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Sample records for nasa space radiation

  1. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  2. Genesis of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2016-06-01

    A personal recollection of events leading up to the construction and commissioning of NSRL, including reference to precursor facilities and the development of the NASA Space Radiation Program. PMID:27345197

  3. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Sulzman, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Health Program is a part of the Life Sciences Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The goal of the Space Radiation Health Program is development of scientific bases for assuring adequate radiation protection in space. A proposed research program will determine long-term health risks from exposure to cosmic rays and other radiation. Ground-based animal models will be used to predict risk of exposures at varying levels from various sources and the safe levels for manned space flight.

  4. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  5. Overview of the NASA Space Radiation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Nelson, Greg; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long-duration, manned space missions. Outside the Earth’s protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high-energy, high-charge (HZE) particles as well as high-energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. Understanding the quantitative and qualitative differences in biological responses produced by galactic cosmic radiation compared to Earth-based radiation is imperative for accurate risk mitigation and is a major focus of the NASA Space Radiation Program’s research strategy. The main health risks of concern are epithelial carcinogenesis and leukemias, central nervous system effects that may result in acute (in-flight) cognitive impairment and/or late neurological disorders, degenerative tissue effects including circulatory and heart disease, and the possibility of acute radiation syndromes resulting from an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Space Radiation Program is focused on the characterization and mitigation of these health risks and understanding possible interactions with other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this presentation, evidence for health risks associated with heavy ion exposure will be presented.

  6. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment is to attempt to reproduce the unmodified, external GCR spectrum at a ground based accelerator. A possibly better approach would use the modified, shielded tissue spectrum, to select accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. NASA plans for implementation of a GCR simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will be discussed.

  7. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  8. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  9. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven. PMID:27345198

  10. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  11. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The results of these workshops will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Norbury, John W; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C; Azzam, Edouard I; Badavi, Francis F; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A; Blattnig, Steve R; Boothman, David A; Borak, Thomas B; Britten, Richard A; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S; Eisch, Amelia J; Robin Elgart, S; Goodhead, Dudley T; Guida, Peter M; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Hellweg, Christine E; Huff, Janice L; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A; Norman, Ryan B; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C; Story, Michael D; Turker, Mitchell S; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J

    2016-02-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  13. NASA Space Radiation Risk Project: Overview and Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Chappell, Lori J.; George, Kerry A.; Hada, Megumi; Hu, Shaowen; Kidane, Yared H.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Kovyrshina, Tatiana; Norman, Ryan B.; Nounu, Hatem N.; Peterson, Leif E.; Plante, Ianik; Pluth, Janice M.; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Scott Carnell, Lisa A.; Slaba, Tony C.; Sridharan, Deepa; Xu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Risk project is responsible for integrating new experimental and computational results into models to predict risk of cancer and acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for use in mission planning and systems design, as well as current space operations. The project has several parallel efforts focused on proving NASA's radiation risk projection capability in both the near and long term. This presentation will give an overview, with select results from these efforts including the following topics: verification, validation, and streamlining the transition of models to use in decision making; relative biological effectiveness and dose rate effect estimation using a combination of stochastic track structure simulations, DNA damage model calculations and experimental data; ARS model improvements; pathway analysis from gene expression data sets; solar particle event probabilistic exposure calculation including correlated uncertainties for use in design optimization.

  14. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  15. Technical developments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, D I; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a center for space radiation research in both the life and physical sciences. BNL is a multidisciplinary research facility operated for the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNL scientific research portfolio supports a large and diverse science and technology program including research in nuclear and high-energy physics, material science, chemistry, biology, medial science, and nuclear safeguards and security. NSRL, in operation since July 2003, is an accelerator-based facility which provides particle beams for radiobiology and physics studies (Lowenstein in Phys Med 17(supplement 1):26-29 2001). The program focus is to measure the risks and to ameliorate the effects of radiation encountered in space, both in low earth orbit and extended missions beyond the earth. The particle beams are produced by the Booster synchrotron, an accelerator that makes up part of the injector sequence of the DOE nuclear physics program's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Ion species from protons to gold are presently available, at energies ranging from <100 to >1,000 MeV/n. The NSRL facility has recently brought into operation the ability to rapidly switch species and beam energy to supply a varied spectrum onto a given specimen. A summary of past operation performance, plans for future operations and recent and planned hardware upgrades will be described. PMID:17211657

  16. The NASA Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Coss, J.; Nichols, D.; Shaw, D.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to assist NASA in the selection of radiation hardened microelectronic parts for insertion in NASA space systems through radiation testing and research. Prior to presenting examples of the research and testing on Single Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, the space radiation environment and radiation requirements for the CRAFT/Cassini program, a typical JPL space project, are discussed.

  17. GCR Simulator Development Status at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, T. C.; Norbury, J. W.; Blattnig, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are large uncertainties connected to the biological response for exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on long duration deep space missions. In order to reduce the uncertainties and gain understanding about the basic mechanisms through which space radiation initiates cancer and other endpoints, radiobiology experiments are performed with mono-energetic ions beams. Some of the accelerator facilities supporting such experiments have matured to a point where simulating the broad range of particles and energies characteristic of the GCR environment in a single experiment is feasible from a technology, usage, and cost perspective. In this work, several aspects of simulating the GCR environment at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) are discussed. First, comparisons are made between direct simulation of the external, free space GCR field, and simulation of the induced tissue field behind shielding. It is found that upper energy constraints at NSRL limit the ability to simulate the external, free space field directly (i.e. shielding placed in the beam line in front of a biological target and exposed to a free space spectrum). Second, a reference environment for the GCR simulator and suitable for deep space missions is identified and described in terms of fluence and integrated dosimetric quantities. Analysis results are given to justify the use of a single reference field over a range of shielding conditions and solar activities. Third, an approach for simulating the reference field at NSRL is presented. The approach directly considers the hydrogen and helium energy spectra, and the heavier ions are collectively represented by considering the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. While many more aspects of the experimental setup need to be considered before final implementation of the GCR simulator, this preliminary study provides useful information that should aid the final design. Possible drawbacks of the proposed methodology are discussed and weighed

  18. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  19. Fall 2015 NASA Internship, and Space Radiation Health Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patience, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This fall, I was fortunate enough to have been able to participate in an internship at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. I was placed into the Human Health & Performance Directorate, where I was specifically tasked to work with Dr. Zarana Patel, researching the impacts of cosmic level radiation on human cells. Using different laboratory techniques, we were able to examine the cells to see if any damage had been done due to radiation exposure, and if so, how much damage was done. Cell culture samples were exposed at different doses, and fixed at different time points so that we could accumulate a large pool of quantifiable data. After examining quantifiable results relative to the impacts of space radiation on the human body at the cellular and chromosomal level, researchers can defer to different areas of the space program that have to do with astronaut safety, and research and development (extravehicular mobility unit construction, vehicle design and construction, etc.). This experience has been very eye-opening, and I was able to learn quite a bit. I learned some new laboratory techniques, and I did my best to try and learn new ways to balance such a hectic work and school schedule. I also learned some very intimate thing about working at NASA; I learned that far more people want to watch you succeed, rather than watch you fail, and I also learned that this is a place that is alive with innovators and explorers - people who have a sole purpose of exploring space for the betterment of humanity, and not for any other reason. It's truly inspiring. All of these experiences during my internship have impacted me in a really profound way, so much that my educational and career goals are completely different than when I started. I started out as a biotechnology major, and I discovered recently toward the end of the internship, that I don't want to work in a lab, nor was I as enthralled by biological life sciences as a believed myself to be. Taking that all into

  20. RESULTS OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY BEAM STUDIES PROGRAM AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. The purpose of the NSRL Beam Studies Program is to develop a clear understanding of the beams delivered to the facility, to fully characterize those beams, and to develop new capabilities in the interest of understanding the radiation environment in space. In this report we will describe the first results from this program.

  1. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

    2007-01-01

    In space, astronauts are constantly bombarded with energetic particles. The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the NASA Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. Among the identified radiation risks are cancer, acute and late CNS damage, chronic and degenerative tissue decease, and acute radiation syndrome. The term "safely" means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences can be defined. The NASA Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting the identified radiation risks. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus, the fourth element develops computer algorithms to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining

  2. A Review of NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the RHESE technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of these advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the plans for the coming year.

  3. EVENT DRIVEN AUTOMATIC STATE MODIFICATION OF BNL'S BOOSTER FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY SOLAR PARTICLE SIMULATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, D.; BINELLO, S.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2005-05-16

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests.

  4. The Space Radiation Environment and Its Implication for Designing Reliable Electronic Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The contents include the following: The space radiation environment. The effects on electronics. The environment in action NASA approaches to commercial electronics: flight projects; and proactive research. Living with a star space environment testbed status. Final thoughts: atomic interactions; direct ionization; interaction with nucleus.

  5. International Collaboration for Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam; Durante, Marco; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    An international collaboration on Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) simulation is being formed to make recommendations on how to best simulate the GCR spectrum at ground based accelerators. The external GCR spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The anticipated outcome of these and other studies may be a report or journal article, written by an international collaboration, making accelerator beam recommendations for GCR simulation. This poster describes the status of GCR simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and encourages others to join the collaboration.

  6. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described. PMID:25551493

  7. Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speth, Randall C.

    1998-01-01

    In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

  8. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

  9. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for

  10. NASA Crew Personal Active Dosimeters (CPADs): Leveraging Novel Terrestrial Personal Radiation Monitoring Capabilities for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitgab, Martin; Semones, Edward; Lee, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) is developing novel Crew Personal Active Dosimeters (CAPDs) for upcoming crewed space exploration missions and beyond. To reduce the resource footprint of the project a COTS dosimeter base is used for the development of CPADs. This base was identified from evaluations of existing COTS personal dosimeters against the concept of operations of future crewed missions and tests against detection requirements for radiation characteristic of the space environment. CPADs exploit operations efficiencies from novel features for space flight personal dosimeters such as real-time dose feedback, and autonomous measuring and data transmission capabilities. Preliminary CPAD design, results of radiation testing and aspects of operational integration will be presented.

  11. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model1 reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties--2010 . The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables. The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as

  12. RESULTS OF THE FIRST RUN OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BRENNAN,J.M.ET. AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The results of commissioning of this new facility were reported in [l]. In this report we will describe the results of the first run. The NSRL is capable of making use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. Many modes of operation were explored during the first run, demonstrating all the capabilities designed into the system. Heavy ion intensities from 100 particles per pulse up to 12 x 10{sup 9} particles per pulse were delivered to a large variety of experiments, providing a dose range up to 70 Gy/min over a 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} area. Results presented will include those related to the production of beams that are highly uniform in both the transverse and longitudinal planes of motion [2].

  13. BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

    2003-05-12

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

  14. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  15. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

  16. NASA Radiation Track Image GUI for Assessing Space Radiation Biological Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    The high-charge high-energy (HZE) ion components of the galactic cosmic rays when compared to terrestrial forms of radiations present unique challenges to biological systems. In this paper we present a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) breakage model to visualize and analyze the impact of chromatin domains and DNA loops on clustering of DNA damage from X rays, protons, and HZE ions. Our model of DNA breakage is based on a stochastic process of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formulation that includes the amorphous model of the radiation track and a polymer model of DNA packed in the cell nucleus. Our model is a Monte-Carlo simulation based on a randomly located DSB cluster formulation that accomodates both high- and low-linear energy transfer radiations. We demonstrate that HZE ions have a strong impact on DSB clustering, both along the chromosome length and in the nucleus volume. The effects of chromosomal domains and DNA loops on the DSB fragment-size distribution and the spatial distribution of DSB in the nucleus were studied. We compare our model predictions with the spatial distribution of DSB obtained from experiments. The implications of our model predictions for radiation protection are discussed.

  17. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  18. NASA's Space Grant program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. Julius

    1990-01-01

    Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

  19. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  20. Robust, Radiation Tolerant Command and Data Handling and Power System Electronics from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hanson C.; Fraction, James; Ortiz-Acosta, Melyane; Dakermanji, George; Kercheval, Bradford P.; Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Kim, David S.; Jung, David S.; Meyer, Steven E.; Mallik, Udayan; Rush, Kurt D.; Farid, Faramarz; Olsen, James C.; Sparacino, Pietro A.

    2016-01-01

    The Goddard Modular Smallsat Architecture (GMSA) is developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to address future reliability along with minimizing cost and schedule challenges for NASA Cubesat and Smallsat missions.

  1. NASA Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirements that NASA has for the medical service of a crew returning to earth after long duration space flight. The scenarios predicate a water landing. Two scenarios are reviewed that outline the ship-board medical operations team and the ship board science reseach team. A schedule for the each crew upon landing is posited for each of scenarios. The requirement for a heliport on board the ship is reviewed and is on the requirement for a helicopter to return the Astronauts to the Baseline Data Collection Facility (BDCF). The ideal is to integrate the medical and science requirements, to minimize the risks and Inconveniences to the returning astronauts. The medical support that is required for all astronauts returning from long duration space flight (30 days or more) is reviewed. The personnel required to support the team is outlined. The recommendations for medical operations and science research for crew support are stated.

  2. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  3. NASA space materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Tompkins, S. S.; Sykes, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the space environment on: (1) thermal control coatings and thin polymer films; (2) radiation stability of 250 F and 350 F cured graphite/epoxy composites; and (3) the thermal mechanical stability of graphite/epoxy, graphite/glass composites are considered. Degradation in mechanical properties due to combined radiation and thermal cycling is highlighted. Damage mechanisms are presented and chemistry modifications to improve stability are suggested. The dimensional instabilities in graphite/epoxy composites associated with microcracking during thermal cycling is examined as well as the thermal strain hysteresis found in metal-matrix composites.

  4. A NASA Perspective and Validation and Testing of Design Hardening for the Natural Space Radiation Environment (GOMAC Tech 03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John H. (Technical Monitor); LaBel, Kenneth A.; Howard, James W.; Carts, Martin A.; Seidleck, Christine

    2003-01-01

    With the dearth of dedicated radiation hardened foundries, new and novel techniques are being developed for hardening designs using non-dedicated foundry services. In this paper, we will discuss the implications of validating these methods for the natural space radiation environment issues: total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE). Topics of discussion include: Types of tests that are required, Design coverage (i.e., design libraries: do they need validating for each application?) A new task within NASA to compare existing design. This latter task is a new effort in FY03 utilizing a 8051 microcontroller core from multiple design hardening developers as a test vehicle to evaluate each mitigative technique.

  5. NASA space biology accomplishments, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, T. W.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries of NASA's Space Biology Program projects are provided. The goals, objectives, accomplishments, and future plans of each project are described in this publication as individual technical summaries.

  6. From mice and men to earth and space: joint NASA-NCI workshop on lung cancer risk resulting from space and terrestrial radiation.

    PubMed

    Shay, Jerry W; Cucinotta, Francis A; Sulzman, Frank M; Coleman, C Norman; Minna, John D

    2011-11-15

    On June 27-28, 2011, scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NASA, and academia met in Bethesda to discuss major lung cancer issues confronting each organization. For NASA, available data suggest that lung cancer is the largest potential cancer risk from space travel for both men and women and quantitative risk assessment information for mission planning is needed. In space, the radiation risk is from high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei (such as Fe) and high-energy protons from solar flares and not from gamma radiation. In contrast, the NCI is endeavoring to estimate the increased lung cancer risk from the potential widespread implementation of computed tomographic (CT) screening in individuals at high risk for developing lung cancer based on the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST). For the latter, exposure will be X-rays from CT scans from the screening (which uses "low-dose" CT scans) and also from follow-up scans used to evaluate abnormalities found during initial screening. Topics discussed included the risk of lung cancer arising after HZE particle, proton, and low-dose exposure to Earth's radiation. The workshop examined preclinical models, epidemiology, molecular markers, "omics" technology, radiobiology issues, and lung stem cells that relate to the development of lung cancer. PMID:21900398

  7. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  8. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-09-01

    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. PMID:25883309

  9. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  10. NASA's approach to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, Isaac T., IV

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Office of Commercial Programs fosters private participation in commercially oriented space projects. Five Centers for the Commercial Development of Space encourage new ideas and perform research which may yield commercial processes and products for space ventures. Joint agreements allow companies who present ideas to NASA and provide flight hardware access to a free launch and return from orbit. The experimenters furnish NASA with sufficient data to demonstrate the significance of the results. Ground-based tests are arranged for smaller companies to test the feasibility of concepts before committing to the costs of developing hardware. Joint studies of mutual interest are performed by NASA and private sector researchers, and two companies have signed agreements for a series of flights in which launch costs are stretched out to meet projected income. Although Shuttle flights went on hold following the Challenger disaster, extensive work continues on the preparation of commercial research payloads that will fly when Shuttle flights resume.

  11. NASA space information systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dana L.

    1987-01-01

    A major objective of NASA space missions is the gathering of information that when analyzed, compared, and interpreted furthers man's knowledge of his planet and surrounding universe. A space information system is the combination of data gathering, data processing, and data transport capabilities that interact to provide the underlying services that enable that advancement in understanding. Past space projects have been characterized by rather disjoint data systems that often did not satisfy user requirements. NASA has learned from those experiences, however, and now is conceptualizing a new generation of sophisticated, integrated space information systems suitable to the wide range of near future space endeavors. This paper examines the characteristics of recent data systems and, based upon that characterization, outlines the scope and attributes of future systems. A description if offered of the information system for the Space Station Program as one real example of such advanced capabilities.

  12. Space Debris Modeling at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOLVE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been released with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NASA Safety Standard 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the

  13. NASA - Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  14. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, E.

    Evaluation of potential health effects from radiation exposure during and after deep space travel is important for the future of manned missions To date manned missions have been limited to near-Earth orbits with the moon our farthest distance from earth Historical space radiation career exposures for astronauts from all NASA Missions show that early missions involved total exposures of less than about 20 mSv With the advent of Skylab and Mir total career exposure levels increased to a maximum of nearly 200 mSv Missions in deep space with the requisite longer duration of the missions planned may pose greater risks due to the increased potential for exposure to complex radiation fields comprised of a broad range of radiation types and energies from cosmic and unpredictable solar sources The first steps in the evaluation of risks are underway with bio- and physical-dosimetric measurements on both commercial flight personnel and international space crews who have experience on near-earth orbits and the necessary theoretical modeling of particle-track traversal per cell including the contributing effects of delta-rays in particle exposures An assumption for biologic effects due to exposure of radiation in deep space is that they differ quantitatively and qualitatively from that on earth The dose deposition and density pattern of heavy charged particles are very different from those of sparsely ionizing radiation The potential risks resulting from exposure to radiation in deep space are cancer non-cancer and genetic effects Radiation from

  15. Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

  16. NASA Space Laser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next two decades, the number of space based laser missions for mapping, spectroscopy, remote sensing and other scientific investigations will increase several fold. The demand for high wall-plug efficiency, low noise, narrow linewidth laser systems to meet different systems requirements that can reliably operate over the life of a mission will be high. The general trends will be for spatial quality very close to the diffraction limit, improved spectral performance, increased wall-plug efficiency and multi-beam processing. Improved spectral performance will include narrower spectral width (very near the transform limit), increased wavelength stability and or tuning (depending on application) and lasers reaching a wider range of wavelengths stretching into the mid-infrared and the near ultraviolet. We are actively developing high efficiency laser transmitter and high-sensitivity laser receiver systems that are suitable for spaceborne applications.

  17. NASA Programs in Space Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.

  18. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Chris; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. This presentation will address the SLS challenges, along with the analysis and decisions to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  19. Space debris modeling at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-10-01

    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOVLE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard (NSS) 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been completed with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NSS 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the application of

  20. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  1. The NASA Space Biology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the research conducted under the auspices of the NASA Space Biology Program. The objectives of this Program include the determination of how gravity affects and how it has shaped life on earth, the use of gravity as a tool to investigate relevant biological questions, and obtaining an understanding of how near-weightlessness affects both plants and animals in order to enhance the capability to use and explore space. Several areas of current developmental research are discussed and the future focus of the Program is considered.

  2. NASA's first dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Harry G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a robotic device that can be teleoperated under constant command of a human operator or run by itself under human supervision. Plans call for the FTS to assist the astronauts in the assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection of Space Station Freedom. The FTS project is driven by five major objectives: to reduce Space Station dependence on crew EVA, improve crew safety, enhance crew utilization, promote remote servicing capabilities for platforms, and accelerate technology transfer from research to U.S. industry. Another part of the FTS project is a ground system that will support operations and system evolution. Not only will the FTS provide a needed operational capability during the assembly and operation of Space Station Freedom, it will also provide an expanding foundation for proving more advanced robotic and telepresence concepts in space.

  3. The NASA Space Radiobiology Risk Assessment Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice; Ponomarev, Artem; Patel, Zarana; Kim, Myung-Hee

    The current first phase (2006-2011) has the three major goals of: 1) optimizing the conventional cancer risk models currently used based on the double-detriment life-table and radiation quality functions; 2) the integration of biophysical models of acute radiation syndromes; and 3) the development of new systems radiation biology models of cancer processes. The first-phase also includes continued uncertainty assessment of space radiation environmental models and transport codes, and relative biological effectiveness factors (RBE) based on flight data and NSRL results, respectively. The second phase of the (2012-2016) will: 1) develop biophysical models of central nervous system risks (CNS); 2) achieve comphrensive systems biology models of cancer processes using data from proton and heavy ion studies performed at NSRL; and 3) begin to identify computational models of biological countermeasures. Goals for the third phase (2017-2021) include: 1) the development of a systems biology model of cancer risks for operational use at NASA; 2) development of models of degenerative risks, 2) quantitative models of counter-measure impacts on cancer risks; and 3) indiviudal based risk assessments. Finally, we will support a decision point to continue NSRL research in support of NASA's exploration goals beyond 2021, and create an archival of NSRL research results for continued analysis. Details on near term goals, plans for a WEB based data resource of NSRL results, and a space radiation Wikepedia are described.

  4. Radiation effects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, R. J. M.

    The radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are under review by Scientific Committe 75 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. The re-evaluation of the current guidelines is necessary, first, because of the increase in information about radiation risks since 1970 when the original recommendations were made and second, the population at risk has changed. For example, women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. Two types of radiation, protons and heavy ions, are of particular concern in space. Unfortunately, there is less information about the effects on tissues and the induction of cancer by these radiations than by other radiations. The choice of Quality Factors (Q) for obtaining dose equivalents for these radiations, is an important aspect of the risk estimate for space travel. There are not sufficient data for the induction of late effects by either protons or by heavy ions. The current information suggests a RBE for the relative protons of about 1, whereas, -a RBE of 20 for tumor induction by heavy ions, such as iron-56, appears appropriate. The recommendations for the dose equivalent career limits for skin and the lens of the eye have been reduced but the 30-day and annual limits have been raised.

  5. High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate "Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments" Technology Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M.; Label, K.; McCabe, J.; Powell, W.; Bolotin, G.; Kolawa, E.; Ng, T.; Hyde, D.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performance Processors for Space Environments project will address this challenge by significantly advancing the sustained throughput and processing efficiency of high-per$ormance radiation-hardened processors, targeting delivery of products by the end of FY12.

  6. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  7. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  8. NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David M.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) is the basis of the agency's new Space Launch Initiative (SLI). ISTP was developed to provide a structured methodology and framework to enable the next generation of reusable launch systems which will operate at orders of magnitude lower operating costs and higher levels of reliability and safety. Created in the fall of 1999, ISTP is the culmination of a series of Space Transportation Architecture Studies (STAS I, II, and III) which identified requirements, developed candidate architectures, and identified sets of technologies required to enable those architectures. The studies were conducted as a partnership between NASA and industry. Both new designs and shuttle-derived concepts were examined. Architectures were identified for 2" Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which would reach first operational capability in 2010, and 3rd Generation RLV, which will become operational in the 2025 timeframe, Second Generation RLV's have a goal of placing payloads in low earth orbit (LEO) at a cost of S 1,000/Ibm, and a safety goal of 1/10000 probability of loss of crew, The Third Generation RLV launch system will deliver payloads to LEO at $ 100/Ibm and approach airline-like reliability and safety, with a 1/ 10(exp 6) probability of loss of crew.

  9. NASA Integrated Space Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Wallace; Wright, Nate; Prior, Mike; Bhasin, Kul

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Network for Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) has been in the definition phase since 2010. It is intended to integrate NASA s three existing network elements, i.e., the Space Network, Near Earth Network, and Deep Space Network, into a single network. In addition to the technical merits, the primary purpose of the Integrated Network is to achieve a level of operating cost efficiency significantly higher than it is today. Salient features of the Integrated Network include (a) a central system element that performs service management functions and user mission interfaces for service requests; (b) a set of common service execution equipment deployed at the all stations that provides return, forward, and radiometric data processing and delivery capabilities; (c) the network monitor and control operations for the entire integrated network are conducted remotely and centrally at a prime-shift site and rotating among three sites globally (a follow-the-sun approach); (d) the common network monitor and control software deployed at all three network elements that supports the follow-the-sun operations.

  10. Space radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

  11. Radiation effects in space.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J

    1986-01-01

    The radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are under review by Scientific Committee 75 of the National Council Protection and Measurements. The re-evaluation of the current guidelines is necessary, first, because of the increase in information about radiation risks since 1970 when the original recommendations were made and second, the population at risk has changed. For example, women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. Two types of radiation, protons and heavy ions, are of particular concern in space. Unfortunately, there is less information about the effects on tissues and cancer by these radiations than by other radiations. The choice of Quality Factors (Q) for obtaining dose equivalents for these radiations, is an important aspect of the risk estimate for space travel. There are not sufficient data for the induction of late effects by either protons or by heavy ions. The current information suggests a RBE for the relative protons of about 1, whereas, a RBE of 20 for tumor induction by heavy ions, such as iron-56, appears appropriate. The recommendations for the dose equivalent career limits for skin and the lens of the eye have been reduced but the 30-day and annual limits have been raised. PMID:11537230

  12. The NASA Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is defined in terms of motivation and methodology with specific reference given to the impacts of HZE particles and solar energetic particles. The biological hazards are mentioned that can be associated with the two particle types and ionizing radiation in general. The lack of data on the impact of such radiation and effective shielding countermeasures is identified as the primary motivation for worst-case assumptions. However, the resulting shielding designs can potentially overestimate the thickness by a factor of 10 and add unnecessarily to vehicle take-off mass. A space-based validation system is proposed to complement ground-based investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation in interplanetary space. The Lifesat satellite is proposed as a part of the SRHP effort to determine the requirements for protection and future shielding specifications.

  13. NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

  14. NASA Now: The Future Of Space Travel

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Greg Johnson joins NASA Now to discuss the future of space exploration and the logical progression of sending humans to Mars. He talks about sending astronauts back to the moon and t...

  15. NASA Beams Beatles Song to Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    The transmission over NASA's Deep Space Network will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the day The Beatles recorded the song, as well as the 50th anniversary of NASA's founding and the group's be...

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: Powering Forward

    NASA Video Gallery

    One year ago, NASA announced a new capability for America's space program: a heavy-lift rocket to launch humans farther into space than ever before. See how far the Space Launch System has come in ...

  17. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  18. NASA's Space Science Programming Possibilities for Planetaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between NASA and the planetarium community is an important one. Indeed, NASA's Office of Space Science has invested in a study of the Space Science Media Needs of Science Center Professionals. Some of the findings indicate a need for exposure to space science researchers, workshops for museum educators, 'canned' programs, and access to a speakers bureau. We will discuss some of the programs of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, distribute sample multimedia products, explain the role of NASA's Educator Resource Center, and review our contributions to NASA's Education and Public Outreach effort.

  19. New NASA Technologies for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing new technologies to enable planetary exploration. NASA's Space Launch System is an advance vehicle for exploration beyond LEO. Robotic explorers like the Mars Science Laboratory are exploring Mars, making discoveries that will make possible the future human exploration of the planet. In this presentation, we report on technologies being developed at NASA KSC for planetary exploration.

  20. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  1. NASA's Contribution to Global Space Geodesy Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Space Geodesy program continues to be a major provider of space geodetic data for the international earth science community. NASA operates high performance Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at well over 30 locations around the world and works in close cooperation with space geodetic observatories around the world. NASA has also always been at the forefront in the quest for technical improvement and innovation in the space geodesy technologies to make them even more productive, accurate and economical. This presentation will highlight the current status of NASA's networks; the plans for partnerships with international groups in the southern hemisphere to improve the geographic distribution of space geodesy sites and the status of the technological improvements in SLR and VLBI that will support the new scientific thrusts proposed by interdisciplinary earth scientists. In addition, the expanding role of the NASA Space geodesy data archive, the CDDIS will be described.

  2. NASA Space Flight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn; Russo, Dane; Stroud, Ken; Connolly, Jan; Foley, Tico

    2007-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems specifications (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook

  3. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  4. NASA and the practice of space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

  5. NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

  6. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  7. Why Is NASA Boiling Fluids in Space?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Convection and buoyancy work differently in space than on Earth. Learn how NASA uses this information and applies it to everyday life. Boiling fluids in space is easier than it is on Earth. Learn m...

  8. Future Plans for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to space exploration, and future planned improvements to the communication capabilities that the network allows, in terms of precision, and communication power.

  9. Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

  10. Modelling the performance of the monogroove with screen heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1987-01-01

    A computer code to model the steady-state performance of a monogroove heat pipe for the NASA Space Station is presented, including the effects on heat pipe performance of a screen in the evaporator section which deals with transient surges in the heat input. Errors in a previous code have been corrected, and the new code adds additional loss terms in order to model several different working fluids. Good agreement with existing performance curves is obtained. From a preliminary evaluation of several of the radiator design parameters it is found that an optimum fin width could be achieved but that structural considerations limit the thickness of the fin to a value above optimum.

  11. NASA NASA CONNECT: Special World Space Congress. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. This video presents the World Space Congress 2002, the meeting of the decade for space professionals. Topics discussed range from the discovery of distant planets to medical advancements,…

  12. Space radiation health program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  13. NASA space research and technology overview (ITP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs summarizing NASA space research and technology is presented. Some of the specific topics covered include the organization and goals of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, technology maturation strategy, integrated technology plan for the Civil Space Program, program selection and investment prioritization, and space technology benefits.

  14. NASA space station software standards issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, G. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The selection and application of software standards present the NASA Space Station Program with the opportunity to serve as a pacesetter for the United States software in the area of software standards. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the NASA defined software standards issues are summerized and discussed. Several significant standards issues are offered for NASA consideration. A challenge is presented for the NASA Space Station Program to serve as a pacesetter for the U.S. Software Industry through: (1) Management commitment to software standards; (2) Overall program participation in software standards; and (3) Employment of the best available technology to support software standards

  15. National Directory of NASA Space Grant Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Congress enacted the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant). NASA's Space Grant Program funds education, research, and public service programs in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico through 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia form a network of colleges and universities, industry partners, State and local Government agencies, other Federal agencies, museum and science centers, and nonprofit organizations, all with interests in aerospace education, research, and training. Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public. Each year approximately one-third of the NASA Space Grant funds support scholarships and fellowships for United States students at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Typically, at least 20 percent of these awards go to students from underrepresented groups, and at least 40 percent go to women. Most Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists or engineers. Space Grant consortia also fund curriculum enhancement and faculty development programs. Consortia members administer precollege and public service education programs in their States. The 52 consortia typically leverage NASA funds with matching contributions from State, local, and other university sources, which more than double the NASA funding. For more information, consult the Space Grant Web site at http://education.nasa.gov/spacegrant/

  16. The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

  17. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The NASA SLR Operational Center is responsible for: 1) NASA SLR network control, sustaining engineering, and logistics; 2) ILRS mission operations; and 3) ILRS and NASA SLR data operations. NASA SLR network control and sustaining engineering tasks include technical support, daily system performance monitoring, system scheduling, operator training, station status reporting, system relocation, logistics and support of the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group. These activities ensure the NASA SLR systems are meeting ILRS and NASA mission support requirements. ILRS mission operations tasks include mission planning, mission analysis, mission coordination, development of mission support plans, and support of the ILRS Missions Working Group. These activities ensure than new mission and campaign requirements are coordinated with the ILRS. Global Normal Points (NP) data, NASA SLR FullRate (FR) data, and satellite predictions are managed as part of data operations. Part of this operation includes supporting the ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group. Global NP data operations consist of receipt, format and data integrity verification, archiving and merging. This activity culminates in the daily electronic transmission of NP files to the CDDIS. Currently of all these functions are automated. However, to ensure the timely and accurate flow of data, regular monitoring and maintenance of the operational software systems, computer systems and computer networking are performed. Tracking statistics between the stations and the data centers are compared periodically to eliminate lost data. Future activities in this area include sub-daily (i.e., hourly) NP data management, more stringent data integrity tests, and automatic station notification of format and data integrity issues.

  18. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  19. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  20. NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

  1. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  2. NASA's Space Launch System Building Orion Adapter

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is hard at work designing the nation's next flagship rocket, a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will carry explorers deeper into space than ever before. While the first full-configuration won't ...

  3. NASA, Rockets, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    General overview of NASA, Launch Services Program, and the Slosh experiment aboard the International Space Station. This presentation is designed to be presented in front of university level students in hopes of inspiring them to go into STEM careers.

  4. NASA Sees Holiday Lights from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    It’s official — our holiday lights are so bright we can see them from space. Thanks to the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite, a joint mission between NASA and NOAA, scientists are present...

  5. NASA Space Sciences Strategic Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.

  6. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  7. Use of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Conduct Charged Particle Radiobiology Studies Relevant to Ion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Held, Kathryn D; Blakely, Eleanor A; Story, Michael D; Lowenstein, Derek I

    2016-06-01

    Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facility that utilizes charged particles heavier than protons. Therefore, it is essential that additional radiobiological knowledge be obtained using state-of-the-art technologies and biological models and end points relevant to clinical outcome. Currently, most such ion radiotherapy-related research is being conducted outside the U.S. This article addresses the substantial contributions to that research that are possible at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is the only facility in the U.S. at this time where heavy-ion radiobiology research with the ion species and energies of interest for therapy can be done. Here, we briefly discuss the relevant facilities at NSRL and how selected charged particle biology research gaps could be addressed using those facilities. PMID:27195609

  8. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

    2013-01-01

    Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

  10. Space Images for NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

  11. NASA Goddard's Application of Lasers in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Krainak, Michael A.; Degnan, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Goddard have been applying lasers for space measurements for over 4 decades, starting with satellite laser ranging in the mid 1960s. This talk will briefly review the history of Goddard's application to lasers to the scientific exploration of space, provide an overview of its ongoing laser-related programs, and give some possibilities for the future.

  12. Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

  13. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  14. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  15. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  16. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

  17. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  18. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's activities and purposes. MSFC seeks to build on previous contacts and relationships with Russian rocket institutions, to better understand Russian rocket products and technical capabilities. The US launch vehicle and spacecraft industry are already using many Russian propulsion products and MSFC needs better technical knowledge and understanding of these products as this use increases. Further details are given on MSFC's role in determining and developing the scope of space propulsion, NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan, Earth to Orbit propulsion systems, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, proposed Shuttle safety upgrades, and in-space propulsion systems. MSFC's role in the construction and support of the International Space Station is also described.

  19. History of the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program for the joint USAF/NASA CRRES mission. Part 1. From the origins through the launch, 1981-1990. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Liebowitz, R.P.

    1992-03-16

    The history narrates the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program from its origins in 1981 through the launch of the SPACERAD experiments on the USAF/NASA Combined Release/Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) on July 25, 1990 and the initial data results in October 1990. The SPACERAD Program comprised a coordinated schedule of space-and-ground testing of state-of-the-art microelectronics, together with new satellite measurements of the Earth's radiation belts. The goals for the program were to produce improved standards and procedures for ground-testing future space microelectronics and new dynamic models of the radiation belts. The history discusses programmatic, management and funding issues that arose in the course of its realization.

  20. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  1. NASA cash boost for space firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-09-01

    NASA has awarded 1.1bn to three US firms to design and develop the "next generation of human spaceflight capabilities". Boeing, Sierra Nevada and Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), who will receive 460m, 212.5m and 440m respectively, will use the money to improve and test their systems intended to fly astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) within the next five years.

  2. NASA's SDR Standard: Space Telecommunications Radio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  3. Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

  4. NASA's new university engineering space research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.

  5. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  6. NASA Space Science Partnerships with Minority Universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, P. J.; Rosendhal, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past five years NASA has carried out a deliberate and highly successful effort to engage Minority Institutions (MI) in space science activities. Implemented through a uniquely designed grants program now known as the "NASA Minority University and College Education and Research Partnership Initiative (MUCERPI) in Space Science," an impressive array of space science research and educational activities has been developed at 15 MI's over the three-year period from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. This effort began with the recognition that very few MI's had programs in space science. To address this deficiency, the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS), in cooperation with the NASA Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP), carried out a series of consultations with MI faculty and administrators aimed at ascertaining the level of interest that MI's had in space science and at identifying the most effective strategies for developing space science capabilities on their campuses. The clear conclusion was that MI's were extremely interested in participating in space science, but that they had not been given a real opportunity to do so. The overwhelming consensus was that a successful program to engage MI's in space science would require: 1) a serious invitation from OSS to become involved in space science, 2) the flexibility to devise projects that fit the local environment on each participating campus, and 3) the opportunity to form partnerships with leading researchers in the space science community. As a result, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) emphasizing these and other factors was developed and issued in January 2000. Some of its more unique features were that: 1) it was issued by OSS with funding provided by OEOP; 2) it invited MI's to develop any combination of research capabilities, academic programs (at any level), and/or public outreach in space science; and 3) it required working partnerships with NASA-sponsored space science researchers for any

  7. Artificial intelligence - NASA. [robotics for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a vital common space support element needed to enable the civil space program and commercial space program to perform their missions successfully. It is pointed out that advances in AI stimulated by the Space Station Program could benefit the U.S. in many ways. A fundamental challenge for the civil space program is to meet the needs of the customers and users of space with facilities enabling maximum productivity and having low start-up costs, and low annual operating costs. An effective way to meet this challenge may involve a man-machine system in which artificial intelligence, robotics, and advanced automation are integrated into high reliability organizations. Attention is given to the benefits, NASA strategy for AI, candidate space station systems, the Space Station as a stepping stone, and the commercialization of space.

  8. Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

  9. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  10. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  11. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  12. The NASA space power technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1992-01-01

    NASA has a broad technology program in the field of space power. This paper describes that program, including the roles and responsibilities of the various NASA field centers and major contractors. In the power source area, the paper discusses the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Project, which has been under way for about seven years and is making substantial progress toward development of components for a 100-kilowatt power system that can be scaled to other sizes. This system is a candidate power source for nuclear electric propulsion, as well as for a power plant for a lunar base. In the energy storage area, the paper describes NASA's battery- and fuel-cell development programs. NASA is actively working on NiCd, NiH2, and lithium batteries. A status update is also given on a U.S. Air Force-sponsored program to develop a large (150 ampere-hour) lithium-thionyl chloride battery for the Centaur upper-stage launch vehicle. Finally, the area of power management and distribution (PMAD) is addressed, including power system components such as solid-state switches and power integrated circuits. Automated load management and other computer-controlled functions offer considerable payoffs. The state of the art in space power is described, along with NASA's medium- and long-term goals in the area.

  13. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  14. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  15. 76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal... imposed on NASA by law. The renewed Charter is for a one-year period ending September 30, 2012. It...

  16. Benefit assessment of NASA space technology goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The socio-economic benefits to be derived from system applications of space technology goals developed by NASA were assessed. Specific studies include: electronic mail; personal telephone communications; weather and climate monitoring, prediction, and control; crop production forecasting and water availability; planetary engineering of the planet Venus; and planetary exploration.

  17. Future space transportation vehicles - A NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1988-01-01

    NASA has conducted extensive analyses of several scenarios of potential payload applications in an attempt to project future space transportation capability requirements. Of particular concern is the development of increasingly capable launch system. The enhancement of the manned STS with a heavy liftcargo launch vehicle which would utilize Shuttle technology to provide an unmanned cargo version of the Shuttle is also being addressed.

  18. NASA space biology accomplishments, 1983-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, T. W.; Dutcher, F. R.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 42 project summaries from NASA's Space Biology Program are presented. Emphasis is placed on gravitational effects on plant and animal life. The identification of gravity perception; the effects of weightlessness on genetic integrity, cellular differentiation, reproduction, development, growth, maturation, and senescence; and how gravity affects and controls physiology, morphology, and behavior of organisms are studied.

  19. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  20. Networking at NASA. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garman, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs on computer networks at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are given. Topics covered include information resource management (IRM) at JSC, the IRM budget by NASA center, networks evolution, networking as a strategic tool, the Information Services Directorate charter, and SSC network requirements, challenges, and status.

  1. NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Robinson, J.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, ``propellantless" because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the \\$60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. Solar sails and aerocapture are candidates for flight validation as early as 2008 in partnership with NASA's New Millennium Program.

  2. NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

  3. An overview of NASA's space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    During the last several years, the NASA space program entered a new era. With the completion of the Apollo and Skylab programs, NASA places emphasis within its space effort on three main objectives: (1) improving the access to space and the ability to capitalize on this new capability; (2) developing the space and ground systems that will collect and interpret data related to the changing nature of the earth's natural and cultural resources to aid in solving resource and environmental problems facing the entire world; and (3) adding to the storehouse of knowledge through the continued exploration of our solar system and the universe. The paper discusses the importance of the joint USA/USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), describes the capability and status of the Space Shuttle, and outlines the important role that these two programs played in extending our ability to make more effective use of this space environment. It also summarizes the capability and the plans for satellites to monitor the earth's natural and cultural resources and to assess environmental quality. The NASA programs for exploring the solar system and the universe is reviewed.

  4. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  5. 75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  6. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  7. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  8. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  9. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and...

  10. NASA's future directions in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

  11. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  12. NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  13. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  14. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System plans, with a view to the support systems that must be evolved in order to implement such long-term mission requirements; these encompass space-based infrastructure for orbital transfer operations between LEO and GEO, and for operations from LEO to lunar orbit and to Mars. These mission requirements are addressed by the NASA Civil Needs Data Base in order to promote multiple applications. The requisite near-term lift capacity to LEO could be achieved through the development of the Shuttle-derived, unmanned Shuttle-C cargo launch system. Longer-term transportation studies are concerned with the Next Manned Transportation System and Space Transfer Vehicles.

  15. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed by NASA in conjunction with industry for potential large, deployable space antennas with applications in communication, radio astronomy and earth observation is reviewed. Concepts for deployable antennas that have been developed to the point of detail design are summarized, including the advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna, the maypole (hoop/column) antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna. The assessment of state-of-the-art deployable antenna technology is discussed, and the approach taken by the NASA Large Space Systems Technology (LSST) Program to the development of technology for large space antenna systems is outlined. Finally, the further development of the wrap-rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) concept, which meet mission model requirements, to satisfy LSST size and frequency requirements is discussed.

  16. Reliable Multicore Processors for NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos; Rennels, David; Some, Raphael; Cabanas-Holmen, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in commercial processors of moving to many cores (30 to100 and beyond) on a single die poses both an opportunity and a challenge for space based processing. 1 2 The opportunity is to leverage this trend for space application and thus provide an order of magnitude increase in onboard processing capability. The challenge is to provide the requisite reliability in an extremely challenging environment. In this paper, we will discuss the requirements for reliable space based multicore computing and approaches being explored to deliver this capability within NASA's extremely tight power, mass, and cost constraints.

  17. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A; Fry, R J

    1995-08-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in our knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared with previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers, including space travelers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space. PMID:7480625

  18. NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2003-01-01

    In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. NASA's In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Program is investing in technologies to meet these needs. The ISP technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5-10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, propellantless because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar and plasma sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aeroassist and aerocapture. An overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them, will be provided.

  19. Challenges of Integrating NASAs Space Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinert, Jessica M.; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a

  20. Challenges of Integrating NASA's Space Communications Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinert, Jessica; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a

  1. NASA Space Cryocooler Programs: A 2003 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 4 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.

  2. Developing space occupancy - Perspectives on NASA future space programme planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA planning aspects of potential future manned space flight missions are examined and the necessity of long-range planning is pointed out. A listing of desirable future activities is considered, taking into account the permanent occupancy of near-earth orbit space, the permanent occupancy of earth-moon space, the full self-sufficiency of man in geolunar space, and the permanent occupancy of heliocentric space. The technological requirements for the considered activities are discussed, giving attention to transportation, habitation, engineering technology, life sciences, operations technology, and advanced management concepts. A description of future program phasing and advanced studies requirements is also given.

  3. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2018.SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges related to testability. This presentation will address the SLS challenges for diagnostics and fault isolation, along with the analyses and decisions to mitigate risk..

  4. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Chris; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2018. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges related to testability. This presentation will address the SLS challenges for diagnostics and fault isolation, along with the analyses and decisions to mitigate risk.

  5. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, SRPE is taking the initiative to promote tissue sharing among the scientists in the space radiation research community. This initiative is enthusiastically supported by the community members as voiced in the responses to a recent survey. For retrospective tissue samples, an online platform will be established for the PIs to post a list of the available samples, and to exchange information with the potential recipients. For future animal experiments, a tissue sharing policy is being developed by SRPE.

  6. Radiation risk and human space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Radiation risk and human space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

  8. Terrestrial applications of NASA space telerobotics technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, Dave

    1994-01-01

    In 1985 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) instituted a research program in telerobotics to develop and provide the technology for applications of telerobotics to the United States space program. The activities of the program are intended to most effectively utilize limited astronaut time by facilitating tasks such as inspection, assembly, repair, and servicing, as well as providing extended capability for remotely conducting planetary surface operations. As the program matured, it also developed a strong heritage of working with government and industry to directly transfer the developed technology into industrial applications.

  9. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Earth will be an enduring legacy for future generations, confirming America's commitment to explore, learn, and progress. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program's Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle and associated equipment, or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Both options support a national capability that will pay dividends for future generations. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 metric tons (mT) and will be evolvable to 130 mT. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of asteroids and Mars. With its superior lift capability, the SLS can expand the interplanetary highway to many possible destinations, conducting revolutionary missions that will change the way we view ourselves, our planet and its place in the cosmos. To perform missions such as these, the SLS will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. It is being designed for safety and affordability - to sustain our journey into the space age. Current plans include launching the first flight, without crew, later this decade, with crewed flights beginning early next decade. Development work now in progress is based on heritage space systems and working knowledge, allowing for a relatively quick start and for maturing the SLS rocket as future technologies become available. Together, NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are partnering to develop this one-of-a-kind asset. Many of NASA's space

  10. The Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits, higher earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations with the phase of the solar cycle. In this paper we concentrate mainly on charged particle radiations. Descriptions of the radiation belts and particles of solar and cosmic origin are reviewed. An overview of the traditional models is presented accompanied by their application areas and limitations. This is followed by discussion of some recent model developments.

  11. NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

  12. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  13. NASA Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enari, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The functioning of the Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA is reviewed. The primary objectives of the Operations Scheduling are: to schedule the worldwide global allocation of ground communications, tracking facilities, and equipment; and to provide deep space telecommunications for command, tracking, telemetry, and control in support of flight mission operations and tests. Elements of the earth set are Deep Space Stations (DSS) which provide the telecommunications link between the earth and spacecraft; NASA Communications Network; Network Data Processing Area; Network Operations Control Area which provides operational direction to the DSS; Mission Control and Computing systems; and Mission Support areas which provide flight control of the spacecraft. Elements of the space set include mission priorities and requirements which determine the spacecraft queue for allocating network resources. Scheduling is discussed in terms of long-range (3 years), mid-range (8 weeks), and short-range (2 weeks).

  14. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  15. Heliospheric Physics and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration outlines NASA's development of a new generation of human-rated launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and an architecture for exploring the Moon and Mars. The system--developed by the Constellation Program--includes a near term (approx. 2014) capability to provide crew and cargo service to the International Space Station after the Shuttle is retired in 2010 and a human return to the Moon no later than 2020. Constellation vehicles and systems will necessarily be required to operate efficiently, safely, and reliably in the space plasma and radiation environments of low Earth orbit, the Earth's magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and on the lunar surface. This presentation will provide an overview of the characteristics of space radiation and plasma environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-lunar injection and trans-Earth injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose and plasma wake charging environments in near lunar space, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the design and operational environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

  16. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody

    2001-01-01

    The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, adhesives and other data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on a spacecraft, its sub-systems, materials and instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other US and international government agencies, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program (agency-wide in scope but managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center) provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment. It does this by defining the best techniques for both flight- and groundbased experimentation, updating models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft and ensuring that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and discuss several current technology development activities associated with the spacecraft charging phenomenon.

  18. Space radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hanser, F.A.; Dichter, B.K. ||

    1993-12-31

    Dosimetry is the measurement of the energy deposited in matter by various forms of radiation. In space the radiation is primarily energetic electrons, protons and heavier ions from planetary radiation belts, solar flares, and interstellar cosmic rays. Experimentally, dose is frequently obtained by summing the individual energy deposits in a solid state detector. If the detector is calibrated and the sensitive mass is known, the energy sum can be converted directly to accumulated radiation dose in Gy (J/kg). Such detectors can also be used to provide an approximate separation of dose into the components due to electrons, protons, and heavier ions, which is useful if it is desired to convert the measured dose into a biological effective dose (Sv) for manned spaceflight purposes. The output can also be used to provide an essentially instantaneous dose rate for use as warning devices. This is the primary type of space radiation dosimeter to be discussed here. The MOS-type dosimeter is another solid state sensor which can be of small size and low power. These devices integrate the total dose once through, can not separate particle types, and are not suitable for instantaneous dose rate measurement at low levels. There are several additional methods of measuring space radiation dose using scintillators, etc., but are not discussed in detail. In this paper emphasis is given to descriptions of active solid state detector instruments which have successfully worked in space. Some results of in-orbit dose measurements are presented.

  19. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  20. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Frey, H. V.; Gross, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Noll, C. E.; Pavilis, E. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.; Zagwodski, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern

  1. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern

  2. Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the sate1!ite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation ofthe observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multiconstellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being

  3. NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

  4. NASA's Space Launch Initiative Targets Toxic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; McNeal, Curtis; Davis, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When manned and unmanned space flight first began, the clear and overriding design consideration was performance. Consequently, propellant combinations of all kinds were considered, tested, and, when they lifted the payload a kilometer higher, or an extra kilogram to the same altitude, they became part of our operational inventory. Cost was not considered. And with virtually all of the early work being performed by the military, safety was hardly a consideration. After all, fighting wars has always been dangerous. Those days are past now. With space flight, and the products of space flight, a regular part of our lives today, safety and cost are being reexamined. NASA's focus turns naturally to its Shuttle Space Transportation System. Designed, built, and flown for the first time in the 1970s, this system remains today America's workhorse for manned space flight. Without its tremendous lift capability and mission flexibility, the International Space Station would not exist. And the Hubble telescope would be a monument to shortsighted management, rather than the clear penetrating eye on the stars it is today. But the Shuttle system fully represents the design philosophy of its period: it is too costly to operate, and not safe enough for regular long term access to space. And one of the key reasons is the utilization of toxic propellants. This paper will present an overview of the utilization of toxic propellants on the current Shuttle system.

  5. Improving NASA's technology for space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The continued advance of the nation's space program is directly dependent upon the development and use of new technology. Technology is the foundation for every aspect of space missions and ground operations. The improvements in technology that will enable future advances are not only in device and system performance, but also in permitting missions to be carried out more rapidly and at lower cost. Although more can be done with current technology, NASA's recent call for new and innovative approaches should not be answered by employing only today's technologies; new technologies with revolutionary potential should be sought. The study reported here was performed to identify means to enhance the development of technologies for the space sciences and applications.

  6. 75 FR 4875 - NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee to the NASA Advisory Council. DATES: Tuesday, February 16, 2010, 10 a.m.-5...

  7. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the life-cycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reachback support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-ofthe- art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  8. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  9. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

  10. 75 FR 16197 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  11. 77 FR 52067 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This Committee reports to the NAC... Agreements --Ames Research Center's Commercial Space Activities and Plans --Dryden Flight Research...

  12. 77 FR 4370 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  13. 76 FR 17712 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  14. 75 FR 11200 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  15. 75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  16. 76 FR 20717 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  17. 78 FR 42111 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-462, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  18. 75 FR 5630 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  19. 77 FR 20852 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  20. 75 FR 17437 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  1. 78 FR 10213 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-462, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  2. 75 FR 51853 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  3. 75 FR 53349 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  4. 76 FR 3674 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  5. 75 FR 28821 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  6. 75 FR 39973 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  7. 77 FR 67028 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-462, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  8. 76 FR 3673 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  9. 77 FR 38678 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-462, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  10. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  11. Intentional Collaboration & Innovation Spaces at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and Innovation (C&I) are extremely popular terms in corporate jargon, and institutions with reputations for creativity often have clever and fun spaces set aside for hatching ideas and developing products or services. In and of themselves, a room full of "collaboration furniture" and electronics can't make C&I happen, any more than oil makes a gas or diesel engine run. As with the engine, though, quality lubrication is a huge factor in the smooth operation, power, and longevity of C&I activity. This paper describes spaces deliberately set up at numerous NASA field centers to support collaborative and creative thinking and processes. (Sometimes support is not so much a matter of doing things to spark discussion as it is removing constraints imposed by traditional settings and making information sharing as easy as possible.) Some spaces are rooms or suites dedicated to C&I, with significant electronic support and/or intentional lack thereof (to emphasize the human element). Others are small, comfortable "roosting places" that invite conversations of opportunity. Descriptions include the sponsoring organization, underlying goals and philosophies, lessons learned, and opportunities to excel. There is discussion about how such areas might interconnect within centers, across NASA, and with external entities using current technology and what tools and approaches may be in our future.

  12. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  13. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  14. Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Major considerations associated with "Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Government use of commercial frequencies vs. commercial use of commercial frequencies for government use; 2) Commercial use of government frequencies; 3) Government vs commercial: Access techniques, data formats, and modulation and coding; 4) Government need for multiple sources: backup and competition; 5) Government in perceived competition with commercial service providers if TDRSS is used for commercial purposes; and 6) Coordination required among plans for CSOC, NSCP, and satellite industry.

  15. VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

  16. Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The SL-3 flight on the Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

  17. NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  18. Managing Space System Faults: Coalescing NASA's Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Brian; Fesq, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering "discipline" required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM), Fault Management (FM), Fault Protection (FP), Hazard Analysis (HA), and Aborts communities. Approaches to managing space system faults typically are unique to each organization, with little commonality in the architectures, processes and practices across the industry.

  19. Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

  20. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy for future generations, as it provides a platform for science and exploration that will define new knowledge and redefine known boundaries. NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program s Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle with associated life-support equipment and provisions for long journeys or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 tonnes (t) in 2017 and will be evolvable to 130 t after 2021. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of Mars. Building on the foundation laid by over 50 years of human and scientific space flight and on the lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle, and Constellation Programs the SLS team is delivering both technical trade studies and business case analyses to ensure that the SLS architecture will be safe, affordable, reliable, and sustainable. This panel will address the planning and progress being made by NASA s SLS Program.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  2. 75 FR 70951 - NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  3. Control of NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

  4. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  5. Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned

  6. Fabric space radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Krotiuk, W.J.; Webb, B.J.; Prater, J.T.; Bates, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Future Air Force space missions will require thermal radiators that both survive in the hostile space environment and stow away for minimal bulk during launch. Advances in all aspects of radiator design, construction, and analysis will be necessary to enable such future missions. Currently, the best means for obtaining high strength along with flexibility is through structures known as fabrics. The development of new materials and bonding techniques has extended the application range of fabrics into areas traditionally dominated by monolithic and/or metallic structures. Given that even current spacecraft heat rejection considerations tend to dominate spacecraft design and mass, the larger and more complex designs of the future face daunting challenges in thermal control. Ceramic fabrics bonded to ultra-thin metal liners (foils) have the potential of achieving radiator performance levels heretofore unattainable, and of readily matching the advances made in other branches of spacecraft design. The research effort documented here indicates that both pumped loops and heat pipes constructed in ceramic fabrics stand to benefit in multiple ways. Flexibility and low mass are the main advantages exhibited by fabric radiators over conventional metal ones. We feel that fabric radiators have intrinsic merits not possessed by any other radiator design and need to be researched further. 26 refs., 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Jones, J.; Iszard, G.; Murrey, J.; Djojonegro, B.; Wear, M.

    2001-01-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  8. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  9. Sign Up for NASA's Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    One of NASA's missions is to watch over and help care for Earth. This year, NASA will launch an unprecedented five Earth Science missions, highlighting NASA's role as an innovation leader in Earth ...

  10. CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

  11. NASA Space Transportation: Safety, Cost and Performance Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogacki, John Row

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA's Space Transportation. A space launch initiative is developed to provide a safe, reliable and affordable access to space. The topics include: 1) NASA's Integrated Architectural Approach; and 2) Safe, Reliable, and Affordable... Building a Highway to Space.

  12. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  13. The administration of the NASA space tracking system and the NASA space tracking system in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollander, N.

    1973-01-01

    The international activities of the NASA space program were studied with emphasis on the development and maintenance of tracking stations in Australia. The history and administration of the tracking organization and the manning policies for the stations are discussed, and factors affecting station operation are appraised. A field study of the Australian tracking network is included.

  14. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  15. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    This conference poster explores NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments project. This project aims to advance the state of the art in high performance, radiation-hardened electronics that enable the long-term, reliable operation of a spacecraft in extreme radiation and temperature of space and the lunar surface.

  16. Propulsion Progress for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.; Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders from NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) will participate in a panel discussing the progress made on the program's propulsion systems. The SLS will be the nation's next human-rated heavy-lift vehicle for new missions beyond Earth's orbit. With a first launch slated for 2017, the SLS Program is turning plans into progress, with the initial rocket being built in the U.S.A. today, engaging the aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Starting with an overview of the SLS mission and programmatic status, the discussion will then delve into progress on each of the primary SLS propulsion elements, including the boosters, core stage engines, upper stage engines, and stage hardware. Included will be a discussion of the 5-segment solid rocket motors (ATK), which are derived from Space Shuttle and Ares developments, as well as the RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory and the J- 2X upper stage engine now in testing (Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne). The panel will respond to audience questions about this important national capability for human and scientific space exploration missions.

  17. Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

    2002-03-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for L2, Lunar, Mars and Mars/Venus swing-by reference missions. For all these missions, material trades have been studied. And, as an example, a crew age trade for Mars/Venus swing-by mission has been done. The career blood forming organ (BFO) constraints are more stringent and play a critical role in the optimization procedure. The short missions to L2 and the Moon mainly need to deal with the possibility of solar particle events. It is found that improved shield materials will be required to enable a Mars mission in which middle-aged astronauts can participate. If the age of the astronauts are allowed to be 55 and older then more options are available. Revolutionary materials need to be developed to have younger crewmembers on board to Mars and other long duration missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

  18. Space radiation health research, 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jablin, M.H.; Brooks, C.; Ferraro, G.; Dickson, K.J.; Powers, J.V.; Wallace-Robinson, J.; Zafren, B.

    1993-10-01

    The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  19. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  20. NASA Aeronautics and Space Database for bibliometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, R.; Rudman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors use the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database to perform bibliometric analysis of citations. This paper explains their research methodology and gives some sample results showing collaboration trends between NASA Centers and other institutions.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  2. NASA space plans and scenarios to 2000 and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    NASA's research and development plans, as reflected in its missions, goals, and objectives to the year 2000 and beyond, are presented. New starts for the next decade and space program activities are highlighted, including space science and applications, space flight, space stations, space tracking and data systems, and space research and technology. Space programs for the 21st century are also covered.

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS), supported by NASA's commercial partners, and robotic probes, are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions that will eventually lead to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 t through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any rocket in history, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward first launch readiness of the Block 1 vehicle in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. The Boosters element fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015, to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. The Stages element marked the completion of more than 70 major components of test article and flight core stage tanks. The Liquid Engines element conducted seven test firings of an RS-25 engine under SLS conditions. The Spacecraft

  4. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  5. Protection from space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  6. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.

  7. NASA research and development for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore and prove out robust concepts for telerobotic support of space servicing, assembly, maintenance, and telescience tasks. This goal is being addressed through a program of coordinated work in artificial intelligence, robotics, and human factors. The general research objective is the fusion of robot sensing and manipulation, teleoperation, and human and machine cognitive skills into an effective architecture for supervised task automation. NASA is evaluating results of this research program in a ground laboratory telerobot testbed under development at JPL. The testbed development activity includes integrated technology demonstrations. The demonstrations will show telerobot capabilities to perform tasks of increasing complexity, and duration in increasingly unstructured environments. The first such demonstration is the ground-based grappling, dockling, and servicing of a satellite taskboard.

  8. Deep Space Test Bed for Radiation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other Exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation and flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status.

  9. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  10. Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.