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1

The NASA Space Radiation Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

2

NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue teams will highlight progress and important new knowledge gained. Red teams will challenge the Blue teams on proposed highlights and point to Gaps not considered. We will review the current space radiation Risks and Gaps under investigation at NASA, critical data sets and research highlights anticipated, and possible goals for future research at NSRL.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2010-01-01

3

Technical developments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.  

PubMed

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a center for space radiation research in both the life and physical sciences. BNL is a multidisciplinary research facility operated for the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNL scientific research portfolio supports a large and diverse science and technology program including research in nuclear and high-energy physics, material science, chemistry, biology, medial science, and nuclear safeguards and security. NSRL, in operation since July 2003, is an accelerator-based facility which provides particle beams for radiobiology and physics studies (Lowenstein in Phys Med 17(supplement 1):26-29 2001). The program focus is to measure the risks and to ameliorate the effects of radiation encountered in space, both in low earth orbit and extended missions beyond the earth. The particle beams are produced by the Booster synchrotron, an accelerator that makes up part of the injector sequence of the DOE nuclear physics program's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Ion species from protons to gold are presently available, at energies ranging from <100 to >1,000 MeV/n. The NSRL facility has recently brought into operation the ability to rapidly switch species and beam energy to supply a varied spectrum onto a given specimen. A summary of past operation performance, plans for future operations and recent and planned hardware upgrades will be described. PMID:17211657

Lowenstein, D I; Rusek, A

2007-06-01

4

NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Radiation  

E-print Network

NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Radiation Carcinogenesis following International Space Station, Near Earth Asteroid, and Mars Missions Francis A. Cucinotta NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Sciences Houston, Texas February 2012 #12;THE NASA STI PROGRAM OFFICE . . . IN PROFILE Since its founding

Rathbun, Julie A.

5

RESULTS OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY BEAM STUDIES PROGRAM AT BNL.  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. The purpose of the NSRL Beam Studies Program is to develop a clear understanding of the beams delivered to the facility, to fully characterize those beams, and to develop new capabilities in the interest of understanding the radiation environment in space. In this report we will describe the first results from this program.

BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.ET AL.

2004-07-05

6

NASA\\/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength normalized to the equatorial\\/minimum value on the field line B\\/B sub 0\\/ for either solar maximum or solar minimum conditions. The most recent versions of the

John D. Gaffey Jr.; Dieter Bilitza

1994-01-01

7

A Review of NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the RHESE technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of these advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2008-01-01

8

The Space Radiation Environment and Its Implication for Designing Reliable Electronic Systems: A NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents include the following: The space radiation environment. The effects on electronics. The environment in action NASA approaches to commercial electronics: flight projects; and proactive research. Living with a star space environment testbed status. Final thoughts: atomic interactions; direct ionization; interaction with nucleus.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

9

Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

2007-01-01

10

Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP, 2000, 2006). However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2007), transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

2012-01-01

11

Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model1 reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties--2010 . The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables. The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

2012-01-01

12

NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential effectiveness of radiation mitigator's. The NSRM- 2014 approaches to model radiation quality dependent lethality and NTE's will be described. CNS effects include both early changes that may occur during long space missions and late effects such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD effects 50% of the population above age 80-yr, is a degenerative disease that worsens with time after initial onset leading to death, and has no known cure. AD is difficult to detect at early stages and the small number of low LET epidemiology studies undertaken have not identified an association with low dose radiation. However experimental studies in mice suggest GCR may lead to early onset AD. We discuss modeling approaches to consider mechanisms whereby radiation would lead to earlier onset of occurrence of AD. Biomarkers of AD include amyloid beta (A(Beta)) plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) made up of aggregates of the hyperphosphorylated form of the micro-tubule associated, tau protein. Related markers include synaptic degeneration, dentritic spine loss, and neuronal cell loss through apoptosis. Radiation may affect these processes by causing oxidative stress, aberrant signaling following DNA damage, and chronic neuroinflammation. Cell types to be considered in multi-scale models are neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. We developed biochemical and cell kinetics models of DNA damage signaling related to glycogen synthase kinase-3(Beta) (GSK3(Beta)) and neuroinflammation, and considered multi-scale modeling approaches to develop computer simulations of cell interactions and their relationships to A(Beta) plaques and NFTs. Comparison of model results to experimental data for the age specific development of A(Beta) plaques in transgenic mice will be discussed.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

2013-01-01

13

The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

Vette, James I.

1991-01-01

14

NASA's Space Grant program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

Dasch, E. Julius

1990-01-01

15

NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network that is part of NASA's contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). This system is designed to produce the higher quality data required to establish and maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and future generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center and includes co-located, state of-the-art, systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). A novel system for near-real time monitoring of the "ties" between these four systems is an integral part of the core site development concept and this specific prototype. We present the status and performance of the prototype site as well as results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, Stephen; Desai, Shailen; Gross, Richard; Hilliard, Lawrence; Lemoine, Frank; Long, James; Ma, Chopo; McGarry, Jan; Murphy, David; Noll, Carey; Pavlis, Erricos; Pearlman, Michael; Stowers, David; Webb, Frank

2013-04-01

16

The NASA Food Commercial Space  

E-print Network

The NASA Food Technology Commercial Space Center and How Your Company Can Participate space Commercial Space Center Iowa State University 2901 South Loop Drive, Suite 3700 Ames, IA 50010-8632 Phone Manager NASA Food Technology Commercial Space Center Iowa State University 2901 South Loop Drive, Suite

Lin, Zhiqun

17

NASA space materials research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the space environment on: (1) thermal control coatings and thin polymer films; (2) radiation stability of 250 F and 350 F cured graphite/epoxy composites; and (3) the thermal mechanical stability of graphite/epoxy, graphite/glass composites are considered. Degradation in mechanical properties due to combined radiation and thermal cycling is highlighted. Damage mechanisms are presented and chemistry modifications to improve stability are suggested. The dimensional instabilities in graphite/epoxy composites associated with microcracking during thermal cycling is examined as well as the thermal strain hysteresis found in metal-matrix composites.

Tenney, D. R.; Tompkins, S. S.; Sykes, G. F.

1985-01-01

18

A NASA Perspective and Validation and Testing of Design Hardening for the Natural Space Radiation Environment (GOMAC Tech 03)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the dearth of dedicated radiation hardened foundries, new and novel techniques are being developed for hardening designs using non-dedicated foundry services. In this paper, we will discuss the implications of validating these methods for the natural space radiation environment issues: total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE). Topics of discussion include: Types of tests that are required, Design coverage (i.e., design libraries: do they need validating for each application?) A new task within NASA to compare existing design. This latter task is a new effort in FY03 utilizing a 8051 microcontroller core from multiple design hardening developers as a test vehicle to evaluate each mitigative technique.

Day, John H. (Technical Monitor); LaBel, Kenneth A.; Howard, James W.; Carts, Martin A.; Seidleck, Christine

2003-01-01

19

NASA/CP--2006214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop  

E-print Network

NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Washington, DC April 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program

de Weck, Olivier L.

20

David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center  

E-print Network

David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center Distributed Systems David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center/Metrica Inc. Houston TX 77058 kortenkamp@jsc.nasa.gov http://www.traclabs.com/~korten David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center/Metrica Inc. Houston TX

Kortenkamp, David

21

NASA Space Grant Contacts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication provides an overview of two NASA funding programs, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (Space Grant) and the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCOR). A listing of contacts for these programs in all 50 states (20 states for EPSCOR), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is provided, as well as a link to the Space Grant homepage.

22

Space Science News Headlines: NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) keeps the public abreast of recent breakthroughs in space science via Space Science News Headlines, an almost daily email service. Recent stories cover SOHO, the Leonid meteor storm, and Europa's frigid oceans. Space Science News Headlines reaches beyond the scientific community; advances and discoveries in space studies are relayed in an understandable, jargon-free manner. Interested readers can browse through past news archives or subscribe to future news stories via the homepage.

23

Dr. David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center  

E-print Network

Dr. David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center Dr. David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center Intelligent Robots for Space Applications Intelligent Robots for Space Applications Dr. David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center/Metrica Inc. Houston TX 77058 kortenkamp@jsc.nasa.gov http

Kortenkamp, David

24

Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop  

SciTech Connect

A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2008-05-01

25

Emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues: a NASA approach for space flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft performance requirements drive the utilization of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and emerging technologies in systems. The response of these technologies to radiation is often complex. This engenders a set of emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues which include displacement damage in optocouplers, high-precision and hybrid devices, enhanced low dose rate (ELDR) and proton damage enhancement (PDE) in linear circuits, linear

Kenneth A. LaBel; Allan H. Johnston; Janet L. Barth; Robert A. Reed; Charles E. Barnes

1998-01-01

26

NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. This presentation will address the SLS challenges, along with the analysis and decisions to mitigate the threats posed by each.

Bramon, Chris; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

2014-01-01

27

NASA Programs in Space Photovoltaics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.

Flood, Dennis J.

1992-01-01

28

NASA space shuttle lightweight seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

1996-01-01

29

NASA SpaceWire Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three projects are developing SpaceWire upper layer protocols: JWST, LRO, GOES-R. JWST protocol development was complete before Protocol ID field was introduced to the standard. Commanding is done by using CCD5 packets tunneled through SpaceWire. Science Data packet is optimized for implementation specific requirements. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRD) investigated using the SnP Rmap protocol but chose to use CCSDS tunneled through SpaceWire. GOES-R is using CCDS tunneled through SpaceWire with project developed Reliable Delivery protocol. Reliable Delivery protocol may be used to replace MIL-STD-1553 for other mission. CCDS is the native format for the software bus for many NASA GSFC missions and therefore it is a natural packet format to tunnel through SpaceWire.

Rakow, Glenn Parker

2005-01-01

30

NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.  

PubMed

The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously. PMID:19580503

Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

2009-07-01

31

NASA/TM--2005213688 Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation  

E-print Network

NASA/TM--2005�213688 Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space J, Alabama R.M. Winglee University of Washington, Seattle, Washington March 2005 #12;The NASA STI Program Office...in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics

Rathbun, Julie A.

32

NASA Integrated Space Communications Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Integrated Network for Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) has been in the definition phase since 2010. It is intended to integrate NASA s three existing network elements, i.e., the Space Network, Near Earth Network, and Deep Space Network, into a single network. In addition to the technical merits, the primary purpose of the Integrated Network is to achieve a level of operating cost efficiency significantly higher than it is today. Salient features of the Integrated Network include (a) a central system element that performs service management functions and user mission interfaces for service requests; (b) a set of common service execution equipment deployed at the all stations that provides return, forward, and radiometric data processing and delivery capabilities; (c) the network monitor and control operations for the entire integrated network are conducted remotely and centrally at a prime-shift site and rotating among three sites globally (a follow-the-sun approach); (d) the common network monitor and control software deployed at all three network elements that supports the follow-the-sun operations.

Tai, Wallace; Wright, Nate; Prior, Mike; Bhasin, Kul

2012-01-01

33

NASA Beams Beatles Song to Space  

NASA Video Gallery

The transmission over NASA's Deep Space Network will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the day The Beatles recorded the song, as well as the 50th anniversary of NASA's founding and the group's be...

34

NASA Now: The Future Of Space Travel  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA astronaut Greg Johnson joins NASA Now to discuss the future of space exploration and the logical progression of sending humans to Mars. He talks about sending astronauts back to the moon and t...

35

NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, you??ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

36

Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

2010-01-01

37

NASA's Space Launch System: Powering Forward  

NASA Video Gallery

One year ago, NASA announced a new capability for America's space program: a heavy-lift rocket to launch humans farther into space than ever before. See how far the Space Launch System has come in ...

38

NASA's Space Science Programming Possibilities for Planetaria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between NASA and the planetarium community is an important one. Indeed, NASA's Office of Space Science has invested in a study of the Space Science Media Needs of Science Center Professionals. Some of the findings indicate a need for exposure to space science researchers, workshops for museum educators, 'canned' programs, and access to a speakers bureau. We will discuss some of the programs of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, distribute sample multimedia products, explain the role of NASA's Educator Resource Center, and review our contributions to NASA's Education and Public Outreach effort.

Adams, M. L.

2003-01-01

39

High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate "Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments" Technology Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performance Processors for Space Environments project will address this challenge by significantly advancing the sustained throughput and processing efficiency of high-per$ormance radiation-hardened processors, targeting delivery of products by the end of FY12.

Johnson, M.; Label, K.; McCabe, J.; Powell, W.; Bolotin, G.; Kolawa, E.; Ng, T.; Hyde, D.

2007-01-01

40

NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

2014-01-01

41

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space is the Agency's commercial space strategy message being perceived at the Center? JSC Strategic Implementation Plan What is the Center doing to promote it? Commercial Space Partnership Support What are the Center

Waliser, Duane E.

42

Space Robotic Capabilities David Kortenkamp (NASA Johnson Space Center)  

E-print Network

Johnson Space Center Space Robotic Capabilities David Kortenkamp (NASA Johnson Space Center) Liam) David Wettergreen (Carnegie Mellon University) Dan Clancy (NASA Ames) #12;Johnson Space Center 12/18/2001 Space Robotics State-of-Art 2 ! Motivation Science Objectives Mission Concepts Robots Human

Kortenkamp, David

43

Jeremy Werdell NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

E-print Network

Jeremy Werdell NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Ocean Observatories Workshop Ocean Optics XXI Conference 7 Oct 2012 #12;PJW, NASA, 7 Oct 2012, OOW @ OO2012 great field data enable great satellite data/QC metrics are essential (or this all falls apart) #12;PJW, NASA, 7 Oct 2012, OOW @ OO2012 field work funded

Boss, Emmanuel S.

44

Space Radiation Cancer Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation cancer risk relies on the three assumptions of linearity, additivity, and scaling along with the use of population averages. We describe uncertainty estimates for this model, and new experimental data that sheds light on the accuracy of the underlying assumptions. These methods make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, i.e., the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including lunar station, deep space outpost, and a Mars mission. Factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties and application of this approach to assess candidate mitigation approaches are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

45

75 FR 70951 - NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-148)] NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-11-19

46

76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-095...Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION:...

2011-10-17

47

Why Is NASA Boiling Fluids in Space?  

NASA Video Gallery

Convection and buoyancy work differently in space than on Earth. Learn how NASA uses this information and applies it to everyday life. Boiling fluids in space is easier than it is on Earth. Learn m...

48

NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

49

Future Plans for NASA's Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to space exploration, and future planned improvements to the communication capabilities that the network allows, in terms of precision, and communication power.

Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

2008-01-01

50

NASA and the practice of space law  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

Hosenball, S. N.

1985-01-01

51

Space radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

Gregory, J. C.

1986-01-01

52

Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2001-01-01

53

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2012-07-12

54

78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-154)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2013-12-23

55

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-091] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2013-08-13

56

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2012-01-19

57

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2012-11-01

58

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2010-08-23

59

NASA NASA CONNECT: Special World Space Congress. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. This video presents the World Space Congress 2002, the meeting of the decade for space professionals. Topics discussed range from the discovery of distant planets to medical advancements,

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

60

NASA space research and technology overview (ITP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of viewgraphs summarizing NASA space research and technology is presented. Some of the specific topics covered include the organization and goals of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, technology maturation strategy, integrated technology plan for the Civil Space Program, program selection and investment prioritization, and space technology benefits.

Reck, Gregory M.

1992-01-01

61

National Directory of NASA Space Grant Contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Congress enacted the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant). NASA's Space Grant Program funds education, research, and public service programs in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico through 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia form a network of colleges and universities, industry partners, State and local Government agencies, other Federal agencies, museum and science centers, and nonprofit organizations, all with interests in aerospace education, research, and training. Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public. Each year approximately one-third of the NASA Space Grant funds support scholarships and fellowships for United States students at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Typically, at least 20 percent of these awards go to students from underrepresented groups, and at least 40 percent go to women. Most Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists or engineers. Space Grant consortia also fund curriculum enhancement and faculty development programs. Consortia members administer precollege and public service education programs in their States. The 52 consortia typically leverage NASA funds with matching contributions from State, local, and other university sources, which more than double the NASA funding. For more information, consult the Space Grant Web site at http://education.nasa.gov/spacegrant/

2002-01-01

62

The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

2006-01-01

63

77 FR 67028 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...m.-4:00 p.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: NASA...

2012-11-08

64

NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster features several of the NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers, plus suggestions for using the series in the classroom. The series of online articles features NASA explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12 and up.

Iges

2007-01-01

65

NASA Space Science Partnerships with Minority Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five years NASA has carried out a deliberate and highly successful effort to engage Minority Institutions (MI) in space science activities. Implemented through a uniquely designed grants program now known as the \\

P. J. Sakimoto; J. D. Rosendhal

2004-01-01

66

NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

1977-01-01

67

NASA Space Sciences Strategic Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.

Crane, Philippe

2004-01-01

68

Dosimetry of space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harmful effects of space radiation are discussed. Radiation dosimetry methods are given. Dosimetry monitoring is investigated. Methods for measuring space radiation by ionization, thermoluminescence, and nuclear photographic emulsions are described.

Arkhangelskiy, V. V.; Markelov, V. V.; Skvortsov, S. S.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Turkin, V. N.; Chernykh, I. V.

1973-01-01

69

Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1991-01-01

70

Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed

Tore Straume; Sally A Amundson; William F. Blakely; Frederic J. Burns; Allen Chen; Nicholas Dainiak; Stephen Franklin; Julie A. Leary; David J. Loftus; William F. Morgan; Terry C. Pellmar; Viktor Stolc; Kenneth W. Turteltaub; Andrew T. Vaughan; Srinivasan Vijayakumar; Andrew J. Wyrobek

2008-01-01

71

David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center/Metrica Inc.  

E-print Network

David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center/Metrica Inc. David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center to Control Coupled, Dynamical Life Support Systems David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson Space Center/Metrica Inc. Houston TX 77058 kortenkamp@jsc.nasa.gov http://www.traclabs.com/~korten David Kortenkamp NASA Johnson

Kortenkamp, David

72

NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration home page provides information on current events at NASA, general information about NASA, and links to a plethora of NASA web sites, educational resources, and NASA Centers.

73

Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

Hertz, Paul L.

2014-07-01

74

Space radiation health program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

1991-01-01

75

Space radiation health program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

Not Available

1991-11-01

76

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Commercial Space  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Commercial Space Update December 9, 2013 NAC HEO Meeting Phil McAlister #12;2 Commercial Cargo Status Space X C1 Launch December 8, 2010 SpaceX C2+ LaunchX Dragon Capture May 25, 2012 Orbital Cygnus Capture September 29, 2013 #12;3 What Did Commercial Cargo

Waliser, Duane E.

77

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Fiscal Year 2011 Performance & Accountability Report #12;NASA's Performance and Accountability Report The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produces an annual Performance and Accountability Report (PAR) to share the Agency

78

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Entry Form for 2012 NASA Langley): Aeronautics Exploration Science Education Description of design will become the property of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and will not be returned

Christian, Eric

79

Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard

2012-01-01

80

5Calculating Total Radiation Dosages at Mars The NASA, Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) measured the daily  

E-print Network

5Calculating Total Radiation Dosages at Mars The NASA, Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE that were used. Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;5Calculating Total Radiation Dosages at Mars, and that its plotted profile is a simple rectangle, calculate the total radiation dosage in Rems for the SPEs

81

NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm and the vacuum UV radiation was on the order of 10,000 ESH. The results of these tests are presented in this document

Vaughn, Jason A.

1995-11-01

82

NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm and the vacuum UV radiation was on the order of 10,000 ESH. The results of these tests are presented in this document

Vaughn, Jason A.

1995-01-01

83

NASA/TP2009213146REVISION A International Space Station  

E-print Network

NASA/TP­2009­213146­REVISION A International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During of the International Space Station Program Scientist NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Judy Tate-Brown, Tracy and Jennifer Rhatigan NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas June 2009 #12;THE NASA STI PROGRAM OFFICE

84

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 2010  

E-print Network

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 2010 NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee Johnson Space Center September 13-14, 2010 Presented to the NASA Advisory Council on October 6, 2010 #12;NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 2010 · Col. Eileen Collins

Waliser, Duane E.

85

NASA/TP-2006-214203 Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight  

E-print Network

NASA/TP-2006-214203 Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight William A. (Andy) Evans, United 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program plays a key part

de Weck, Olivier L.

86

NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains satellite sighting information by city. Other highlights of the page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information. The page is structured in this fashion: NASA television, landing ground tracks, sighting opportunities, orbital tracking, satellite tracking, orbital elements, and weather. Each provides a different perspective on the topic. This is a comprehensive look at many different topics in spaceflight. Many of these programs require a JAVA installation.

2009-04-30

87

NASA's new university engineering space research programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.

Sadin, Stanley R.

1988-01-01

88

The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

2007-01-01

89

You and NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

You and NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate #12;Start Here: www.aeronautics.nasa.gov The first "A" in "NASA" stands for "Aeronautics"-- "National Aeronautics and Space Administration." Aeronautics has been part of NASA for more than 50 years

Waliser, Duane E.

90

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Launch Press Kit #12;#12; Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 #12;#12;5 THEMIS Media Contacts NASA Headquarters Dwayne Brown/Tabatha Thompson Policy/Program Management 202/58-726/895 dwayne .c .brown@nasa .gov tabatha .thompson-@nasa .gov NASA Goddard Space Flight

Waliser, Duane E.

91

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Non-Discrimination  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Non-Discrimination Regulations for Federally Assisted Programs www.nasa.gov NASA Office of Diversity and Equal Opportunity National Aeronautics.hq.nasa.gov/office/codee www.nasa.gov NP-2008-09-553-HQ #12;Code of Federal Regulations Title 14: Aeronautics and Space PART

Christian, Eric

92

NASA Kennedy Space Center RESOLVE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies have shown that the use of space resources to manufacture propellant and consumables can significantly reduce the launch mass of space exploration beyond earth orbit. Even the Moon. which has no atmosphere, is rich in resources that can theoretically be harvested. A series of lunar missions over the last 20 years has shown an unexpected resource on the Moon. There is evidence that water ice and other volatiles useful for the production of propellant are located at the lunar poles, though most of it is located within permanently shadowed craters where accessing these resources is challenging.

Coan, Mary R.

2013-01-01

93

NASA Space Science Partnerships with Minority Universities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years NASA has carried out a deliberate and highly successful effort to engage Minority Institutions (MI) in space science activities. Implemented through a uniquely designed grants program now known as the "NASA Minority University and College Education and Research Partnership Initiative (MUCERPI) in Space Science," an impressive array of space science research and educational activities has been developed at 15 MI's over the three-year period from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. This effort began with the recognition that very few MI's had programs in space science. To address this deficiency, the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS), in cooperation with the NASA Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP), carried out a series of consultations with MI faculty and administrators aimed at ascertaining the level of interest that MI's had in space science and at identifying the most effective strategies for developing space science capabilities on their campuses. The clear conclusion was that MI's were extremely interested in participating in space science, but that they had not been given a real opportunity to do so. The overwhelming consensus was that a successful program to engage MI's in space science would require: 1) a serious invitation from OSS to become involved in space science, 2) the flexibility to devise projects that fit the local environment on each participating campus, and 3) the opportunity to form partnerships with leading researchers in the space science community. As a result, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) emphasizing these and other factors was developed and issued in January 2000. Some of its more unique features were that: 1) it was issued by OSS with funding provided by OEOP; 2) it invited MI's to develop any combination of research capabilities, academic programs (at any level), and/or public outreach in space science; and 3) it required working partnerships with NASA-sponsored space science researchers for any research capability development projects. At the same time, OSS began a campaign to make its entire community of researchers aware of this new NRA and to encourage them to participate as partners. This campaign deliberately targeted space scientists funded by OSS at universities and research facilities, as well as at NASA Centers. Some 60 proposals received, from which 15 minority institutions, including six Historically Black Colleges or Universities, three Hispanic Serving Institutions, three Tribal Colleges, and three minority-predominant institutions were selected for 3-year awards of up to $250,000 per year. The outcomes reported by the grantees at the end of their three-year period of performance are impressive. Collectively, the grantees engaged in research collaborations with 10 NASA space science missions or suborbital projects and in more than 50 working partnerships with major space science research groups. In academic programs, they established 25 new or redirected space science faculty positions, 12 new or revised space science degree programs, and 68 new or revised space science courses with a total enrollment of nearly 1,800 students. They also engaged in a wide variety of teacher training, precollege outreach, and public outreach programs. From these results, it is clear that vibrant academic and research programs in space science can be built at MI's provided that sponsoring Agencies offer serious opportunities to do so. The sponsoring Agencies need to play an active role in providing guidance and in engaging their usual cadre of researchers to serve as active partners in collaborations with interested MI's. Merely acting as a passive provider of funds is not enough to make a significant difference.

Sakimoto, P. J.; Rosendhal, J. D.

2004-12-01

94

NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

1996-01-01

95

The NASA space power technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a broad technology program in the field of space power. This paper describes that program, including the roles and responsibilities of the various NASA field centers and major contractors. In the power source area, the paper discusses the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Project, which has been under way for about seven years and is making substantial progress toward development of components for a 100-kilowatt power system that can be scaled to other sizes. This system is a candidate power source for nuclear electric propulsion, as well as for a power plant for a lunar base. In the energy storage area, the paper describes NASA's battery- and fuel-cell development programs. NASA is actively working on NiCd, NiH2, and lithium batteries. A status update is also given on a U.S. Air Force-sponsored program to develop a large (150 ampere-hour) lithium-thionyl chloride battery for the Centaur upper-stage launch vehicle. Finally, the area of power management and distribution (PMAD) is addressed, including power system components such as solid-state switches and power integrated circuits. Automated load management and other computer-controlled functions offer considerable payoffs. The state of the art in space power is described, along with NASA's medium- and long-term goals in the area.

Stephenson, R. Rhoads

1992-01-01

96

Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Jospeh I.; Parker, L. Neergaard; Suggs, Robert M.

2013-01-01

97

76 FR 40753 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...to 2:45 p.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: NASA Ames Conference...National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

2011-07-11

98

78 FR 10213 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...11:30 a.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: Embassy...

2013-02-13

99

NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

2012-01-01

100

History of the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program for the joint USAF/NASA CRRES mission. Part 1. From the origins through the launch, 1981-1990. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The history narrates the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program from its origins in 1981 through the launch of the SPACERAD experiments on the USAF/NASA Combined Release/Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) on July 25, 1990 and the initial data results in October 1990. The SPACERAD Program comprised a coordinated schedule of space-and-ground testing of state-of-the-art microelectronics, together with new satellite measurements of the Earth's radiation belts. The goals for the program were to produce improved standards and procedures for ground-testing future space microelectronics and new dynamic models of the radiation belts. The history discusses programmatic, management and funding issues that arose in the course of its realization.

Liebowitz, R.P.

1992-03-16

101

EPCOT, NASA and plant pathogens in space.  

PubMed

Cooperative work between NASA and Walt Disney World's EPCOT Land Pavilion is described. Joint efforts include research about allelopathy in multi-species plant cropping in CELSS, LEDs as light sources in hydroponic systems, and the growth of plant pathogens in space. PMID:11540338

White, R

1996-01-01

102

NASA space biology accomplishments, 1983-84  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 42 project summaries from NASA's Space Biology Program are presented. Emphasis is placed on gravitational effects on plant and animal life. The identification of gravity perception; the effects of weightlessness on genetic integrity, cellular differentiation, reproduction, development, growth, maturation, and senescence; and how gravity affects and controls physiology, morphology, and behavior of organisms are studied.

Halstead, T. W.; Dutcher, F. R.; Pleasant, L. G.

1984-01-01

103

76 FR 3674 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-006)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-01-20

104

76 FR 20717 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-035)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-04-13

105

76 FR 3673 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-005)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-01-20

106

77 FR 4370 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-006)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2012-01-27

107

75 FR 11200 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-025)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-03-10

108

75 FR 28821 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-060)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-05-24

109

75 FR 5630 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-017)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-02-03

110

75 FR 53349 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-098)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-08-31

111

75 FR 16197 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-036)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-03-31

112

75 FR 39973 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-076)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-07-13

113

77 FR 38678 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-052)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2012-06-28

114

75 FR 17437 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-039)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-04-06

115

77 FR 20852 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-027)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2012-04-06

116

78 FR 42111 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (13-080)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2013-07-15

117

75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-074)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-07-13

118

76 FR 17712 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-027)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-03-30

119

75 FR 51853 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-092)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-08-23

120

NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

1999-01-01

121

NASA's future directions in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

Odonnell, W. J.

1983-01-01

122

Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SL-3 flight on the NASA Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each (?3) growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic Schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

1980-12-01

123

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, these folks must be living on another planet. We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

124

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-01-01

125

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Shared Services Center  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Shared Services Center Stennis Space Center, MS: NSSC Grant Officer Subject: Federal Government Shutdown due to Absence of Appropriations, NASA Grants, including NASA. As a result, all NASA installations are forced to shut down with limited exemptions

Herr, Amy E.

126

FY 2007 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)  

E-print Network

million below FY 2006 funding levels. Late last year the community was hopeful that NASA science would bill is funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The full CommitteeFY 2007 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) http://www.nasa

127

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

128

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs: A 2003 Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 4 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.

Ross, R. G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.

2004-01-01

129

NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL COMMERCIAL SPACE COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

technology to advance exploration and space systems #12;GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle SERVICES PROGRAM 2012 NuStar - Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array RBSP ­ Radiation Belt Solar Probes

Waliser, Duane E.

130

NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

131

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

132

www.nasa.gov Space Technology: Investments in our Future  

E-print Network

and bold in stature. · Enabling Our Future in Space: By investing in high payoff, disruptive technologywww.nasa.gov Space Technology: Investments in our Future FY12 Overview March 2011 #12;OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST www.nasa.gov/oct Space Technology: Investments in Our Future · Through NASA, America

133

Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

1988-01-01

134

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

135

NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, adhesives and other data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on a spacecraft, its sub-systems, materials and instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other US and international government agencies, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program (agency-wide in scope but managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center) provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment. It does this by defining the best techniques for both flight- and groundbased experimentation, updating models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft and ensuring that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and discuss several current technology development activities associated with the spacecraft charging phenomenon.

Minor, Jody

2001-01-01

136

60Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center NASA HCA Applications OutlineNASA HCA Applications Outline  

E-print Network

60Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center NASA HCA Applications OutlineNASA HCA Applications Outline l 3T Control Architecture ­ architecture Satellite Assistant (under development) #12;61Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David

Kortenkamp, David

137

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

138

NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

Branscome, Darrell R.

1991-01-01

139

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN Array Project is currently working with Senior Management at both JPL and NASA to develop strategies towards starting a major implementation project. Several studies within NASA are concluding, all of which recommend that any future DSN capability include arraying of antennas to increase performance. Support of Deep Space, Lunar, and CEV (crewed exploration vehicle) missions is possible. High data rate and TDRSS formatting is being investigated. Any future DSN capacity must include Uplink. Current studies ongoing to investigate and develop technologies for uplink arraying; provides advantages in three ways: 1) N2 effect. EIRP grows as N2(-vs-N for a downlink array); 2) Improved architectural options (can separate uplink and downlink); and 3) Potential for more cost effective transmitters for fixed EIRP.

Gatti, Mark

2006-01-01

140

Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multi-constellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, S.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; Mcgarry, J.; Murphy, D. W.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F.

2012-12-01

141

Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the sate1!ite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation ofthe observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multiconstellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

142

NASA's Space Launch Initiative Targets Toxic Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When manned and unmanned space flight first began, the clear and overriding design consideration was performance. Consequently, propellant combinations of all kinds were considered, tested, and, when they lifted the payload a kilometer higher, or an extra kilogram to the same altitude, they became part of our operational inventory. Cost was not considered. And with virtually all of the early work being performed by the military, safety was hardly a consideration. After all, fighting wars has always been dangerous. Those days are past now. With space flight, and the products of space flight, a regular part of our lives today, safety and cost are being reexamined. NASA's focus turns naturally to its Shuttle Space Transportation System. Designed, built, and flown for the first time in the 1970s, this system remains today America's workhorse for manned space flight. Without its tremendous lift capability and mission flexibility, the International Space Station would not exist. And the Hubble telescope would be a monument to shortsighted management, rather than the clear penetrating eye on the stars it is today. But the Shuttle system fully represents the design philosophy of its period: it is too costly to operate, and not safe enough for regular long term access to space. And one of the key reasons is the utilization of toxic propellants. This paper will present an overview of the utilization of toxic propellants on the current Shuttle system.

Hurlbert, Eric; McNeal, Curtis; Davis, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

143

Improving NASA's technology for space science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued advance of the nation's space program is directly dependent upon the development and use of new technology. Technology is the foundation for every aspect of space missions and ground operations. The improvements in technology that will enable future advances are not only in device and system performance, but also in permitting missions to be carried out more rapidly and at lower cost. Although more can be done with current technology, NASA's recent call for new and innovative approaches should not be answered by employing only today's technologies; new technologies with revolutionary potential should be sought. The study reported here was performed to identify means to enhance the development of technologies for the space sciences and applications.

1993-01-01

144

NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than sequentially, saving both time and money. These themes are accomplished under the context of a new cross-program integration model that emphasizes peer-to-peer accountability and collaboration towards a common, shared goal. Utilizing the lessons learned through 50 years of human space flight experience, SLS is assigning the right number of people from appropriate backgrounds, providing them the right tools, and exercising the right processes for the job. The result will be a powerful, versatile, and capable heavy-lift, human-rated asset for the future human and scientific exploration of space.

Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

2014-01-01

145

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

146

National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!  

E-print Network

1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics for Exploration Systems! NASA Headquarters! Presented to the NASA Advisory Councils Task Force on Planetary Program (xPRP) #12;Title_Design Editor! 3! ESMD: Blazing a Trail Into the Solar System! · NASA's human

Waliser, Duane E.

147

Lori Garver, NASA Deputy Administrator Maryland Space Business Roundtable Luncheon  

E-print Network

all be proud of the role that NASA is playing in this economic success story. NASA's invests more than. The President's proposed FY '13 budget of $17.7 billion for NASA includes funds to continue this investment1 Lori Garver, NASA Deputy Administrator Maryland Space Business Roundtable Luncheon Greenbelt

148

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 11 June 2008 GoddardViewNASA Composite Carrier for Hubble Servicing Mission Pg 4 NASA Technology Contributes to National Security Pg 6 One Million People Going to the Moon ­ 2 NASA Exhibit Pays Tribute to Fallen Heroes of Spaceflight

Christian, Eric

149

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Produced in 2011 by the NASA Astrobiology Program to commemorate 50 years of Exobiology and Astrobiology at NASA. #2 Issue #12;Astrobiology A History of Exobiology and Astrobiology at NASA This is the story of life in the Universe--or at least

Waliser, Duane E.

150

FY 2013 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)  

E-print Network

­ the first of the year ­ on a 247-163 vote. The bill, which covers funding for NSF, NASA, NOAA, NISTFY 2013 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) NASA FY 2013 Request (numbers are in millions) NASA FY 2012 Estimate FY 2013 Request % change House passed Senate Mark

151

Intentional Collaboration & Innovation Spaces at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collaboration and Innovation (C&I) are extremely popular terms in corporate jargon, and institutions with reputations for creativity often have clever and fun spaces set aside for hatching ideas and developing products or services. In and of themselves, a room full of "collaboration furniture" and electronics can't make C&I happen, any more than oil makes a gas or diesel engine run. As with the engine, though, quality lubrication is a huge factor in the smooth operation, power, and longevity of C&I activity. This paper describes spaces deliberately set up at numerous NASA field centers to support collaborative and creative thinking and processes. (Sometimes support is not so much a matter of doing things to spark discussion as it is removing constraints imposed by traditional settings and making information sharing as easy as possible.) Some spaces are rooms or suites dedicated to C&I, with significant electronic support and/or intentional lack thereof (to emphasize the human element). Others are small, comfortable "roosting places" that invite conversations of opportunity. Descriptions include the sponsoring organization, underlying goals and philosophies, lessons learned, and opportunities to excel. There is discussion about how such areas might interconnect within centers, across NASA, and with external entities using current technology and what tools and approaches may be in our future.

Scott, David W.

2014-01-01

152

Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

Eisenberg, Martin A.

1990-01-01

153

Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SL-3 flight on the Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

1980-01-01

154

NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

2004-01-01

155

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to deep space exploration, opening up vast opportunities for human missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This evolved capability will offer large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements.

Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

2014-01-01

156

NASA FactsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

NASA FactsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D.C. 20546 (202) 358-1600 FACT into the solar system. NASA is working to make this transition ­ from the Space Shuttle Program to the Constellation Program ­ seamless and safe. NASA has a vast array of unique and critical resources that have

157

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov A New Space Enterprise NASA Advisory Council Exploration Committee Mr. Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator NASA Exploration Systems Mission . ­ ESMD will continue funding of contracted tasks for existing contracts; · Study teams are in place

Waliser, Duane E.

158

NASA Space Plasma Physics Research and Analysis Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Research and Analysis (R&A) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Plasma Physics Branch of the Office of Space Science and Applications supports more than 150 grants and contracts for research. This research program is the primary means by which NASA maintains and advances the broad-based infrastructure for research in space plasma physics in a way

Timothy E. Eastman

1987-01-01

159

Space Internet architectures and technologies for NASA enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper

Kul Bhasin; Jeffrey L. Hayden

2001-01-01

160

Radiation risk and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

2003-01-01

161

Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive\\/behavioral changes during long-term space

Robert Hienz; Catherine Davis; Michael Weed; Peter Guida; Virginia Gooden; Joseph Brady; Peter Roma

2010-01-01

162

NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

Dumbacher, Dan

2003-01-01

163

Control of NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

VanZwieten, Tannen S.

2014-01-01

164

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

165

The administration of the NASA space tracking system and the NASA space tracking system in Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international activities of the NASA space program were studied with emphasis on the development and maintenance of tracking stations in Australia. The history and administration of the tracking organization and the manning policies for the stations are discussed, and factors affecting station operation are appraised. A field study of the Australian tracking network is included.

Hollander, N.

1973-01-01

166

NASA's Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS Program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

167

Propulsion Progress for NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaders from NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) will participate in a panel discussing the progress made on the program's propulsion systems. The SLS will be the nation's next human-rated heavy-lift vehicle for new missions beyond Earth's orbit. With a first launch slated for 2017, the SLS Program is turning plans into progress, with the initial rocket being built in the U.S.A. today, engaging the aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Starting with an overview of the SLS mission and programmatic status, the discussion will then delve into progress on each of the primary SLS propulsion elements, including the boosters, core stage engines, upper stage engines, and stage hardware. Included will be a discussion of the 5-segment solid rocket motors (ATK), which are derived from Space Shuttle and Ares developments, as well as the RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory and the J- 2X upper stage engine now in testing (Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne). The panel will respond to audience questions about this important national capability for human and scientific space exploration missions.

May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.; Lavoie, Anthony R.

2012-01-01

168

Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for L2, Lunar, Mars and Mars/Venus swing-by reference missions. For all these missions, material trades have been studied. And, as an example, a crew age trade for Mars/Venus swing-by mission has been done. The career blood forming organ (BFO) constraints are more stringent and play a critical role in the optimization procedure. The short missions to L2 and the Moon mainly need to deal with the possibility of solar particle events. It is found that improved shield materials will be required to enable a Mars mission in which middle-aged astronauts can participate. If the age of the astronauts are allowed to be 55 and older then more options are available. Revolutionary materials need to be developed to have younger crewmembers on board to Mars and other long duration missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

2002-03-01

169

The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding. PMID:21346276

Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

2011-03-21

170

NASA Turns To Universities For Research In Space-Age Materials SPACE FORUMS  

E-print Network

NASA Turns To Universities For Research In Space-Age Materials CHANNELS SPACE FORUMS SPACEDAILY TECH SPACE NASA Turns To Universities For Research In Space-Age Materials innovations as simple that can scale the canyons of Mars Chapel Hill - Sep 26, 2002 NASA has selected a consortium of research

Aksay, Ilhan A.

171

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

! Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Administrator Page 2 #12;NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Implementation PlanNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Implementation Plan FY 2012 ­ FY 2015 March 16, 2012 Enclosure #12;NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic

Waliser, Duane E.

172

Montana Space Grant Consortium Montana NASA EPSCoR  

E-print Network

Montana Space Grant Consortium and Montana NASA EPSCoR AMENDED (10/3/2013)* CALL FOR PROPOSALS http government shutdown and requirement for NASA letters of support. No other aspects of this call are modified. #12;2 Categories (1) MONTANA NASA EPSCoR RESEARCH INITIATION PROPOSALS: Proposals are welcome in all

Maxwell, Bruce D.

173

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 10 Issue 10 August 2014 #12;T he Small Business Administration gave NASA an "A" for awarding 22 percent of its federal contracts to small businesses in 2013--5 percent higher than targeted. On Aug. 1, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden joined Small

Christian, Eric

174

Oregon NASA Space Grant Consortium 92 Kerr Administration Building  

E-print Network

Oregon NASA Space Grant Consortium 92 Kerr Administration Building Corvallis, OR 97331-2103 Phone upon availability of NASA funding Updated September 16, 2011 LMP OSGC Scholarship Programs Guide Guide Page 3 of 11 *Contingent upon availability of NASA funding Updated September 16, 2011 LMP OSGC

Tullos, Desiree

175

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Ames Arc Jet Complex  

E-print Network

, pressure sensors, or LIF investigation of the gas state before or after the shock front, the arc jetsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Ames Arc Jet Complex www.nasa.gov Thermal Protection test in NASA Ames Arc Jet complex Providing ground-based hyperthermal environments in support

176

Montana Space Grant Consortium Space Grant and NASA EPSCoR  

E-print Network

Montana Space Grant Consortium Space Grant and NASA EPSCoR CALL FOR PROPOSALS http to announce a call for two categories of proposals: (1) MONTANA NASA EPSCoR RESEARCH INITIATION PROPOSALS: Proposals are welcome in all fields of science and engineering normally funded by NASA (refer to http://spacegrant.montana.edu/documents/NASA

Maxwell, Bruce D.

177

NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL SPACE OPERATIONS COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

Ann Morgan Mr. Bob Sieck Guests Steve Beam / Public Brian Cleaver / Intern-interest Lynn Cline / NASA WilliamAlister / NASA Frank Morris Dalal Najib / Nat'l Academy of Sciences Richard Rogers / Stellar Solutions Peter

Waliser, Duane E.

178

Space radiation dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Dosimetry is the measurement of the energy deposited in matter by various forms of radiation. In space the radiation is primarily energetic electrons, protons and heavier ions from planetary radiation belts, solar flares, and interstellar cosmic rays. Experimentally, dose is frequently obtained by summing the individual energy deposits in a solid state detector. If the detector is calibrated and the sensitive mass is known, the energy sum can be converted directly to accumulated radiation dose in Gy (J/kg). Such detectors can also be used to provide an approximate separation of dose into the components due to electrons, protons, and heavier ions, which is useful if it is desired to convert the measured dose into a biological effective dose (Sv) for manned spaceflight purposes. The output can also be used to provide an essentially instantaneous dose rate for use as warning devices. This is the primary type of space radiation dosimeter to be discussed here. The MOS-type dosimeter is another solid state sensor which can be of small size and low power. These devices integrate the total dose once through, can not separate particle types, and are not suitable for instantaneous dose rate measurement at low levels. There are several additional methods of measuring space radiation dose using scintillators, etc., but are not discussed in detail. In this paper emphasis is given to descriptions of active solid state detector instruments which have successfully worked in space. Some results of in-orbit dose measurements are presented.

Hanser, F.A.; Dichter, B.K. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); [DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

179

Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Jones, J.; Iszard, G.; Murrey, J.; Djojonegro, B.; Wear, M.

2001-01-01

180

NASA Now: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing  

NASA Video Gallery

The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electron...

181

NASA Shows Progress of President's Space Exploration Vision  

NASA Video Gallery

On the third anniversary of President Obama's visit to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where he set his space exploration vision for the future, news media representatives were given an opp...

182

NASA Space Day in Mississippi - House of Representatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Michael Foale (center) and Stennis Space Center officials met with Mississippi House of Representatives Gulf Coast delegation, including Speaker William 'Billy' McCoy (far right), during NASA Space Day in Mississippi on January 30.

2008-01-01

183

Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

184

Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as monolithic telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

Creech, S. D.

185

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council  

E-print Network

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council NASA Headquarters April 28, 2010 #12;Commercial Committee Members Report of the NAC Commercial Space Committee (April 28, 2010) Bretton Alexander, Chair President of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation Lon Levin, Vice Chair Co-founder of XM

Waliser, Duane E.

186

The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes and provides an update on the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The partnership with NASA works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy.

Gibbs, M. G.; Walters, A.; Dolan, K.

2011-09-01

187

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Technology Transfer Program  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Technology Transfer Program Bringing NASA that the technologies it creates for aeronautics and space missions--including software--are turned into new products, aeronautics, structural analysis, and robotic and autonomous systems. A long line of such successful

Waliser, Duane E.

188

NASA OAST and its role in space technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several new programs, efforts in space research and technology, are introduced that the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology has begun to support. The four key issues that currently are consuming NASA's energies and should be of great concern are listed. NASA is placing its emphasis in space on: (1) reconstituting the Shuttle capability; (2) maintaining the space station momentum; (3) resolving the current science mission backlog; and (4) rebuilding the technology base. Ways of implementing and funding these issues are discussed.

Romero, J.

1986-01-01

189

Space Science Research and Technology at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will summarize the various projects and programs managed in the Space Science Programs and Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Projects in the portfolio include NASA's Chandra X-Ray telescope, Hinode solar physics satellite, various advanced space propulsion technologies, including solar sails and tethers, as well as NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs.

Johnson, Charles L.

2007-01-01

190

76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-074)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION:...

2011-08-19

191

Enabling Radiation Tolerant Systems for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hazard to all spacecraft orbiting the Earth is the existence of a harsh environment with its subsequent effects. The effects can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft and its instruments. One of the most recognized and serious of the different space environments is ionizing radiation and its effects on spacecraft and spacecraft systems. This is increasingly becoming more of an issue for all missions due to the use of lighter composite materials, smaller satellites, and smaller electronics. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program was established to develop new plateaus of technical capability to reduce the cost of NASA's missions and provide leading-edge exploratory and focused technology to promote continued U.S. preeminence in space. The SEE Program has an "Implementation Plan" to develop roadmaps and fund technical tasks to enable radiation systems for space.

Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna

1999-01-01

192

NASA Hits: Rewards from Space -- How NASA improves our quality of life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document highlights many of practical benefits society gains from NASA's work in space flight, space science, earth science, and aeronautics research and technology development. Users can learn how space-based beacon locators are used to provide global rescue systems. The website discusses NASA's work on ways to grow plants using hydroponics as well as how the Hubble Space Telescope Program has helped to create a breast cancer biopsy that is performed with a needle instead of a scalpel. Everyone curious about how NASA's work affects their lives should visit website.

193

Managing Space Technology Development at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA uses a structured process for managing projects that develop advanced space technologies and transition them into the designs of flight systems. The four-part process consists of formulation, approval, implementation, and transition. In the formulation phase, technology needs are derived from mission concept studies, various technical approaches for meeting the technology needs are identified, technical performance goals called Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) are established, and a project plan is developed. Prior to project approval, an Independent Formulation Review is conducted to ensure that the project objectives are aligned with the mission needs, and that the project is well planned to meet the objectives. In the implementation phase, the technology development project matures the technology, and progress towards the KPPs is evaluated in periodic status reviews. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are used throughout the project lifecycle to assess the progress of technology maturation. In the transition phase, technologies that are successful in achieving the required level of maturity are transitioned to a customer for further development, are used in system designs, or are thoroughly documented for resumption of development at a later date. The customer or end-user of the technology is involved in all phases of the technology development process.

Moore, Christopher L.

2007-01-01

194

The NASA-Sponsored Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA). Relationship of Exposure to Radiation in Space and the Risk of Cataract Incidence and Progression. Report 1: Recruitment and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a five-year, multi-centered, investigation of lens opacification in populations of U.S. astronauts, military pilots, and ground-based (nonaviator) comparison participants. For astronauts, the explanatory variable of most interest is radiation exposure during space flight, however to properly evaluate its effect, the secondary effects of age, nutrition, general health, solar ocular exposure, and other confounding variables encountered in non-space flight must also be considered. NASCA contains an initial baseline, cross-sectional objective assessment of the severity of cortical (C), nuclear (N), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacification, and annual follow-on assessments of severity and progression of these opacities in the population of astronauts and in participants sampled from populations of military pilots and ground-based exposure controls. From these data, NASCA will estimate the degree to which space radiation affects lens opacification for astronauts and how the overall risks of each cataract type for astronauts compared with those of the other exposure control groups after adjusting for differences in age and other explanatory variables.

Chylack, Leo T.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wear, Mary; Manuel, F. Keith

2007-01-01

195

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Capability Driven Roadmap  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. · Advance aeronautics's aeronautics and space activitie

Waliser, Duane E.

196

Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nanotube activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization as well as applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A parametric study of the pulsed laser ablation process is recently completed to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Enhancement of production is achieved by rastering the graphite target and by increasing the target surface temperature with a cw laser. In-situ diagnostics during production included time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from the plume. The improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymer/nanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large Surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs. Comparison with existing technologies and possible future improvements in the SWCNT materials sill be presented.

Arepalli, Sivaram

2004-01-01

197

Nanomaterials Work at NASA-Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nanomaterials activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center focus on single wall carbon nanotube production, characterization and their applications for aerospace. Nanotubes are produced by arc and laser methods and the growth process is monitored by in-situ diagnostics using time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence of the active species. Parametric study of both these processes are conducted to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, laser fluence and arc current. Characterization of the nanotube material is performed using the NASA-JSC protocol developed by combining analytical techniques of SEM, TEM, UV-VIS-NIR absorption, Raman, and TGA. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymernanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

Arepalli, Sivaram

2005-01-01

198

From NASA to a National Space Exploration Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created by federal legislation known as the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. As NASA turns fifty and begins to carry out nascent national plans for the long-term human exploration of the Moon, many within and outside the space exploration community question the rationale for the back-to-the-Moon effort and the

Arthur M. Hingerty

199

Space Radiation Effects on Electronics: Simple Concepts and New Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics: 1) The Space Radiation Environment; 2) The Effects on Electronics; 3) The Environment in Action; 4) NASA Approaches to Commercial Electronics; 5) Final Thoughts.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

200

NASA-universities relationships in aero/space engineering: A review of NASA's program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is concerned about the health of aerospace engineering departments at U.S. universities. The number of advanced degrees in aerospace engineering has declined. There is concern that universities' facilities, research equipment, and instrumentation may be aging or outmoded and therefore affect the quality of research and education. NASA requested that the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) review NASA's support of universities and make recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.

1985-01-01

201

NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 1995-1999 Self Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium receives funds from NASA to allow Nebraska colleges and universities to implement balanced programs of research, education and public service related to aeronautics, space science and technology. Nebraska is a capability enhancement state which directs efforts and resources toward developing research infrastructure and enhancing the quality of aerospace research and education for all Nebraskans. Furthermore, the Nebraska Space Grant strives to provide national leadership in applied aspects of aeronautics. Nebraska has met, meets and will continue to meet all requirements set forth by NASA. Nebraska is a top-tier consortium and will continue to be a model program.

Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Schaffart, Mary M.

1999-01-01

202

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov NASA STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (NASTRAN) H v D E C A D E S O F C O N T R I B U T I O N S T O G E N E R A L A V I A T I O N COMPOSITE STRUCTURES H required for designing and test- ing nearly any type of aircraft. 2. Composite Structures NASA first

203

Montana Space Grant Consortium Montana NASA EPSCoR  

E-print Network

MSU must still include at least 1:1 non-federal cost share for requested NASA/MSGC funds. If you have://spacegrant.montana.edu/Text/budget.xls Requests for less than $50,000 total, including appropriate F&A or indirect costs, of NASA/MSGC funding perMontana Space Grant Consortium and Montana NASA EPSCoR CALL FOR PROPOSALS 3 OPPORTUNITIES http

Maxwell, Bruce D.

204

Montana Space Grant Consortium Space Grant and NASA EPSCoR  

E-print Network

Montana Space Grant Consortium Space Grant and NASA EPSCoR CALL FOR PROPOSALS http) is pleased to announce a call for two categories of proposals: (1) Montana NASA EPSCoR RESEARCH INITIATION PROPOSALS: Proposals are welcome in all fields of science and engineering normally funded by NASA (refer

Lawrence, Rick L.

205

Montana Space Grant Consortium Space Grant and NASA EPSCoR  

E-print Network

Montana Space Grant Consortium Space Grant and NASA EPSCoR CALL FOR PROPOSALS http submission deadline: 5:00 p.m., Monday, October 15th, 2012 #12;2 Categories (1) MONTANA NASA EPSCoR RESEARCH INITIATION PROPOSALS: Proposals are welcome in all fields of science and engineering normally funded by NASA

Lawrence, Rick L.

206

Overview of Space Science and Information Research Opportunities at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is not possible to review all the opportunities that NASA provides to support the Space Science Enterprise, in the short amount of time allotted for this presentation. Therefore, only a few key programs will be discussed. The programs that I will discuss will concentrate on research opportunities for faculty, graduate and postdoctoral candidates in Space Science research and information technologies at NASA. One of the most important programs for research opportunities is the NASA Research Announcement or NRA. NASA Headquarters issues NRA's on a regular basis and these cover space science and computer science activities relating to NASA missions and programs. In the Space Sciences, the most important NRA is called the "Research Opportunities in Space Science or the ROSS NRA. The ROSS NRA is composed of multiple announcements in the areas of structure and evolution of the Universe, Solar System exploration, Sun-Earth connections, and applied information systems. Another important opportunity is the Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP). The GSRP is designed to cultivate research ties between a NASA Center and the academic community through the award of fellowships to promising students in science and engineering. This program is unique since it matches the student's area of research interest with existing work being carried out at NASA. This program is for U.S. citizens who are full-time graduate students. Students who are successful have made the match between their research and the NASA employee who will act as their NASA Advisor/ Mentor. In this program, the student's research is primarily accomplished under the supervision of his faculty advisor with periodic or frequent interactions with the NASA Mentor. These interactions typically involve travel to the sponsoring NASA Center on a regular basis. The one-year fellowships are renewable for up to three years and over $20,000 per year. These and other important opportunities will be discussed.

Green, James L.

2000-01-01

207

Advances in Space Traveling-Wave Tubes for NASA Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in the performance and reliability of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) utilized in amplifying space communication signals for NASA missions have been achieved over the last three decades through collaborative efforts between NASA and primarily L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. (L-3 ETI). This paper summarizes some of the key milestones during this period and includes development of TWTs for the

Jeffrey D. Wilson; Edwin G. Wintucky; Karl R. Vaden; Dale A. Force; Isay L. Krainsky; Rainee N. Simons; Neal R. Robbins; William L. Menninger; Daniel R. Dibb; David E. Lewis

2007-01-01

208

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center cut the ribbon Aug.  

E-print Network

, highlighting the need for a more protective environment. The records retention facility now serves as a centralNASA's John C. Stennis Space Center cut the ribbon Aug. 24 on a new, storm-resistant Records. With completion of the new building in May, Stennis be- came the first NASA center to open a NARA

209

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov.  

E-print Network

of the mismatch of goals and funds. "Either additional funds need to be made available, or a far more mod- est, the committee report estimates NASA needs an extra $3 billion a year, beginning in 2014, if humans are to travelNASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov. 6 as the first site to earn certification

210

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Sounding Rockets  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Sounding Rockets 2010 Annual Report #12;2 The Chief Fiscal year 2010 was another exciting year for the NASA Sounding Rockets Program. As is typical during the flight, and new vehicle stacks based on newly available surplus rocket motor assets result

Christian, Eric

211

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA FY 12-13  

E-print Network

. 18,921 PART C 1. Head of Agency 1. Charles F. Bolden, Jr., Administrator Official Title AgencyNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA FY 12-13 MODEL EEO AGENCY PLAN UPDATE AND FY 11 ANNUAL EEO PROGRAM STATUS REPORT (EEOC MD-715) #12;2 NASA FY 12-13 Model EEO Agency Plan Update and FY 11

212

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov STEREO SCIENCE WRITER®S GUIDE A guide for reporters to understand the mission and purpose of NASA®s STEREO observatories #12;NASASCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE HOW NASA IS STRUCTURED TO SEEK SOLAR ANSWERS Q&A ON THE STEREO MISSION

Christian, Eric

213

9Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Centered  

E-print Network

9Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center-based Reasoning Related WorkRelated Work #12;10Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Autonomous Control SystemsAutonomous Control Systems l Brings to table

Kortenkamp, David

214

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council  

E-print Network

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) August 5, 2010 #12;Commercial Committee Members Bretton Alexander, Chair President of the Commercial Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation and consultant/advisor to space and aerospace companies

Waliser, Duane E.

215

NASA's Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes have teamed up  

E-print Network

NASA's Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes have teamed up to expose the chaos that baby stars image from the Hubble Space Telescope with an infrared image from the Spitzer Space Telescope. National be identified as the yellow smudge near the center of the image. Swirls of green in Hubble's ultraviolet

216

Virtual Environments in Training: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual environment (VE) technology was used to construct a model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and those elements that were replaced or serviced during the December, 1993 repair and maintenance mission conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The VE also included the payload bay of the Space Shuttle and the fixtures used for transporting replacement systems

R. Bowen Loftin; Patrick J. Kenney; Robin Benedetti; Chris Culbert; Mark Engelberg; Robert Jones; Paige Lucas; Mason Menninger; John Muratore; Lac Nguyen; Tim Saito; Robert T. Savely; Mark Voss

217

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 San Francisco, CA #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Background: ORNL DAAC · Oak Ridge National in environmental research. http://daac.ornl.gov/ Ranjeet Devarakonda 2 #12;National Aeronautics and Space

218

NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space Committee May 1, 2012  

E-print Network

NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space Committee May 1, 2012 L A N G L E Y R E S E A R C H C E N to the Nation. · We are Leaders in systems innovation for expanding air mobility, exploring space 28% Space Tech 15% Human Exploration 12% Education 1% Cross-Agency Support Program & Construction

Waliser, Duane E.

219

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

Launching the future of science and exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space Committee Gene that includes commercial space, and how are those plans progressing? · How is the Center addressing excess capacity issues? · Do you have any concerns or issues with transitioning to the Agency's commercial space

Waliser, Duane E.

220

Page 1 11/4/2010 The NASA Fundamental Space  

E-print Network

Page 1 11/4/2010 The NASA Fundamental Space Biology Science Plan 2010-2020 GOALS · Sponsor competitively solicited FSB research to create new knowledge of how biological systems adapt to space community · Develop cutting edge technologies to facilitate conduct of biological research in space flight

Waliser, Duane E.

221

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Centennial Challenges were initiated in  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts NASA Centennial Challenges were initiated. Sample Return Robot Challenge National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts NASA Centennial

Waliser, Duane E.

222

NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with exploring flight both within and outside the atmosphere. By the 1980s, NASA had established itself as an agency with considerable achievements on record. The decade was marked by the inauguration of the Space Shuttle flights and haunted by the 1986 Challenger accident that temporarily halted the program. The agency also enjoyed the strong support of President Ronald Reagan, who enthusiastically announced the start of both the Space Station program and the National Aerospace Plane program.

Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

223

NASA Space Research: Membranes on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, produced by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research, discusses the research initiative to develop membranes that could solve some of the problems associated with traveling to and from Mars. With the help of a comprehensible explanation and a diagram, visitors can learn how NASA is planning to extract CO2 from the Martian atmosphere to propel rockets and rovers. The website discusses the scientists' hopes that the technology "may leverage us to actually go to Mars and live and work there someday." The article also addresses the potential use of the system as a way to decrease CO2 emissions on Earth.

224

Space radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

1989-01-01

225

Reducing the complexity of NASA's space communications infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the range of activities performed during the annual reporting period in support of the NASA Code O Success Team - Lifecycle Effectiveness for Strategic Success (COST LESS) team. The overall goal of the COST LESS team is to redefine success in a constrained fiscal environment and reduce the cost of success for end-to-end mission operations. This goal is more encompassing than the original proposal made to NASA for reducing complexity of NASA's Space Communications Infrastructure. The COST LESS team approach for reengineering the space operations infrastructure has a focus on reversing the trend of engineering special solutions to similar problems.

Miller, Raymond E.; Liu, Hong; Song, Junehwa

1995-01-01

226

Planetary Protection Status of NASA Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA monitors its spacecraft from a planetary protection (PP) perspective, to ensure it continues in compliance with COSPAR planetary protection requirements. This report to COSPAR on previous, ongoing and future missions will describe the PP compliance status of each, with changes noted as appropriate from the previous report in 2006. Missions to be covered include (but are not limited to):

A. Spry; Ying Lin; Yuki Salinas; Laura Newlin

2008-01-01

227

The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

1988-01-01

228

Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

Smith, Dan

2011-01-01

229

NASA support for commerce in space - Broadening opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the NASA Office of Commercial Program's initiatives to implement the 1988 commercial space policy and expand industrial interest in the commercial development of space in the post-Challenger era is presented. Specific objectives have been developed to capture the drive and creativity of the private sector, for increasing NASA's effectiveness in conducting business with industrial firms, and impacting the commercial space market. An aggressive, comprehensive, and forward-looking program has been defined which provides the type of infrastructure and organization required to bring industry into the mainstream of space activities.

Stone, Barbara A.; Livingston, Candace D.

1989-01-01

230

Operational Aspects of Space Radiation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minimizing astronaut's short and long-term medical risks arising from exposure to ionizing radiation during space missions is a major concern for NASA's manned spaceflight program, particularly exploration missions. For ethical and legal reasons, NASA follows the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principal in managing astronaut's radiation exposures. One implementation of ALARA is the response to space weather events. Of particular concern are energetic solar particle events, and in low Earth orbit (LEO), electron belt enhancements. To properly respond to these events, NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), in partnership with the NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC), provides continuous flight support during U.S. manned missions. In this partnership, SEC compiles space weather data from numerous ground and space based assets and makes it available in near real-time to SRAG (along with alerts and forecasts), who in turn uses these data as input to models to calculate estimates of the resulting exposure to astronauts. These calculations and vehicle instrument data form the basis for real-time recommendations to flight management. It is also important to implement ALARA during the design phase. In order to appropriately weigh the risks associated with various shielding and vehicle configuration concepts, the expected environment must be adequately characterized for nominal and worst case scenarios for that portion of the solar cycle and point in space. Even with the best shielding concepts and materials in place (unlikely), there will be numerous occasions where the crew is at greater risk due to being in a lower shielded environment (short term transit or lower shielded vehicles, EVAs), so that accurate space weather forecasts and nowcasts, of particles at the relevant energies, will be crucial to protecting crew health and safety.

Weyland, M. D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E. J.; Shelfer, T.; Dardano, C.; Lin, T.; Zapp, N. E.; Rutledge, R.; George, T.

2005-01-01

231

Space radiation health research, 1991-1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided. A collection of abstracts spanning the period 1986-1990 was previously issued as NASA Technical Memorandum 4270.

Jablin, M. H. (compiler); Brooks, C. (compiler); Ferraro, G. (compiler); Dickson, K. J. (compiler); Powers, J. V. (compiler); Wallace-Robinson, J. (compiler); Zafren, B. (compiler)

1993-01-01

232

NASA Exploration Design Challenge  

NASA Video Gallery

From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

233

NASA Creates Space Technology Mission Directorate  

E-print Network

drew media attention and articles on 3D printing, including coverage by Popular Mechanics and website on 3D printing and prototyping technology to create parts for the Space Launch System at Marshall Space

234

NASA Johnson Space Center Biomedical Research Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center (JSC) medical sciences laboratories constitute a national resource for support of medical operations and life sciences research enabling a human presence in space. They play a critical role in evaluating, defining, and mitigation the untoward effect of human adaption to space flight. Over the years they have developed the unique facilities and expertise required to perform: biomedical sample analysis and physiological performance tests supporting medical evaluations of space flight crew members and scientific investigations of the operationally relevant medical, physiological, cellular, and biochemical issues associated with human space flight. A general overview of these laboratories is presented in viewgraph form.

Paloski, W. H.

1999-01-01

235

Radiation energy conversion in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

Billman, K. W.

1979-01-01

236

NASA space life sciences research and education support program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

Jones, Terri K.

1995-01-01

237

The NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT): NASA's Next Step for U.S. Deep Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to enhance the performance and lower the costs of future NASA space science missions. This is being accomplished by producing Engineering Model (EM) and Prototype Model (PM) components, validating these via qualification-level and integrated system testing, and preparing the transition of NEXT technologies to flight system development. The project is currently completing one of the final milestones of the effort, that is operation of an integrated NEXT Ion Propulsion System (IPS) in a simulated space environment. This test will advance the NEXT system to a NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 (i.e., operation of a prototypical system in a representative environment), and will confirm its readiness for flight. Besides its promise for upcoming NASA science missions, NEXT may have excellent potential for future commercial and international spacecraft applications.

Schmidt, George R.; Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

2008-01-01

238

OMB Approval Number 2700-0087 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA)  

E-print Network

i OMB Approval Number 2700-0087 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) HEADQUARTERS AND EARTH SCIENCES ­ 2013 (ROSES-2013) NASA RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENT (NRA) SOLICITING BASIC AND APPLIED Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcement (NRA), entitled Research Opportunities

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

239

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics are compiled. The theme of the conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for the application of telerobotic technology to the space systems planned for the 1990's and beyond. Volume 4 contains papers related to the following subject areas: manipulator control; telemanipulation; flight experiments (systems and simulators); sensor-based planning; robot kinematics, dynamics, and control; robot task planning and assembly; and research activities at the NASA Langley Research Center.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

240

NASA RESEARCH FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACHES TO CLOSELY SPACED PARALLEL RUNWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

Dawn M. Elliott; R. Brad Perry

2000-01-01

241

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee July 28, 2010  

E-print Network

. Observations and Recommendations From the April 27 meeting, 2 recommendations were accepted and 2 need more and bacterial research being done, so we need more focus on public outreach--e.g., microbial maps, calciumNASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee July 28, 2010 Kennedy Space Center Doubletree

Waliser, Duane E.

242

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 5 March 2008 Goddard will study the mystery of powerful explosions known as gamma-ray bursts. Keep your eyes on this space with the performance of sensitive electronics and cause noise in devices such as cell phones. Engineers want to make

Christian, Eric

243

The Space Economy NASA 50th Anniversary Lecture Series  

E-print Network

The Space Economy NASA 50th Anniversary Lecture Series Michael D. Griffin Administrator National growth that didn't previously exist. This is the emerging Space Economy, an economy that is transforming our lives here on Earth in ways that are not yet fully understood or appreciated. It is not an economy

244

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual System Design Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE) is one of a number of initiatives under development through NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Advanced Engineering Services and Environments (AESE) Office. The AESE Science Team, a broad cross section of Earth and space scientists, identified needs and challenges they face in their daily work and collaboration with GSFC engineers. Prominent amid these

J. Mapar; K. Brown; J. Medina; K. Laskey; C. Conaty

2001-01-01

245

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

246

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 21 December 2008 Goddard and the Virginia Department of Aviation. Established in 1945 by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics contributed to both aeronautical and space flight research. The unveiling ceremony included comments by local

Christian, Eric

247

Architectural Implementation of NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System Specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software demonstrates a working implementation of the NASA STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) architecture specification. This is a developing specification of software architecture and required interfaces to provide commonality among future NASA and commercial software-defined radios for space, and allow for easier mixing of software and hardware from different vendors. It provides required functions, and supports interaction with STRS-compliant simple test plug-ins ("waveforms"). All of it is programmed in "plain C," except where necessary to interact with C++ plug-ins. It offers a small footprint, suitable for use in JPL radio hardware. Future NASA work is expected to develop into fully capable software-defined radios for use on the space station, other space vehicles, and interplanetary probes.

Peters, Kenneth J.; Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Duncan, Courtney B.

2012-01-01

248

A systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to but separate from the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper, without compromising safety. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo. The Blue Team process and results are summarized. The Associate Administrator for Space Communications subsequently convened a special management session to discuss the significance and implications of the Blue Team's report and to lay the groundwork and teamwork for the next steps, including the transition from engineering systems to systems engineering. The methodology and progress toward realizing the Code O Family vision and accomplishing the systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications are presented.

Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

1993-01-01

249

First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of the First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications held at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH, July 23-24, 1991. The workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters Code QE Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division and hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Power Technology Division, Electrical Components and Systems Branch. The workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications. Speakers from government, industry and academia presented and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, wiring applications and requirements, and new candidate insulation materials and constructions. Presentation materials provided by the various speakers are included in this document.

Hammond, Ahmad (compiler); Stavnes, Mark W. (compiler)

1994-01-01

250

21Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Design of AA systemsDesign of AA systems  

E-print Network

21Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center in autonomy #12;22Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Generic control system

Kortenkamp, David

251

Waste management in space: a NASA symposium. Special issue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special issue contains papers from the NASA Symposium on Waste Processing for Advanced Life Support, which was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 11-13, 1990. Specialists in waste management from academia, government, and industry convened to exchange ideas and advise NASA in developing effective methods for waste management in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Innovative and well-established methods were presented to assist in developing and managing wastes in closed systems for future long-duration space missions, especially missions to Mars.

Wydeven, T. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

252

Facilitating Student Involvement in NASA Research: The NASA Space Grant Aeronautics Example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many consider NASA programs to be exclusively space-oriented. However, NASA's roots originated in the aeronautical sciences. Recent developments within NASA elevated the declining role of aeronautics back to a position of priority. On a parallel pattern, aeronautics was a priority in the legislation which authorized the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. This paper outlines the development of the aeronautics aspect of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, and the resulting student opportunities in research. Results from two aeronautics surveys provide a baseline and direction for further development. A key result of this work is the increase in student research opportunities which now exist in more states and at the national level.

Bowen, Brent D.

1998-01-01

253

NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Radiation Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

2008-01-01

254

Prototype space erectable radiator system ground test article development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype heat rejecting system is being developed by NASA-JSC for possible space station applications. This modular system, the Space-Erectable Radiator System Ground Test Article (SERS-GTA) with high-capacity radiator panels, can be installed and replaced on-orbit. The design, fabrication and testing of a representative ground test article are discussed. Acceptance test data for the heat pipe radiator panel and the whiffletree clamping mechanism have been presented.

Alario, Joseph P.

1988-01-01

255

Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

256

NASA's Approach to Critical Risks for Extended Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration Humans are exposed to a great variety of hazards in the space environment. These include the effects of weightlessness, radiation, isolation and confinement, altered day-night cycles, and others. These inherent hazards have both physiological and behavioral consequences. The adaptive capabilities of humans in these situations is remarkable, and often exceed our expectations. However, the demanding environment and challenging operational pace can push some of these adaptive processes to their limits. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with mitigating the most serious of these effects on human health, safety, and performance, in long-duration space flight. This can involve the development and deployment of physiological countermeasures, better understanding of the physiological alterations and avoidance of exacerbating situations, inputs to the design of future spacecraft to minimize risks, and in some cases the awareness that some level of risk might have to be accepted based on the resulting consequences and their likelihood. HRP has identified a few areas that are of special concern due to their severity, lack of understanding of underlying causes, or potential for negative impact on health or performance. Some of these areas are visual impairment possibly due to increased intracranial pressure, behavioral and performance problems due to sleep deficits and isolation, and acute and chronic effects of radiation. These problems can, if not addressed, be expected to increase on longer and more distant missions. The evidence from spaceflight, laboratory, and analog studies that supports the selection of the most critical risks will be discussed. Current and planned research programs that address these risks, and their anticipated outcomes, will also be described.

Shelhamer, Mark

2014-01-01

257

NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond June 3, 2005  

E-print Network

#12;#12;NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond June 3, 2005 NASA plan is available at www.nasa.gov #12;#12;NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond June 3, 2005 Tenth Edition Summary June 3, 2005 This edition of NASA's Implementation Plan

258

The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

259

The radiation hazard during space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galactic cosmic radiation is described. Distinctive features of radiation effects in space flights are discussed and space radiation hazards are estimated. Measures to provide radiation safety during space flights are given. The need for safety standards is emphasized.

Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kolomenskiy, A. V.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Petrov, V. M.

1973-01-01

260

Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

1990-01-01

261

NASA Shuttle Web: John Glenn Returns to Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Glenn, the first American in space, became the world's oldest astronaut when he returned to the stars yesterday, 36 years after his first flight on the nation's 123rd manned mission. At the NASA Shuttle Website for the mission, users can read about the crew, payloads, mission objectives, some of the experiments on aging and space involving Senator Glenn, and updates on the mission's current status. Realtime data offered at the site include telemetry, tracking displays, sightings, and orbital elements. The site also hosts several multimedia offerings such as preflight and launch videos (MPEG), animations (MPEG), Net Show broadcasts of NASA TV, photos, and RealPlayer audio broadcasts.

262

Projected NASA power requirements for space science and exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has recently completed its long-range strategic plan which describes a number of exciting space science missions into the early 21st century. In parallel, NASA's new Office of Exploration has begun defining in more detail the architectures of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) for returning to the Moon and going to Mars. Both the space science missions and the SEI missions are dependent upon power sources and energy storage with strong requirements for reliability, long life, ease of assembly, autonomy, and light weight. This paper reviews the currently planned space science and SEI missions and focuses upon the power requirements with a view toward guiding technology developers and power designers.

Bennett, Gary L.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Smith, William L.

1992-01-01

263

Space Internet Architectures and Technologies for NASA Enterprises  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper describes a communications infrastructure for the Space Internet, the architectures within the infrastructure, and the elements that make up the architectures. The architectures meet the requirements of the enterprises beyond 2010 with Internet 'compatible technologies and functionality. The elements of an architecture include the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft and proximity communication parts. From the architectures, technologies have been identified which have the most impact and are critical for the implementation of the architectures.

Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

2001-01-01

264

Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

1994-01-01

265

Special issue: space radiation biology.  

PubMed

This special issue about the biological effects of space radiation on human health is concerned with cell death, mutations, chromosomal aberrations, developmental abnormalities, carcinogenesis, and senescence. Articles examine the effects of space radiation consisting of heavy charged particles with a low dose and low dose-rate and their possible dependence on microbeams, clustered DNA damage, bystander effects, and radioadaptive responses, which are important factors in radiation sensitivity. Topics also include the effects of microgravity on the relative biological effectiveness of space radiation and the effects of solar ultraviolet particles. PMID:15887353

2004-12-01

266

History of space medicine: the formative years at NASA.  

PubMed

Almost nothing was known about the effects of spaceflight on human physiology when, in May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade. There were more questions than answers regarding the effects of acceleration, vibration, cabin pressure, CO2 concentration, and microgravity. There were known external threats to life, such as solar and ultraviolet radiation, meteorites, and extreme temperatures as well as issues for which the physicians and scientists could not even formulate the questions. And there was no time for controlled experiments with the required numbers of animal or human subjects. Of necessity, risks were evaluated and mitigated or accepted based on minimal data. This article summarizes presentations originally given as a panel at the 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association in Boston in 2008. In it, five pioneers in space medicine at NASA looked back on the development of their field. The authors related personal anecdotes, discussed the roles of various people and presented examples of contributions to emerging U.S. initiatives for human spaceflight. Topics included the development of quarantine facilities for returning Apollo astronauts, the struggles between operational medicine and research personnel, and observations from the first U.S. medical officer to experience weightlessness on orbit. Brief biographies of the authors are appended to document their participation in these historic events. PMID:19378903

Berry, Charles A; Hoffler, G Wyckliffe; Jernigan, Clarence A; Kerwin, Joseph P; Mohler, Stanley R

2009-04-01

267

Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.  

PubMed

For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts. PMID:11604058

Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

2001-11-01

268

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

269

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

1991-01-01

270

NASA Space Science Mathematics: Weekly Math Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features weekly mathematics problem sets that are designed to teach intermediate and upper-level students about space weather. The downloadable problem sets include one or more math problems to be solved using the information provided, a teachers' guide or answer key, and an inquiry question about the results. The web page features the current week's problem set, sets from previous weeks, and an archive of problem sets from past years. There are also downloadable books of the 20 most interesting problems published each year.

271

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www and scientists. #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Our Solar System National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune #12;LG-2013

Waliser, Duane E.

272

Planning and Processing Space Science Observations Using NASA's SPICE System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) team, acting under the directions of NASA's Office of Space Science, has built a data system-named SPICE, to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations from space-borne instruments. The principal objective of this data system is that it will provide geometric and other ancillary data used to plan space science missions and subsequently recover the full value of science instrument data returned from these missions, including correlation of individual instrument data sets with data from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft. SPICE is also used to support a host of mission engineering functions, such as telecommunications system analysis and operation of NASA's Deep Space Network antennas. This paper describes the SPICE system, including where and how it is used. It also touches on possibilities for further development and invites participation it this endeavor.

Acton, Charles H.

2000-01-01

273

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an overview presentation of In Space Propulsion Technology products that have been developed under the sponsorship of the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The materials have been prepared for Outer Planetary Assessment Group Meeting in Atlanta, GA in January 2013.

Pencil, Eric J.; Anderson, David

2013-01-01

274

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

and Universities Join to Fight Diabetes - 8 2006 NASA Records Management Conference - 8 Proposal Opportunities - 8 publication of the Goddard Space Flight Center. It is published bi-weekly by the Office of Public Affairs marked the fifth overall flight of a Boeing Delta IV rocket that carried the Boeing-built spacecraft

Christian, Eric

275

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Sounding Rockets  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Sounding Rockets 2011 Annual Report #12;2 Fiscal-purposed surplus rocket motor assets result in lower cost launch vehicles. The program continued to fulfill its schools. The NSROC contractor and the Sounding Rocket Program Office also hosted numerous interns and Co

Christian, Eric

276

NASA's First New Millenium Deep-Space Technology Validation Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planned for launch in 1998, the first flight of NASA's New Millenium Program will validate selected breakthrough technologies required for future low-cost, low-mass, space science missions. The principal objective is to validate these advanced technologies thoroughly enough that subsequent users may be confident of their performance, thus reducing the cost and risk of science missions in the 21st century.

Lehman, David H.; Rayman, Marc D.

1996-01-01

277

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

as Art represents actual images of Mars taken from orbit and from the planetary surface by visitingMARS Artas National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov #12;Welcome to Mars as Art Spacecraft have imaged the surface of Mars for nearly four decades, provid- ing insights into the history

278

NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

LeBeau, Gerald J.

2011-01-01

279

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

Kelly, Michael P.

2011-01-01

280

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

281

NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

Ewert, Michael K.

2008-01-01

282

INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

1992-01-01

283

Going Boldly Beyond: Progress on NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Launch System is implementing an evolvable configuration approach to system development in a resource-constrained era. Legacy systems enable non-traditional development funding and contribute to sustainability and affordability. Limited simultaneous developments reduce cost and schedule risk. Phased approach to advanced booster development enables innovation and competition, incrementally demonstrating affordability and performance enhancements. Advanced boosters will provide performance for the most capable heavy lift launcher in history, enabling unprecedented space exploration benefiting all of humanity.

Singer, Jody; Crumbly, Chris

2013-01-01

284

NASA Space Technology Can Improve Soldier Health, Performance and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary goals of NASA Life Sciences research is '... to enable a permanent human presence in space.' To meet this goal, NASA is creating alternative protocols designed to evaluate and test countermeasures that will account for and correct the environmental effects of space flight on crewmembers health, safety, and operational performance. NASA investigators have previously evaluated the effects of long-duration space flight on physiology and performance of cosmonauts aboard the MIR space station. They also initiated tests of a countermeasure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) designed to prevent and/or correct adverse effects, i.e., facilitate adaptation to space and re-adaptation to Earth. AFTE is a six-hour physiological training program that has proven to be a highly efficient and effective method for enabling people to monitor and voluntarily control a range of their own physiological responses, thereby minimizing adverse reactions to environmental stress. However, because of limited opportunities to test this technology with space flight crews, it is essential to find operational or 'real world' environments in which to validate the efficacy of this approach.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

2000-01-01

285

Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled 'Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies'. This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Richmond, Robert C.; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

286

NASA's approach to the commercial use of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA planning activities in the area of commercial development of space resources are reviewed. Examples of specific types of commercial space ventures are given, according to three different categories: new commercial high-technology ventures; new commercial application of existing space technology, and commercial ventures resulting from the transfer of existing space programs to the private sector. Basic objectives for reducing technical, financial and institutional risks for commercial space operations are considered. Attention is given to the cooperative working environment encouraged by Joint Endeavor Agreements (JEAs) and Technical Exchange Agreements (TEAs) between industrial organizations in the development of space systems. Benefits of the commercial development of space resources include the production of purer pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancers, kidney diseases, and diabetes; and the development of ultra-pure semiconductor crystals for use in next generation electronic equipment.

Gillam, I. T., IV

1984-01-01

287

Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute Radiation Assessment Detector. Also, the University of Florida hybrid phantoms, which are flexible in morphometry and positioning, are being explored as alternatives to the current NASA computational phantoms.

Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

2011-01-01

288

The NASA Space Solar Cell Advanced Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two major requirements for space solar cells are high efficiency and survivability in the naturally occurring charged particle space radiation environment. Performance limits for silicon space cells are well understood. Advanced cells using GaAs and InP are under development to provide significantly improved capability for the future.

Flood, Dennis J.

1989-01-01

289

NASA's space physics theory program - An opportunity for collaboration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of theoretical space physics offers a unique opportunity to Latin American scientists for collaborative participation in NASA programs where the greatly increased complexity of both experimental observations and theoretical simulations requires in-depth comparisons between theory and observational data. The key problem areas identified by NASA for aggressive work in the decade of the 1990s are the nature of flows and turbulence, acceleration and transport of particles, the coupling of microphysics and macrophysics, the coupling of local and global dynamics, and nonclassical plasmas.

Vinas, Adolfo F.

1990-01-01

290

FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

Lowrey, Nikki M.

2011-01-01

291

Updates to the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an update of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) open architecture for NASA space based radios. The STRS architecture has been defined as a framework for the design, development, operation and upgrade of space based software defined radios, where processing resources are constrained. The architecture has been updated based upon reviews by NASA missions, radio providers, and component vendors. The STRS Standard prescribes the architectural relationship between the software elements used in software execution and defines the Application Programmer Interface (API) between the operating environment and the waveform application. Modeling tools have been adopted to present the architecture. The paper will present a description of the updated API, configuration files, and constraints. Minimum compliance is discussed for early implementations. The paper then closes with a summary of the changes made and discussion of the relevant alignment with the Object Management Group (OMG) SWRadio specification, and enhancements to the specialized signal processing abstraction.

Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette; Hall, Charles S.

2008-01-01

292

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These proceedings contain papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics held in Pasadena, January 31 to February 2, 1989. The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

293

The 1992-1993 NASA Space Biology Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the calendar years of 1992 and 1993. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and the effects of microgravity on biological processes; determining the effects of the interaction of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems; and using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (Editor)

1994-01-01

294

The 1990-1991 NASA space biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the period May 1990 through May 1991. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems and to using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1993-01-01

295

Leadership in Space: Selected Speeches of NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, May 2005 - October 2008  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speech topics include: Leadership in Space; Space Exploration: Real and Acceptable Reasons; Why Explore Space?; Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas; Continuing the Voyage: The Spirit of Endeavour; Incorporating Space into Our Economic Sphere of Influence; The Role of Space Exploration in the Global Economy; Partnership in Space Activities; International Space Cooperation; National Strategy and the Civil Space Program; What the Hubble Space Telescope Teaches Us about Ourselves; The Rocket Team; NASA's Direction; Science and NASA; Science Priorities and Program Management; NASA and the Commercial Space Industry; NASA and the Business of Space; American Competitiveness: NASA's Role & Everyone's Responsibility; Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration; The Next Generation of Engineers; System Engineering and the "Two Cultures" of Engineering; Generalship of Engineering; NASA and Engineering Integrity; The Constellation Architecture; Then and Now: Fifty Years in Space; The Reality of Tomorrow; and Human Space Exploration: The Next 50 Years.

Griffin, Michael

2008-01-01

296

Understanding IV & V in a safety critical and complex evolutionary environment: the NASA space shuttle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an internationally recognized leader in space science and exploration. NASA recognizes the inherent risk associated with space exploration; however, NASA makes every reasonable effort to minimize that risk. To that end for the Space Shuttle program NASA instituted a software independent verification and validation (IV&V) process in 1988 to ensure that the Shuttle

Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Ioana Rus

2001-01-01

297

The 1986-87 NASA space/gravitational biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space/Gravitational Biology program, for research conducted during the period January 1986 to April 1987. This program utilizes the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on Earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1987-01-01

298

The 1987-1988 NASA space/gravitational biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individual technical summaries of research projects of the NASA Space/Gravitational Biology Program, for research conducted during the period January 1987 to April 1988 are presented. This Program is concerned with using the characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1988-01-01

299

The 1989-1990 NASA space biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individual technical summaries of research projects on NASA's Space Biology Program for research conducted during the period May 1989 to April 1990 are presented. This program is concerned with using the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance the following: (1) knowledge in the biological sciences; (2) understanding of how gravity has shaped and affected life on the Earth; and (3) understanding of how the space environment affects both plants and animals. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1991-01-01

300

The 1988-1989 NASA Space/Gravitational Biology Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's space/gravitational biology program, for research conducted during the period May 1988 to April 1989. This program is concerned with using the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on Earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1990-01-01

301

The 1985-86 NASA space/gravitational biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individual Technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space/Gravitational Biology Program are presented. This Program is concerned with using the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on Earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a listing of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

1987-01-01

302

Martian regolith as space radiation shielding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars exploration crews will be exposed to such high radiation dosages in route from earth that as to sharply reduce the allowable dose they should receive while on the Martian surface. An account is presently given of the possibility of using Martian regolith as crew shielding to maintain very low short-term dose limits. NASA-Langley's nucleon and heavy-ion transport computer codes are used to predict the propagation and interaction of the free-space nucleons and heavy ions through the Martian atmosphere and then through various thicknesses of regolith. The largest reduction in dose occurs in the first 15-20 cm of regolith material.

Simonsen, L. C.; Nealy, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

1991-02-01

303

Robotics program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard telerobotic program is structured to increase the scope and efficiency of what man can accomplish in space through the use of robotics. The main focus is to service Space Station Freedom and its payloads, but robotic assembly of Space Station Freedom and platforms is also anticipated. The approach being taken to achieve this by telerobotics, where manipulators can be controlled by human operators or computer programs. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the responsability to develop the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) for Space Station Freedom. The current plan at GSFC in support of telerobotics for Space Station Freedom and the in-orbit servicing of platforms are reviewed. Plans for ground demonstrations involving the use of an engineering test bed and an operational facility are discussed.

Ollendorf, Stanford

1989-01-01

304

Space radiation concerns for manned exploration.  

PubMed

Spaceflight exposes astronaut crews to natural ionizing radiation. To date, exposures in manned spaceflight have been well below the career limits recommended to NASA by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). This will not be the case for long-duration exploratory class missions. Additionally. International Space Station (ISS) crews will receive higher doses than earlier flight crews. Uncertainties in our understanding of long-term bioeffects, as well as updated analyses of the Hiroshima. Nagasaki and Chernobyl tumorigenesis data, have prompted the NCRP to recommend further reductions by 30-50% for career dose limit guidelines. Intelligent spacecraft design and material selection can provide a shielding strategy capable of maintaining crew exposures within recommended guidelines. Current studies on newer radioprotectant compounds may find combinations of agents which further diminish the risk of radiation-induced bioeffects to the crew. PMID:11542526

Stanford, M; Jones, J A

1999-07-01

305

Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

1979-01-01

306

NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program: Mars Program Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Launch System is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's orbit (BEO), as directed by the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and NASA's 2011 Strategic Plan. This paper describes how the SLS can dramatically change the Mars program's science and human exploration capabilities and objectives. Specifically, through its high-velocity change (delta V) and payload capabilities, SLS enables Mars science missions of unprecedented size and scope. By providing direct trajectories to Mars, SLS eliminates the need for complicated gravity-assist missions around other bodies in the solar system, reducing mission time, complexity, and cost. SLS's large payload capacity also allows for larger, more capable spacecraft or landers with more instruments, which can eliminate the need for complex packaging or "folding" mechanisms. By offering this capability, SLS can enable more science to be done more quickly than would be possible through other delivery mechanisms using longer mission times.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

307

Proceedings of the NASA First Wake Vortex Dynamic Spacing Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Government and Industry workshop on wake vortex dynamic spacing systems was conducted on May 13-15, 1997, at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose the status of ongoing NASA wake vortex R&D to the international community and to seek feedback on the direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. Workshop sessions examined wake vortex characterization and physics, wake sensor technologies, aircraft/wake encounters, terminal area weather characterization and prediction, and wake vortex systems integration and implementation. A final workshop session surveyed the Government and Industry perspectives on the NASA research underway and related international wake vortex activities. This document contains the proceedings of the workshop including the presenters' slides, the discussion following each presentation, the wrap-up panel discussion, and the attendees' evaluation feedback.

Creduer, Leonard (Editor); Perry, R. Brad (Editor)

1997-01-01

308

Electromagnetic Dissociation and Space Radiation  

E-print Network

Relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions occur mainly through the Strong or Electromagnetic (EM) interactions. Transport codes often neglect the latter. This work shows the importance of including EM interactions for space radiation applications.

John W. Norbury; Khin Maung Maung

2006-12-08

309

Radiation and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

Just outside the protective layer of Earth?s atmosphere and magnetosphere, is a universe full of radiation. What happens to our bodies when we leave the surface of Earth to travel in space or visit...

310

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

311

Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled "Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies". This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. The biological uncertainty in predicting cancer risk for space radiation derives from two primary facts. 1) One animal tumor study has been reported that includes a relevant spectrum of particle radiation energies, and that is the Harderian gland model in mice. Fact #1: Extension of cancer risk from animal models, and especially from a single study in an animal model, to humans is inherently uncertain. 2) One human database is predominantly used for assessing cancer risk caused by space radiation, and that is the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Fact #2: The atomic-bomb-survivor database, itself a remarkable achievement, contains uncertainties. These include the actual exposure to each individual, the radiation quality of that exposure, and the fact that the exposure was to acute doses of predominantly low-LET radiation, not to chronic exposures of high-LET radiation expected on long-duration interplanetary manned missions.

Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

312

NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

2003-01-01

313

The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program - Preparing the way  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the goals and methods adopted in the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) for preparing scientists and engineers for space-related life-sciences research and operations. The SLSTP is based on six weeks of projects and lectures which give an overview of payload processing and experiment flow in the space environment. The topics addressed in the course of the program include descriptions of space vehicles, support hardware, equipment, and research directions. Specific lecture topics include the gravity responses of plants, mission integration of a flight experiment, and the cardiovascular deconditioning. The SLSTP is shown to be an important part of the process of recruiting and training qualified scientists and engineers to support space activities.

Biro, Ronald; Munsey, Bill; Long, Irene

1990-01-01

314

Modeling of Radiation Risks for Human Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to any human space flight, calculations of radiation risks are used to determine the acceptable scope of astronaut activity. Using the supercomputing facilities at NASA Ames Research Center, Ames researchers have determined the damage probabilities of DNA functional groups by space radiation. The data supercede those used in the current Monte Carlo model for risk assessment. One example is the reaction of DNA with hydroxyl radical produced by the interaction of highly energetic particles from space radiation with water molecules in the human body. This reaction is considered an important cause of DNA mutations, although its mechanism is not well understood.

Fletcher, Graham

2004-01-01

315

Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of the NASA-Lewis Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Convertor Technology Program. The goal is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. Stirling experience in space and progress toward 1050 and 1300 K Stirling Space Power Converters is discussed. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converters (CTPC); results of motoring tests of cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. An update is provided of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.

316

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the $60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy; Bonometti, Joe; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie; Montgomery, Sandy

2004-01-01

317

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals ase the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

2004-01-01

318

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in - spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer.tethers, aeroassist and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

2004-01-01

319

NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

2000-01-01

320

The MY NASA DATA Project: Tools and a Collaboration Space for Knowledge Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is charged with serving a wide user community that is interested in its large data holdings in the areas of Aerosols, Clouds, Radiation Budget, and Tropospheric Chemistry. Most of the data holdings, however, are in large files with specialized data formats. The MY NASA DATA (mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) project began in 2004, as part of the NASA Research, Education, and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN), in order to open this important resource to a broader community including K-12 education and citizen scientists. MY NASA DATA (short for Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs) consists of a web space that collects tools, lesson plans, and specially developed documentation to help the target audience more easily use the vast collection of NASA data about the Earth System. The core piece of the MY NASA DATA project is the creation of microsets (both static and custom) that make data easily accessible. The installation of a Live Access Server (LAS) greatly enhanced the ability for teachers, students, and citizen scientists to create and explore custom microsets of Earth System Science data. The LAS, which is an open source software tool using emerging data standards, also allows the MY NASA DATA team to make available data on other aspects of the Earth System from collaborating data centers. We are currently working with the Physical Oceanography DAAC at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to bring in several parameters describing the ocean. In addition, MY NASA DATA serves as a central space for the K-12 community to share resources. The site already includes a dozen User-contributed lesson plans. This year we will be focusing on the Citizen Science portion of the site, and will be welcoming user-contributed project ideas, as well as reports of completed projects. An e-mentor network has also been created to involve a wider community in answering questions on scientific and pedagogical aspects of data use. The MY NASA DATA website, and an initial collection of lesson plans, have passed the NASA Earth Science Education peer review process, and thus are also being cataloged in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE).

Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Diones, D. D.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Phelps, C. S.

2006-05-01

321

Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

Heidersbach, Robert H.

2002-01-01

322

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

323

NASA's Space Research and Technology Program. Report of a workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the spacecraft and subsystem industry and the civil and military uses of space were examined. Genetic and specific enabling technologies were identified. It was found that U.S. spacecraft manufacturers support civil and commercial uses, the military and NASA and, in turn, are supported by subsystem suppliers. However, no single spacecraft program carries sufficient resources to develop advanced critical subsystem technologies and increasingly, U.S. suppliers are facing strong competition from foreign industry that is government subsidized.

1983-01-01

324

Status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Participation in SNAP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Rauscher will present programatic status and high-level/summary information on the technical status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's participation in the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Goddard's participation falls into four areas, and status in each of these will be covered. These areas are as follows: (I) focal plane array and packaging, (2) Teledyne HAWAII-4RG sensor chip assembly, (3) communications studies, and (4) integration and test studies.

Rauscher, Bernard

2007-01-01

325

Ion beam treatment of potential space materials at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion source systems in different configurations, have been used to generate unique morphologies for several NASA space applications. The discharge chamber of a 30 cm ion source was successfully used to texture potential space radiator materials for the purpose of obtaining values of thermal emittance greater than 0.85 at 700 and 900 K. High absorptance surfaces were obtained using ion beam seed texturing, for space radiator materials that were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for 5.8 years in space. An ion source discharge chamber was also used to develop electrode surfaces with suppressed secondary electron emission characteristics for use in collectors in microwave amplifier traveling wave tubes. This was accomplished by sputtering textured carbon onto copper as well as texturing copper using tantalum and molybdenum as sacrificial texture inducing seeding materials. In a third configuration, a dual ion beam system was used to generate high transmittance diamondlike carbon (DLC) films.

Kussmaul, Michael; Mirtich, Michael J.; Curren, Arthur

1992-01-01

326

An Overview of NASA Space Cryocooler Programs--2006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. Many of NASA's space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, or enable the use of advanced detectors to observe a wide range of phenomena--from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, the largest utilization of coolers over the last fifteen years has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150K). For the future, important new developments are focusing on the lower temperature range, from 6 to 20 K, in support of studies of the origin of the Universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and a 6 K cryocooler for the MIRI instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) are examples of the thrust to provide low-temperature cooling for this class of future missions.

Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.

2006-01-01

327

NASA science utilization plans for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mir-1 and International Space Station Alpha capabilities present the science community with unique long duration platforms to conduct a wide range of scientific research in the microgravity and life sciences as well as in the observational sciences, NASA is developing plans to use the capabilities of Mir and Space Station as they emerge during the development of the orbital program. In both cases the planned science utilization programs take advantage of the volume, crew, power, microgravity and logistics resupply unique to each phase. The paper will present these utilization plans in the context of an evolving scientific program.

Reeves, E. M.; Cressy, P. J. Jr

1995-01-01

328

Perspectives on NASA flight software development - Apollo, Shuttle, Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight data systems' software development is chronicled for the period encompassing NASA's Apollo, Space Shuttle, and (ongoing) Space Station Freedom programs, with attention to the methodologies and 'development tools' employed in each case and their mutual relationships. A dominant concern in all three programs has been the accommodation of software change; it has also been noted that any such long-term program carries the additional challenge of identifying which elements of its software-related 'institutional memory' are most critical, in order to preclude their loss through the retirement, promotion, or transfer of its 'last expert'.

Garman, John R.

1990-01-01

329

Space Chemical Propulsion Test Facilities at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, has a number of space chemical propulsion test facilities which constitute a significant national space testing resource. The purpose of this paper is to make more users aware of these test facilities and to encourage their use through cooperative agreements between the government, industry, and universities. Research which is of interest to the government is especially encouraged and often can be done in a cooperative manner that best uses the resources of all parties. An overview of the Lewis test facilities is presented.

Urasek, Donald C.; Calfo, Frederick D.

1993-01-01

330

NASA deep space network operations planning and preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The responsibilities and structural organization of the Operations Planning Group of NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Operations are outlined. The Operations Planning group establishes an early interface with a user's planning organization to educate the user on DSN capabilities and limitations for deep space tracking support. A team of one or two individuals works through all phases of the spacecraft launch and also provides planning and preparation for specific events such as planetary encounters. Coordinating interface is also provided for nonflight projects such as radio astronomy and VLBI experiments. The group is divided into a Long Range Support Planning element and a Near Term Operations Coordination element.

Jensen, W. N.

1982-01-01

331

NASA-KSC's earth resources benefits from space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify the nature and scope of earth resources activities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Because of recent developments from space exploration, NASA and KSC have evolved an earth resources program which focuses on applied R&D activities of direct benefit to a variety of federal, state, and local users. The historical development of this program is traced, and several projects are identified with special emphasis on the use of sidelooking airborne radar in several Brevard County, Florida test areas.

Ragusa, J. M.; Hecker, E. J.

1974-01-01

332

Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

1989-01-01

333

D M E NASA technology investments: building our future in space  

E-print Network

D M E C S S NASA technology investments: building our future in space Dr. Mason Peck Chief Technologist NASA Investments in technology and innovation enable new space missions, stimulate Technologist Mason Peck will provide an overview of NASA's ambitious program of space exploration that builds

Barthelat, Francois

334

Advanced Optical Technologies in NASA's Space Communication Program: Status, Challenges, and Future Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of the NASA Space Communications Project is to enable broad coverage for high-data-rate delivery to the users by means of ground, air, and space-based assets. The NASA Enterprise need will be reviewed. A number of optical space communications technologies being developed by NASA will be described, and the prospective applications will be discussed.

Pouch, John

2004-01-01

335

Environmental Radiation Measurements on the MIR Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD). Radiation measurements inside the Mir station were carried out using six Area Passive Dosimeters (APD), four located inside the Mir Base Block and two located inside the Kvant 2 module, during the NASA-2/Mir-21, NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 missions. The radiation environment under low shielding was measured using an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) mounted on the outer surface of the Kvant 2 module. The external radiation environment and a location inside the Kvant 2 roughly corresponding to the location of the EDA were monitored for 130 days during the NASA- 4/Mir-23 and NASA-5/Mir-24 missions. Dose rates measured by APD TLDs ranged from 271 to 407 microGy/d during the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission, from 265 to 378 microGy/d during the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission, and from 287 to 421 microGy/d during the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission. APD PNTDs have been analyzed and LET spectra have been Cenerated for the five APDs exposed on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission and for two APD PNTDs exposed on the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission. Dose equivalent rates on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission ranged from 513 microSv/d in the Kvant 2 module to 710 microSv/d on the floor of the Base Block. Dose as a function of shielding depth in TLDs has been measured in the thin TLD stacks including in the EDA. EDA dose range from 72.5 Gy under 0.0146 g/sq cm to 0.093 Gy under 3.25 g/sq cm of shielding. Readout and analysis of the reaming PNTDs form the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission and PNTDs from the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission (including those from the EDA) is ongoing and will be completed during the final year of this experiment. Dose equivalent rates for the NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 APDs will then be determined and comparisons will be made with both model calculations and with results from similar measurements.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1998-05-01

336

NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's Contributions to Space Plasma Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-l970's, the Space Plasma Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has contributed critical instrumentation to numerous satellite and sounding rocket missions exploring the plasmas of near-Earth space. This talk will review major discoveries in Earth's ionosphere, plasmasphere, and magnetosphere directly attributable to the researchers of the Space Plasma Physics Group and the significance of these discoveries to the field of plasma physics.

Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

337

Estimation of The Radiation Environment Based On The NASA Ap-8 and Ae-8 Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we discuss the earth's trapped radiation environment, as described by the NASA models AP-8 and AE-8. We include a description of the sources and structure of the trapped radiation belts, and their dependence on external factors. After describing how to use the models to predict the environment, we present data from various space missions, and compare those data to the models. This shows the limits and strengths of the models. Finally, we describe alternative models of the trapped radiation belts, and discuss why they have not been widely adopted yet.

Morton, Thomas; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

338

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance Governance's Mission is to: Drive advances in science, technology, aeronautics, and space exploration to enhance

Waliser, Duane E.

339

Space Radiation and Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S.; Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bateman, Ted A.

2011-01-01

340

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

341

MY NASA DATA: Comparing Graphs of Temperature and Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will analyze plots of temperature and radiation data to determine change over time. Step-by-step instructions for use of the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) guide students through selecting a data set, importing the data into a spreadsheet, creating graphs, and analyzing data plots. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

342

The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The education and public outreach (EPO) partnership works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy. The Capitol College SOI serves as a back-up control center for two NASA missions. The first is the Tropical Rainforest Measurement Mission (TRMM), which is a research satellite designed to help our understanding of the water cycle in the current climate system. By covering the tropical and semi-tropical regions of the Earth, TRMM provides much needed data on rainfall and the heat release associated with rainfall. The second is the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission that is providing a vast storehouse of knowledge about the solar system, the Milky Way, and the Universe. The session provides both an update regarding the SOI and provides new information regarding the SOI work with the two NASA missions. Emerging best practices from the learning experiences the SOI provides college students in serving as a real-life back-up control center will also be shared.

Gibbs, M. G.

2010-12-01

343

NASA's astrophysics archives at the National Space Science Data Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA maintains an archive facility for Astronomical Science data collected from NASA's missions at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. This archive was created to insure the science data collected by NASA would be preserved and useable in the future by the science community. Through 25 years of operation there are many lessons learned, from data collection procedures, archive preservation methods, and distribution to the community. This document presents some of these more important lessons, for example: KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) in system development. Also addressed are some of the myths of archiving, such as 'scientists always know everything about everything', or 'it cannot possibly be that hard, after all simple data tech's do it'. There are indeed good reasons that a proper archive capability is needed by the astronomical community, the important question is how to use the existing expertise as well as the new innovative ideas to do the best job archiving this valuable science data.

Vansteenberg, M. E.

1992-01-01

344

Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Testing Capability: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.

DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

2012-01-01

345

Space Radiation Effects in Advanced Flash Memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory storage requirements in space systems have steadily increased, much like storage requirements in terrestrial systems. Large arrays of dynamic memories (DRAMs) have been used in solid-state recorders, relying on a combination of shielding and error-detection-and correction (EDAC) to overcome the extreme sensitivity of DRAMs to space radiation. For example, a 2-Gbit memory (with 4-Mb DRAMs) used on the Clementine mission functioned perfectly during its moon mapping mission, in spite of an average of 71 memory bit flips per day from heavy ions. Although EDAC worked well with older types of memory circuits, newer DRAMs use extremely complex internal architectures which has made it increasingly difficult to implement EDAC. Some newer DRAMs have also exhibited catastrophic latchup. Flash memories are an intriguing alternative to DRAMs because of their nonvolatile storage and extremely high storage density, particularly for applications where writing is done relatively infrequently. This paper discusses radiation effects in advanced flash memories, including general observations on scaling and architecture as well as the specific experience obtained at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in evaluating high-density flash memories for use on the NASA mission to Europa, one of Jupiter's moons. This particular mission must pass through the Jovian radiation belts, which imposes a very demanding radiation requirement.

Johnston, A. H.

2001-01-01

346

Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities

Brad Gersey; Richard Wilkins

2010-01-01

347

Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

2004-01-01

348

Science is Cool with NASA's "Space School Musical"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help young learners understand basic solar system science concepts and retain what they learn, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs have collaborated with KidTribe to create "Space School Musical," an innovative approach for teaching about the solar system. It's an educational "hip-hopera" that raps, rhymes, moves and grooves its way into the minds and memories of students and educators alike. The solar system comes alive, combining science content with music, fun lyrics, and choreography. Kids can watch the videos, learn the songs, do the cross-curricular activities, and perform the show themselves. The videos, songs, lyrics, and guides are available to all with free downloads at http://discovery.nasa.gov/

Asplund, S.

2011-10-01

349

An Overview of Space Power Systems for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical commodity for all engineering efforts and is especially challenging in the aerospace field. This paper will provide a broad brush overview of some of the immediate and important challenges to NASA missions in the field of aerospace power, for generation, energy conversion, distribution, and storage. NASA s newest vehicles which are currently in the design phase will have power systems that will be developed from current technology, but will have the challenges of being light-weight, energy-efficient, and space-qualified. Future lunar and Mars "outposts" will need high power generation units for life support and energy-intensive exploration efforts. An overview of the progress in concepts for power systems and the status of the required technologies are discussed.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Scott, John H.

2007-01-01

350

Earth to space power beaming: A new NASA technology initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser power beaming from the Earth's surface is an innovative and potentially cost-effective option for reliably providing electrical power for applications such as space transportation, Earth-orbiting satellites, and lunar development. The maturation of laser power beaming technology can support low power applications such as upgraded conventional communications satellites in the present decade. Power beaming systems to support extensive lunar base operations that may consume extremely large amounts of power can be implemented early in the 21st century. The synergistic advantages of high-thrust, high specific-impulse electric propulsion may make enhanced, low cost space logistics an area of unique significance for laser power beaming. Economic forces will continue as a driving factor in the selection of major system elements for both commercial applications as well as the avant-garde national space missions envisioned for the 21st century. As a result, the implementation of laser power beaming systems will only take place if they can demonstrate clear economic benefits without sacrificing performance, personnel safety, or the environment. Similarly, the development activities that are a necessary precursor to any operational system will take place only if key industry and government leaders perceive laser power beaming systems as an achievable goal with realistic payoffs in comparison to competing energy options. This paper summarizes NASA's current research to evaluate laser power beaming systems as they apply to applications of greatest interest, and it includes a summary of the current laser power beaming program within the NASA Headquarters Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. This research effort will quantify some key technical certainties and uncertainties pertaining to laser power beaming systems appropriate for space applications as well as establish a path of development that includes maturation of key technology components for reliable laser and millimeter wave power beaming systems during the 1990's. The program is known as 'SELENE', an acronym for Space Laser Energy.

Rather, John D. G.

1992-02-01

351

New Mexico Space Grant Consortium NASA EPSCoR Travel Grant  

E-print Network

New Mexico Space Grant Consortium NASA EPSCoR Travel Grant New Mexico NASA EPSCoR offers funding potential collaborations with NASA researchers for future research efforts and funding opportunities. Both for travel opportunities to encourage faculty to explore and develop connections and collaborations with NASA

Johnson, Eric E.

352

Shielding from space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Progress Report covering the period of 1 June 1993 to 1 Dec. 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a one-layer Green's function formalism. The mathematical developments are recasted into an efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 80 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an Iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented.

Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

1993-01-01

353

Shielding from space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Progress Report covering the period of December 1, 1992 to June 1, 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of Green's function formalism. The mathematical development results are recasted into a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 59 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented. A listing of the single layer isotopic version of the code is included.

Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

1993-01-01

354

Internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Test laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is known for hosting all of the United States manned rocket launches as well as many unmanned launches at low inclinations. Even though the Space Shuttle recently retired, they are continuing to support unmanned launches and modifying manned launch facilities. Before a rocket can be launched, it has to go through months of preparation, called processing. Pieces of a rocket and its payload may come in from anywhere in the nation or even the world. The facilities all around the center help integrate the rocket and prepare it for launch. As NASA prepares for the Space Launch System, a rocket designed to take astronauts beyond Low Earth Orbit throughout the solar system, technology development is crucial for enhancing launch capabilities at the KSC. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center greatly contributes to cryogenic research and technology development. The engineers and technicians that work there come up with new ways to efficiently store and transfer liquid cryogens. NASA has a great need for this research and technology development as it deals with cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for rocket fuel, as well as long term space flight applications. Additionally, in this new era of space exploration, the Cryogenics Test Laboratory works with the commercial sector. One technology development project is the Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) Ground Operations Demonstration Unit (GODU). LH2 GODU intends to demonstrate increased efficiency in storing and transferring liquid hydrogen during processing, loading, launch and spaceflight of a spacecraft. During the Shuttle Program, only 55% of hydrogen purchased was used by the Space Shuttle Main Engines. GODU's goal is to demonstrate that this percentage can be increased to 75%. Figure 2 shows the GODU layout when I concluded my internship. The site will include a 33,000 gallon hydrogen tank (shown in cyan) with a heat exchanger inside the hydrogen tank attached to a refrigerator capable of removing 850 Watts at 20 Kelvin (shown in green). The refrigerator and most of its supporting equipment will be kept in a standard shipping container (shown in pink). Currently, GODU is in the fabrication process and some of the large components have already been purchased.

Holland, Katherine

2013-01-01

355

NASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar FundingNASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar Funding The National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

1 NASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar FundingNASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar Funding The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has renewed its support of the Antarctic Im- pulsive Transient

356

An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing B Panel 2: Robotics, Communications, and Navigation TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems TA05 Communication and Navigation Systems C Panel 3: Instruments and Computing TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, and Data Processing D Panel 4: Human Health and Surface Exploration TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems E Panel 5: Materials Panel TA10 Nanotechnology TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing TA14 Thermal Management Systems F Panel 6: Entry, Descent, and Landing Panel TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems In addition to drawing on the expertise represented on the steering committee and panels, the committee obtained input from each of 14 public workshops held on each of the 14 roadmaps. At these 1-day workshops, invited speakers, guests, and members of the public engaged in discussions on the different technology areas and their value to NASA. Broad community input was also solicited from a public website, where more than 240 public comments were received on the draft roadmaps in response to application of criteria (such as benefit, risk and reasonableness, and alignment with NASA and national goals) that the steering committee established. This interim report reflects the results of deliberations by the steering committee in light of these public inputs as well as additional inputs from the six panels. The steering committee's final report will be completed early in 2012. That report will prioritize the technologies that span the entire scope of the 14 roadmaps and provide additional guidance on crosscutting themes and other relevant topics.

2011-01-01

357

Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel  

SciTech Connect

There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation and this will be taken into account. Work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

Fry, R.J.M.

1984-01-01

358

Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

Kloeris, Vickie L.

2010-01-01

359

Proposed Array-based Deep Space Network for NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current assets of the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), especially the 70-m antennas, are aging and becoming less reliable. Furthermore, they are expensive to operate and difficult to upgrade for operation at Ka-band (321 GHz). Replacing them with comparable monolithic large antennas would be expensive. On the other hand, implementation of similar high-sensitivity assets can be achieved economically using an array-based architecture, where sensitivity is measured by G/T, the ratio of antenna gain to system temperature. An array-based architecture would also provide flexibility in operations and allow for easy addition of more G/T whenever required. Therefore, an array-based plan of the next-generation DSN for NASA has been proposed. The DSN array would provide more flexible downlink capability compared to the current DSN for robust telemetry, tracking and command services to the space missions of NASA and its international partners in a cost effective way. Instead of using the array as an element of the DSN and relying on the existing concept of operation, we explore a broader departure in establishing a more modern concept of operations to reduce the operations costs. This paper presents the array-based architecture for the next generation DSN. It includes system block diagram, operations philosophy, user's view of operations, operations management, and logistics like maintenance philosophy and anomaly analysis and reporting. To develop the various required technologies and understand the logistics of building the array-based lowcost system, a breadboard array of three antennas has been built. This paper briefly describes the breadboard array system and its performance.

Bagri, Durgadas S.; Statman, Joseph I.; Gatti, Mark S.

2007-01-01

360

Commonality analysis for the NASA Space Station Common Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of commonality to enhance cost savings, as applied to NASA's Space Station Common Module (CM), is explored. The equipment to be included in the CM is organized by subsystems of structure, power, thermal, command and data handling, environmental control and life support, and crew station. The weight, volume, and quantity of each instrument item will be subsequently added to support a cost model. The CM concept, its reference configuration, power distribution and management, and cost sensitivity options are discussed in detail. Some computer programs are outlined, stressing the importance of the existing capabilities of the STS and the optimum commonality case.

Powell, L. E.; Beam, E. E.

1985-01-01

361

Second Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Science and Astrobiology Division's researchers are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields, including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. In addition division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions. With a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among the three branches in at least 5 buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientist within the division and to give center management and other ARC researchers and Engineers an opportunity to see what scientific missions work is being done in the division.

Dotson, Jessie

2014-01-01

362

Human habitat positioning system for NASA's space flight environmental simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial gravity by centrifugation offers an effective countermeasure to the physiologic deconditioning of chronic exposure to microgravity; however, the system requirements of rotational velocity, radius of rotation, and resultant centrifugal acceleration require thorough investigation to ascertain the ideal human-use centrifuge configuration. NASA's Space Flight Environmental Simulator (SFES), a 16-meter (52-foot) diameter, animal-use centrifuge, was recently modified to accommodate human occupancy. This paper describes the SFES Human Habitat Positioning System, the mechanism that facilitates radius of rotation variability and alignment of the centrifuge occupants with the artificial gravity vector.

Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.; Keas, P.

1998-01-01

363

Strategic Project Management at the NASA Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes Project Management at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) from a strategic perspective. It develops the historical context of the agency and center's strategic planning process and illustrates how now is the time for KSC to become a center which has excellence in project management. The author describes project management activities at the center and details observations on those efforts. Finally the author describes the Strategic Project Management Process Model as a conceptual model which could assist KSC in defining an appropriate project management process system at the center.

Lavelle, Jerome P.

2000-01-01

364

NASA wiring for space applications program test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical power wiring tests results from the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program are presented. The goal of the program was to develop a base for the building of a lightweight, arc track-resistant electrical wiring system for aerospace applications. This new wiring system would be applied to such structures as pressurized modules, trans-atmospheric vehicles, LEO/GEO environments, and lunar and Martian environments. Technological developments from this program include the fabrication of new insulating materials, the production of new wiring constructions, an improved system design, and an advanced circuit protection design.

Stavnes, Mark; Hammoud, Ahmad

1995-01-01

365

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

1991-01-01

366

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

Guidotti, J. G.

1976-01-01

367

Nuclear Physics Issues in Space Radiation Risk Assessment-The FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code Used for Space Radiation Measurement and Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term human exploration goals that NASA has embraced, requires the need to understand the primary radiation and secondary particle production under a variety of environmental conditions. In order to perform accurate transport simulations for the incident particles found in the space environment, accurate nucleus-nucleus inelastic event generators are needed, and NASA is funding their development. For the first

K. T. Lee

2007-01-01

368

RADIATION AND LIFE IN SPACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and conjectures concerning conditions in space are ; summarized. The probability of life on other planets is considered, with ; emphasis on the effects of radiation on biological systems. Based on present ; knowledge, it is postulated that when man visits other planets of the solar ; system he may be confronted with primordial conditions on some planets, strange

1959-01-01

369

The Impact of Space Commercialization on Space Agencies: the Case of NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that commercialisation of space results in inefficient contracting policies by the space agencies, using the US NASA as a case study. Though commercialisation is seen by many as a way to reduce costs in space programmes, as the space industry is seen as a decreasing costs industry, this is not a problem-free process. Commercialisation of space has affected the US and European space industries and policies in two major ways. The first is that the public sector actively encourages mergers and acquisitions of major contractors, confined, however, within the geographical borders of the US and Europe. This follows largely from the perceived benefits of economies of size when competing in global commercial markets. The second is the formation of an increasing number of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in space programmes and a more `cosy' relationship between the two within a public-assistance strategic trade theoretic framework. As ESA's contracting policy of `juste retour' is marked by limited competition, the paper focuses on the case of NASA, which is expected to be more pro- competitive, to examine the impact of commercialisation. With the use of quantitative methods based on time series econometric analysis, the paper shows that NASA's contracting policy, results in increasingly less competition and more rent-favouring contracting. This is attributed to the decreasing number of major contractors in conjunction with the preferential treatment of the domestic space industry (`Buy American'). The results of the paper verify that the support of the domestic space industry in commercial and public space markets results in inefficient contracting policies, with NASA facing the conflicting tasks of a stated policy of enhancing competition and efficiency in contracting, as well as, supporting the competitiveness of the domestic space industry. The paper concludes with an analysis and assessment of solutions to this dilemma. 1 meeting.

Zervos, Vasilis

2002-01-01

370

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

371

Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

2003-01-01

372

THE FUTURE OF THE COMMERCIAL SPACE INDUSTRY Remarks by NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr.  

E-print Network

THE FUTURE OF THE COMMERCIAL SPACE INDUSTRY Remarks by NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr and Eddie Bernice Johnson for inviting me to participate in this forum today. When I was selected for NASA been telling our NASA senior leadership, this isn't your father's space program. Aggressive new ideas

Waliser, Duane E.

373

NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) -2006  

E-print Network

NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) - 2006) (formerly REASoN) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Earth Science Data Systems, supports the NASA Earth Science research community in providing Earth science data products

Christian, Eric

374

NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

2011-01-01

375

Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

Atwell, William

2012-02-01

376

BioServe space technologies: A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), was established in 1987. As is characteristic of each CCDS designated by NASA, the goals of this commercial center are aimed at stimulating high technology research that takes advantage of the space environment and at leading in the development of new products and services which have commercial potential or that contribute to possible new commercial ventures. BioServe's efforts in these areas focus upon space life science studies and the development of enabling devices that will facilitate ground-based experiments as well as the conversion of such to the microgravity environment. A direct result of BioServe's hardware development and life sciences studies is the training of the next generation of bioengineers who will be knowledgeable and comfortable working with the challenges of the space frontier.

1992-01-01

377

Transport methods and interactions for space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a brief history leading to the involvement of the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in space-radiation physics and protection. Indeed, a relatively complete summary of technical capability as of the summer of 1990 is given. The Boltzmann equations for coupled ionic and neutronic fields are presented and inversion techniques for the Boltzmann operator are discussed. Errors generated by the straight ahead approximation are derived and are shown to be negligible for most problems of space-radiation protection. A decoupling of projectile propagation from the target fields greatly simplifies the Boltzmann equations and allows an analytic solution of the target fragment transport. Analytic and numerical methods of solving the projectile transport equations are discussed. The nuclear physics underlying the coefficients in the Boltzmann equation is discussed. A coupled-channel optical model is found as a consequence of the loose binding of nuclear matter and closure of the nuclear states in high-energy reactions. Transport solutions with the developed data base are used with laboratory experiments to validate both the transport code and the data base. Numerical benchmarks and comparison with Monte Carlo calculations are also used for code validation.

Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Norbury, John W.

1993-01-01

378

39Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Requirements OutlineRequirements Outline  

E-print Network

39Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center responsibility: both accept and request #12;40Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center MotivationsMotivations l Adjustable autonomy places severe requirements

Kortenkamp, David

379

Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

Block, D. L.

1985-12-01

380

Some comments on space flight and radiation limits  

SciTech Connect

Setting limits on human exposure to space-related radiation involves two very different processes - the appropriate hard science, and certain emotional aspects and expectations of the groups involved. These groups include the general public and their elected politicians, the astronauts and flight crews, and NASA managers, each group with different expectations and concerns. Public and political views of human space flight and human radiation exposures are often poorly informed and are often based on emotional reactions to current events which may be distorted by {open_quotes}experts{close_quotes} and the media. Career astronauts` and cosmonauts` views are much more realistic about the risks involved and there is a willingness on their part to accept increased necessary risks. However, there is a concern on their part about career-threatening dose limits, the potential for overexposures, and the health effects from all sources of radiation. There is special concern over radiation from medical studies. This last concern continues to raise the question of {open_quotes}voluntary{close_quotes} participation in studies involving radiation exposure. There is greatly diversity in spaceflight crews and their expectations; and {open_quotes}official{close_quotes} Astronaut Office positions will reflect strong management direction. NASA management has its own priorities and concerns and this fact will be reflected in their crucial influence on radiation limits. NASA, and especially spaceflight crews, might be best served by exposure limits which address all sources of spaceflight radiation and all potential effects from such exposure.

Thornton, W.E.

1997-04-30

381

NASA's 3D Flight Computer for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program (NMP) Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) for Microelectronics Systems was planning to validate a newly developed 3D Flight Computer system on its first deep-space flight, DS1, launched in October 1998. This computer, developed in the 1995-97 time frame, contains many new computer technologies previously never used in deep-space systems. They include: advanced 3D packaging architecture for future low-mass and low-volume avionics systems; high-density 3D packaged chip-stacks for both volatile and non-volatile mass memory: 400 Mbytes of local DRAM memory, and 128 Mbytes of Flash memory; high-bandwidth Peripheral Component Interface (Per) local-bus with a bridge to VME; high-bandwidth (20 Mbps) fiber-optic serial bus; and other attributes, such as standard support for Design for Testability (DFT). Even though this computer system did not complete on time for delivery to the DS1 project, it was an important development along a technology roadmap towards highly integrated and highly miniaturized avionics systems for deep-space applications. This continued technology development is now being performed by NASA's Deep Space System Development Program (also known as X2000) and within JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM).

Alkalai, Leon

2000-01-01

382

Plasma Propulsion Research at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsion Research Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is pursuing a range of research efforts aimed at identifying and developing new technologies for primary spacecraft propulsion. Efficient high-power electric propulsion (Ep) thrusters are a particular area of emphasis; these would enable the relatively rapid transit of large payloads about the solar system for unmanned or manned science and exploration. Such a mission would make heavy demands on the propulsion system, which may be required to run reliably for several years at a specific impulse approaching 10,OOO s with an efficiency of turning electrical power into jet power of at least 70%. The transit time to a destination scales approximately inversely with the cube root of the specific power, which is the ratio of jet power to power-plant mass. Consequently, reducing a trip time by half requires roughly an eight-fold increase in specific power. Given a renewed NASA commitment to space nuclear power, developing efficient EP thrusters with high jet power (> 100 kW) would seem to provide the most direct means of significantly increasing the specific power and hence reducing trip times. In particular, electromagnetic devices, with their high inherent thrust densities, should be better suited to high power applications than thrusters which depend exclusively on electrostatic forces for propellant acceleration.

Sheehy, Jeffrey A.

2004-01-01

383

Coherent Frequency Reference System for the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires state-of-the-art frequency references that are derived and distributed from very stable atomic frequency standards. A new Frequency Reference System (FRS) and Frequency Reference Distribution System (FRD) have been developed, which together replace the previous Coherent Reference Generator System (CRG). The FRS and FRD each provide new capabilities that significantly improve operability and reliability. The FRS allows for selection and switching between frequency standards, a flywheel capability (to avoid interruptions when switching frequency standards), and a frequency synthesis system (to generate standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals). The FRS is powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems and includes a monitor and control capability for station operations to interact and control the frequency-standard selection process. The FRD receives the standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals and distributes signals to distribution amplifiers in a fan out fashion to dozens of DSN users that require the highly stable reference signals. The FRD is also powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems. The new DSN Frequency Distribution System, which consists of the FRS and FRD systems described here, is central to all operational activities of the NASA DSN. The frequency generation and distribution system provides ultra-stable, coherent, and very low phase-noise references at 5, l0, and 100 MHz to between 60 and 100 separate users at each Deep Space Communications Complex.

Tucker, Blake C.; Lauf, John E.; Hamell, Robert L.; Gonzaler, Jorge, Jr.; Diener, William A.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

2010-01-01

384

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOEpatents

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

1988-03-11

385

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOEpatents

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

386

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance Governance and Strategic Management Management Priorities and Challenges FY 2014 Performance Plan Update FY 2015 Performance Plan FY 2013 Annual Performance Report http://www.nasa.gov #12;Management

Waliser, Duane E.

387

Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Investments Within NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate has several investments in entry, descent and landing technologies, across its nine programs. This presentation will give a top-level view of the various investments.

Munk, M. M.

2014-06-01

388

Calibration of space instrumentation with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is Germany's national metrology institute providing scientific and technical services. For more than 20 years, PTB has used synchrotron radiation at the electron storage rings BESSY I and BESSY II for photon metrology in the spectral range from UV radiation to X-rays, e.g. for the calibration of radiation sources, detectors, and spectrometers as well as for the characterization of optical components. Most of the measurements are based on two different primary standards, electron storage rings as primary radiation source standards and cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers as primary detector standards. Many activities are related to radiometric calibrations of space-based instruments for extraterrestrial, solar, and astronomical missions. Outstanding examples have been the calibration of the SUMER and CDS spectrographs of the SOHO mission, X-ray detector calibrations for the X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton, and the calibration of Lyman-alpha detectors for the NASA satellites TWINS. This contribution presents examples from recent work, in particular within the framework of the ESA projects PROBA 2 and Solar Orbiter.

Richter, M.; Gottwald, A.; Scholze, F.; Schhle, U.; Ulm, G.

389

NASA Sees Orbiting Stars Flooding Space with Gravitational Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientist using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found evidence that two white dwarf stars are orbiting each other in a death grip, destined to merge. The data indicate that gravitational waves are carrying energy away from the star system at a prodigious rate - making it a prime candidate for future missions designed to directly detect these subtle ripples in space-time. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity predicts that a binary star system should emit gravitational waves, which rush away at the speed of light and cause the stars to move closer together. The orbital period of this system, known as RX J0806.3+1527, or J0806, is decreasing by 1.2 milliseconds every year, a rate consistent with theory. Animation of White Dwarfs Animation of White Dwarfs The white dwarf pair in J0806 might have the smallest orbit of any known binary system with the stars only about 50,000 miles apart, a fifth of the distance from the Earth to the Moon. As the stars swirl closer together, traveling in excess of a million miles per hour, the production of gravitational waves increases. "If confirmed, J0806 could be one of the brightest sources of gravitational waves in our Galaxy," said Tod Strohmayer of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center of Greenbelt, Md., who presents his results today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Minneapolis, Minn. "It could be among the first to be detected directly with an upcoming space mission called LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna." White dwarfs are remnants of stars like our Sun that have used up all their fuel. Along with neutron stars and black holes, white dwarfs are called compact objects because they pack a lot of mass into a small volume. The white dwarfs in the J0806 system each have an estimated mass half that of the Sun, yet are only about the size of Earth. Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Optical and X-ray observations of J0806 show periodic variations with a period of 321.5 seconds - barely more than five minutes. The observed five-minute period in J0806 is most likely the orbital period of the white dwarf system. However the possibility that it represents the spin of one of its white dwarfs cannot yet be completely ruled out. "It's either the most compact binary known or one of the most unusual systems we've ever seen," said Strohmayer. "Either way it's got a great story to tell." Strohmayer's Chandra X-ray observations, which will be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal, tighten orbital decay estimates made through optical observations in recent years independently by teams led by GianLuca Israel of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome and by Pasi Hakala of the University of Helsinki. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

2005-05-01

390

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in four areas that include Propulsion System Technologies (Electric and Chemical), Entry Vehicle Technologies (Aerocapture and Earth entry vehicles), Spacecraft Bus and Sample Return Propulsion Technologies (components and ascent vehicles), and Systems/Mission Analysis. Three technologies are ready for flight infusion: 1) the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance; 2) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 3) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; and aerothermal effect models. Two component technologies that will be ready for flight infusion in the near future will be Advanced Xenon Flow Control System, and ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies. Future focuses for ISPT are sample return missions and other spacecraft bus technologies like: 1) Mars Ascent Vehicles (MAV); 2) multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) for sample return missions; and 3) electric propulsion for sample return and low cost missions. These technologies are more vehicle-focused, and present a different set of technology infusion challenges. While the Systems/Mission Analysis area is focused on developing tools and assessing the application of propulsion technologies to a wide variety of mission concepts. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, and sample return missions currently under consideration, as well as having broad applicability to potential Flagship missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the ISPT program, describing the development status and technology infusion readiness of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of electric propulsion, aerocapture, Earth entry vehicles, propulsion components, Mars ascent vehicle, and mission/systems analysis.

Anderson, David J.; Pencil,Eric J.; Peterson, Todd; Vento, Daniel; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Dankanich, John W.

2012-01-01

391

Capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Revised 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Natural Environment Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the responsibility to provide natural environments engineering support to programs and projects. The Natural Environments Branch is responsible for natural environments definitions, modeling, database development, and analytical assessments of effects. Natural Environments Branch personnel develop requirements for flight projects and provide operational support for space and launch vehicle systems. To accomplish these responsibilities, models and analytical tools have been developed in the areas of planetary atmospheres, meteoroids, ionizing radiation, plasmas and ionospheres, magnetic and gravitational fields, spacecraft charging modeling, and radiation effects on electronic parts. This paper will build on a previous paper published in 2006 and provide updated descriptions of the capabilities within the Natural Environments Branch1. Updates describing improvements and new releases of several analytical tools and models will be presented. Separate sections will specifically describe modifications in the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), and the Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation (MSAFE) capabilities.

Edwards, David L.; Suggs, Rob; Roberts, Barry C.; Cooke, William J.

2009-01-01

392

76 FR 41307 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-064] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-07-13

393

Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low Earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

Tatro, Charles A.

1987-01-01

394

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

395

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

396

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

397

Mars Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost-effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is a critical design constraint and a potential 'show stopper'. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the agency's vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. The exposures from ionizing radiation - galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events - and optimized shield design for a swing-by and a long duration Mars mission have been investigated. It is found that the technology of today is inadequate for safe human missions to Mars, and revolutionary technologies need to be developed for long duration and/or deep space missions. The study will provide a guideline for radiation exposure and protection for long duration missions and career astronauts and their safety.

Tripathi, Ram K.; Nealy, John E.

2007-01-01

398

Capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Natural Environment Branch at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the responsibility to provide engineering support to programs and projects in natural environments. The Natural Environments Branch (EV13) is responsible for natural environments definitions, modelling, database development and effects assessments. EV13 personnel develop requirements for flight projects and provide operational support for space and launch vehicle systems. To accomplish these responsibilities, Branch . personnel have developed modelling and analytical tools which include planetary atmospheres, meteoroids, ionizing radiation, plasmas and ionospheres, magnetic and gravitational fields, spacecraft charging modelling, and radiation effects on electronic parts. NASA s Meteoroid Environment Office is operated within the EV13 and provides meteoroid engineering models and shower forecasts to spacecraft designers and operators. This paper will describe the capabilities within the Natural Environments Effects Branch including; examples of natural environment definitions, radiation transport, output from the Global Reference Atmosphere Models for Earth, Venus, Mars, Titan, and Neptune), recent NASCAP 2K results from solar sail modelling, and meteor stream models

Edwards, David L.; Suggs, Rob; Roberts, Barry C.

2006-01-01

399

NASA/BAE Systems SpaceWire Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments using Spacewire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements Spacewire in Register Transfer Level VHDL for a Spacewire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the Spacewire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for some spaceflight qualified FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented in their 0.25 micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS driver/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed Spacewire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for Spacewire has been identified by both NASA and ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach. The Transport layer needs to be implemented in hardware-to prevent bottlenecks.

Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

2003-01-01

400

Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

Lebo, George

2002-07-01

401

Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

2012-01-01

402

NASA GSFC's Role in the US Space Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discussss the GSFC research interests and how GSFC contributes to solve some of most basic questions Humans having been asking for thousands of years. How big is universe? How old is the universe? Will Humans and industrialization of the Earth change the climate significantly? Can Humans live in space? How does the Sun affect life on Earth? Goddard s role in Earth Science is very unique. We buy and build instruments that collect data about weather around the world. By flying those instruments on spacecraft, we have a unique vantage point to observe the weather patterns on a global scale. The best example is a satellite network called GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) which produces the weather pictures and videos you see on the nightly news and weather channel. Earth Science is another area of great interest to Goddard scientists and spacecraft designers. This photo of an oil fire in Iraq taken on March 2Ist of this year shows the down range effect pollution will have on entire region. Space Weather has become extremely important in the Space business. Satellites not only can become inoperable due to the occasional high level of radiation but astronauts can be exposed to dangerous levels of radiation. Space Weather is actually an issue when planning Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). At Goddard, our operation of the Hubble Space Telescope has meant we have worked closely with several Shuttle crews over the years.

Simpson, James E.

2004-01-01

403

NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

2008-01-01

404

Stennis Space Center marked a milestone in the development of NASA's J-2X engine  

E-print Network

-made satellite, Sputnik, into orbit around the earth and the space race began. As a small boy growing upStennis Space Center marked a milestone in the development of NASA's J-2X engine when Powerpack 1A Stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center. Tests of the components, known as Powerpack 1A, will be conduct

405

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explanatory Guide to the NASA Science Mission Directorate  

E-print Network

A: Key NASA Links B: Operating Principles of the NASA Space Science E/PO Support Network C of the Explanatory Guide To The Office Of Space Science Education & Public Outreach Evaluation Factors Version 3.0, (March 2004) to account for the merger of the Office of Space Science and the Office of Education

Christian, Eric

406

Thermal Protection Systems for Future NASA Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed first through fourth generation of future NASA Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) within NASA will be described, in general, along with their relative goals for improvement in performance (i.e., cost, safety, life, and turnaround time). A brief description of Spaceliner 100 activities representing a means to achieve those goals will be included. Some of the families of thermal protection materials with widely varying characteristics that are being developed for first generation space vehicles at Ames Research Center will be described as well as potential materials and composites for second and third generation applications as systems. These families of materials include functionally gradient material composites that are made from a variety of low-density substrates and moderate to fully dense surface treatments providing the resultant material with both toughness and higher temperature capability opening the envelope of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) capabilities. Some of the materials truly represent enabling technologies that are required to achieve substantially enhanced thermal protection system performance thereby reducing vehicle risk. Finally the needs for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of future vehicles thermal protection systems relative to achieving the goals for third generation reusable launch vehicles and for improving vehicle performance and capabilities reducing risk will be described along with the state of the art in TPS.

Leiser, Daniel B.; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

407

NASA space and Earth science data on CD-ROM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is very interested in facilitating the widest possible use of the scientific data acquired through NASA spaceflight missions. Therefore, NSSDC has participated with projects and data management elements throughout the NASA science environment in the creation, archiving, and dissemination of data using Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). This CD-ROM technology has the potential to enable the dissemination of very large data volumes at very low prices to a great many researchers, students and their teachers, and others. This catalog identifies and describes the scientific CD-ROM's now available from NSSDC including the following data sets: Einstein Observatory CD-ROM, Galileo Cruise Imaging on CD-ROM, International Halley Watch, IRAS Sky Survey Atlas, Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM), Magellan (MIDR), Magellan (ARCDR's), Magellan (GxDR's), Mars Digital Image Map (MDIM), Outer Planets Fields & Particles Data, Pre-Magellan, Selected Astronomical Catalogs, TOMS Gridded Ozone Data, TOMS Ozone Image Data, TOMS Update, Viking Orbiter Images of Mars, and Voyager Image.

Towheed, Syed S.

1993-01-01

408

High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA)s for use in reconfigurable architectures. As these component/chip level technologies mature, the RHESE project emphasis shifts to focus on efforts encompassing total processor hardening techniques and board-level electronic reconfiguration techniques featuring spare and interface modularity. This phased approach to distributing emphasis between technology developments provides hardened FPGA/FPAAs for early mission infusion, then migrates to hardened, board-level, high speed processors with associated memory elements and high density storage for the longer duration missions encountered for Lunar Outpost and Mars Exploration occurring later in the Constellation schedule.

Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

2007-01-01

409

NASA - Johnson Space Center: Office of Technology Transfer and Commercialization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnson Technology Commercialization Center (JTCC) opened in 1993 and is located close to the Johnson Space Center. The JTCC is funded by a grant from NASA and is managed by the IC2 Institute, an international research center for the study of Innovation, Creativity and Capital (ICC) at the University of Texas at Austin. Among its credits, the IC2 Institute manages the Austin Technology Incubator (ATI), a recognized resource for the development of emerging technology companies a model for JTCC. The IC2 introduced a a laboratory-to-market approach, utilized by JTCC, which takes technology output from JSC and matches it with accomplished business and financial partners in the local community. The final transfer can be the result of either of two primary methods, "Small Business Incubator Services" and technology licensing.

1997-01-01

410

Hardware Architecture Study for NASA's Space Software Defined Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study defines a hardware architecture approach for software defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radio frequency (RF) front-ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that comprise a typical communication radio. This paper describes the architecture details, module definitions, and the typical functions on each module as well as the module interfaces. Trade-offs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify the internal physical implementation within each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Andro, Monty; Smith, Carl; Liebetreu, John

2008-01-01

411

Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines-it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in April of 2006. Space logistics is a new concept that will have wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. What is it like to do something that no one has done before? What challenges do you face? What kind of organization do you put together to perform this type of task? How do you optimize your resources to procure what you need? How do you change a paradigm within a space agency? How do you coordinate and manage a one of a kind system with approximately 5,700 Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs)? How do you plan for preventive and corrective maintenance, when you need to procure spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors? How do you transport large sections of ISS hardware around the country? These are some of the topics discussed in this paper. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operation. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station and only time will tell if we did it right. This paper discusses some of the experiences of the author after working 12 years on the International Space Station's integrated logistics & maintenance program. From his early days as a contractor supportability engineer and manager, to the NASA manager responsible for the entire ISS Logistics and Maintenance program. .

Butina, Anthony J.

2001-02-01

412

Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS-121 space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation impact to astronauts depends on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk experienced by astronauts can be determined with the radiation LET spectrum measured and the risk response function obtained from radiobiology. Systematical measurement of the space radiation is an important part for the research on the impact of radiation to astronauts and to make the radiation ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). For NASA space missions at low Earth orbit (LEO), the active dosimeter used for all LET is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the passive dosimeters used for the astronauts and for the monitored areas are the combination of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLDs) for low LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs were used to measure the radiation during STS-121 space mission. LET spectra and radiation quantities were obtained with active and passive dosimeters. This paper will introduce the physical principles for TEPC and CR-39 detectors, the LET spectrum method for radiation measurement using CR-39 detectors and TEPC, and will present and compare the radiation LET spectra and quantities measured with TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs.

Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Rutledge, R.; Lin, T.

2009-02-01

413

NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (<0.2 Gy), and for increased tumor lethality due to the propensity for higher rates of metastatic tumors from high LET radiation suggested by animal experiments. The NSCR-2014 model considers how these qualitative differences modify the overall probability distribution functions (PDF) for cancer mortality risk estimates from space radiation. Predictions of NSCR-2014 for International Space Station missions and Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

Cucinotta, Francis

414

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2014-01-01

415

Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

Rodenberg, H.; Myers, K. J.

1995-01-01

416

Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the Space Shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed as an engineering tool to aid in making premission radiation dose calculations and is discussed in detail. The anatomical man models are also discussed. A comparison between the onboard dosimeter measurements for the 24 Shuttle missions to date and the dose calculations using the radiation environment and shielding models is presented.

Atwell, William; Beever, E. R.; Hardy, A. C.; Richmond, R. G.; Cash, B. L.

1989-01-01

417

www.nasa.gov SpaceX CRS-1 Mission Press Kit  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov #12;1 SpaceX CRS-1 Mission Press Kit CONTENTS 3 Mission Overview 7 Mission Timeline 9 and Communications 310-463-0794 (c) Katherine.Nelson@spacex.com media@spacex.com NASA PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS Trent Perrotto Public Affairs Officer Human Exploration and Operations NASA Headquarters 202-358-1100 Jenny

418

NASA ADMINISTRATOR CALLS CONGRESSIONAL VOTE AN IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD IN SPACE EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

Administrator Charles Bolden issued the following statement: "Today, a historic vote will occur in the HouseNASA ADMINISTRATOR CALLS CONGRESSIONAL VOTE AN IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD IN SPACE EXPLORATION NASA of Representatives on a comprehensive NASA authorization bill that is expected to chart the future course of human

419

Remarks by NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Washington Space Business Roundtable  

E-print Network

Remarks by NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Washington Space Business Roundtable Satellite's my pleasure to be with you during the Roundtable's 25th year to talk with you about NASA's future partners. I can tell you that there was tremendous excitement about NASA's plans at the meeting, most

Waliser, Duane E.

420

Research in space-age materials takes off with support from NASA  

E-print Network

Research in space-age materials takes off with support from NASA Steven Schultz Princeton NJ and reliable airplanes and spacecraft. NASA will fund the project with at least $3 million a year for up to 10 institute operated at the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia. In addition to conducting basic research

Aksay, Ilhan A.

421

NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Education, Aeronautics, Space, Autonomy, Earth and Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This first volume of the Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE) Center Press Series on NASA University Research Center's (URC's) Advanced Technologies on Space Exploration and National Service constitute a report on the research papers and presentations delivered by NASA Installations and industry and Report of the NASA's fourteen URC's held at the First National Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico from February 16-19, 1997.

Jamshidi, M. (Editor); Lumia, R. (Editor); Tunstel, E., Jr. (Editor); White, B. (Editor); Malone, J. (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor)

1997-01-01

422

NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the creation of chemical elements such as oxygen through nuclear reactions in their cores. Such observations also help reveal how the interstellar medium (the gas that occupies the vast spaces between the stars) is enriched with chemical elements because of supernova explosions. Later on, these elements are incorporated into new generations of stars and their accompanying planets. Visible only from Earth's southern hemisphere, the LMC is an irregular galaxy lying about 160,000 light-years from the Milky Way. The supernova remnant appears to be about 3,000 years old, but since its light took 160,000 years to reach us, the explosion actually occurred some 163,000 years ago. This composite image of N132D was created by the Hubble Heritage team from visible-light data taken in January 2004 with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys, and X-ray images obtained in July 2000 by Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This marks the first Hubble Heritage image that combines pictures taken by two separate space observatories. The Hubble data include color filters that sample starlight in the blue, green, and red portions of the spectrum, as well as the pink emission from glowing hydrogen gas. The Chandra data are assigned blue in the color composite, in accordance with the much higher energy of the X-rays, emitted from extremely hot gas. This gas does not emit a significant amount of optical light, and was only detected by Chandra. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J.C. Green (Univ. of Colorado) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) GTO team; NASA/CXO/SAO Electronic image files, video, illustrations and additional information are available at: http://hubblesite.org/news/2005/30 http://heritage.stsci.edu/2005/30 The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Ag

2005-10-01

423

Space Radiation Risk Limits and Earth-Moon-Mars Environmental Models  

E-print Network

, the radiation exposures that astronauts face change to include higher exposure to the full galactic cosmic raySpace Radiation Risk Limits and Earth-Moon-Mars Environmental Models Francis A. Cucinotta1-2300 ltownsen@tennessee.edu #12;2 Abstract: We review NASA's short-term and career radiation limits

Pringle, James "Jamie"

424

Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is a risky enterprise. Rockets launch astronauts at enormous speeds into a harsh, unforgiving environment. Spacecraft must withstand the bitter cold of space and the blistering heat of reentry. Their skin must be strong enough to keep the inside comfortably pressurized and tough enough to resist damage from micrometeoroids. Spacecraft meant for lunar or planetary landings must survive the jar of landing, tolerate dust, and be able to take off again. For astronauts, however, there is one danger in space that does not end when they step out of their spacecraft. The radiation that permeates space -- unattenuated by Earth s atmosphere and magnetosphere -- may damage or kill cells within astronauts bodies, resulting in cancer or other health consequences years after a mission ends. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently embarked on Project Constellation to implement the Vision for Space Exploration -- a program announced by President George W. Bush in 2004 with the goal of returning humans to the Moon and eventually transporting them to Mars. To adequately prepare for the safety of these future space explorers, NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate requested that the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council establish a committee to evaluate the radiation shielding requirements for lunar missions and to recommend a strategic plan for developing the radiation mitigation capabilities needed to enable the planned lunar mission architecture

2008-01-01

425

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

ViewSTEREO Observatories Presented to Goddard Employees Pg 2 Themis Mission to Study Northern Lights Pg 5 NASA Deputy Factory Solves 25-Year-Old Mystery of Impossible Dust - 4 Themis Mission to Study Northern Lights - 5 NASA

Christian, Eric

426

The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences.  

PubMed

High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours. PMID:11537652

Gurkin, L W

1992-10-01

427

The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

Gurkin, L. W.

1992-01-01

428

Status of Thermal NDT of Space Shuttle Materials at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on improving advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter s wing leading edge and nose cap. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Details of the analysis technique that has been developed to allow insitu inspection of a majority of shuttle RCC components is discussed. Additionally, validation testing, performed to quantify the performance of the system, will be discussed. Finally, the results of applying this technology to the Space Shuttle Discovery after its return from the STS-114 mission in July 2005 are discussed.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.; Hodges, Kenneth; Koshti, Ajay; Ryan, Daniel; Reinhardt, Walter W.

2007-01-01

429

Status of Thermal NDT of Space Shuttle Materials at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on improving advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter's wing leading edge and nose cap. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Details of the analysis technique that has been developed to allow insitu inspection of a majority of shuttle RCC components is discussed. Additionally, validation testing, performed to quantify the performance of the system, will be discussed. Finally, the results of applying this technology to the Space Shuttle Discovery after its return from the STS-114 mission in July 2005 are discussed.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.; Hodges, Kenneth; Koshti, Ajay; Ryan, Daniel; Rweinhardt, Walter W.

2006-01-01

430

Status of Thermal NDT of Space Shuttle Materials at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on improving advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter's wing leading edge and nose cap. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Details of the analysis technique that has been developed to allow insitu inspection of a majority of shuttle RCC components is discussed. Additionally, validation testing, performed to quantify the performance of the system, will be discussed. Finally, the results of applying this technology to the Space Shuttle Discovery after its return from the STS-114 mission in July 2005 are discussed.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.; Hodges, Kenneth; Koshti, Ajay; Ryan, Daniel; Reinhardt, Walter W.

2006-01-01

431

The Electrostatic Levitation Facility at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing is an important area of research in materials science. Electrostatic levitation (ESL) represents an emerging technology which permits containerless processing in a vacuum environment. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) established a levitation facility to provide a critical resource to the microgravity materials science research community to continue and enhance ground-based research in the support of the development of flight experiments during the transition to Space Station. During ESL processing, charged specimens are levitated in the electrostatic field produced by the system's electrodes. Three sets of positioning electrodes represent the heart of the MSFC system. Two dual-axis position sensitive detectors provide input for the PID control-loop computer. Sample position is maintained by adjusting the control voltages for the power supplies of the positioning electrodes. A UV source refreshes the charge on specimens during processing via the photoelectric effect. Lasers permit sample heating independent of positioning. The processing chamber typically operates under vacuum condition approximately = 10(exp -7) Torr. Electrostatic levitation provides a materials science research tool for investigations of refractory solids and melts. Topics of investigation include thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable phase formation, undercooling and nucleation, time-temperature-transformation diagrams and other aspects of materials processing. Current capabilities and recent results of processing studies for metals, alloys and oxides will be reviewed.

Rogers, Jan R.; Hyers, Robert W.; Savage, Larry; Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

432

Hybrid vision activities at NASA Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, is active in several aspects of hybrid image processing. (The term hybrid image processing refers to a system that combines digital and photonic processing). The major thrusts are autonomous space operations such as planetary landing, servicing, and rendezvous and docking. By processing images in non-Cartesian geometries to achieve shift invariance to canonical distortions, researchers use certain aspects of the human visual system for machine vision. That technology flow is bidirectional; researchers are investigating the possible utility of video-rate coordinate transformations for human low-vision patients. Man-in-the-loop teleoperations are also supported by the use of video-rate image-coordinate transformations, as researchers plan to use bandwidth compression tailored to the varying spatial acuity of the human operator. Technological elements being developed in the program include upgraded spatial light modulators, real-time coordinate transformations in video imagery, synthetic filters that robustly allow estimation of object pose parameters, convolutionally blurred filters that have continuously selectable invariance to such image changes as magnification and rotation, and optimization of optical correlation done with spatial light modulators that have limited range and couple both phase and amplitude in their response.

Juday, Richard D.

1990-01-01

433

Advances in Space Transportation Technology Toward the NASA Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has set goals to increase safety by one hundred times while reducing cost tenfold over the next decade. This dramatic increase in safety will come by departing from a past emphasis on cost and performance to a new paradigm of safety and reliability, which, in turn, will drive down cost. To accomplish this, vehicle systems must be inherently reliable, functionally redundant wherever practical and designed to minimize or eliminate catastrophic failure modes. Over the next twenty-five years, NASA has set goals to increase safety ten thousand times while reducing cost one hundred fold. Safety will increase towards today's airline safety and the low price per flight has the potential to enable a 15-fold increase in the size of the current projected space launch market. This level of improvement is comparable to the developments in the 1970s in the computer microprocessor when microchips went from hundreds of thousands to tens of thousands of dollars - hailing the era of the personal computer. In order to achieve such ambitious cost goals, today's partial and fully expendable rockets must be replaced by fully reusable systems. A RLV can eliminate assembly and checkout of the large number of complex interfaces on today's Space Shuttle. Full reusability will eliminate the necessity to throw away expensive hardware and the need for on-going production. Systems in ten years will have to accommodate 50 to 100 missions per year and could be commercially certified for hundreds of flights. In twenty-five years, the number of flights per year could jump to over 1,000, which will require certification for thousands of flights. The large increase in flights per year will demand that current operations and maintenance procedures be revolutionized. Unlike the current shuttle, which requires several thousand personnel over five months to process, the next generation system must be turned around in one week with less than one hundred personnel. In contrast to the rigorous disassembly and inspections required for the Space Shuttle's subsystems, the next generation vehicle's on-board health monitoring systems will could tell the ground crews which systems need replacement before landing. In twenty-five years, vehicles will be re-flown within one with crews numbering less than one hundred. Fully automated ground processing systems must require only a handful of personnel to launch the vehicle. Due to the increased intelligence of on-board systems, only cursory walk-around inspections would be required between flights An assessment of the progress in breakthrough technologies toward these goals by the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program is presented. These breakthrough technologies include combined rocket and air breathing propulsion, high strength lightweight structures, high temperature materials, vehicle health management, and flight operations.

Lyles, Garry M.

2000-01-01

434

Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

1994-01-01

435

Space Station - Infrastructure for radiation measurements in low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general configuration, development schedule, and capabilities of the NASA International Space Station are reviewed, with an emphasis on the possibilities for long-term measurements of high-energy cosmic and secondary radiation from the main Station spacecraft, coorbiting or polar-orbit platforms, or Station-supported GEO satellites. Also outlined are the organizational structure and the application procedures to be followed by potential users of the Station facilities. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

Meredith, B. D.

1989-01-01

436

The Space Shuttle Decision: NASA's Search for a Reusable Space Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This significant new study of the decision to build the Space Shuttle explains the Shuttle's origins and early development. In addition to internal NASA discussions, this work details the debates in the late 1960s and early 1970s among policymakers in Congress, the Air Force, and the Office of Management and Budget over the roles and technical designs of the Shuttle. Examining the interplay of these organizations with sometimes conflicting goals, the author not only explains how the world's premier space launch vehicle came into being, but also how politics can interact with science, technology, national security, and economics in national government. The weighty policy decision to build the Shuttle represents the first component of the broader story: future NASA volumes will cover the Shuttle's development and operational histories.

Heppenheimer, T. A.

1999-01-01

437

Overview of HZETRN and BRNTRN Space Radiation Shielding Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Radiation Health Program has supported basic research over the last decade in radiation physics to develop ionizing radiation transport codes and corresponding data bases for the protection of astronauts from galactic and solar cosmic rays on future deep space missions. The codes describe the interactions of the incident radiations with shield materials where their content is modified by the atomic and nuclear reactions through which high energy heavy ions are fragmented into less massive reaction products and reaction products are produced as radiations as direct knockout of shield constituents or produced as de-excitation products in the reactions. This defines the radiation fields to which specific devices are subjected onboard a spacecraft. Similar reactions occur in the device itself which is the initiating event for the device response. An overview of the computational procedures and data base with some applications to photonic and data processing devices will be given.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.; Badavi, F. F.

1997-01-01

438

NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts of  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

2001-01-01

439

The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and