1992-03-16

118

Radiation energy conversion in space; Conference, 3rd, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., January 26-28, 1978, Technical Papers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concepts for space-based conversion of space radiation energy into useful energy for man's needs are developed and supported by studies of costs, material and size requirements, efficiency, and available technology. Besides the more studied solar power satellite system using microwave transmission, a number of alternative space energy concepts are considered. Topics covered include orbiting mirrors for terrestrial energy supply, energy conversion at a lunar polar site, ultralightweight structures for space power, radiatively sustained cesium plasmas for solar electric conversion, solar pumped CW CO2 laser, superelastic laser energy conversion, laser-enhanced dynamics in molecular rate processes, and electron beams in space for energy storage.

Billman, K. W.

1978-01-01

119

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, ``propellantless" because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the \\$60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. Solar sails and aerocapture are candidates for flight validation as early as 2008 in partnership with NASA's New Millennium Program.

Johnson, L.; Robinson, J.

2004-11-01

120

Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

1985-01-01

121

Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and implement an overall Risk Management and Analysis process. Currently NASA is drafting spaceflight health standards for neurosensory alterations, space radiation exposure, behavioral health, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular fitness, immunological compromise, bone demineralization, and nutrition.

Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

2006-01-01

122

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. “When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, ‘these folks must be living on another planet.’ We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.”

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

123

NASA technology for large space antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developed by NASA in conjunction with industry for potential large, deployable space antennas with applications in communication, radio astronomy and earth observation is reviewed. Concepts for deployable antennas that have been developed to the point of detail design are summarized, including the advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna, the maypole (hoop/column) antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna. The assessment of state-of-the-art deployable antenna technology is discussed, and the approach taken by the NASA Large Space Systems Technology (LSST) Program to the development of technology for large space antenna systems is outlined. Finally, the further development of the wrap-rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) concept, which meet mission model requirements, to satisfy LSST size and frequency requirements is discussed.

Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

1979-01-01

124

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-01-01

125

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program.  

PubMed

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995. PMID:11537955

Coulter, G; Lewis, L; Atchison, D

1994-01-01

126

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

127

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

128

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

129

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. NASA's In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Program is investing in technologies to meet these needs. The ISP technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5-10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, propellantless because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar and plasma sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aeroassist and aerocapture. An overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them, will be provided.

Johnson, Les

2003-01-01

130

Autonomy and software technology on NASA's Deep Space One  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Deep Space One mission is unprecedented. Traditionally, NASA's space missions have been justified by science data return as the primary, if not the sole consideration. DS1 is the first NASA mission whose main purpose is to demonstrate the flight readiness of a set of technologies. The article shows how various AI related technologies are helping to launch NASA into

D. Bernard; R. Doyle; E. Riedel; N. Rouquette; J. Wyatt; M. Lowry; P. Nayak

1999-01-01

131

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs: A 2003 Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 4 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.

Ross, R. G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.

2004-01-01

132

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

133

Hubble Space Telescope: Should NASA Proceed with a Servicing Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008 instead of 2010. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Se...

D. Morgan

2006-01-01

134

NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

135

Terrestrial applications of NASA space telerobotics technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1985 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) instituted a research program in telerobotics to develop and provide the technology for applications of telerobotics to the United States space program. The activities of the program are intended to most effectively utilize limited astronaut time by facilitating tasks such as inspection, assembly, repair, and servicing, as well as providing extended capability for remotely conducting planetary surface operations. As the program matured, it also developed a strong heritage of working with government and industry to directly transfer the developed technology into industrial applications.

Lavery, Dave

1994-01-01

136

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

137

Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

1988-01-01

138

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

139

NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, adhesives and other data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on a spacecraft, its sub-systems, materials and instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other US and international government agencies, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program (agency-wide in scope but managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center) provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment. It does this by defining the best techniques for both flight- and groundbased experimentation, updating models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft and ensuring that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and discuss several current technology development activities associated with the spacecraft charging phenomenon.

Minor, Jody

2001-01-01

140

NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

Branscome, Darrell R.

1991-01-01

141

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA s contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

Pearlman, M. R.; Frey, H. V.; Gross, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Noll, C. E.; Pavilis, E. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.; Zagwodski, T. W.

2012-01-01

142

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

143

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN Array Project is currently working with Senior Management at both JPL and NASA to develop strategies towards starting a major implementation project. Several studies within NASA are concluding, all of which recommend that any future DSN capability include arraying of antennas to increase performance. Support of Deep Space, Lunar, and CEV (crewed exploration vehicle) missions is possible. High data rate and TDRSS formatting is being investigated. Any future DSN capacity must include Uplink. Current studies ongoing to investigate and develop technologies for uplink arraying; provides advantages in three ways: 1) N2 effect. EIRP grows as N2(-vs-N for a downlink array); 2) Improved architectural options (can separate uplink and downlink); and 3) Potential for more cost effective transmitters for fixed EIRP.

Gatti, Mark

2006-01-01

144

Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multi-constellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, S.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; Mcgarry, J.; Murphy, D. W.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F.

2012-12-01

145

Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the sate1!ite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation ofthe observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multiconstellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

146

NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

2006-01-01

147

NASA's Space Launch Initiative Targets Toxic Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When manned and unmanned space flight first began, the clear and overriding design consideration was performance. Consequently, propellant combinations of all kinds were considered, tested, and, when they lifted the payload a kilometer higher, or an extra kilogram to the same altitude, they became part of our operational inventory. Cost was not considered. And with virtually all of the early work being performed by the military, safety was hardly a consideration. After all, fighting wars has always been dangerous. Those days are past now. With space flight, and the products of space flight, a regular part of our lives today, safety and cost are being reexamined. NASA's focus turns naturally to its Shuttle Space Transportation System. Designed, built, and flown for the first time in the 1970s, this system remains today America's workhorse for manned space flight. Without its tremendous lift capability and mission flexibility, the International Space Station would not exist. And the Hubble telescope would be a monument to shortsighted management, rather than the clear penetrating eye on the stars it is today. But the Shuttle system fully represents the design philosophy of its period: it is too costly to operate, and not safe enough for regular long term access to space. And one of the key reasons is the utilization of toxic propellants. This paper will present an overview of the utilization of toxic propellants on the current Shuttle system.

Hurlbert, Eric; McNeal, Curtis; Davis, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

148

Improving NASA's technology for space science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued advance of the nation's space program is directly dependent upon the development and use of new technology. Technology is the foundation for every aspect of space missions and ground operations. The improvements in technology that will enable future advances are not only in device and system performance, but also in permitting missions to be carried out more rapidly and at lower cost. Although more can be done with current technology, NASA's recent call for new and innovative approaches should not be answered by employing only today's technologies; new technologies with revolutionary potential should be sought. The study reported here was performed to identify means to enhance the development of technologies for the space sciences and applications.

1993-01-01

149

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

150

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

151

Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magentic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems.

Garrett, H.

1998-01-01

152

NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

2004-01-01

153

VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

Ma, Chopo

2012-01-01

154

Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

Eisenberg, Martin A.

1990-01-01

155

Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SL-3 flight on the Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

1980-01-01

156

NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy for future generations, as it provides a platform for science and exploration that will define new knowledge and redefine known boundaries. NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program s Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle with associated life-support equipment and provisions for long journeys or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 tonnes (t) in 2017 and will be evolvable to 130 t after 2021. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of Mars. Building on the foundation laid by over 50 years of human and scientific space flight and on the lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle, and Constellation Programs the SLS team is delivering both technical trade studies and business case analyses to ensure that the SLS architecture will be safe, affordable, reliable, and sustainable. This panel will address the planning and progress being made by NASA s SLS Program.

May, Todd A.; Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

2012-01-01

157

NASA Advanced Radiator Technology Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical implementation of the two-phase working fluid of lithium and NaK has been developed experimentally for pumped loop radiator designs. The benefits of the high heat capacity and low mass of lithium have been integrated with the shutdown capability enabled by the low freezing temperature of NaK by mixing these liquid metals directly. The stable and reliable start up and shutdown of a lithium/NaK pumped loop has been demonstrated through the development of a novel lithium freeze-separation technique within the flowing header ducts. The results of a highly instrumented liquid metal test loop are presented in which both lithium fraction as well as loop gravitational effects were varied over a wide range of values. Diagnostics based on dual electric probes are presented in which the convective behavior of the lithium component is directly measured during loop operation. The uniform distribution of the lithium after a freeze separation is verified by neutron radiography. The operating regime for reliable freeze/thaw flow behavior is described in terms of correlations based on dimensional analysis.

Koester, J. Kent; Juhasz, Albert J.

1994-07-01

158

CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

Allgood, Daniel

2007-01-01

159

NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop, September 27-28, 2007.  

PubMed

A summary is provided of presentations and discussions at the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007 at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including those exposed during long-duration space travel. Topics discussed included the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage after large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. A summary of conclusions is provided at the end of the report. PMID:18763867

Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A; Blakely, William F; Burns, Fredric J; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A; Loftus, David J; Morgan, William F; Pellmar, Terry C; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Vaughan, Andrew T; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J

2008-09-01

160

Space Internet architectures and technologies for NASA enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper

Kul Bhasin; Jeffrey L. Hayden

2001-01-01

161

NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

Dumbacher, Dan

2003-01-01

162

Sign Up for NASA's Space Apps Challenge  

NASA Video Gallery

One of NASA's missions is to watch over and help care for Earth. This year, NASA will launch an unprecedented five Earth Science missions, highlighting NASA's role as an innovation leader in Earth ...

163

NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook: Lessons Learned Documented  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to improve space mechanism reliability is underscored by a long history of flight failures and anomalies caused by malfunctioning mechanisms on spacecraft and launch vehicles. Some examples of these failures are listed in a table. Because much experience has been gained over the years, many specialized design practices have evolved and many unsatisfactory design approaches have been identified.NASA and the NASA Lewis Research Center conducted a Lessons Learned Study (refs. 1 and 2) and wrote a handbook to document what has been learned in the past. The primary goals of the handbook were to identify desirable and undesirable design practices for space mechanisms and to reduce the number of failures caused by the repetition of past design errors. Another goal was to identify a variety of design approaches for specific applications and to provide the associated considerations and caveats for each approach in an effort to help designers choose the approach most suitable for each application. This technical summary outlines the goals and objectives of the handbook and study as well as the contents of the handbook.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1999-01-01

164

Radiation risk and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

2003-01-01

165

Radiation risk and human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

2003-01-01

166

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot progr...

J. Bolognese H. Walden

2001-01-01

167

Overview of NASA's In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Management Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future mission planning within NASA continues to include cryogenic propellants for in space transportation, with mission durations ranging from days to years. Between 1995 and the present, NASA has pursued a diversified program of ground-based testing to ...

S. Tucker L. Hastings

2001-01-01

168

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot progr...

H. Walden, J. Bolognese

2002-01-01

169

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

170

76 FR 40753 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...part of the agenda, the Commercial Space Committee will have a joint session with the NASA Advisory Council's Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee regarding Commercial Space. The meeting will be open to the...

2011-07-11

171

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: December 3, 2012,...

2012-11-01

172

78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: January 7, 2014,...

2013-12-23

173

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: September 3, 2013,...

2013-08-13

174

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: August 28, 2012,...

2012-07-12

175

77 FR 20852 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...Thomas W. Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate...National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

2012-04-06

176

77 FR 38678 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADDRESSES: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC...W. Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Directorate...Center's Commercial Space Activities and Plans...Mission to International Space Station --Joint Session with the NAC Human Exploration and Operations...

2012-06-28

177

Space Operations: NASA Is Not Archiving All Potentially Valuable Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government Accounting Office (GAO) presents to the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology the GAO findings on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) handling of space science data, including its selection, management, ...

1991-01-01

178

Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for L2, Lunar, Mars and Mars/Venus swing-by reference missions. For all these missions, material trades have been studied. And, as an example, a crew age trade for Mars/Venus swing-by mission has been done. The career blood forming organ (BFO) constraints are more stringent and play a critical role in the optimization procedure. The short missions to L2 and the Moon mainly need to deal with the possibility of solar particle events. It is found that improved shield materials will be required to enable a Mars mission in which middle-aged astronauts can participate. If the age of the astronauts are allowed to be 55 and older then more options are available. Revolutionary materials need to be developed to have younger crewmembers on board to Mars and other long duration missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

2002-03-01

179

The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding. PMID:21346276

Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

2011-03-21

180

The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2011-03-01

181

NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The SLS may also provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration for decades to come.

Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Singer, Christer E.

2012-01-01

182

Assessment of Emerging Networks to Support Future NASA Space Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various issues associated with assessing emerging networks to support future NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Emerging commercial satellite systems; 2) NASA LEO satellite support through commercial systems; 3) Communications coverage, user terminal assessment and regulatory assessment; 4) NASA LEO missions overview; and 5) Simulation assumptions and results.

Younes, Badri; Chang, Susan; Berman, Ted; Burns, Mark; LaFontaine, Richard; Lease, Robert

1998-01-01

183

NASA Musculoskeletal Space Medicine and Reconditioning Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) group is comprised of certified strength and conditioning coaches and licensed and certified athletic trainers. The ASCR group works within NASA s Space Medicine Division providing direction and supervision to the astronaut corp with regards to physical readiness throughout all phases of space flight. The ASCR group is overseen by flight surgeons with specialized training in sports medicine or physical medicine and rehabilitation. The goals of the ASCR group include 1) designing and administering strength and conditioning programs that maximize the potential for physical performance while minimizing the rate of injury, 2) providing appropriate injury management and rehabilitation services, 3) collaborating with medical, research, engineering, and mission operations groups to develop and implement safe and effective in-flight exercise countermeasures, and 4) providing a structured, individualized post-flight reconditioning program for long duration crew members. This Panel will present the current approach to the management of musculoskeletal injuries commonly seen within the astronaut corp and will present an overview of the pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and post-flight reconditioning program for ISS astronauts.

Kerstman, Eric; Scheuring, Richard

2011-01-01

184

Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

185

Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

Arepalli, Sivaram

2006-01-01

186

Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as “ monolithic” telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

Creech, S. D.

187

Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This conference poster explores NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments project. This project aims to advance the state of the art in high performance, radiation-hardened electronics that enable the long-term, reliable operation of a spacecraft in extreme radiation and temperature of space and the lunar surface.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael; Cressler, John D.

2008-01-01

188

An Overview of NASA Space Cryocooler Programs—2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. Many of NASA's space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, or enable the use of advanced detectors to observe a wide range of phenomena—from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, the largest

R. G. Ross; R. F. Boyle

189

NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

Sibeck, David G.

2011-01-01

190

Radiation Protection Materials for Space Missions and Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ``the show stopper.'' The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep

Ram Tripathi

2007-01-01

191

Memories and NASA Spacecraft: A Description of Memories, Radiation Failure Modes, and System Design Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has evolved it's usage of spaceflight computing, memory applications have followed as well. In this slide presentation, the history of NASA's memories from magnetic core and tape recorders to current semiconductor approaches is discussed. There is a brief description of current functional memory usage in NASA space systems followed by a description of potential radiation-induced failure modes along with considerations for reliable system design.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Ray; Oldhamm, Timothy

2010-01-01

192

NASA Space Safety Standards and Procedures for Human Rating Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA) has arguably led this planet in space exploration and certainly has been one of two major leaders in those endeavors. NASA governance is institutionalized and managed in a series documents arranged in a hierarchy and flowing down to the work levels. A document tree of NASA s documentation in its totality would likely overwhelm and not be very informative. Taken in segments related to the various business topics and focusing in those segments, however, provides a logical and understandable relationship and flow of requirements and processes. That is the nature of this chapter, a selection of NASA documentation pertaining to space exploration and a description of how those documents together form the plan by which NASA business for space exploration is conducted. Information presented herein is taken from NASA publications and is available publicly and no information herein is protected by copyright or security regulations. While NASA documents are the source of information presented herein, any and all views expressed herein and any misrepresentations of NASA data that may occur herein are those of the author and should not be considered NASA official positions or statements, nor should NASA endorsement of anything presented in this work be assumed.

Shivers, C. Herbert

2009-01-01

193

Radiation Hazard in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book gives a modern picture of the Earth's radiation environment and dynamics of radiation conditions in the heliosphere. The present monograph, unlike the reviews published earlier, treats the problem in self-contained form, in all its associations - from fundamental astrophysical, geophysical, and biological aspects to technical, engineering, aircraft and astronautical applications. The monograph includes a large amount of new data on the main sources of natural radiation hazard (terrestrial radiation belts, solar cosmic rays and galactic cosmic rays), accumulated during the last several decades of space research. As a result of the "information burst" in space physics, there are a lot of new interesting theoretical concepts, prediction models and ideas that deserve attention. The author gives an extensive bibliography, which covers impartially the main achievements, failures, problems and prospects in this field. The book will be helpful for a wide audience of space physicists, designers, engineers and other specialists in the practical cosmonautics (astronautics). It also will be relevant for a number of graduate courses on solar physics, geophysics, solar-terrestrial physics, and other branches of space research.

Miroshnichenko, L. I.

2003-10-01

194

Overview of HZETRN and BRNTRN space radiation shielding codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Radiation Health Program has supported basic research over the last decade in radiation physics to develop ionizing radiation transport codes and corresponding data bases for the protection of astronauts from galactic and solar cosmic rays on future deep space missions. The codes describe the interactions of the incident radiations with shield materials where their content is modified by

John W. Wilson; F. A. Cucinotta; J. L. Shinn; L. C. Simonsen; F. F. Badavi

1996-01-01

195

The NASA-Sponsored Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA). Relationship of Exposure to Radiation in Space and the Risk of Cataract Incidence and Progression. Report 1: Recruitment and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a five-year, multi-centered, investigation of lens opacification in populations of U.S. astronauts, military pilots, and ground-based (nonaviator) comparison participants. For astronauts, the explanatory variable of most interest is radiation exposure during space flight, however to properly evaluate its effect, the secondary effects of age, nutrition, general health, solar ocular exposure, and other confounding variables encountered in non-space flight must also be considered. NASCA contains an initial baseline, cross-sectional objective assessment of the severity of cortical (C), nuclear (N), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacification, and annual follow-on assessments of severity and progression of these opacities in the population of astronauts and in participants sampled from populations of military pilots and ground-based exposure controls. From these data, NASCA will estimate the degree to which space radiation affects lens opacification for astronauts and how the overall risks of each cataract type for astronauts compared with those of the other exposure control groups after adjusting for differences in age and other explanatory variables.

Chylack, Leo T.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wear, Mary; Manuel, F. Keith

2007-01-01

196

Renewable Energy at NASA's Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Johnson Space Center has implemented a great number of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems are necessary to research and implement if we humans are expected to continue to grow and thrive on this planet. These systems generate energy using renewable sources - water, wind, sun - things that we will not run out of. Johnson Space Center is helping to pave the way by installing and studying various renewable energy systems. The objective of this report will be to examine the completed renewable energy projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center for a time span of ten years, beginning in 2003 and ending in early 2014. This report will analyze the success of each project based on actual vs. projected savings and actual vs. projected efficiency. Additionally, both positive and negative experiences are documented so that lessons may be learned from past experiences. NASA is incorporating renewable energy wherever it can, including into buildings. According to the 2012 JSC Annual Sustainability Report, there are 321,660 square feet of green building space on JSC's campus. The two projects discussed here are major contributors to that statistic. These buildings were designed to meet various Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certification criteria. LEED Certified buildings use 30 to 50 percent less energy and water compared to non-LEED buildings. The objectives of this project were to examine data from the renewable energy systems in two of the green buildings onsite - Building 12 and Building 20. In Building 12, data was examined from the solar photovoltaic arrays. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater system. By examining the data from the two buildings, it could be determined if the renewable energy systems are operating efficiently. Objectives In Building 12, the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays shows that the system is continuously collecting energy from the sun, as shown by the graph below. Building 12 has two solar inverters, located on the second floor, that collected the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays. The data displayed here is the total energy produced by the system. These are cumulative amounts, so the last point on the graph shows all of the energy collected from the system since the start of its operation. The data shown here was manually collected from the solar inverters. However, the data is also automatically recorded through EBI. Through analysis of both sets of data it was determined that the EBI data was faulty. For example, from the manually collected data it can be determined that a total of 73 kWh of energy was collected between the dates of 1/16/2014 – 1/22/2014. The EBI data reports that approximately 17800 kWh of energy was collected during the same time frame. Not only does this exceed the time frame examined, but it also exceeds the total energy collected from the start of collection as recorded from the inverters. This leads to the belief that there is a malfunction with the automatic recording of the energy. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater dating back many months and found that the pump for the solar water heater system was not operating properly, as exhibited in the graph shown below. The pump operates on a solar energy system, meaning that it collects energy throughout the day from the sun. Because of this, the system would stop operating shortly after the sun set because of a lack of sunlight. At that point, the graph should show a zero flow rate, but as exhibited in the graph below, that is not the case. It is clearly shown that the pump is continuously operating, even during the night. It was also observed that the majority of the time the pump would not turn on at all, despite good weather conditions. This led to the conclusion that the pump is malfunctioning, and needs to be examined and fixed.

McDowall, Lindsay

2014-01-01

197

NASA GRC and MSFC Space Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated-space-plasma conditions have been performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for an accurate and meaningful space simulation have

Dale C. Ferguson; Boris V. Vayner; Joel T. Galofaro; G. Barry Hillard; Jason Vaughn; Todd Schneider

2006-01-01

198

Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nanotube activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization as well as applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A parametric study of the pulsed laser ablation process is recently completed to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Enhancement of production is achieved by rastering the graphite target and by increasing the target surface temperature with a cw laser. In-situ diagnostics during production included time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from the plume. The improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymer/nanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large Surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs. Comparison with existing technologies and possible future improvements in the SWCNT materials sill be presented.

Arepalli, Sivaram

2004-01-01

199

Nanomaterials Work at NASA-Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nanomaterials activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center focus on single wall carbon nanotube production, characterization and their applications for aerospace. Nanotubes are produced by arc and laser methods and the growth process is monitored by in-situ diagnostics using time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence of the active species. Parametric study of both these processes are conducted to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, laser fluence and arc current. Characterization of the nanotube material is performed using the NASA-JSC protocol developed by combining analytical techniques of SEM, TEM, UV-VIS-NIR absorption, Raman, and TGA. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymernanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

Arepalli, Sivaram

2005-01-01

200

NASA Center update: Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: spacecraft operations, life cycle testing an the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), and destructive physical analysis at COMSAT laboratories. The subtopics under spacecraft operations are the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The subtopics under the life cycle testing at NSWC are the following: advanced NiCd cells from Hughes Aircraft Company/Eagle Picher Industries; conventional NiCd cells from Gates Aerospace Batteries; conventional NiCd cells from General Electric; NiCd cells from SAFT; NiH2 celss from Eagle Picher Industries; and data as of 10/26/92.

Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

1993-01-01

201

Radiation and Long-term Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data on the carcinogenic effects of space radiation on humans are available from the Russian MIR Space Station and the US Space Shuttle missions but are limited to tissue-level studies rather than the organ-level studies which are necessary to accurately determine radiation doses. Now, NASA's National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) has instigated an experiment, called the "torso-experiment," that will use a fully instrumented phantom torso (with head) to provide the necessary depth-dose-equivalent measurements on the International Space Station. Depth-dose-equivalent measurements will be taken as a function of spacecraft altitude, attitude, location, and time, and measurements internal to the phantom torso will be supported by other radiation measurements from the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter and the Charged Particle Direction Spectrometer. Read more about this somewhat bizarre-looking experiment at this Webpage from NSBRI.

202

NASA-universities relationships in aero/space engineering: A review of NASA's program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is concerned about the health of aerospace engineering departments at U.S. universities. The number of advanced degrees in aerospace engineering has declined. There is concern that universities' facilities, research equipment, and instrumentation may be aging or outmoded and therefore affect the quality of research and education. NASA requested that the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) review NASA's support of universities and make recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.

1985-01-01

203

Space Radiation Effects on Electronics: Simple Concepts and New Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics: 1) The Space Radiation Environment; 2) The Effects on Electronics; 3) The Environment in Action; 4) NASA Approaches to Commercial Electronics; 5) Final Thoughts.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

204

NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 1995-1999 Self Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium receives funds from NASA to allow Nebraska colleges and universities to implement balanced programs of research, education and public service related to aeronautics, space science and technology. Nebraska is a capability enhancement state which directs efforts and resources toward developing research infrastructure and enhancing the quality of aerospace research and education for all Nebraskans. Furthermore, the Nebraska Space Grant strives to provide national leadership in applied aspects of aeronautics. Nebraska has met, meets and will continue to meet all requirements set forth by NASA. Nebraska is a top-tier consortium and will continue to be a model program.

Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Schaffart, Mary M.

1999-01-01

205

Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight  

SciTech Connect

This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1997-04-30

206

Overview of Space Science and Information Research Opportunities at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is not possible to review all the opportunities that NASA provides to support the Space Science Enterprise, in the short amount of time allotted for this presentation. Therefore, only a few key programs will be discussed. The programs that I will discuss will concentrate on research opportunities for faculty, graduate and postdoctoral candidates in Space Science research and information technologies at NASA. One of the most important programs for research opportunities is the NASA Research Announcement or NRA. NASA Headquarters issues NRA's on a regular basis and these cover space science and computer science activities relating to NASA missions and programs. In the Space Sciences, the most important NRA is called the "Research Opportunities in Space Science or the ROSS NRA. The ROSS NRA is composed of multiple announcements in the areas of structure and evolution of the Universe, Solar System exploration, Sun-Earth connections, and applied information systems. Another important opportunity is the Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP). The GSRP is designed to cultivate research ties between a NASA Center and the academic community through the award of fellowships to promising students in science and engineering. This program is unique since it matches the student's area of research interest with existing work being carried out at NASA. This program is for U.S. citizens who are full-time graduate students. Students who are successful have made the match between their research and the NASA employee who will act as their NASA Advisor/ Mentor. In this program, the student's research is primarily accomplished under the supervision of his faculty advisor with periodic or frequent interactions with the NASA Mentor. These interactions typically involve travel to the sponsoring NASA Center on a regular basis. The one-year fellowships are renewable for up to three years and over $20,000 per year. These and other important opportunities will be discussed.

Green, James L.

2000-01-01

207

Advances in Ground Transmitters for the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, is equipped with multiple microwave transmitters ranging in average radiated power from 200 W to 400 kW. The transmitters are used for routine or emergency communication with spacecraft, for navigation, and for radio science tasks. The latest advances in transmitter engineering were implemented in a new generation of 20-kW dual-band transmitters developed for the DSN 34-m beam waveguide antennas. Innovations include additional X-band communication capability for near Earth missions, new control algorithms, automated calibration, improved and expanded computerized monitoring and diagnostics, reduced cabling, and improved maintainability. The innovations were very beneficial for the DSN 'overload' during the Mars 2003/2004 missions and will benefit other missions throughout the next decade. This paper describes the current design of the new transmitters and possible future developments.

Vodonos, Yakov I.; Conroy, Bruce L.; Losh, David L.; Silva, Arnold

2007-01-01

208

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) education 1993--2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education

Christine M. Ivie

2009-01-01

209

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Education 1993-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993-2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that…

Ivie, Christine M.

2009-01-01

210

Meson Production and Space Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation is an important priority for long duration space flight. The National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) has recently recommended that pion and other mesons should be included in space radiation transport codes, especially in connection with the Martian atmosphere. In an interesting accident of nature, the galactic cosmic ray spectrum has

John Norbury; Steve Blattnig; Ryan Norman; Sukesh Aghara

2010-01-01

211

Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

2014-01-01

212

Virtual Environments in Training: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual environment (VE) technology was used to construct a model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and those elements that were replaced or serviced during the December, 1993 repair and maintenance mission conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The VE also included the payload bay of the Space Shuttle and the fixtures used for transporting replacement systems

R. Bowen Loftin; Patrick J. Kenney; Robin Benedetti; Chris Culbert; Mark Engelberg; Robert Jones; Paige Lucas; Mason Menninger; John Muratore; Lac Nguyen; Tim Saito; Robert T. Savely; Mark Voss

213

NASA Stennis Space Center Test Technology Branch Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a short history of NASA Stennis Space Center's Test Technology Laboratory and briefly describes the variety of engine test technology activities and developmental project initiatives. Theoretical rocket exhaust plume modeling, acoustic...

W. M. Solano

2000-01-01

214

Panel Urges NASA to Save Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New York Times news article published July 14, 2004 on the National Academy of Sciences panel recommendation that NASA should commit itself to a servicing mission to extend the life of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Center, Liberty S.

2005-05-17

215

Radiation protection during space flight.  

PubMed

The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew. PMID:6318715

Kovalev, E E

1983-12-01

216

NASA Space Research: Membranes on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, produced by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research, discusses the research initiative to develop membranes that could solve some of the problems associated with traveling to and from Mars. With the help of a comprehensible explanation and a diagram, visitors can learn how NASA is planning to extract CO2 from the Martian atmosphere to propel rockets and rovers. The website discusses the scientists' hopes that the technology "may leverage us to actually go to Mars and live and work there someday." The article also addresses the potential use of the system as a way to decrease CO2 emissions on Earth.

217

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

2004-01-01

218

NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with exploring flight both within and outside the atmosphere. By the 1980s, NASA had established itself as an agency with considerable achievements on record. The decade was marked by the inauguration of the Space Shuttle flights and haunted by the 1986 Challenger accident that temporarily halted the program. The agency also enjoyed the strong support of President Ronald Reagan, who enthusiastically announced the start of both the Space Station program and the National Aerospace Plane program.

Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

219

Radiation Hazards and Countermeasures for Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The protection of astronauts from the hazards of ionizing radiation in space is a moral and legal obligation of NASA. If there are to be manned deep-space missions, means must be found to provide this protection. There are two parts to providing this protection: understanding the effects of space radiation on humans so that radiation exposure limits can be established; and developing countermeasures so that exposures can be kept below these limits. This talk will cover both parts of this problem.

Adams, James

2004-01-01

220

NASA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the most exciting documentary footage traces the 25-year history of nasa. Emphasis is placed on the numerous challenges and accomplishments which have marked a quarter century of air and space research and exploration. Primary audience: mass audie...

1994-01-01

221

Reducing the complexity of NASA's space communications infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the range of activities performed during the annual reporting period in support of the NASA Code O Success Team - Lifecycle Effectiveness for Strategic Success (COST LESS) team. The overall goal of the COST LESS team is to redefine success in a constrained fiscal environment and reduce the cost of success for end-to-end mission operations. This goal is more encompassing than the original proposal made to NASA for reducing complexity of NASA's Space Communications Infrastructure. The COST LESS team approach for reengineering the space operations infrastructure has a focus on reversing the trend of engineering special solutions to similar problems.

Miller, Raymond E.; Liu, Hong; Song, Junehwa

1995-01-01

222

The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

1988-01-01

223

Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

Smith, Dan

2011-01-01

224

NASA's commercial space program - Initiatives for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's commercial development of the space program aimed at the stimulation and assistance of expanded private sector involvement and investment in civil space activities is discussed, focusing on major new program initiatives and their implementation. NASA's Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) program, composed of competitively selected consortia of universities, industries, and government involved in early research and testing phases of potentially commercially viable technologies is described. The 16 centers concentrate on seven different technical areas such as automation and robotics; remote sensing; life sciences; and space power, propulsion, and structures. Private sector participation, CCDS technology development, government and commercially supplied access to space in support of CCDS programs, CCDS hardware development, and CCDS spinoffs are discussed together with various cooperative and reimbursable agreements between NASA and the private sector.

Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

1990-01-01

225

NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, adhesives and other data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide da...

J. Minor

2001-01-01

226

Radiation Hazards and Countermeasures for Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protection of the astronauts from space radiation is NASA's moral and legal responsibility. There can be no manned deep space missions without adequate protection from the ionizing radiation in space. There are tow parts to radiation protection, determining the effects of space radiation on humans so that adequate exposure limits can be set and providing radiation protection that insures those limits will not be exceeded. This talk will review the status of work on these two parts and identify areas that are currently being investigated and gaps in the research that have been identified.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2004-01-01

227

Operational Aspects of Space Radiation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minimizing astronaut's short and long-term medical risks arising from exposure to ionizing radiation during space missions is a major concern for NASA's manned spaceflight program, particularly exploration missions. For ethical and legal reasons, NASA follows the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principal in managing astronaut's radiation exposures. One implementation of ALARA is the response to space weather events. Of particular concern are energetic solar particle events, and in low Earth orbit (LEO), electron belt enhancements. To properly respond to these events, NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), in partnership with the NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC), provides continuous flight support during U.S. manned missions. In this partnership, SEC compiles space weather data from numerous ground and space based assets and makes it available in near real-time to SRAG (along with alerts and forecasts), who in turn uses these data as input to models to calculate estimates of the resulting exposure to astronauts. These calculations and vehicle instrument data form the basis for real-time recommendations to flight management. It is also important to implement ALARA during the design phase. In order to appropriately weigh the risks associated with various shielding and vehicle configuration concepts, the expected environment must be adequately characterized for nominal and worst case scenarios for that portion of the solar cycle and point in space. Even with the best shielding concepts and materials in place (unlikely), there will be numerous occasions where the crew is at greater risk due to being in a lower shielded environment (short term transit or lower shielded vehicles, EVAs), so that accurate space weather forecasts and nowcasts, of particles at the relevant energies, will be crucial to protecting crew health and safety.

Weyland, M. D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E. J.; Shelfer, T.; Dardano, C.; Lin, T.; Zapp, N. E.; Rutledge, R.; George, T.

2005-01-01

228

NASA Johnson Space Center Biomedical Research Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center (JSC) medical sciences laboratories constitute a national resource for support of medical operations and life sciences research enabling a human presence in space. They play a critical role in evaluating, defining, and mitigation the untoward effect of human adaption to space flight. Over the years they have developed the unique facilities and expertise required to perform: biomedical sample analysis and physiological performance tests supporting medical evaluations of space flight crew members and scientific investigations of the operationally relevant medical, physiological, cellular, and biochemical issues associated with human space flight. A general overview of these laboratories is presented in viewgraph form.

Paloski, W. H.

1999-01-01

229

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: NASA Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Features include an overview of the SMD's missions and research on the Earth system, the sun, other planets in our solar system, and on topics in astrophysics. The researchers' page includes information on open solicitations, research opportunities, mission opportunities, grant information, and jobs. The educators' page provides links to NASA education programs and classroom resources. The kids' page provides access to games, activities, movies, and resources to help with homework. The citizen scientists' page provides information on obtaining datasets, participating in research projects, and information for amateur astronomers. The site also includes an image-of-the-day feature, a spotlighted mission, and links to news articles.

230

Space radiation health research, 1991-1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided. A collection of abstracts spanning the period 1986-1990 was previously issued as NASA Technical Memorandum 4270.

Jablin, M. H. (compiler); Brooks, C. (compiler); Ferraro, G. (compiler); Dickson, K. J. (compiler); Powers, J. V. (compiler); Wallace-Robinson, J. (compiler); Zafren, B. (compiler)

1993-01-01

231

NASA technology for large space antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some leading concepts for deployable antennas are described and an assessment of the state of the art in deployable antennas is presented. The advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) antenna, the wrap rib antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna are covered. In addition, a discussion on the technology development program for two deployable antenna concepts that are responsive to the antenna mission requirements as defined in the NASA mission model is presented.

Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

1980-01-01

232

Conference on NASA Centers for commercial Development of Space (NASACCDS)  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings represent papers presented at the conference on NASA centersfor commercial development of space. The conference theme was ``commercialization andtechnology transfer``. The topics discussed included alternative power from space,accelerator-driven transmutation technologies, automation and robotics, materials suitablefor space applications, and remote sensing. The objective of the conference was to increaseindustry involvement in U.S. commercial activities in space. There were fifty two paperspresented for the Energy Science and Technology database. (AIP)

El-Genk, M.S. [ed.] [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power studies,University of New Mexico (United States)] [ed.; Institute for Space and Nuclear Power studies,University of New Mexico (United States); Raymond, P.W. [ed.] [NASA SeniorManager, CCDS Program, NASA Headquarters (United States)] [ed.; NASA SeniorManager, CCDS Program, NASA Headquarters (United States)

1995-12-31

233

NASA Exploration Design Challenge  

NASA Video Gallery

From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

234

Radiation energy conversion in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

Billman, K. W.

1979-01-01

235

NASA space life sciences research and education support program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

Jones, Terri K.

1995-01-01

236

Radiation dose predictions for SPE events during solar cycle 23 from NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code is a deterministic model for rapid and accurate calculations of the particle radiation fields in the space environment. HZETRN is used to calculate dosimetric quantities on the International Space Station (ISS) and assess astronaut risk to space radiations, including realistic spacecraft and human geometry for final exposure evaluation. HZETRN is used as

Christopher Mertens; Steve Blattnig; Tony Slaba; Brian Kress; Michael Wiltberger; Stan Solomon

2008-01-01

237

Space Radiation Monte-Carlo Computer Simulation Using the FLUKA Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, a Monte-Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space is being developed. The software package will incorp...

G. Badhwar J. MacGibbon L. Pinsky T. Wilson

1999-01-01

238

NASA SpaceWire Activities/Comments/Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's activities, and proposes recommendations for the further use of the SpaceWire (SpW). The areas covered in this presentation are: (1) Protocol ID assignment, (2) Protocol development, (3) Plug & Play (PnP), (4) Recommended additions t o SpW protocol and (5) SpaceFibre trade.

Rakow, Glenn

2006-01-01

239

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Commercial Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, th...

1988-01-01

240

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

241

Clocks and Timing in the NASA Deep Space Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new timing system has been developed for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and is currently in the final stages of integration, testing and implementation in all three DSN sites. The DSN is a distributed antenna network for deep space communication, who...

A. Kirk J. Gonzalez J. Lauf M. Calhoun W. Diener

2005-01-01

242

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics are compiled. The theme of the conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for the application of telerobotic technology to the space systems planned for the 1990's and beyond. Volume 4 contains papers related to the following subject areas: manipulator control; telemanipulation; flight experiments (systems and simulators); sensor-based planning; robot kinematics, dynamics, and control; robot task planning and assembly; and research activities at the NASA Langley Research Center.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

243

A systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to but separate from the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper, without compromising safety. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo. The Blue Team process and results are summarized. The Associate Administrator for Space Communications subsequently convened a special management session to discuss the significance and implications of the Blue Team's report and to lay the groundwork and teamwork for the next steps, including the transition from engineering systems to systems engineering. The methodology and progress toward realizing the Code O Family vision and accomplishing the systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications are presented.

Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

1993-01-01

244

Architectural Implementation of NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System Specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software demonstrates a working implementation of the NASA STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) architecture specification. This is a developing specification of software architecture and required interfaces to provide commonality among future NASA and commercial software-defined radios for space, and allow for easier mixing of software and hardware from different vendors. It provides required functions, and supports interaction with STRS-compliant simple test plug-ins ("waveforms"). All of it is programmed in "plain C," except where necessary to interact with C++ plug-ins. It offers a small footprint, suitable for use in JPL radio hardware. Future NASA work is expected to develop into fully capable software-defined radios for use on the space station, other space vehicles, and interplanetary probes.

Peters, Kenneth J.; Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Duncan, Courtney B.

2012-01-01

245

SILENCING NASA'S SPACE SHUTTLE CRAWLER TRANSPORTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's second largest known tracked vehicle, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a

R. MacDonald; R. Margasahayam

246

Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

Huff, Janice L.

2014-01-01

247

Current status and future direction of NASA's Space Life Sciences Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elements of the NASA Life Sciences Program that are related to manned space flight and biological scientific studies in space are reviewed. Projects included in the current program are outlined and the future direction of the program is discussed. Consideration is given to issues such as long-duration spaceflight, medical support in space, readaptation to the gravity field of earth, considerations for the Space Station, radiation hazards, environmental standards for space habitation, and human operator interaction with computers, robots, and telepresence systems.

White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.

1989-01-01

248

NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight C...

S. D. Creech

2012-01-01

249

First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of the First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications held at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH, July 23-24, 1991. The workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters Code QE Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division and hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Power Technology Division, Electrical Components and Systems Branch. The workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications. Speakers from government, industry and academia presented and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, wiring applications and requirements, and new candidate insulation materials and constructions. Presentation materials provided by the various speakers are included in this document.

Hammond, Ahmad (compiler); Stavnes, Mark W. (compiler)

1994-01-01

250

Waste management in space: a NASA symposium. Special issue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special issue contains papers from the NASA Symposium on Waste Processing for Advanced Life Support, which was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 11-13, 1990. Specialists in waste management from academia, government, and industry convened to exchange ideas and advise NASA in developing effective methods for waste management in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Innovative and well-established methods were presented to assist in developing and managing wastes in closed systems for future long-duration space missions, especially missions to Mars.

Wydeven, T. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

251

Facilitating Student Involvement in NASA Research: The NASA Space Grant Aeronautics Example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many consider NASA programs to be exclusively space-oriented. However, NASA's roots originated in the aeronautical sciences. Recent developments within NASA elevated the declining role of aeronautics back to a position of priority. On a parallel pattern, aeronautics was a priority in the legislation which authorized the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. This paper outlines the development of the aeronautics aspect of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, and the resulting student opportunities in research. Results from two aeronautics surveys provide a baseline and direction for further development. A key result of this work is the increase in student research opportunities which now exist in more states and at the national level.

Bowen, Brent D.

1998-01-01

252

NASA space cryocooler programs - an overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of ongoing efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Goddard Space Flight Center in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development.

Ross, R. G.; Boyle, R. F.

2002-01-01

253

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid

Art B. Chmielewski; Jon S. Pyle

1991-01-01

254

Space Shuttle Accident: NASA's National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Actions to Address the Presidential Commission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a review of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) actions to address the recommendations presented in the Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, dated June 6, 1986. It presents in...

1987-01-01

255

Operational Aspects of Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session FA4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Solar Particle Events and the International Space Station; Radiation Environment on Mir and ISS Orbits During the Solar Cycle; New approach to Radiation Risk Assessment; An Industrial Method to Predict Major Solar Flares for a Better Protection of Human Beings in Space; Description of the Space Radiation Control System for the Russian Segment of ISS; Orbit Selection and Its Impact on Radiation Warning Architecture for a Human Mission to Mars; and Space Nuclear Power - Technology, Policy and Risk Considerations in Human Missions to Mars.

1997-01-01

256

NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Radiation Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

2008-01-01

257

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human spaceflight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Making its first uncrewed test flight in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, capable of supporting human missions into deep space and to Mars. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130 t lift capability. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and recordbreaking engine testing, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2013. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how the Space Launch System is being designed to enable or enhance not only human exploration missions, but robotic scientific missions as well. Because of its unique launch capabilities, SLS will support simplifying spacecraft complexity, provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduce mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious science missions by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. A traditional baseline approach for a mission to investigate the Jovian system would require a complicated trajectory with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, offering significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, providing scientific results sooner and at lower operational cost. The SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure, and will revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

258

Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance on natural light sources and with much greater spatial resolution. NASA pursues lidar technology not only as science instruments, providing atmospherics and surface topography data of Earth and other solar system bodies, but also as viable guidance and navigation sensors for space vehicles. This paper summarizes the current NASA lidar missions and describes the lidar systems being considered for deployment in space in the near future.

Amzajerdian, Farzin

2008-01-01

259

BioServe Space Technologies: A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), was established in 1987. As is characteristic of each CCDS designated by NASA, the goals of this commercial center are aimed at stimulating high technology research...

1992-01-01

260

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics are compiled. The theme of the conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for the application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990's and beyond. Volume 5 contains papers related to the following subject areas: robot arm modeling and control, special topics in telerobotics, telerobotic space operations, manipulator control, flight experiment concepts, manipulator coordination, issues in artificial intelligence systems, and research activities at the Johnson Space Center.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

261

Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

Dudenhoefer, J.E.

1994-09-01

262

Advanced technologies for NASA space programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the technology requirements for future space programs is presented. The technologies are emphasized with a discussion of their mission impact. Attention is given to automation and robotics, materials, information acquisition/processing display, nano-electronics/technology, superconductivity, and energy generation and storage.

Krishen, Kumar

1991-01-01

263

Space Internet Architectures and Technologies for NASA Enterprises  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper describes a communications infrastructure for the Space Internet, the architectures within the infrastructure, and the elements that make up the architectures. The architectures meet the requirements of the enterprises beyond 2010 with Internet 'compatible technologies and functionality. The elements of an architecture include the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft and proximity communication parts. From the architectures, technologies have been identified which have the most impact and are critical for the implementation of the architectures.

Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

2001-01-01

264

Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

1990-01-01

265

Developing space occupancy - Perspectives on NASA future space program planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential future manned space flight missions for the time after the development of the space transportation system with the space shuttle are considered, taking into account a sequence of activities concerning a gradually increasing penetration of space by man. The activities are related to the permanent occupancy of near-earth space, the permanent occupancy of near-moon space, the full self-sufficiency of man in earth-moon space, and the permanent occupancy of heliocentric space. Attention is given to Mars orbiting stations, the exploration of the asteroids, comet exploration, planet engineering programs, heliocentric orbit installation, the evolution of the earth orbit space community, space industrialization technology, lunar base development, and evolutionary paths to far-future space endeavors.

Von Puttkamer, J.

1977-01-01

266

Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

1994-01-01

267

History of space medicine: the formative years at NASA.  

PubMed

Almost nothing was known about the effects of spaceflight on human physiology when, in May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade. There were more questions than answers regarding the effects of acceleration, vibration, cabin pressure, CO2 concentration, and microgravity. There were known external threats to life, such as solar and ultraviolet radiation, meteorites, and extreme temperatures as well as issues for which the physicians and scientists could not even formulate the questions. And there was no time for controlled experiments with the required numbers of animal or human subjects. Of necessity, risks were evaluated and mitigated or accepted based on minimal data. This article summarizes presentations originally given as a panel at the 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association in Boston in 2008. In it, five pioneers in space medicine at NASA looked back on the development of their field. The authors related personal anecdotes, discussed the roles of various people and presented examples of contributions to emerging U.S. initiatives for human spaceflight. Topics included the development of quarantine facilities for returning Apollo astronauts, the struggles between operational medicine and research personnel, and observations from the first U.S. medical officer to experience weightlessness on orbit. Brief biographies of the authors are appended to document their participation in these historic events. PMID:19378903

Berry, Charles A; Hoffler, G Wyckliffe; Jernigan, Clarence A; Kerwin, Joseph P; Mohler, Stanley R

2009-04-01

268

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

1991-01-01

269

NASA Space Science Mathematics: Weekly Math Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features weekly mathematics problem sets that are designed to teach intermediate and upper-level students about space weather. The downloadable problem sets include one or more math problems to be solved using the information provided, a teachers' guide or answer key, and an inquiry question about the results. The web page features the current week's problem set, sets from previous weeks, and an archive of problem sets from past years. There are also downloadable books of the 20 most interesting problems published each year.

270

America in Space: The First Decade - NASA Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is ten years since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was created to explore space and to continue the American efforts that had already begun with the launch of Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958. Many changes have occurred since that tumbling, 31 -pound cylinder went into an Earth orbit. "NASA Spacecraft" represents one of the broad avenues selected by NASA as an approach to its objective of making widely known the progress that has taken place in its program of space exploration. This report is a vivid illustration of the changes that have occurred and the complexities that have developed. Here one finds descriptions of the present family of spacecraft some small, some large; some spinoriented, some accurately attitude-controlled; some manned, some automated; some in low orbits, some in trajectories to the Moon and the planets; some free in space until they expire, others commanded to return to the Earth or to land on the Moon

1969-01-01

271

NASA's Space Launch System (SLS): A New National Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new national capability for human space flight and scientific missions to low- Earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy to future generations, confirming America s desire to explore, learn, and progress. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and science experiments for missions beyond Earth s orbit. This paper gives an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will empower. It will detail the plan to move from the computerized drawing board to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range national capability.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

272

Radiation potentials generated by space radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism for generating electric potentials and currents in conductors of electronic equipment on board spacecraft subjected to space radiation is examined. Radiation potentials and currents are calculated for a system that consists of two insulated conductors. Using the simplest model we obtain results which can be expanded to a more complex geometry of conductors.

Lyubomudrov, A. A.

2013-12-01

273

NASA Wavelength: A Full Spectrum of NASA Resources for Earth and Space Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.

Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.

2013-12-01

274

INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

1992-01-01

275

Going Boldly Beyond: Progress on NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Launch System is implementing an evolvable configuration approach to system development in a resource-constrained era. Legacy systems enable non-traditional development funding and contribute to sustainability and affordability. Limited simultaneous developments reduce cost and schedule risk. Phased approach to advanced booster development enables innovation and competition, incrementally demonstrating affordability and performance enhancements. Advanced boosters will provide performance for the most capable heavy lift launcher in history, enabling unprecedented space exploration benefiting all of humanity.

Singer, Jody; Crumbly, Chris

2013-01-01

276

Building Bridges Between NASA Space Science and Native American Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the activities of the NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator in building bridges between space science and the educational needs of Native American communities. Our work thus far has been concentrated in South Dakota and Arizona, with educators from Lakota and Navajo communities. We will discuss the important lessons we have learned from hour efforts to build trust and fruitful partnerships.

Edwards, C.; Morrow, C. A.

2003-12-01

277

NASA SpaceWire Activities/Comments/ Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's activities, and proposes recommendations for the further use of the SpaceWire (SpW). The areas covered in this presentation are: (1) Protocol ID assignment, (2) Protocol development, (3) Plug & Play (PnP), (4) Re...

G. Rakow

2006-01-01

278

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

279

Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar\\/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance

Farzin Amzajerdian

280

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

Kelly, Michael P.

2011-01-01

281

NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

LeBeau, Gerald J.

2011-01-01

282

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an overview presentation of In Space Propulsion Technology products that have been developed under the sponsorship of the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The materials have been prepared for Outer Planetary Assessment Group Meeting in Atlanta, GA in January 2013.

Pencil, Eric J.; Anderson, David

2013-01-01

283

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

2006-01-01

284

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

285

NASA Space Technology Can Improve Soldier Health, Performance and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary goals of NASA Life Sciences research is '... to enable a permanent human presence in space.' To meet this goal, NASA is creating alternative protocols designed to evaluate and test countermeasures that will account for and correct the environmental effects of space flight on crewmembers health, safety, and operational performance. NASA investigators have previously evaluated the effects of long-duration space flight on physiology and performance of cosmonauts aboard the MIR space station. They also initiated tests of a countermeasure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) designed to prevent and/or correct adverse effects, i.e., facilitate adaptation to space and re-adaptation to Earth. AFTE is a six-hour physiological training program that has proven to be a highly efficient and effective method for enabling people to monitor and voluntarily control a range of their own physiological responses, thereby minimizing adverse reactions to environmental stress. However, because of limited opportunities to test this technology with space flight crews, it is essential to find operational or 'real world' environments in which to validate the efficacy of this approach.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

2000-01-01

286

NASA's approach to the commercial use of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA planning activities in the area of commercial development of space resources are reviewed. Examples of specific types of commercial space ventures are given, according to three different categories: new commercial high-technology ventures; new commercial application of existing space technology, and commercial ventures resulting from the transfer of existing space programs to the private sector. Basic objectives for reducing technical, financial and institutional risks for commercial space operations are considered. Attention is given to the cooperative working environment encouraged by Joint Endeavor Agreements (JEAs) and Technical Exchange Agreements (TEAs) between industrial organizations in the development of space systems. Benefits of the commercial development of space resources include the production of purer pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancers, kidney diseases, and diabetes; and the development of ultra-pure semiconductor crystals for use in next generation electronic equipment.

Gillam, I. T., IV

1984-01-01

287

Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

2012-09-01

288

Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled 'Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies'. This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Richmond, Robert C.; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

289

The NASA Space Solar Cell Advanced Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two major requirements for space solar cells are high efficiency and survivability in the naturally occurring charged particle space radiation environment. Performance limits for silicon space cells are well understood. Advanced cells using GaAs and InP are under development to provide significantly improved capability for the future.

Flood, Dennis J.

1989-01-01

290

NASA's space physics theory program - An opportunity for collaboration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of theoretical space physics offers a unique opportunity to Latin American scientists for collaborative participation in NASA programs where the greatly increased complexity of both experimental observations and theoretical simulations requires in-depth comparisons between theory and observational data. The key problem areas identified by NASA for aggressive work in the decade of the 1990s are the nature of flows and turbulence, acceleration and transport of particles, the coupling of microphysics and macrophysics, the coupling of local and global dynamics, and nonclassical plasmas.

Vinas, Adolfo F.

1990-01-01

291

FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

Lowrey, Nikki M.

2011-01-01

292

The 1992-1993 NASA Space Biology Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the calendar years of 1992 and 1993. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and the effects of microgravity on biological processes; determining the effects of the interaction of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems; and using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (Editor)

1994-01-01

293

The 1990-1991 NASA space biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the period May 1990 through May 1991. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems and to using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1993-01-01

294

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These proceedings contain papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics held in Pasadena, January 31 to February 2, 1989. The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

295

Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

2012-01-01

296

Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute Radiation Assessment Detector. Also, the University of Florida hybrid phantoms, which are flexible in morphometry and positioning, are being explored as alternatives to the current NASA computational phantoms.

Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

2011-01-01

297

Leadership in Space: Selected Speeches of NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, May 2005 - October 2008  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speech topics include: Leadership in Space; Space Exploration: Real and Acceptable Reasons; Why Explore Space?; Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas; Continuing the Voyage: The Spirit of Endeavour; Incorporating Space into Our Economic Sphere of Influence; The Role of Space Exploration in the Global Economy; Partnership in Space Activities; International Space Cooperation; National Strategy and the Civil Space Program; What the Hubble Space Telescope Teaches Us about Ourselves; The Rocket Team; NASA's Direction; Science and NASA; Science Priorities and Program Management; NASA and the Commercial Space Industry; NASA and the Business of Space; American Competitiveness: NASA's Role & Everyone's Responsibility; Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration; The Next Generation of Engineers; System Engineering and the "Two Cultures" of Engineering; Generalship of Engineering; NASA and Engineering Integrity; The Constellation Architecture; Then and Now: Fifty Years in Space; The Reality of Tomorrow; and Human Space Exploration: The Next 50 Years.

Griffin, Michael

2008-01-01

298

NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

2012-01-01

299

The 1986-87 NASA space/gravitational biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space/Gravitational Biology program, for research conducted during the period January 1986 to April 1987. This program utilizes the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on Earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1987-01-01

300

Commission Fleshes Out Bush Administration's Space Exploration Agenda for NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commission appointed by President George W. Bush has unanimously endorsed his plan to dramatically re-orient NASA to focus on space exploration and manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The 16 June report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy finds that the new space agenda announced by Bush on 14 January will help the U.S. economy, security, and technological leadership, and provide educational opportunities. The report presents a series of recommendations for implementing the plan.

Showstack, Randy

2004-06-01

301

The 1988-1989 NASA Space/Gravitational Biology Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's space/gravitational biology program, for research conducted during the period May 1988 to April 1989. This program is concerned with using the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on Earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1990-01-01

302

Robotics program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard telerobotic program is structured to increase the scope and efficiency of what man can accomplish in space through the use of robotics. The main focus is to service Space Station Freedom and its payloads, but robotic assembly of Space Station Freedom and platforms is also anticipated. The approach being taken to achieve this by telerobotics, where manipulators can be controlled by human operators or computer programs. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the responsability to develop the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) for Space Station Freedom. The current plan at GSFC in support of telerobotics for Space Station Freedom and the in-orbit servicing of platforms are reviewed. Plans for ground demonstrations involving the use of an engineering test bed and an operational facility are discussed.

Ollendorf, Stanford

1989-01-01

303

NASA's Space Biology Outreach Program - Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing and discussing NASA's space missions and research is the goal of the Space Biology Outreach Program Web of Life. Visitors unfamiliar with space biology should definitely check out Space Biology FAQ's on the left hand side menu of the homepage. Questions covered range from those about the effect of weightlessness on the health of the astronauts to the significance of finding life on Mars to the definition of gravity. The Flight Experiments link on the same menu relates almost a dozen experiments that have been performed on space flights. Visitors can read about arterial remodeling and functional adaptations in the space experiment that used rats to model the human arterial system. Additionally, they can learn about how the blood vessels of the rats were examined to detect changes in a gravity-free environment. Finally, teachers should be sure to explore the Learning Resources section, which includes activities, resources, and links for teaching students of all ages.

2012-03-30

304

Understanding IV & V in a safety critical and complex evolutionary environment: the NASA space shuttle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an internationally recognized leader in space science and exploration. NASA recognizes the inherent risk associated with space exploration; however, NASA makes every reasonable effort to minimize that risk. To that end for the Space Shuttle program NASA instituted a software independent verification and validation (IV&V) process in 1988 to ensure that the Shuttle

Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Ioana Rus

2001-01-01

305

Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

1979-01-01

306

NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program: Mars Program Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Launch System is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's orbit (BEO), as directed by the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and NASA's 2011 Strategic Plan. This paper describes how the SLS can dramatically change the Mars program's science and human exploration capabilities and objectives. Specifically, through its high-velocity change (delta V) and payload capabilities, SLS enables Mars science missions of unprecedented size and scope. By providing direct trajectories to Mars, SLS eliminates the need for complicated gravity-assist missions around other bodies in the solar system, reducing mission time, complexity, and cost. SLS's large payload capacity also allows for larger, more capable spacecraft or landers with more instruments, which can eliminate the need for complex packaging or "folding" mechanisms. By offering this capability, SLS can enable more science to be done more quickly than would be possible through other delivery mechanisms using longer mission times.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

307

Space radiation concerns for manned exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spaceflight exposes astronaut crews to natural ionizing radiation. To date, exposures in manned spaceflight have been well below the career limits recommended to NASA by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). This will not be the case for long-duration exploratory class missions. Additionally, International Space Station (ISS) crews will receive higher doses than earlier flight crews. Uncertainties in our understanding of long-term bioeffects, as well as updated analyses of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Chernobyl tumorigenesis data, have prompted the NCRP to recommend further reductions by 30-50% for career dose limit guidelines. Intelligent spacecraft design and material selection can provide a shielding strategy capable of maintaining crew exposures within recommended guidelines. Current studies on newer radioprotectant compounds may find combinations of agents which further diminish the risk of radiation-induced bioeffects to the crew.

Stanford, Michael; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-09-01

308

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments

Julie A. Robinson; Tracy L. Thumm; Donald A. Thomas

2007-01-01

309

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

310

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1988-01-01

311

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center ED Mall Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA ED Mall Collection, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office, provides teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use.

312

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

313

Space Radiation a Potential Show Stopper in Missions to Moon and Mars and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space\\/ long duration missions is `the show stopper' for NASA's vision of missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. The key to the success of human exploration and development of space is protecting astronauts, habitat and electronics against the hazards of severe space radiation environment. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on

Ram Tripathi

2007-01-01

314

[A NASA / University Joint Venture in Space Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MILAGRO is a water-Cherenkov detector for observing cosmic gamma rays over a broad energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV. MILAGRO will be the first detector that has sensitivity overlapping both air-Cherenkov and air-shower detectors. With this detector scientists in the collaboration will study previously observed celestial sources at their known emission energies, extend these observations into a new energy regime, and search for new sources at unexplored energies. The diffuse gamma-radiation component in our galaxy, which originates from interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and photons, provides important information about the density, distribution, and spectrum of the cosmic rays that pervade the interstellar medium. Events in the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) are being observed up to about 30 GeV, differing by slightly more than order of magnitude from the low energy threshold of MILAGRO. By looking in coincidence at sources, correlated observations will greatly extend the astrophysics potential of MILAGRO and NASA's GRO. A survey of cosmic-ray observatories is being prepared for scientists and others to provide a resource and reference which describes high energy cosmic-ray research activities around the world. This summary presents information about each research group, such as names of principal investigators, number of persons in the collaboration, energy range, sensitivity, angular resolution, and surface area of detector. Similarly, a survey of gamma-ray telescopes is being prepared to provide a resource and reference which describes gamma-ray telescopes for investigating galactic diffuse gamma-ray flux currently observed in the GeV energy range, but is expected to extend into the TeV range. Two undergraduate students are compiling information about gamma-ray telescopes and high energy cosmic-ray observatories for these surveys. Funding for this project was provided by the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium. Also enclosed Appendix A, B, C, D and E.

Wold, Donald C.

1996-04-01

315

[A NASA / University Joint Venture in Space Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MILAGRO is a water-Cherenkov detector for observing cosmic gamma rays over a broad energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV. MILAGRO will be the first detector that has sensitivity overlapping both air-Cherenkov and air-shower detectors. With this detector scientists in the collaboration will study previously observed celestial sources at their known emission energies, extend these observations into a new energy regime, and search for new sources at unexplored energies. The diffuse gamma-radiation component in our galaxy, which originates from interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and photons, provides important information about the density, distribution, and spectrum of the cosmic rays that pervade the interstellar medium. Events in the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) are being observed up to about 30 GeV, differing by slightly more than order of magnitude from the low energy threshold of MILAGRO. By looking in coincidence at sources, correlated observations will greatly extend the astrophysics potential of MILAGRO and NASA's GRO. A survey of cosmic-ray observatories is being prepared for scientists and others to provide a resource and reference which describes high energy cosmic-ray research activities around the world. This summary presents information about each research group, such as names of principal investigators, number of persons in the collaboration, energy range, sensitivity, angular resolution, and surface area of detector. Similarly, a survey of gamma-ray telescopes is being prepared to provide a resource and reference which describes gamma-ray telescopes for investigating galactic diffuse gamma-ray flux currently observed in the GeV energy range, but is expected to extend into the TeV range. Two undergraduate students are compiling information about gamma-ray telescopes and high energy cosmic-ray observatories for these surveys. Funding for this project was provided by the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium. Also enclosed Appendix A, B, C, D and E.

Wold, Donald C.

1996-01-01

316

Shaping NASA's Kennedy Space Center Safety for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the completion of the Space Shuttle Program, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) safety function will be required to evolve beyond the single launch vehicle launch site focus that has held prominence for almost fifty years. This paper will discuss how that evolution is taking place. Specifically, we will discuss the future of safety as it relates to a site that will have multiple, very disparate, functions. These functions will include new business; KSC facilities not under the control of NASA; traditional payload and launch vehicle processing; and, operations conducted by NASA personnel, NASA contractors or a combination of both. A key element in this process is the adaptation of the current KSC set of safety requirements into a multi-faceted set that can address each of the functions above, while maintaining our world class safety environment. One of the biggest challenges that will be addressed is how to protect our personnel and property without dictating how other Non-NASA organizations protect their own employees and property. The past history of KSC Safety will be described and how the lessons learned from previous programs will be applied to the future. The lessons learned from this process will also be discussed as information for other locations that may undergo such a transformation.

Kirkpatrick, Paul; McDaniel, Laura; Smith, Maynette

2011-01-01

317

NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the requirements needed for missions to BEO destinations, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. In addition, this paper will detail SLS's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS provides game-changing mass and volume lift capability that makes it enhancing or enabling for a variety of unprecedented human and robotic missions.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

318

NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space flight Center (MSFC) for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1. Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debye lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Preventing sustained discharges during testing. 5. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 6. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 7. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 8 . Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapton pyrolization. 9. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 10. Testing for Paschen discharge thresholds. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 11. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 12. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 13. Analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

Ferguson, Dale C.a; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

2005-01-01

319

NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1.Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debuy lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. 5. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Prevention sustained discharges during testing. 6. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 7. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 8. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 9. Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapon (R) pyrolisis. 10. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 11. Testing for Paschen discharge threshold. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 12. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 13. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 14. Analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T,; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

2005-01-01

320

NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. Discussed herein are neutral gas conditions, plasma densities and uniformity, vacuum chamber sizes, sample sizes and Debye lengths, biasing samples versus self-generated voltages, floating samples versus grounded samples, test electrical conditions, arc detection, preventing sustained discharges during testing, real samples versus idealized samples, validity of LEO tests for GEO samples, extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests, snapover, current collection, and glows at positive sample bias, Kapton pyrolysis, thresholds for trigger arcs, sustained arcs, dielectric breakdown and Paschen discharge, tether arcing and testing in very dense plasmas (i.e. thruster plumes), arc mitigation strategies, charging mitigation strategies, models, and analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

2007-01-01

321

NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

2003-01-01

322

Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the NASA-Lewis Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Convertor Technology Program. The goal is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. Stirling experience in space and progress toward 1050 and 1300 K Stirling Space Power Converters is discussed. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converters (CTPC); results of motoring tests of cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. An update is provided of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.

1991-01-01

323

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the $60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy; Bonometti, Joe; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie; Montgomery, Sandy

2004-01-01

324

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in - spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer.tethers, aeroassist and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

2004-01-01

325

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals ase the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

2004-01-01

326

Miniature detector measures deep space radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1972 journey of Apollo 17 marked not only the last time a human walked on the Moon but also the most recent manned venture beyond the outer reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. With preparations being made for humans to once again explore deep space, important steps are under way to quantify the hazards of leaving low-Earth orbit. One significant risk for long-distance missions is the increased exposure to ionizing radiation—energetic particles that can strip electrons off of otherwise neutral materials, affecting human health and the functioning of spacecraft equipment. The deep space probes that are being sent to measure the risks from ionizing radiation and other hazards can be costly, so maximizing the scientific value of each launch is important. With this goal in mind, Mazur et al. designed and developed a miniature dosimeter that was sent into lunar orbit aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2009. Weighing only 20 grams, the detector is able to measure fluctuations in ionizing radiation as low as 1 microrad (equivalent to 1.0 × 10-8 joules of energy deposited into 1 kilogram) while requiring minimal power and computer processing. The postage stamp-sized detector tracked radiation dosages for the first year of LRO's mission, with the results being confirmed by other onboard and near-Earth detectors. (Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2010SW000641, 2011)

Schultz, Colin

2011-08-01

327

The NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are the result of a multitude of intentional and nonintentional electromagnetic sources that currently exists in the world. Many of today's digital systems are susceptible to electronic upset if subjected to certain electromagnetic environments (EME). Modern aerospace designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on sophisticated digital electronic systems to provide critical flight control in both military, commercial, and general aviation aircraft. In an effort to understand and emulate the undesired environment that high energy RF provides modern electronics, the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) of the Flight Electronics and Technology Division (FETD) conducts research on RF and microwave measurement methods related to the understanding of HIRF. In the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory, the effects of high energy radiating electromagnetic fields on avionics and electronic systems are tested and studied.

Williams, Reuben A.

1997-01-01

328

NASA's Space Research and Technology Program. Report of a workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the spacecraft and subsystem industry and the civil and military uses of space were examined. Genetic and specific enabling technologies were identified. It was found that U.S. spacecraft manufacturers support civil and commercial uses, the military and NASA and, in turn, are supported by subsystem suppliers. However, no single spacecraft program carries sufficient resources to develop advanced critical subsystem technologies and increasingly, U.S. suppliers are facing strong competition from foreign industry that is government subsidized.

1983-01-01

329

Predictive controller and estimator for nasa deep space network antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a modified state-space predictive controller is introduced, and a predictive estimator presented to complement the design of a predictive control law. This approach has been used for the design of tracking controllers for the NASA\\/JPL 70-m antennas. Several tracking scenarios have been tested (step input, constant rate rise and fall, raised cosine trajectory), and significant improvement of

W. Gawronski

330

Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

Heidersbach, Robert H.

2002-01-01

331

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

332

Shielding from Space Radiations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress during the period of 1 Jun. - 1 Dec. 1991 is presented. An analytical solution to heavy ion transport equation in terms of Green's function formalism is developed. The mathematical development is recasted into efficient computer code for space ap...

C. K. Chang F. F. Badavi

1991-01-01

333

NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

Abshire, James B.

2010-01-01

334

An Overview of NASA Space Cryocooler Programs--2006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. Many of NASA's space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, or enable the use of advanced detectors to observe a wide range of phenomena--from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, the largest utilization of coolers over the last fifteen years has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150K). For the future, important new developments are focusing on the lower temperature range, from 6 to 20 K, in support of studies of the origin of the Universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and a 6 K cryocooler for the MIRI instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) are examples of the thrust to provide low-temperature cooling for this class of future missions.

Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.

2006-01-01

335

NASA's mobile satellite communications program; ground and space segment technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Mobile Satellite Communications Program of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of the first generation commercial mobile satellite by the private sector, and to technologically enable future generations by developing advanced and high risk ground and space segment technologies. These technologies are aimed at mitigating severe shortages of spectrum, orbital slot, and spacecraft EIRP which are expected to plague the high capacity mobile satellite systems of the future. After a brief introduction of the concept of mobile satellite systems and their expected evolution, this paper outlines the critical ground and space segment technologies. Next, the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described. MSAT-X is the framework through which NASA will develop advanced ground segment technologies. An approach is outlined for the development of conformal vehicle antennas, spectrum and power-efficient speech codecs, and modulation techniques for use in the non-linear faded channels and efficient multiple access schemes. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the current and planned NASA activities aimed at developing complex large multibeam spacecraft antennas needed for future generation mobile satellite systems.

Naderi, F.; Weber, W. J.; Knouse, G. H.

1984-01-01

336

Ion beam treatment of potential space materials at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion source systems in different configurations, have been used to generate unique morphologies for several NASA space applications. The discharge chamber of a 30 cm ion source was successfully used to texture potential space radiator materials for the purpose of obtaining values of thermal emittance greater than 0.85 at 700 and 900 K. High absorptance surfaces were obtained using ion beam seed texturing, for space radiator materials that were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for 5.8 years in space. An ion source discharge chamber was also used to develop electrode surfaces with suppressed secondary electron emission characteristics for use in collectors in microwave amplifier traveling wave tubes. This was accomplished by sputtering textured carbon onto copper as well as texturing copper using tantalum and molybdenum as sacrificial texture inducing seeding materials. In a third configuration, a dual ion beam system was used to generate high transmittance diamondlike carbon (DLC) films.

Kussmaul, Michael; Mirtich, Michael J.; Curren, Arthur

1992-01-01

337

Ion-beam treatment of potential space materials at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

SciTech Connect

Ion source systems in different configurations, have been used to generate unique morphologies for several NASA space applications. The discharge chamber of a 30 cm ion source was successfully used to texture potential space radiator materials for the purpose of obtaining values of thermal emittance greater than 0.85 at 700 and 900 K. High absorptance surfaces were obtained using ion beam seed texturing, for space radiator materials that were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for 5.8 years in space. An ion source discharge chamber was also used to develop electrode surfaces with suppressed secondary electron emission characteristics for use in collectors in microwave amplifier traveling wave tubes. This was accomplished by sputtering textured carbon onto copper as well as texturing copper using tantalum and molybdenum as sacrificial texture inducing seeding materials. In a third configuration, a dual ion beam system was used to generate high transmittance diamondlike carbon (DLC) films.

Kussmaul, M.; Mirtich, M.J.; Curren, A.

1992-01-01

338

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

339

Radiations from nuclear weapons - signal detectors - NASA program information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter is for the purpose of supplying the information that you requested at the meeting of the sub-committee on Project Vela. It is divided into three parts: (1) Radiations from nuclear weapons; (2) Backgrounds for Vela Signal Detectors; (3) Discussion of the NASA program.

1960-01-01

340

NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's Contributions to Space Plasma Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-l970's, the Space Plasma Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has contributed critical instrumentation to numerous satellite and sounding rocket missions exploring the plasmas of near-Earth space. This talk will review major discoveries in Earth's ionosphere, plasmasphere, and magnetosphere directly attributable to the researchers of the Space Plasma Physics Group and the significance of these discoveries to the field of plasma physics.

Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

341

Advanced Optical Technologies in NASA's Space Communication Program: Status, Challenges, and Future Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of the NASA Space Communications Project is to enable broad coverage for high-data-rate delivery to the users by means of ground, air, and space-based assets. The NASA Enterprise need will be reviewed. A number of optical space communications technologies being developed by NASA will be described, and the prospective applications will be discussed.

Pouch, John

2004-01-01

342

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2011-01-01

343

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2014-01-01

344

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: Scientific Visualization Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the web page for The Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS), a branch of the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) that generates visuals to promote a greater understanding of Earth and Space Science Research Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Scientific Visualization Studio creates scientific stories by combining the visualization of remote sensing data with conceptual scientific animations for presentation to the scientific community and to the general public through educational institutions, museums, Compact Discs and videos. The Facilities section contains a detailed overview of the instruments used to create the visualizations. The Image Wall contains twenty reports on National Aeronautical & Space Administration projects including El Nino, the Biosphere, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), astronomy, seasonal climate variations, hurricanes, Antarctica, urban growth, and others. The reports come complete with project write-ups and downloadable images and movies.

345

NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will start its missions in 2017 with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how the SLS Program is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and developing advanced technology based on heritage systems, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. It will also detail the significant progress that has already been made toward its first launch in 2017. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they will need for extended trips to explore new frontiers. In addition, this paper will summarize the SLS rocket's capability to support science and robotic precursor missions to other worlds, or uniquely high-mass space facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

346

The NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1989, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant) contributes to the nation's science enterprise by funding research, education, and public service projects through a national network of 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia administer programs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. In 1998, the consortia's 703 affiliates include 493 academic institutions and 62 businesses. Other partners include state and local government agencies, other federal agencies, and nonprofit organizations. Space Grant celebrates its tenth year of service in 1999. Since its inception, Space Grant has awarded over 12,000 U.S. citizens with tuition assistance in science, engineering, and related fields of study. Approximately twenty percent of these awards were to students from underrepresented groups and approximately thirty-five percent were to women. The majority of Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists. Space Grant funds curriculum enhancement and faculty development as well. Space Grant colleges and universities also administer precollege and public service education programs that help to meet the education needs of their states. The Space Grant consortia have leveraged federal funds to more than double the Space Grant budget with matching contributions from state and local sources. Space Grant encourages collaboration among departments, across institutions, and with business and industry. All Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public.

Atkinson, D. H.; Ward, E. B.; Detroye, D.

1998-09-01

347

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

348

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

349

Space Radiation Effects Program: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Radiation Effects Program (SPACE-RAD), a comprehensive space measurement and modeling program to advance understanding of the harsh space radiation environment near the Earth and its deleterious effects on space systems, is described. The six principal space experiments of SPACE-RAD consist of two engineering experiments (the microelectronics package and the internal discharge monitor) and four particle experiments (the proton

M. S. Gussenhoven; E. G. Mullen

1993-01-01

350

Biomarkers of space radiation risk.  

PubMed

Radiation risk estimates are based on epidemiological data obtained on Earth for cohorts exposed predominantly to acute doses of gamma rays, and the extrapolation to the space environment is highly problematic and error-prone. The uncertainty can be reduced if risk estimates are compared directly to space radiation-induced biological alterations, i.e. by detecting biomarkers in astronauts. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are the only biomarker that can provide simultaneous information on dose, dose equivalent and risk, and they have been measured extensively in astronauts during the past 10 years. Individual relative risks calculated from chromosomal aberration measurements in crew members after single space missions in low-Earth orbit fall in the same range as the estimates derived from physical dosimetry, suggesting that the current system for radiogenic risk evaluation is essentially sound. However, the output of the biomarker test is dependent upon the sampling time. Recent results show a fast time-dependent decay of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after space flight and a lack of correlation between translocations and cumulative dose in astronauts involved in two to five space missions. This "time factor" may reflect individual variability and time dependence in the risk produced by exposure to cosmic radiation during the flight. Biomarkers may be superior to dose in predicting space radiation risk, pending technical improvements in sensitivity, and validation by epidemiological studies. PMID:16187751

Durante, Marco

2005-10-01

351

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1986-01-01

352

Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Testing Capability: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.

DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

2012-01-01

353

NASA's astrophysics archives at the National Space Science Data Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA maintains an archive facility for Astronomical Science data collected from NASA's missions at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. This archive was created to insure the science data collected by NASA would be preserved and useable in the future by the science community. Through 25 years of operation there are many lessons learned, from data collection procedures, archive preservation methods, and distribution to the community. This document presents some of these more important lessons, for example: KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) in system development. Also addressed are some of the myths of archiving, such as 'scientists always know everything about everything', or 'it cannot possibly be that hard, after all simple data tech's do it'. There are indeed good reasons that a proper archive capability is needed by the astronomical community, the important question is how to use the existing expertise as well as the new innovative ideas to do the best job archiving this valuable science data.

Vansteenberg, M. E.

1992-01-01

354

Emerging, Photonic Based Technologies for NASA Space Communications Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective of NASA's Computing, Information, and Communications Technology program is to support the development of technologies that could potentially lower the cost of the Earth science and space exploration missions, and result in greater scientific returns. NASA-supported photonic activities which will impact space communications will be described. The objective of the RF microphotonic research is to develop a Ka-band receiver that will enable the microwaves detected by an antenna to modulate a 1.55- micron optical carrier. A key element is the high-Q, microphotonic modulator that employs a lithium niobate microdisk. The technical approach could lead to new receivers that utilize ultra-fast, photonic signal processing techniques, and are low cost, compact, low weight and power efficient. The progress in the liquid crystal (LC) beam steering research will also be reported. The predicted benefits of an LC-based device on board a spacecraft include non-mechanical, submicroradian laser-beam pointing, milliradian scanning ranges, and wave-front correction. The potential applications of these emerging technologies to the various NASA missions will be presented.

Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Levi, Anthony; Bos, Philip; Titus, Charles; Lavrentovich, Oleg

2002-01-01

355

Recent Results of NASA's Space Environments and Effects Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program is a multi-center multi-agency program managed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The program evolved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), analysis of LDEF data, and recognition of the importance of the environments and environmental effects on future space missions. It is a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environments, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Formal funding of the SEE Program began initially in FY95. A NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicited research proposals in the following categories: 1) Engineering environment definitions; 2) Environments and effects design guidelines; 3) Environments and effects assessment models and databases; and, 4) Flight/ground simulation/technology assessment data. This solicitation resulted in funding for eighteen technology development activities (TDA's). This paper will present and describe technical results rom the first set of TDA's of the SEE Program. It will also describe the second set of technology development activities which are expected to begin in January 1998. These new technology development activities will enable the SEE Program to start numerous new development activities in support of mission customer needs.

Minor, Jody L.; Brewer, Dana S.

1998-01-01

356

NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

1990-01-01

357

NASA space geodesy program: Catalogue of site information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first edition of the NASA Space Geodesy Program: Catalogue of Site Information. This catalogue supersedes all previous versions of the Crustal Dynamics Project: Catalogue of Site Information, last published in May 1989. This document is prepared under the direction of the Space Geodesy and Altimetry Projects Office (SGAPO), Code 920.1, Goddard Space Flight Center. SGAPO has assumed the responsibilities of the Crustal Dynamics Project, which officially ended December 31, 1991. The catalog contains information on all NASA supported sites as well as sites from cooperating international partners. This catalog is designed to provde descriptions and occupation histories of high-accuracy geodetic measuring sites employing space-related techniques. The emphasis of the catalog has been in the past, and continues to be with this edition, station information for facilities and remote locations utilizing the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques. With the proliferation of high-quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) transponders, many co-located at established SLR and VLBI observatories, the requirement for accurate station and localized survey information for an ever broadening base of scientists and engineers has been recognized. It is our objective to provide accurate station information to scientific groups interested in these facilities.

Bryant, M. A.; Noll, C. E.

1993-01-01

358

NASA STI Database, Aerospace Database and ARIN coverage of 'space law'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space-law coverage provided by the NASA STI Database, the Aerospace Database, and ARIN is briefly described. Particular attention is given to the space law content of the two Databases and of ARIN, the NASA Thesauras space law terminology, space law publication forms, and the availability of the space law literature.

Buchan, Ronald L.

1992-01-01

359

Space Radiation Effects in Advanced Flash Memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory storage requirements in space systems have steadily increased, much like storage requirements in terrestrial systems. Large arrays of dynamic memories (DRAMs) have been used in solid-state recorders, relying on a combination of shielding and error-detection-and correction (EDAC) to overcome the extreme sensitivity of DRAMs to space radiation. For example, a 2-Gbit memory (with 4-Mb DRAMs) used on the Clementine mission functioned perfectly during its moon mapping mission, in spite of an average of 71 memory bit flips per day from heavy ions. Although EDAC worked well with older types of memory circuits, newer DRAMs use extremely complex internal architectures which has made it increasingly difficult to implement EDAC. Some newer DRAMs have also exhibited catastrophic latchup. Flash memories are an intriguing alternative to DRAMs because of their nonvolatile storage and extremely high storage density, particularly for applications where writing is done relatively infrequently. This paper discusses radiation effects in advanced flash memories, including general observations on scaling and architecture as well as the specific experience obtained at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in evaluating high-density flash memories for use on the NASA mission to Europa, one of Jupiter's moons. This particular mission must pass through the Jovian radiation belts, which imposes a very demanding radiation requirement.

Johnston, A. H.

2001-01-01

360

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report contain supporting documentation, including the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

361

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report include the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

362

An Overview of Space Power Systems for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical commodity for all engineering efforts and is especially challenging in the aerospace field. This paper will provide a broad brush overview of some of the immediate and important challenges to NASA missions in the field of aerospace power, for generation, energy conversion, distribution, and storage. NASA s newest vehicles which are currently in the design phase will have power systems that will be developed from current technology, but will have the challenges of being light-weight, energy-efficient, and space-qualified. Future lunar and Mars "outposts" will need high power generation units for life support and energy-intensive exploration efforts. An overview of the progress in concepts for power systems and the status of the required technologies are discussed.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Scott, John H.

2007-01-01

363

Science is Cool with NASA's "Space School Musical"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help young learners understand basic solar system science concepts and retain what they learn, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs have collaborated with KidTribe to create "Space School Musical," an innovative approach for teaching about the solar system. It's an educational "hip-hopera" that raps, rhymes, moves and grooves its way into the minds and memories of students and educators alike. The solar system comes alive, combining science content with music, fun lyrics, and choreography. Kids can watch the videos, learn the songs, do the cross-curricular activities, and perform the show themselves. The videos, songs, lyrics, and guides are available to all with free downloads at http://discovery.nasa.gov/

Asplund, S.

2011-10-01

364

MY NASA DATA: Comparing Graphs of Temperature and Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will analyze plots of temperature and radiation data to determine change over time. Step-by-step instructions for use of the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) guide students through selecting a data set, importing the data into a spreadsheet, creating graphs, and analyzing data plots. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

365

Pricing of NASA Space Shuttle transportation system cargo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part pricing policy is investigated as the most feasible method of pricing the transportation services to be provided by NASA's SSTS. Engineering cost estimates and a deterministic operating cost model generate a data base and develop a procedure for pricing the services of the SSTS. It is expected that the SSTS will have a monopoly on space material processing in areas of crystal growth, glass processing, metallurgical space applications, and biomedical processes using electrophoresis which will require efficient pricing. Pricing problems, the SSTS operating costs based on orbit elevation, number of launch sites, and number of flights, capital costs of the SSTS, research and development costs, allocation of joint transportation costs of the SSTS to a particular space processing activity, and rates for the SSTS are discussed. It is concluded that joint costs for commercial cargoes carried in the SSTS can be most usefully handled by making cost allocations based on proportionate capacity utilization.

Hale, C. W.

1979-01-01

366

Clocks and timing in the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new timing system has been developed for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and is currently in the final stages of integration, testing and implementation in all three DSN sites. The DSN is a distributed antenna network for deep space communication, whose facilities are continuously engaged in spacecraft tracking, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) or Radio Astronomy activities. Its primary components consist of three Deep Space Communication Centers (DSCC) separated nearly equidistant around the Earth in California, USA; Spain; and Australia. Within each DSCC, synchronized, low jitter timing signals must be distributed to many users over distances of up to 30 kilometers. The design criteria for the timing system required state of the art stability and jitter performance, but also extremely high operability and reliability. This paper describes some of the key features and recent system performance data as measured both in the laboratory and the operational DSN.

Lauf, J.; Calhoun, M.; Diener, W.; Gonzalez, J.; Kirk, A.; Kuhnle, P.; Tucker, B.; Kirby, C.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

2005-01-01

367

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

2008-01-01

368

Earth to space power beaming: A new NASA technology initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser power beaming from the Earth's surface is an innovative and potentially cost-effective option for reliably providing electrical power for applications such as space transportation, Earth-orbiting satellites, and lunar development. The maturation of laser power beaming technology can support low power applications such as upgraded conventional communications satellites in the present decade. Power beaming systems to support extensive lunar base operations that may consume extremely large amounts of power can be implemented early in the 21st century. The synergistic advantages of high-thrust, high specific-impulse electric propulsion may make enhanced, low cost space logistics an area of unique significance for laser power beaming. Economic forces will continue as a driving factor in the selection of major system elements for both commercial applications as well as the avant-garde national space missions envisioned for the 21st century. As a result, the implementation of laser power beaming systems will only take place if they can demonstrate clear economic benefits without sacrificing performance, personnel safety, or the environment. Similarly, the development activities that are a necessary precursor to any operational system will take place only if key industry and government leaders perceive laser power beaming systems as an achievable goal with realistic payoffs in comparison to competing energy options. This paper summarizes NASA's current research to evaluate laser power beaming systems as they apply to applications of greatest interest, and it includes a summary of the current laser power beaming program within the NASA Headquarters Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. This research effort will quantify some key technical certainties and uncertainties pertaining to laser power beaming systems appropriate for space applications as well as establish a path of development that includes maturation of key technology components for reliable laser and millimeter wave power beaming systems during the 1990's. The program is known as 'SELENE', an acronym for Space Laser Energy.

Rather, John D. G.

1992-02-01

369

Internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Test laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is known for hosting all of the United States manned rocket launches as well as many unmanned launches at low inclinations. Even though the Space Shuttle recently retired, they are continuing to support unmanned launches and modifying manned launch facilities. Before a rocket can be launched, it has to go through months of preparation, called processing. Pieces of a rocket and its payload may come in from anywhere in the nation or even the world. The facilities all around the center help integrate the rocket and prepare it for launch. As NASA prepares for the Space Launch System, a rocket designed to take astronauts beyond Low Earth Orbit throughout the solar system, technology development is crucial for enhancing launch capabilities at the KSC. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center greatly contributes to cryogenic research and technology development. The engineers and technicians that work there come up with new ways to efficiently store and transfer liquid cryogens. NASA has a great need for this research and technology development as it deals with cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for rocket fuel, as well as long term space flight applications. Additionally, in this new era of space exploration, the Cryogenics Test Laboratory works with the commercial sector. One technology development project is the Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) Ground Operations Demonstration Unit (GODU). LH2 GODU intends to demonstrate increased efficiency in storing and transferring liquid hydrogen during processing, loading, launch and spaceflight of a spacecraft. During the Shuttle Program, only 55% of hydrogen purchased was used by the Space Shuttle Main Engines. GODU's goal is to demonstrate that this percentage can be increased to 75%. Figure 2 shows the GODU layout when I concluded my internship. The site will include a 33,000 gallon hydrogen tank (shown in cyan) with a heat exchanger inside the hydrogen tank attached to a refrigerator capable of removing 850 Watts at 20 Kelvin (shown in green). The refrigerator and most of its supporting equipment will be kept in a standard shipping container (shown in pink). Currently, GODU is in the fabrication process and some of the large components have already been purchased.

Holland, Katherine

2013-01-01

370

An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing B Panel 2: Robotics, Communications, and Navigation TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems TA05 Communication and Navigation Systems C Panel 3: Instruments and Computing TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, and Data Processing D Panel 4: Human Health and Surface Exploration TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems E Panel 5: Materials Panel TA10 Nanotechnology TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing TA14 Thermal Management Systems F Panel 6: Entry, Descent, and Landing Panel TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems In addition to drawing on the expertise represented on the steering committee and panels, the committee obtained input from each of 14 public workshops held on each of the 14 roadmaps. At these 1-day workshops, invited speakers, guests, and members of the public engaged in discussions on the different technology areas and their value to NASA. Broad community input was also solicited from a public website, where more than 240 public comments were received on the draft roadmaps in response to application of criteria (such as benefit, risk and reasonableness, and alignment with NASA and national goals) that the steering committee established. This interim report reflects the results of deliberations by the steering committee in light of these public inputs as well as additional inputs from the six panels. The steering committee's final report will be completed early in 2012. That report will prioritize the technologies that span the entire scope of the 14 roadmaps and provide additional guidance on crosscutting themes and other relevant topics.

2011-01-01

371

Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

Kloeris, Vickie L.

2010-01-01

372

Proposed Array-based Deep Space Network for NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current assets of the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), especially the 70-m antennas, are aging and becoming less reliable. Furthermore, they are expensive to operate and difficult to upgrade for operation at Ka-band (321 GHz). Replacing them with comparable monolithic large antennas would be expensive. On the other hand, implementation of similar high-sensitivity assets can be achieved economically using an array-based architecture, where sensitivity is measured by G/T, the ratio of antenna gain to system temperature. An array-based architecture would also provide flexibility in operations and allow for easy addition of more G/T whenever required. Therefore, an array-based plan of the next-generation DSN for NASA has been proposed. The DSN array would provide more flexible downlink capability compared to the current DSN for robust telemetry, tracking and command services to the space missions of NASA and its international partners in a cost effective way. Instead of using the array as an element of the DSN and relying on the existing concept of operation, we explore a broader departure in establishing a more modern concept of operations to reduce the operations costs. This paper presents the array-based architecture for the next generation DSN. It includes system block diagram, operations philosophy, user's view of operations, operations management, and logistics like maintenance philosophy and anomaly analysis and reporting. To develop the various required technologies and understand the logistics of building the array-based lowcost system, a breadboard array of three antennas has been built. This paper briefly describes the breadboard array system and its performance.

Bagri, Durgadas S.; Statman, Joseph I.; Gatti, Mark S.

2007-01-01

373

Human habitat positioning system for NASA's space flight environmental simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial gravity by centrifugation offers an effective countermeasure to the physiologic deconditioning of chronic exposure to microgravity; however, the system requirements of rotational velocity, radius of rotation, and resultant centrifugal acceleration require thorough investigation to ascertain the ideal human-use centrifuge configuration. NASA's Space Flight Environmental Simulator (SFES), a 16-meter (52-foot) diameter, animal-use centrifuge, was recently modified to accommodate human occupancy. This paper describes the SFES Human Habitat Positioning System, the mechanism that facilitates radius of rotation variability and alignment of the centrifuge occupants with the artificial gravity vector.

Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.; Keas, P.

1998-01-01

374

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

1991-01-01

375

Commonality analysis for the NASA Space Station Common Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of commonality to enhance cost savings, as applied to NASA's Space Station Common Module (CM), is explored. The equipment to be included in the CM is organized by subsystems of structure, power, thermal, command and data handling, environmental control and life support, and crew station. The weight, volume, and quantity of each instrument item will be subsequently added to support a cost model. The CM concept, its reference configuration, power distribution and management, and cost sensitivity options are discussed in detail. Some computer programs are outlined, stressing the importance of the existing capabilities of the STS and the optimum commonality case.

Powell, L. E.; Beam, E. E.

1985-01-01

376

Second Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Science and Astrobiology Division's researchers are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields, including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. In addition division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions. With a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among the three branches in at least 5 buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientist within the division and to give center management and other ARC researchers and Engineers an opportunity to see what scientific missions work is being done in the division.

Dotson, Jessie

2014-01-01

377

KC Space Pirates and NASA's Power Beaming Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Elevator Games with $2 Million in prize money is one of the most exciting challenges in the NASA Centennial Challenges program. We had an 8kW TRUMPF laser beaming power straight up 1 kilometer to a moving vehicle. This paper is the team captain's analysis of the state of the art in power beaming, and the excitement and challenge of the games themselves. Predictions are made of what new technology we will see in the next round of the games coming spring 2010.

Turner, Brian; Lades, Martin

2010-02-01

378

High Temperature Materials Needs in NASA's Advanced Space Propulsion Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, NASA has embarked on several new and exciting efforts in the exploration and use of space. The successful accomplishment of many planned missions and projects is dependent upon the development and deployment of previously unproven propulsion systems. Key to many of the propulsion systems is the use of emergent materials systems, particularly high temperature structural composites. A review of the general missions and benefits of utilizing high temperature materials will be presented. The design parameters and operating conditions will be presented for both specific missions/vehicles and classes of components. Key technical challenges and opportunities are identified along with suggested paths for addressing them.

Eckel, Andrew J.; Glass, David E.

2005-01-01

379

R.F Microphotonics for NASA Space Communications Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An RF microphotonic receiver has-been developed at Ka-band. The receiver consists of a lithium niobate micro-disk that enables RF-optical coupling to occur. The modulated optical signal (- 200 THz) is detected by the high-speed photonic signal processing electronics. When compared with an electronic approach, the microphotonic receiver technology offers 10 times smaller volume, smaller weight, and smaller power consumption; greater sensitivity; and optical isolation for use in extreme environments. The status of the technology development will be summarized, and the potential application of the receiver to NASA space communications systems will be described.

Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Miranda, Felix; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani; Cohen, David; Levi, A. F. J.

2007-01-01

380

NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges both in delivering the 70-t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130-t vehicle, and how NASA plans to accomplish these goals. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2013-01-01

381

The Impact of Space Commercialization on Space Agencies: the Case of NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that commercialisation of space results in inefficient contracting policies by the space agencies, using the US NASA as a case study. Though commercialisation is seen by many as a way to reduce costs in space programmes, as the space industry is seen as a decreasing costs industry, this is not a problem-free process. Commercialisation of space has affected the US and European space industries and policies in two major ways. The first is that the public sector actively encourages mergers and acquisitions of major contractors, confined, however, within the geographical borders of the US and Europe. This follows largely from the perceived benefits of economies of size when competing in global commercial markets. The second is the formation of an increasing number of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in space programmes and a more `cosy' relationship between the two within a public-assistance strategic trade theoretic framework. As ESA's contracting policy of `juste retour' is marked by limited competition, the paper focuses on the case of NASA, which is expected to be more pro- competitive, to examine the impact of commercialisation. With the use of quantitative methods based on time series econometric analysis, the paper shows that NASA's contracting policy, results in increasingly less competition and more rent-favouring contracting. This is attributed to the decreasing number of major contractors in conjunction with the preferential treatment of the domestic space industry (`Buy American'). The results of the paper verify that the support of the domestic space industry in commercial and public space markets results in inefficient contracting policies, with NASA facing the conflicting tasks of a stated policy of enhancing competition and efficiency in contracting, as well as, supporting the competitiveness of the domestic space industry. The paper concludes with an analysis and assessment of solutions to this dilemma. 1 meeting.

Zervos, Vasilis

2002-01-01

382

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

Guidotti, J. G.

1976-01-01

383

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

384

Meson Production and Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation is an important priority for long duration space flight. The National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) has recently recommended that pion and other mesons should be included in space radiation transport codes, especially in connection with the Martian atmosphere. In an interesting accident of nature, the galactic cosmic ray spectrum has its peak intensity near the pion production threshold. The Boltzmann transport equation is structured in such a way that particle production cross sec-tions are multiplied by particle flux. Therefore, the peak of the incident flux of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum is more important than other regions of the spectrum and cross sections near the peak are enhanced. This happens with pion cross sections. The MCNPX Monte-Carlo transport code now has the capability of transporting heavy ions, and by using a galactic cosmic ray spectrum as input, recent work has shown that pions contribute about twenty percent of the dose from galactic cosmic rays behind a shield of 20 g/cm2 aluminum and 30 g/cm2 water. It is therefore important to include pion and other hadron production in transport codes designed for space radiation studies, such as HZETRN. The status of experimental hadron production data for energies relevant to space radiation will be reviewed, as well as the predictive capa-bilities of current theoretical hadron production cross section and space radiation transport models. Charged pions decay into muons and neutrinos, and neutral pions decay into photons. An electromagnetic cascade is produced as these particles build up in a material. The cascade and transport of pions, muons, electrons and photons will be discussed as they relate to space radiation. The importance of other hadrons, such as kaons, eta mesons and antiprotons will be considered as well. Efficient methods for calculating cross sections for meson production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus reactions will be presented. The NCRP has also recom-mended that more attention should be paid to neutron and light ion transport. The coupling of neutrons, light ions, mesons and other hadrons will be discussed.

Norbury, John; Blattnig, Steve; Norman, Ryan; Aghara, Sukesh

385

BioServe space technologies: A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), was established in 1987. As is characteristic of each CCDS designated by NASA, the goals of this commercial center are aimed at stimulating high technology research that takes advantage of the space environment and at leading in the development of new products and services which have commercial potential or that contribute to possible new commercial ventures. BioServe's efforts in these areas focus upon space life science studies and the development of enabling devices that will facilitate ground-based experiments as well as the conversion of such to the microgravity environment. A direct result of BioServe's hardware development and life sciences studies is the training of the next generation of bioengineers who will be knowledgeable and comfortable working with the challenges of the space frontier.

1992-01-01

386

NASA Education and Educational Technologies Exemplified by the Space Weather Action Center Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore here the Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) Program, as an example of NASA initiatives in education. Many human activities in space can be disrupted by space weather. The main objective of this program is to enable students to produce space weather forecasts by accessing current NASA data. Implementation of the SWAC Program requires: technological resources, online materials, and

Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis; Claudio André; Troy D. Cline; Timothy E. Eastman; Margaret J. Maher; Louis A. Mayo; Elaine M. Lewis

2009-01-01

387

[Emphasis of biological research for space radiation].  

PubMed

The paper summarized issues, current status and the recent topics in biological research of space radiation. Researches to estimate a risk associated with space radiation exposure during a long-term manned space flight, such as in the International Space Station, is emphasized because of the large uncertainty of biological effects and a complexity of the radiation environment in space. The Issues addressed are; 1) biological effects and end points in low dose radiation, 2) biological effects under low dose rate and long-term radiation exposure, 3) modification of biological responses to radiation under space environments, 4) various aspects of biological end points vs. cellular and molecular mechanisms, 5) estimation of human risk associated with radiation exposure in space flight, 6) regulations for radiation exposure limits for space workers. The paper also summarized and introduced recent progress in space related radiation researches with various biological systems. PMID:11541824

Ohnishi, T; Nagaoka, S

1998-03-01

388

An Overview of contributions of NASA Space Shuttle to Space Science and Engineering education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an indepth overview of the enormous contrbutions made by the NASA Space Shuttle Program to Space science and engineering education over the past thirty years. The author has served as one of the major contributors and editors of NASA book "Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle program" (NASA SP-2010-3409). Every Space Shuttle mission was an education mission: student involvement programs such as Get Away Specials housed in Shuttle payload allowed students to propose research and thus enrich their university education experience. School students were able to operate "EarthKAM" to learn the intricacies of orbital mechanics, earth viewing opportunities and were able to master the science and art of proposal writing and scientific collaboration. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the global student and teaching community in space sciences and engineering to the plethora of educational resources available to them for engaging a wide variety of students (from early school to the undergraduate and graduate level and to inspire them towards careers in Space sciences and technologies. The volume "Wings In Orbit" book is one example of these ready to use in classroom materials. This paper will highlight the educational payloads, experiments and on-orbit classroom activities conducted for space science and engineering students, teachers and non-traditional educators. The presentation will include discussions on the science content and its educational relevance in all major disiciplines in which the research was conducted on-board the Space Shuttle.

Lulla, Kamlesh

2012-07-01

389

Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

390

Radiation protection standards in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

Sinclair, Warren K.

391

Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

Pentecost, E.

1981-01-01

392

Enhancing space transportation: The NASA program to develop electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology (OAET) supports a research and technology (R and T) program in electric propulsion to provide the basis for increased performance and life of electric thruster systems which can have a major impact on space system performance, including orbital transfer, stationkeeping, and planetary exploration. The program is oriented toward providing high-performance options that will be applicable to a broad range of near-term and far-term missions and vehicles. The program, which is being conducted through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Lewis Research Center (LeRC) includes research on resistojet, arcjets, ion engines, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and electrodeless thrusters. Planning is also under way for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) as part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI).

Bennett, Gary L.; Watkins, Marcus A.; Byers, David C.; Barnett, John W.

1990-01-01

393

NASA's 3D Flight Computer for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program (NMP) Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) for Microelectronics Systems was planning to validate a newly developed 3D Flight Computer system on its first deep-space flight, DS1, launched in October 1998. This computer, developed in the 1995-97 time frame, contains many new computer technologies previously never used in deep-space systems. They include: advanced 3D packaging architecture for future low-mass and low-volume avionics systems; high-density 3D packaged chip-stacks for both volatile and non-volatile mass memory: 400 Mbytes of local DRAM memory, and 128 Mbytes of Flash memory; high-bandwidth Peripheral Component Interface (Per) local-bus with a bridge to VME; high-bandwidth (20 Mbps) fiber-optic serial bus; and other attributes, such as standard support for Design for Testability (DFT). Even though this computer system did not complete on time for delivery to the DS1 project, it was an important development along a technology roadmap towards highly integrated and highly miniaturized avionics systems for deep-space applications. This continued technology development is now being performed by NASA's Deep Space System Development Program (also known as X2000) and within JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM).

Alkalai, Leon

2000-01-01

394

The NASA OCEAN project--an ocean-space analog  

PubMed

An advanced life support system (ALS) with bioregenerative components may one day be required for long-term, deep space exploration, in extended missions to Mars or in establishing long-term bases on the moon. Intensive research programs on such ALS systems have been ongoing throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since 1988. Notably, projects have been initiated at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC). The KSC ALS work has been named the "Breadboard Project" because of its approach developing the components and combining them into a breadboard to understanding the bioregenerative ALS picture [also called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)] in smaller pieces, similar to an electronic "breadboard." The Breadboard Project has been involved for 7 years in the study of higher crops grown in a 113 m3 chamber--the longest operating and largest such closed, controlled growth chamber in the world. This chamber has proven itself to be very successful in growing a wide variety of crops from seedlings to harvest and in helping researchers understand the complex biological cycle of such edible plants in closed, environmentally controlled environments. Because the system's ultimate use will be a more challenging environment, moving a specially designed piece of the system into extreme conditions was an important test. Engineers at KSC developed a compact, portable, functional plant module for testing in the world's only fixed seafloor laboratory at Key Largo, FL. The laboratory, called MarineLab, is operated out of the facilities of the Marine Resources Development Foundation in a lagoon of some 10 m depth. The project was called the OCEAN project (Ocean CELSS Experimental Analog NASA). PMID:11538567

Chamberland, D

1996-01-01

395

Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its results and impact. We will highlight the insights gained by applying the Model Based System Engineering and provide recommendations for its applications and improvements.

Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

2013-01-01

396

Coherent Frequency Reference System for the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires state-of-the-art frequency references that are derived and distributed from very stable atomic frequency standards. A new Frequency Reference System (FRS) and Frequency Reference Distribution System (FRD) have been developed, which together replace the previous Coherent Reference Generator System (CRG). The FRS and FRD each provide new capabilities that significantly improve operability and reliability. The FRS allows for selection and switching between frequency standards, a flywheel capability (to avoid interruptions when switching frequency standards), and a frequency synthesis system (to generate standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals). The FRS is powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems and includes a monitor and control capability for station operations to interact and control the frequency-standard selection process. The FRD receives the standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals and distributes signals to distribution amplifiers in a fan out fashion to dozens of DSN users that require the highly stable reference signals. The FRD is also powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems. The new DSN Frequency Distribution System, which consists of the FRS and FRD systems described here, is central to all operational activities of the NASA DSN. The frequency generation and distribution system provides ultra-stable, coherent, and very low phase-noise references at 5, l0, and 100 MHz to between 60 and 100 separate users at each Deep Space Communications Complex.

Tucker, Blake C.; Lauf, John E.; Hamell, Robert L.; Gonzaler, Jorge, Jr.; Diener, William A.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

2010-01-01

397

NASA Sees Orbiting Stars Flooding Space with Gravitational Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientist using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found evidence that two white dwarf stars are orbiting each other in a death grip, destined to merge. The data indicate that gravitational waves are carrying energy away from the star system at a prodigious rate - making it a prime candidate for future missions designed to directly detect these subtle ripples in space-time. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity predicts that a binary star system should emit gravitational waves, which rush away at the speed of light and cause the stars to move closer together. The orbital period of this system, known as RX J0806.3+1527, or J0806, is decreasing by 1.2 milliseconds every year, a rate consistent with theory. Animation of White Dwarfs Animation of White Dwarfs The white dwarf pair in J0806 might have the smallest orbit of any known binary system with the stars only about 50,000 miles apart, a fifth of the distance from the Earth to the Moon. As the stars swirl closer together, traveling in excess of a million miles per hour, the production of gravitational waves increases. "If confirmed, J0806 could be one of the brightest sources of gravitational waves in our Galaxy," said Tod Strohmayer of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center of Greenbelt, Md., who presents his results today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Minneapolis, Minn. "It could be among the first to be detected directly with an upcoming space mission called LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna." White dwarfs are remnants of stars like our Sun that have used up all their fuel. Along with neutron stars and black holes, white dwarfs are called compact objects because they pack a lot of mass into a small volume. The white dwarfs in the J0806 system each have an estimated mass half that of the Sun, yet are only about the size of Earth. Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Optical and X-ray observations of J0806 show periodic variations with a period of 321.5 seconds - barely more than five minutes. The observed five-minute period in J0806 is most likely the orbital period of the white dwarf system. However the possibility that it represents the spin of one of its white dwarfs cannot yet be completely ruled out. "It's either the most compact binary known or one of the most unusual systems we've ever seen," said Strohmayer. "Either way it's got a great story to tell." Strohmayer's Chandra X-ray observations, which will be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal, tighten orbital decay estimates made through optical observations in recent years independently by teams led by GianLuca Israel of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome and by Pasi Hakala of the University of Helsinki. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

2005-05-01

398

Analysis of Potential Alternatives to Reduce NASA's Cost of Human Access to Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to analyze NASA's potential options for significantly reducing the cost of human access to space. The opinions expressed in this report are based on Hawthorne, Krauss & Associates' ('HKA') interaction with NASA and several of...

1998-01-01

399

Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Investments Within NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate has several investments in entry, descent and landing technologies, across its nine programs. This presentation will give a top-level view of the various investments.

Munk, M. M.

2014-06-01

400

Calibration of space instrumentation with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is Germany's national metrology institute providing scientific and technical services. For more than 20 years, PTB has used synchrotron radiation at the electron storage rings BESSY I and BESSY II for photon metrology in the spectral range from UV radiation to X-rays, e.g. for the calibration of radiation sources, detectors, and spectrometers as well as for the characterization of optical components. Most of the measurements are based on two different primary standards, electron storage rings as primary radiation source standards and cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers as primary detector standards. Many activities are related to radiometric calibrations of space-based instruments for extraterrestrial, solar, and astronomical missions. Outstanding examples have been the calibration of the SUMER and CDS spectrographs of the SOHO mission, X-ray detector calibrations for the X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton, and the calibration of Lyman-alpha detectors for the NASA satellites TWINS. This contribution presents examples from recent work, in particular within the framework of the ESA projects PROBA 2 and Solar Orbiter.

Richter, M.; Gottwald, A.; Scholze, F.; Schühle, U.; Ulm, G.

401

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in four areas that include Propulsion System Technologies (Electric and Chemical), Entry Vehicle Technologies (Aerocapture and Earth entry vehicles), Spacecraft Bus and Sample Return Propulsion Technologies (components and ascent vehicles), and Systems/Mission Analysis. Three technologies are ready for flight infusion: 1) the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance; 2) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 3) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; and aerothermal effect models. Two component technologies that will be ready for flight infusion in the near future will be Advanced Xenon Flow Control System, and ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies. Future focuses for ISPT are sample return missions and other spacecraft bus technologies like: 1) Mars Ascent Vehicles (MAV); 2) multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) for sample return missions; and 3) electric propulsion for sample return and low cost missions. These technologies are more vehicle-focused, and present a different set of technology infusion challenges. While the Systems/Mission Analysis area is focused on developing tools and assessing the application of propulsion technologies to a wide variety of mission concepts. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, and sample return missions currently under consideration, as well as having broad applicability to potential Flagship missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the ISPT program, describing the development status and technology infusion readiness of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of electric propulsion, aerocapture, Earth entry vehicles, propulsion components, Mars ascent vehicle, and mission/systems analysis.

Anderson, David J.; Pencil,Eric J.; Peterson, Todd; Vento, Daniel; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Dankanich, John W.

2012-01-01

402

The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Place is a unique NASA education and public outreach program. It includes a NASA website (spaceplace.nasa.gov) in English and Spanish that targets elementary age children with appealing, content- rich STEM material on space science, Earth science, and technology. The site features science and\\/or technology content related to, so far, over 40 NASA missions. This overall program, as well

N. J. Leon; D. K. Fisher

2008-01-01

403

Space Operations: NASA Is Not Properly Safeguarding Valuable Data from past Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA is responsible for space exploration and the management, archiving, and dissemination of space science data. Since 1958, the agency has spent about $24 billion on its space science program and successfully launched over 260 scientific missions. Data ...

S. A. Schwartz R. W. Beers M. J. Dolak D. T. Schwartz D. D. Rush

1990-01-01

404

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic clim...

T. A. May

2012-01-01

405

Capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Revised 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Natural Environment Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the responsibility to provide natural environments engineering support to programs and projects. The Natural Environments Branch is responsible for natural environments definitions, modeling, database development, and analytical assessments of effects. Natural Environments Branch personnel develop requirements for flight projects and provide operational support for space and launch vehicle systems. To accomplish these responsibilities, models and analytical tools have been developed in the areas of planetary atmospheres, meteoroids, ionizing radiation, plasmas and ionospheres, magnetic and gravitational fields, spacecraft charging modeling, and radiation effects on electronic parts. This paper will build on a previous paper published in 2006 and provide updated descriptions of the capabilities within the Natural Environments Branch1. Updates describing improvements and new releases of several analytical tools and models will be presented. Separate sections will specifically describe modifications in the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), and the Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation (MSAFE) capabilities.

Edwards, David L.; Suggs, Rob; Roberts, Barry C.; Cooke, William J.

2009-01-01

406

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid drop radiator experiment. The following experiments are currently in the experiment definition phase: an integrated two-phase thermal experiment, an electrolysis performance experiment, and a sodium sulfur battery experiment. Three In-STEP experiments are entering the hardware fabrication phase: thermal energy storage technology, solar array module plasma interaction, and heat pipe performance experiments. Each of these experiments is described, with an emphasis on the benefits of technology validation.

Chmielewski, Art B.; Pyle, Jon S.

1991-01-01

407

Simulation of Range Safety for the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a simulation environment that seamlessly combines a number of safety and environmental models for the launch phase of a NASA Space Shuttle mission. The components of this simulation environment represent the different systems that must interact in order to determine the Expectation of casualties (E(sub c)) resulting from the toxic effects of the gas dispersion that occurs after a disaster affecting a Space Shuttle within 120 seconds of lift-off. The utilization of the Space Shuttle reliability models, trajectory models, weather dissemination systems, population models, amount and type of toxicants, gas dispersion models, human response functions to toxicants, and a geographical information system are all integrated to create this environment. This simulation environment can help safety managers estimate the population at risk in order to plan evacuation, make sheltering decisions, determine the resources required to provide aid and comfort, and mitigate damages in case of a disaster. This simulation environment may also be modified and used for the landing phase of a space vehicle but will not be discussed in this paper.

Rabelo, Luis; Sepulveda, Jose; Compton, Jeppie; Turner, Robert

2005-01-01

408

NASA Office of Space Sciences and Applications study on Space Station attached payload pointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been conducted to determine the articulated-pointing requirements of a suite of instruments carried by the NASA Space Station, and define a pointing system architecture accomodating those requirements. It is found that these pointing requirements are sufficiently exacting, and the Space Station's disturbance environment sufficiently severe, to preclude the successful use of a conventional gimbal-pointing system; a gimbaled system incorporating an isolation stage is judged capable of furnishing the requisite levels of pointing performance.

Laskin, R. A.; Estus, J. M.; Lin, Y. H.; Spanos, J. T.; Satter, C. M.

1988-01-01

409

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

410

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

411

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

412

NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and the record-breaking testing of the J-2X engine, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

2013-01-01

413

Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR...

E. Hodgson, G. C. Bue, M. Izenson, W. Chen

2013-01-01

414

Capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Natural Environment Branch at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the responsibility to provide engineering support to programs and projects in natural environments. The Natural Environments Branch (EV13) is responsible for natural environments definitions, modelling, database development and effects assessments. EV13 personnel develop requirements for flight projects and provide operational support for space and launch vehicle systems. To accomplish these responsibilities, Branch . personnel have developed modelling and analytical tools which include planetary atmospheres, meteoroids, ionizing radiation, plasmas and ionospheres, magnetic and gravitational fields, spacecraft charging modelling, and radiation effects on electronic parts. NASA s Meteoroid Environment Office is operated within the EV13 and provides meteoroid engineering models and shower forecasts to spacecraft designers and operators. This paper will describe the capabilities within the Natural Environments Effects Branch including; examples of natural environment definitions, radiation transport, output from the Global Reference Atmosphere Models for Earth, Venus, Mars, Titan, and Neptune), recent NASCAP 2K results from solar sail modelling, and meteor stream models

Edwards, David L.; Suggs, Rob; Roberts, Barry C.

2006-01-01