Sample records for nasa space radiation

  1. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  2. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue teams will highlight progress and important new knowledge gained. Red teams will challenge the Blue teams on proposed highlights and point to Gaps not considered. We will review the current space radiation Risks and Gaps under investigation at NASA, critical data sets and research highlights anticipated, and possible goals for future research at NSRL.

  3. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  4. Technical developments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, D I; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a center for space radiation research in both the life and physical sciences. BNL is a multidisciplinary research facility operated for the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNL scientific research portfolio supports a large and diverse science and technology program including research in nuclear and high-energy physics, material science, chemistry, biology, medial science, and nuclear safeguards and security. NSRL, in operation since July 2003, is an accelerator-based facility which provides particle beams for radiobiology and physics studies (Lowenstein in Phys Med 17(supplement 1):26-29 2001). The program focus is to measure the risks and to ameliorate the effects of radiation encountered in space, both in low earth orbit and extended missions beyond the earth. The particle beams are produced by the Booster synchrotron, an accelerator that makes up part of the injector sequence of the DOE nuclear physics program's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Ion species from protons to gold are presently available, at energies ranging from <100 to >1,000 MeV/n. The NSRL facility has recently brought into operation the ability to rapidly switch species and beam energy to supply a varied spectrum onto a given specimen. A summary of past operation performance, plans for future operations and recent and planned hardware upgrades will be described. PMID:17211657

  5. Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zi-wei

    Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations Why do we need to study? Conclusions Zi-Wei Lin University of Alabama in Huntsville/ NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MSFC #12

  6. NASA\\/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Gaffey Jr.; Dieter Bilitza

    1994-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength normalized to the equatorial\\/minimum value on the field line B\\/B sub 0\\/ for either solar maximum or solar minimum conditions. The most recent versions of the

  7. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

    2007-01-01

    In space, astronauts are constantly bombarded with energetic particles. The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the NASA Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. Among the identified radiation risks are cancer, acute and late CNS damage, chronic and degenerative tissue decease, and acute radiation syndrome. The term "safely" means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences can be defined. The NASA Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting the identified radiation risks. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus, the fourth element develops computer algorithms to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining methods to mitigate the risks are keys to a successful radiation protection strategy.

  8. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described. PMID:25551493

  9. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory: Preparation and delivery of ion beams for space radiation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kevin; Ahrens, Leif; Hung Chiang, I.; Gardner, Christopher; Gassner, David; Hammons, Lee; Harvey, Margaret; Kling, Nicholas; Morris, John; Pile, Phillip; Rusek, Adam; Sivertz, Mike; Steski, Dannie; Tsoupas, Nick; Zeno, Keith

    2010-06-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was commissioned in October 2002 and became operational in July 2003. The NSRL was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing space radiation research as part of the NASA space program. The NSRL can accept a wide variety of ions from BNL's Collider Accelerator Department (CAD) Booster accelerator. These ion beams are extracted from the accelerator with kinetic energies ranging from 0.05 to 3 GeV/nucleon. Many different beam conditions have been produced for experiments at NSRL. The facilities at BNL and the design of the NSRL facility permit a wide variety of beams to be produced with a great degree of flexibility in the delivery of ion beams to experiments. In this report we will describe the facility and its performance over the eight experimental run periods that have taken place since it became operational. We will also describe the current and future capabilities of the NSRL.

  10. PERFORMANCE AND CAPABILITIES OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; CHIANG, I.H.; GARDNER, C.; GASSNER, D.; HAMMONS, L.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; SAMPSON, P.; SIVERTZ, M.; TSOUPAS, N.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL was commissioned in October 2002 and the facility became operational in July 2003. NSRL was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. NSRL can accept a wide variety of ions from BNL's AGS Booster; these are slow extracted with kinetic energies ranging from 0.3 to 3 GeV/n. Fast extraction from Booster to NSRL has also been developed and used. Many different beam conditions have been produced for experiments at NSRL, including very low intensity. In this report we will describe the facility and its performance over the eight experimental run periods that have taken place since it became operational. We will also describe the current and future capabilities of the NSRL.

  11. NASA Space Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andruske, Linda Lee

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Shuttle Processing at Kennedy Space Center. A demonstration of the Space Shuttle silica tiles, a description of its High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI), tile inspections, and tile replacement demonstrations are also presented.

  12. NASA's Space Visualization Studio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Scientific Visualization Studio is to facilitate scientific inquiry and outreach within NASA programs through visualization. To that end, the SVS works closely with scientists in the creation of visualization products, systems, and processes in order to promote a greater understanding of Earth and Space Science research activities at Goddard Space Flight Center and within the NASA research community.

  13. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

  14. NASA's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

  15. NASA's Space Grant program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. Julius

    1990-01-01

    Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

  16. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  17. NASA Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirements that NASA has for the medical service of a crew returning to earth after long duration space flight. The scenarios predicate a water landing. Two scenarios are reviewed that outline the ship-board medical operations team and the ship board science reseach team. A schedule for the each crew upon landing is posited for each of scenarios. The requirement for a heliport on board the ship is reviewed and is on the requirement for a helicopter to return the Astronauts to the Baseline Data Collection Facility (BDCF). The ideal is to integrate the medical and science requirements, to minimize the risks and Inconveniences to the returning astronauts. The medical support that is required for all astronauts returning from long duration space flight (30 days or more) is reviewed. The personnel required to support the team is outlined. The recommendations for medical operations and science research for crew support are stated.

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Presentation to the

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Presentation to the Brookhaven National;Brookhaven National Laboratory Community Advisory Council Questions for NASA · What is the background ­ why is NASA interested in these types of radiation effects for deep space mission? What is NASA's projected

  19. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Blakely

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of potential health effects from radiation exposure during and after deep space travel is important for the future of manned missions To date manned missions have been limited to near-Earth orbits with the moon our farthest distance from earth Historical space radiation career exposures for astronauts from all NASA Missions show that early missions involved total exposures of less

  20. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  1. From mice and men to earth and space: joint NASA-NCI workshop on lung cancer risk resulting from space and terrestrial radiation.

    PubMed

    Shay, Jerry W; Cucinotta, Francis A; Sulzman, Frank M; Coleman, C Norman; Minna, John D

    2011-11-15

    On June 27-28, 2011, scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NASA, and academia met in Bethesda to discuss major lung cancer issues confronting each organization. For NASA, available data suggest that lung cancer is the largest potential cancer risk from space travel for both men and women and quantitative risk assessment information for mission planning is needed. In space, the radiation risk is from high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei (such as Fe) and high-energy protons from solar flares and not from gamma radiation. In contrast, the NCI is endeavoring to estimate the increased lung cancer risk from the potential widespread implementation of computed tomographic (CT) screening in individuals at high risk for developing lung cancer based on the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST). For the latter, exposure will be X-rays from CT scans from the screening (which uses "low-dose" CT scans) and also from follow-up scans used to evaluate abnormalities found during initial screening. Topics discussed included the risk of lung cancer arising after HZE particle, proton, and low-dose exposure to Earth's radiation. The workshop examined preclinical models, epidemiology, molecular markers, "omics" technology, radiobiology issues, and lung stem cells that relate to the development of lung cancer. PMID:21900398

  2. From Mice and Men to Earth and Space: Joint NASA-NCI Workshop on Lung Cancer Risk Resulting from Space and Terrestrial Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Jerry W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Coleman, C. Norman; Minna, John D.

    2011-01-01

    On June 27–28, 2011 scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NASA, and academia met in Bethesda to discuss major lung cancer issues confronting each organization. For NASA – available data suggest lung cancer is the largest potential cancer risk from space travel for both men and women and quantitative risk assessment information for mission planning is needed. In space the radiation risk is from high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei (such as Fe) and high energy protons from solar flares and not from gamma radiation. By contrast the NCI is endeavoring to estimate the increased lung cancer risk from the potential wide-spread implementation of computed tomography (CT) screening in individuals at high risk for developing lung cancer based on the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST). For the latter, exposure will be x-rays from CT scans from the screening (which uses “low dose” CT scans) and also from follow-up scans used to evaluate abnormalities found during initial screening. Topics discussed included the risk of lung cancer arising after HZE particle, proton, and low dose Earth radiation exposure. The workshop examined preclinical models, epidemiology, molecular markers, “omics” technology, radiobiology issues, and lung stem cells (LSC) that relate to the development of lung cancer. PMID:21900398

  3. Status of NASA`s Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Dudenhoefer; J. M. Winter

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are

  4. NASA Space Grant Contacts Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This publication provides an overview of two NASA funding programs, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (Space Grant) and the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCOR). A listing of contacts for these programs in all 50 states (20 states for EPSCOR), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is provided, as well as a link to the Space Grant homepage.

  5. GEANT4 Applications for NASA Space Missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Asai; Robert A. Reed; Robert A. Weller

    2006-01-01

    Geant4 is nowadays widely adopted as the simulation engine for NASA space missions. We will review three major application areas of Geant4: apparatus simulation, including pre-launch design and post-launch analysis; planetary scale simulation, including radiation spectra; micro-dosimetry simulation, including single-event effects on electronics components.

  6. Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

  7. International Space Station NASA Research

    E-print Network

    Science Glovebox (MSG) Window Observational Research Facility Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) Materials) ­ Astronaut health and countermeasure development for space exploration ­ Testing research and technology-profit organizations #12;4 NASA Research Infrastructure 2 Human Research Facility Racks 6 ExPRESS Racks Microgravity

  8. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  9. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    PubMed

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously. PMID:19580503

  10. Space plasma physics research at NASA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley D. Shawhan

    1987-01-01

    Space plasma physics research at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is administered by the Space Plasma Physics Branch of the Earth Science and Applications Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. The general goal of the space plasma research program is to understand the fundamental properties of space plasmas and

  11. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  12. NASA's Aero-Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milstead, Phil

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the three pillars and the associated goals of NASA's Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. The three pillars for success are: (1) Global Civil Aviation, (2) Revolutionary Technology Leaps, (3) Advanced Space Transportation. The associated goals of the first pillar are to reduce accidents, emissions, and cost, and to increase the aviation system capacity. The goals of the second pillar are to reduce transoceanic travel time, revolutionize general aviation aircraft, and improve development capacity. The goals associated with the third pillar are to reduce the launch cost for low earth orbit and to reduce travel time for planetary missions. In order to meet these goals NASA must provide next-generation design capability for new and or experimental craft which enable a balance between reducing components of the design cycle by up to 50% and or increasing the confidence in design by 50%. These next-generation design tools, concepts, and processes will revolutionize vehicle development. The presentation finally reviews the importance of modeling and simulation in achieving the goals.

  13. NASA's Space Science Programming Possibilities for Planetaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between NASA and the planetarium community is an important one. Indeed, NASA's Office of Space Science has invested in a study of the Space Science Media Needs of Science Center Professionals. Some of the findings indicate a need for exposure to space science researchers, workshops for museum educators, 'canned' programs, and access to a speakers bureau. We will discuss some of the programs of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, distribute sample multimedia products, explain the role of NASA's Educator Resource Center, and review our contributions to NASA's Education and Public Outreach effort.

  14. NASA Space controls research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mciver, D. E.; Key, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA technological organization is outlined. The Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is one of the four major technical offices that comprise NASA. The Office of Space Science and Applications administers programs directed towards using space-based or related techniques to further understanding of the total universe and to apply that understanding to practical applications in such areas as Astrophysics, Solar System exploration, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Communications and Information Systems. The Office of Space Flight administers the programs for all U.S. civil launch capability, plus Spacelab development and operations. The Office of Space Tracking & Data Systems administers the programs that operate and maintain a world-wide network of facilities for data acquisition, processing, and ground to spacecraft communications for all NASA missions. The OAST has primary responsibility within NASA for conducting space research and technology development to support commercial and military as well as NASA space interests.

  15. Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

  16. NASA's Contribution to Global Space Geodesy Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Space Geodesy program continues to be a major provider of space geodetic data for the international earth science community. NASA operates high performance Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at well over 30 locations around the world and works in close cooperation with space geodetic observatories around the world. NASA has also always been at the forefront in the quest for technical improvement and innovation in the space geodesy technologies to make them even more productive, accurate and economical. This presentation will highlight the current status of NASA's networks; the plans for partnerships with international groups in the southern hemisphere to improve the geographic distribution of space geodesy sites and the status of the technological improvements in SLR and VLBI that will support the new scientific thrusts proposed by interdisciplinary earth scientists. In addition, the expanding role of the NASA Space geodesy data archive, the CDDIS will be described.

  17. NASA NASA CONNECT: Special World Space Congress. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. This video presents the World Space Congress 2002, the meeting of the decade for space professionals. Topics discussed range from the discovery of distant planets to medical advancements,…

  18. Future Plans for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to space exploration, and future planned improvements to the communication capabilities that the network allows, in terms of precision, and communication power.

  19. Space shuttle given priority in NASA budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Greathouse

    1980-01-01

    At a recent hearing before a House subcommittee which concerns itself with appropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) head Robert Frosch made it clear that the space shuttle has top priority in the hardpressed FY 198I NASA budget.The president's budget, as it originally appeared in January, called for

  20. Real NASA Inspiration in a Virtual Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Ruth; Starr, Bob; Anderson, Susan

    2003-01-01

    NASA exemplifies the spirit of exploration of new horizons - from flight in earth's skies to missions in space. As we know from our experience as teachers, one of the best ways to motivate students' interest in mathematics, science, technology, and engineering is to allow them to explore the universe through NASA's rich history of air and space exploration and current missions. But how? It's not really practical for large numbers of students to talk to NASA astronauts, researchers, scientists, and engineers in person. NASA offers tools that make it possible for hundreds of students to visit with NASA through videoconferencing. These visits provide a real-world connection to scientists and their research and support the NASA mission statement: To inspire the next generation of explorers ... as only NASA can.

  1. Space radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

  2. Status of NASA`s Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

  3. NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wondering when that spacecraft will be cruising over your city during the next ten days? Visit the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page to find out. Satellite sighting information by city is provided by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Visitors to the site can choose a city from the list provided or enter their location using the nifty NASA Skywatch Java applet. Other highlights of the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks (.gif) and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information that includes altitude, location coordinates, speed, and more. Definitions and illustrations of orbital tracking elements and coordinate system terminology make the site accessible to general audiences.

  4. NASA space research and technology overview (ITP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs summarizing NASA space research and technology is presented. Some of the specific topics covered include the organization and goals of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, technology maturation strategy, integrated technology plan for the Civil Space Program, program selection and investment prioritization, and space technology benefits.

  5. The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

  6. NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

  7. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  8. NASA Space Sciences Strategic Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.

  9. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  10. You and NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    You and NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Aeronautics Research Mission"-- "National Aeronautics and Space Administration." Aeronautics has been part of NASA for more than 50 years. Before that, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics conducted pioneering research

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Entry Form for 2012 NASA Langley will become the property of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and will not be returned): Aeronautics Exploration Science Education Description of design

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Fiscal Year 2011 Performance & Accountability Report #12;NASA's Performance and Accountability Report The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produces an annual Performance and Accountability Report (PAR) to share the Agency

  13. www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Strategic Plan 2014 #12;ii 2014 Strategic PlanNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A `Blue Marble' image of the Western Hemisphere): NASA Table of Contents Letter from the Administrator

  14. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  15. Space radiation health program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  16. Dosimetry of space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkhangelskiy, V. V.; Markelov, V. V.; Skvortsov, S. S.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Turkin, V. N.; Chernykh, I. V.

    1973-01-01

    Harmful effects of space radiation are discussed. Radiation dosimetry methods are given. Dosimetry monitoring is investigated. Methods for measuring space radiation by ionization, thermoluminescence, and nuclear photographic emulsions are described.

  17. NASA Creates Space Technology Mission Directorate

    E-print Network

    drew media attention and articles on 3D printing, including coverage by Popular Mechanics and website on 3D printing and prototyping technology to create parts for the Space Launch System at Marshall Space, Lightweight Materials and Structures as well as presentations on new emerging technologies. 2 At NASA Marshall

  18. NASA's Space Science and Applications Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Homer E.

    This booklet contains material prepared by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) office of Space Science and Applications for presentation to the United States Congress. It contains discussion of basic research, its value as a source of knowledge, techniques and skills that go into the development of technology, and practical…

  19. Space Images for NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

  20. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dudenhoefer

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives.

  1. NASA's SDR Standard: Space Telecommunications Radio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  2. NASA's new university engineering space research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.

  3. NASA: Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online training module created by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) discusses the concepts related to deep space missions. Through a series of animations and quizzes within the eighteen chapters, visitors can learn about the solar system's environment, flight project details, and flight operations. The website is equipped with an astronomical glossary and a Units of Measure page. Although originally developed for JPL operations people, students and educators interested in interplanetary space flight will find this website very informative.

  4. NASA Space Science Partnerships with Minority Universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, P. J.; Rosendhal, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past five years NASA has carried out a deliberate and highly successful effort to engage Minority Institutions (MI) in space science activities. Implemented through a uniquely designed grants program now known as the "NASA Minority University and College Education and Research Partnership Initiative (MUCERPI) in Space Science," an impressive array of space science research and educational activities has been developed at 15 MI's over the three-year period from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. This effort began with the recognition that very few MI's had programs in space science. To address this deficiency, the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS), in cooperation with the NASA Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP), carried out a series of consultations with MI faculty and administrators aimed at ascertaining the level of interest that MI's had in space science and at identifying the most effective strategies for developing space science capabilities on their campuses. The clear conclusion was that MI's were extremely interested in participating in space science, but that they had not been given a real opportunity to do so. The overwhelming consensus was that a successful program to engage MI's in space science would require: 1) a serious invitation from OSS to become involved in space science, 2) the flexibility to devise projects that fit the local environment on each participating campus, and 3) the opportunity to form partnerships with leading researchers in the space science community. As a result, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) emphasizing these and other factors was developed and issued in January 2000. Some of its more unique features were that: 1) it was issued by OSS with funding provided by OEOP; 2) it invited MI's to develop any combination of research capabilities, academic programs (at any level), and/or public outreach in space science; and 3) it required working partnerships with NASA-sponsored space science researchers for any research capability development projects. At the same time, OSS began a campaign to make its entire community of researchers aware of this new NRA and to encourage them to participate as partners. This campaign deliberately targeted space scientists funded by OSS at universities and research facilities, as well as at NASA Centers. Some 60 proposals received, from which 15 minority institutions, including six Historically Black Colleges or Universities, three Hispanic Serving Institutions, three Tribal Colleges, and three minority-predominant institutions were selected for 3-year awards of up to $250,000 per year. The outcomes reported by the grantees at the end of their three-year period of performance are impressive. Collectively, the grantees engaged in research collaborations with 10 NASA space science missions or suborbital projects and in more than 50 working partnerships with major space science research groups. In academic programs, they established 25 new or redirected space science faculty positions, 12 new or revised space science degree programs, and 68 new or revised space science courses with a total enrollment of nearly 1,800 students. They also engaged in a wide variety of teacher training, precollege outreach, and public outreach programs. From these results, it is clear that vibrant academic and research programs in space science can be built at MI's provided that sponsoring Agencies offer serious opportunities to do so. The sponsoring Agencies need to play an active role in providing guidance and in engaging their usual cadre of researchers to serve as active partners in collaborations with interested MI's. Merely acting as a passive provider of funds is not enough to make a significant difference.

  5. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  6. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.; Werner, M. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Soifer, B. T.; Levine, D. A.; Romana, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  7. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  8. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  9. The NASA space power technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1992-01-01

    NASA has a broad technology program in the field of space power. This paper describes that program, including the roles and responsibilities of the various NASA field centers and major contractors. In the power source area, the paper discusses the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Project, which has been under way for about seven years and is making substantial progress toward development of components for a 100-kilowatt power system that can be scaled to other sizes. This system is a candidate power source for nuclear electric propulsion, as well as for a power plant for a lunar base. In the energy storage area, the paper describes NASA's battery- and fuel-cell development programs. NASA is actively working on NiCd, NiH2, and lithium batteries. A status update is also given on a U.S. Air Force-sponsored program to develop a large (150 ampere-hour) lithium-thionyl chloride battery for the Centaur upper-stage launch vehicle. Finally, the area of power management and distribution (PMAD) is addressed, including power system components such as solid-state switches and power integrated circuits. Automated load management and other computer-controlled functions offer considerable payoffs. The state of the art in space power is described, along with NASA's medium- and long-term goals in the area.

  10. The NASA space power technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    NASA has a broad technology program in the field of space power. This paper describes that program, including the roles and responsibilities of the various NASA field centers and major contractors. In the power source area, the paper discusses the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Project, which has been under way for about seven years and is making substantial progress toward development of components for a 100-kilowatt power system that can be scaled to other sizes. This system is a candidate power source for nuclear electric propulsion, as well as for a power plant for a lunar base. In the energy storage area, the paper describes NASA's battery- and fuel-cell development programs. NASA is actively working on NiCd, NiH2, and lithium batteries. A status update is also given on a U.S. Air Force-sponsored program to develop a large (150 ampere-hour) lithium-thionyl chloride battery for the Centaur upper-stage launch vehicle. Finally, the area of power management and distribution (PMAD) is addressed, including power system components such as solid-state switches and power integrated circuits. Automated load management and other computer-controlled functions offer considerable payoffs. The state of the art in space power is described, along with NASA's medium- and long-term goals in the area.

  11. NASA Kennedy Space Center RESOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the use of space resources to manufacture propellant and consumables can significantly reduce the launch mass of space exploration beyond earth orbit. Even the Moon. which has no atmosphere, is rich in resources that can theoretically be harvested. A series of lunar missions over the last 20 years has shown an unexpected resource on the Moon. There is evidence that water ice and other volatiles useful for the production of propellant are located at the lunar poles, though most of it is located within permanently shadowed craters where accessing these resources is challenging.

  12. 77 FR 67028 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-093...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)...

  13. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  14. FY 2012 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    NASA to fund the DESDnyl mission at FY11 levels · The report provides $10 million for the development the President's request, but $1.129 billion more than the House would provide. Unlike NASA overall, NASA ScienceFY 2012 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) NASA FY 2012

  15. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  16. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and implement an overall Risk Management and Analysis process. Currently NASA is drafting spaceflight health standards for neurosensory alterations, space radiation exposure, behavioral health, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular fitness, immunological compromise, bone demineralization, and nutrition.

  17. NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 13 & 14, 2010

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    ..................................................................................................................................... 3 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION UPDATES (FACA)--MIKE SUFFREDINI ........................ 3 SPACE with the allotted resources, this committee's emphasis being space operations. International Space Station UpdatesNASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 13 & 14, 2010 Johnson Space Center

  18. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  19. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Non-Discrimination

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Non-Discrimination Regulations for Federally from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, hereinafter referred to as NASA. Sec. 1250 Assisted Programs www.nasa.gov NASA Office of Diversity and Equal Opportunity National Aeronautics

  1. NASA technology for large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.; Campbell, T. G.; Freeland, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed by NASA in conjunction with industry for potential large, deployable space antennas with applications in communication, radio astronomy and earth observation is reviewed. Concepts for deployable antennas that have been developed to the point of detail design are summarized, including the advanced sunflower precision antenna, the radial rib antenna, the maypole (hoop/column) antenna and the parabolic erectable truss antenna. The assessment of state-of-the-art deployable antenna technology is discussed, and the approach taken by the NASA Large Space Systems Technology (LSST) Program to the development of technology for large space antenna systems is outlined. Finally, the further development of the wrap-rib antenna and the maypole (hoop/column) concept, which meet mission model requirements, to satisfy LSST size and frequency requirements is discussed.

  2. NASA's space life sciences training program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-08-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  3. NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  4. INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Flags are planted on the roof of the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility under construction just west of the Mississippi Welcome Center at exit 2 on Interstate 10. Stennis and community leaders celebrated the 'topping out' of the new science center Nov. 17, marking a construction milestone for the center. The 72,000-square-foot science and education center will feature space and Earth galleries to showcase the science that underpins the missions of the agencies at Stennis Space Center. The center is targeted to open in 2012.

  5. NASA Space Cryocooler Programs: A 2003 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 4 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.

  6. Challenges of Integrating NASAs Space Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinert, Jessica M.; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a significant obstacle for integration. Over the past few decades of use, user missions and network personnel alike have grown accustomed to the processes by which services are provided by the NASA communications and navigation networks. The culture established by each network has created several challenges that need to be overcome in order to effectively integrate the networks. As with any change, there has been resistance, an apprehension to explore automation of existing processes, and a working environment that attempts to indirectly influence change without mandating compliance. Overcoming technical and cultural challenges is essential to successfully integrating the networks and although the challenges are numerous, the integration of the networks promises a more efficient space communications network for NASA and its customers, as well as potential long-term cost savings to the agency. This paper, Challenges of Integrating NASA Legacy Communications Networks, will provide a brief overview of the current NASA space communications networks as well as the an overview of the process implemented while performing the SCaN Trade Studies and an introduction to the requirements driving integration of the SCaN Networks. This paper will describe in detail the challenges experienced, both technical and cultural, while working with NASA space communications network-specific personnel. The paper will also cover lessons learned during the performance of architecture trade studies and provide recommendations for ways to improve the process.

  7. Space Power Requirements for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulville, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    The key technology issues for the power requirements of future NASA space missions are: reduction in mass to enable smaller launch vehicles, faster trip time and lower cost; simpler more autonomous operations to reduce life cycle cost; reduce design, development , and qualification time to enable frequent low-cost missions; increase payload fraction and science return; enable next generation missions; stimulate U.S. industry to promote strong world leadership capability; and incorporate dual-use strategy into technology development.

  8. 2008 E-Government Act Report 1 NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    2008 E-Government Act Report 1 NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) E-Government Act Implementation Update October 14, 2008 NASA is pleased to submit our annual E-Government Act Officers (CIOs), "FY 2008 E-Government Act Reporting Instructions," dated September 2, 2008. NASA continues

  9. 1www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    1www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration Asteroid Initiative Ideas Synthesis.nasa.gov* Virtual Presenter National Aeronautics and Space Administration Time (CDT) Topic SPEAKER 3:35 Break 3:45 p Synthesis www.nasa.gov* Virtual Presenter National Aeronautics and Space Administration Time (CDT) Topic

  10. Status of the NASA Space Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. P.; Holcomb, L.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Space Power Research and Technology Program has the objective to provide the technological basis for satisfying the nation's future needs regarding electrical power in space. The development of power sources of low mass and increased environmental resistance is considered. Attention is given to advances in the area of photovoltaic energy conversion, improved Ni-Cd battery components, a nickel-hydrogen battery, remotely activated silver-zinc and lithium-water batteries, the technology of an advanced water electrolysis/regenerative fuel cell system, aspects of thermal-to-electric conversion, environmental interactions, multi-kW low cost systems, and high-performance systems.

  11. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Earth will be an enduring legacy for future generations, confirming America's commitment to explore, learn, and progress. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program's Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle and associated equipment, or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Both options support a national capability that will pay dividends for future generations. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 metric tons (mT) and will be evolvable to 130 mT. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of asteroids and Mars. With its superior lift capability, the SLS can expand the interplanetary highway to many possible destinations, conducting revolutionary missions that will change the way we view ourselves, our planet and its place in the cosmos. To perform missions such as these, the SLS will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. It is being designed for safety and affordability - to sustain our journey into the space age. Current plans include launching the first flight, without crew, later this decade, with crewed flights beginning early next decade. Development work now in progress is based on heritage space systems and working knowledge, allowing for a relatively quick start and for maturing the SLS rocket as future technologies become available. Together, NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are partnering to develop this one-of-a-kind asset. Many of NASA's space centers across the country will provide their unique expertise to the Space Launch System endeavor. Unique infrastructure to be used includes the Michoud Assembly Facility for tank manufacturing, Stennis Space Center for engine testing, and Kennedy Space Center for processing and launch. As this panel will discuss, the SLS team is dedicated to doing things differently-from applying lean oversight/insight models to smartly using legacy hardware and existing facilities. Building on the foundation laid by over 50 years of human and scientific space flight--and on the lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle, and Constellation Programs-the SLS team has delivered both technical trade studies and business case analyses to ensure that the SLS architecture will be safe, affordable, reliable, and sustainable.

  13. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. M. Fry; D. S. Nachtwey

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be

  14. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  15. Future trends in NASA space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuechsel, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    It is a great privilege for me to address my colleagues at SpaceOps 92. Today, I would like to share with you some current directions we are pursuing in NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC). The space agencies of the world have produced some remarkable achievements in conducting our missions. It is also true that we consume significant resources in controlling and operating our spacecraft. In these challenging economic times, the degree to which our agencies can develop new missions will depend on our ability to reduce operating costs. I believe that there are many opportunities for doing this, and I will explore some of our plans in this regard. First, I will review the business of space operations.

  16. Heliospheric Physics and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration outlines NASA's development of a new generation of human-rated launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and an architecture for exploring the Moon and Mars. The system--developed by the Constellation Program--includes a near term (approx. 2014) capability to provide crew and cargo service to the International Space Station after the Shuttle is retired in 2010 and a human return to the Moon no later than 2020. Constellation vehicles and systems will necessarily be required to operate efficiently, safely, and reliably in the space plasma and radiation environments of low Earth orbit, the Earth's magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and on the lunar surface. This presentation will provide an overview of the characteristics of space radiation and plasma environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-lunar injection and trans-Earth injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose and plasma wake charging environments in near lunar space, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the design and operational environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    . For images and information visit: http://www.nasa.gov/returntoflight Image Credit: NASA Return To Flight. Image Credit: NASA #12;GoddardView Volume 1 Issue 11 Year In Review December 2005 04 Goddard2005National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 1 Issue 11 December 2005 Goddard

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's John C. Stennis

    E-print Network

    and components that will enable commercial space flights. It also is testing NASA's J-2X powerpack componentNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Mission Brochure #12;National Aeronatuics and Space Administration John C. Stennis Space Center Office of External

  19. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

  20. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  1. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov.

    E-print Network

    , the committee report estimates NASA needs an extra $3 billion a year, beginning in 2014, if humans are to travel, NASA has focused on a space exploration vision presented by then-President George W. Bush followingNASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov. 6 as the first site to earn certification

  2. NASA's Space Launch Initiative Targets Toxic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; McNeal, Curtis; Davis, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When manned and unmanned space flight first began, the clear and overriding design consideration was performance. Consequently, propellant combinations of all kinds were considered, tested, and, when they lifted the payload a kilometer higher, or an extra kilogram to the same altitude, they became part of our operational inventory. Cost was not considered. And with virtually all of the early work being performed by the military, safety was hardly a consideration. After all, fighting wars has always been dangerous. Those days are past now. With space flight, and the products of space flight, a regular part of our lives today, safety and cost are being reexamined. NASA's focus turns naturally to its Shuttle Space Transportation System. Designed, built, and flown for the first time in the 1970s, this system remains today America's workhorse for manned space flight. Without its tremendous lift capability and mission flexibility, the International Space Station would not exist. And the Hubble telescope would be a monument to shortsighted management, rather than the clear penetrating eye on the stars it is today. But the Shuttle system fully represents the design philosophy of its period: it is too costly to operate, and not safe enough for regular long term access to space. And one of the key reasons is the utilization of toxic propellants. This paper will present an overview of the utilization of toxic propellants on the current Shuttle system.

  3. NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

  4. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than sequentially, saving both time and money. These themes are accomplished under the context of a new cross-program integration model that emphasizes peer-to-peer accountability and collaboration towards a common, shared goal. Utilizing the lessons learned through 50 years of human space flight experience, SLS is assigning the right number of people from appropriate backgrounds, providing them the right tools, and exercising the right processes for the job. The result will be a powerful, versatile, and capable heavy-lift, human-rated asset for the future human and scientific exploration of space.

  5. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the life-cycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reachback support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-ofthe- art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than sequentially, saving both time and money. These themes are accomplished under the context of a new cross-program integration model that emphasizes peer-to-peer accountability and collaboration towards a common, shared goal. Utilizing the lessons learned through 50 years of human space flight experience, SLS is assigning the right number of people from appropriate backgrounds, providing them the right tools, and exercising the right processes for the job. The result will be a powerful, versatile, and capable heavy-lift, human-rated asset for the future human and scientific exploration of space.

  6. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  7. Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

  8. Managing Space System Faults: Coalescing NASA's Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Brian; Fesq, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering "discipline" required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM), Fault Management (FM), Fault Protection (FP), Hazard Analysis (HA), and Aborts communities. Approaches to managing space system faults typically are unique to each organization, with little commonality in the architectures, processes and practices across the industry.

  9. VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

  10. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hienz; Catherine Davis; Michael Weed; Peter Guida; Virginia Gooden; Joseph Brady; Peter Roma

    2010-01-01

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive\\/behavioral changes during long-term space

  11. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to deep space exploration, opening up vast opportunities for human missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This evolved capability will offer large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements.

  12. Radiation risk and human space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  14. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  15. NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook: Lessons Learned Documented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The need to improve space mechanism reliability is underscored by a long history of flight failures and anomalies caused by malfunctioning mechanisms on spacecraft and launch vehicles. Some examples of these failures are listed in a table. Because much experience has been gained over the years, many specialized design practices have evolved and many unsatisfactory design approaches have been identified.NASA and the NASA Lewis Research Center conducted a Lessons Learned Study (refs. 1 and 2) and wrote a handbook to document what has been learned in the past. The primary goals of the handbook were to identify desirable and undesirable design practices for space mechanisms and to reduce the number of failures caused by the repetition of past design errors. Another goal was to identify a variety of design approaches for specific applications and to provide the associated considerations and caveats for each approach in an effort to help designers choose the approach most suitable for each application. This technical summary outlines the goals and objectives of the handbook and study as well as the contents of the handbook.

  16. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  17. Control of NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

  18. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS Program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Advisory Council

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Advisory Council Human Exploration Scientist National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Director/Scientist JSC Chief Medical OfficerD. Chief Scientist, Space Life and Physical Sciences Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate #12

  20. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to configure the rocket for the mission. The SLS affordability plan includes streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture where the question Why? is often asked and the answer "Because we've always done it that way" is rarely heard. The SLS Program will deliver affordable space transportation solutions for the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021. As this briefing will show, the SLS will offer a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations.

  1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    ViewFirst Images from NASA's Cloudsat Pg 2 Unintentional Intolerance Pg 3 Astronomy Hits the Theater as space allows. All submissions are subject to editing. First Images From NASA'S Cloudsat Have Scientists Sky-High The first images from NASA's new CloudSat satellite are al- ready revealing never

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    - capped volcanoes. ImageCredit:USGSNationalCenterforEROS/NASA The above image looks like a beautiful to include images from other NASA satellites, including a wide variety of land forms and features, fromNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 2 Issue 15 August 2006 Goddard

  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov COMPOSITE STRUCTURES H v F ­ 1970s-Today NASA STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (NASTRAN) H v F ­ 1960s-Today COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) H v F ­ 1970s) Starting in the 1970s, NASA began developing sophisticated computer codes that could accurately predict

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov COMPOSITE STRUCTURES H v ­ 1970s-Today NASA STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (NASTRAN) H v ­ 1960s-Today WINGLETS H v ­ 1970s-1980s ICING DETECTION H H v ­ 1930s-Today 18 #12;1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Starting in the 1970s, NASA began

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov ESTRUCTURAS COMPUESTAS H v : 1970 - hoy - hoy 16 ANÁLISIS ESTRUCTURAL DE LA NASA (NASTRAN) H v : 1960 - hoy DINÁMICA COMPUTACIONAL DE FLUIDOS NASA comenzó a desarrollar códigos informáticos sofisticados que podían predecir de forma precisa el

  6. NASA research and development for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore and prove out robust concepts for telerobotic support of space servicing, assembly, maintenance, and telescience tasks. This goal is being addressed through a program of coordinated work in artificial intelligence, robotics, and human factors. The general research objective is the fusion of robot sensing and manipulation, teleoperation, and human and machine cognitive skills into an effective architecture for supervised task automation. NASA is evaluating results of this research program in a ground laboratory telerobot testbed under development at JPL. The testbed development activity includes integrated technology demonstrations. The demonstrations will show telerobot capabilities to perform tasks of increasing complexity, and duration in increasingly unstructured environments. The first such demonstration is the ground-based grappling, dockling, and servicing of a satellite taskboard.

  7. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS also will provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130 t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and 21st Century Ground Systems programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration.

  8. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2006-01-01

    Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  10. NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station - Duration: 80 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

  11. Why Is NASA Boiling Fluids in Space? - Duration: 59 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Convection and buoyancy work differently in space than on Earth. Learn how NASA uses this information and applies it to everyday life. Boiling fluids in space is easier than it is on Earth. Learn m...

  12. First among equals: The selection of NASA space science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naugle, John E.

    1990-01-01

    The process is recounted by which NASA and the scientific community have, since 1958, selected individual experiments for NASA space missions. It explores the scientific and organizational issues involved in the selection process and discusses the significance of the process in the character and accomplishments of U.S. space activities.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    ViewNASA's Clean Room: Last Stop for New Hubble Hardware Pg 4 World Space Party Draws Hundreds to Goddard Pg 6 Future Planning Core Team Launches Goddard Future on May 6 ­ 3 NASA's Clean Room: Last Stop for New Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters in the World's largest Class 10,000 clean room at the Goddard Space

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 10 Issue 9 July 2014 #12;T he Mandt, NOAA system program director for the GOES-R Series Program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center than current capabilities with more frequent images. NOAA manages the GOES-R Series Program through

  15. NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, DC 20546 Hon Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, DC 20546 Dear Dr. Griffin: The NASA Advisory Council met. Harrison H. Schmitt, Chairman May 18, 2007 The Honorable Michael D. Griffin Administrator National

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Shared Services Center

    E-print Network

    Herr, Amy E.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Shared Services Center Stennis Space Center, MS that NASA technical and administrative personnel will not be available to support those activities during will reopen and Government oversight and administrative personnel will resume their normal duties. Funding

  17. FY 2006 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    FY 2006 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) (numbers Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). * One important caveat ­ the conferees have included a .28 FY06 Conf. % change FY05 vs. FY06 Science, Aeronautics and Exploration 9,334.7 9,661.0 3.5% 9,725.7 9

  18. FY 2007 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    FY 2007 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) http bill is funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The full Committee FY07 House FY07 Senate FY07 Joint Resolution Science, Aeronautics and Exploration 9,721.3 10,524.4 10

  19. The NASA-Sponsored Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA). Relationship of Exposure to Radiation in Space and the Risk of Cataract Incidence and Progression. Report 1: Recruitment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chylack, Leo T.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wear, Mary; Manuel, F. Keith

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a five-year, multi-centered, investigation of lens opacification in populations of U.S. astronauts, military pilots, and ground-based (nonaviator) comparison participants. For astronauts, the explanatory variable of most interest is radiation exposure during space flight, however to properly evaluate its effect, the secondary effects of age, nutrition, general health, solar ocular exposure, and other confounding variables encountered in non-space flight must also be considered. NASCA contains an initial baseline, cross-sectional objective assessment of the severity of cortical (C), nuclear (N), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacification, and annual follow-on assessments of severity and progression of these opacities in the population of astronauts and in participants sampled from populations of military pilots and ground-based exposure controls. From these data, NASCA will estimate the degree to which space radiation affects lens opacification for astronauts and how the overall risks of each cataract type for astronauts compared with those of the other exposure control groups after adjusting for differences in age and other explanatory variables.

  20. NASA's Growing Commitment: The Space Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Astronauts cannot live on dehydrated ice cream alone. Like everyone else, they need their vegetables. Enter VEGGIE, the Deployable Vegetable System, currently under development by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC). VEGGIE is the latest in a long line of vegetable production units ORBITEC is currently working on, with NASA assistance, to grow salad crops to supplement prepackaged foods during long stays in space. The primary goal of the VEGGIE project is to provide flight crews with palatable, nutritious, and safe sources of fresh food with minimal volume and operational resources. In addition, ORBITEC recognizes the age-old adage that gardening is good for the soul, and it acknowledges that gardens are beneficial for relaxation and recreation. As evidence, astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), who often stay for periods of 6 months, have been enjoying plant experiments, which provide them with much missed greenery and can occupy valuable free time with an enjoyable task. VEGGIE is a project that grew out of technology developed by ORBITEC for the Biomass Production System (BPS). The BPS is equivalent in size to a Space Shuttle middeck locker, and provides four plant growth chambers. Each chamber has independent control of temperature, humidity, nutrient and water delivery, lighting, and atmospheric composition. The BPS flew to the ISS in 2002, and astronaut Dan Bursch had positive comments about his interaction with the plants while in orbit. Astronaut Peggy Whitson had similarly positive remarks during the following expedition while she was growing soybeans for another experiment. Whitson reflects on her time in space with the plantings on Expedition 5, "Although it doesn t sound like much, it was really exciting to see something green. I assumed that this was just because I really enjoy plants, but it surprised me that both of my crewmates were just as excited. They wanted photos of themselves with the plants and asked if they could eat some of them, too!" The astronauts did not eat the plants, but these initial experiments gave the researchers information they needed about the basics of growing crops in space.

  1. Space Science Research and Technology at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the various projects and programs managed in the Space Science Programs and Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Projects in the portfolio include NASA's Chandra X-Ray telescope, Hinode solar physics satellite, various advanced space propulsion technologies, including solar sails and tethers, as well as NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs.

  2. Optical information processing for NASA's space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Ochoa, Ellen; Juday, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The development status of optical processing techniques under development at NASA-JPL, NASA-Ames, and NASA-Johnson, is evaluated with a view to their potential applications in future NASA planetary exploration missions. It is projected that such optical processing systems can yield major reductions in mass, volume, and power requirements relative to exclusively electronic systems of comparable processing capabilities. Attention is given to high-order neural networks for distortion-invariant classification and pattern recognition, multispectral imaging using an acoustooptic tunable filter, and an optical matrix processor for control problems.

  3. NASA Johnson Space Center: Total quality partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlan, Charlie; Boyd, Alfred A.

    1992-01-01

    The development of and benefits realized from a joint NASA, support contractor continuous improvement process at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is traced. The joint effort described is the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Directorate relationship with its three support contractors which began in early 1990. The Continuous Improvement effort started in early 1990 with an initiative to document and simplify numerous engineering change evaluation processes. This effort quickly grew in scope and intensity to include process improvement teams, improvement methodologies, awareness, and training. By early 1991, the support contractor had teams in place and functioning, program goals established and a cultural change effort underway. In mid-l991 it became apparent that a major redirection was needed to counter a growing sense of frustration and dissatisfaction from teams and managers. Sources of frustration were isolated to insufficient joint participation on teams, and to a poorly defined vision. Over the next year, the effort was transformed to a truly joint process. The presentation covers the steps taken to define vision, values, goals, and priorities and to form a joint Steering Committee and joint process improvement teams. The most recent assessment against the President's award criteria is presented as a summary of progress. Small, but important improvement results have already demonstrated the value of the joint effort.

  4. Managing Space Technology Development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    2007-01-01

    NASA uses a structured process for managing projects that develop advanced space technologies and transition them into the designs of flight systems. The four-part process consists of formulation, approval, implementation, and transition. In the formulation phase, technology needs are derived from mission concept studies, various technical approaches for meeting the technology needs are identified, technical performance goals called Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) are established, and a project plan is developed. Prior to project approval, an Independent Formulation Review is conducted to ensure that the project objectives are aligned with the mission needs, and that the project is well planned to meet the objectives. In the implementation phase, the technology development project matures the technology, and progress towards the KPPs is evaluated in periodic status reviews. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are used throughout the project lifecycle to assess the progress of technology maturation. In the transition phase, technologies that are successful in achieving the required level of maturity are transitioned to a customer for further development, are used in system designs, or are thoroughly documented for resumption of development at a later date. The customer or end-user of the technology is involved in all phases of the technology development process.

  5. Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2004-01-01

    Nanotube activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization as well as applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A parametric study of the pulsed laser ablation process is recently completed to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Enhancement of production is achieved by rastering the graphite target and by increasing the target surface temperature with a cw laser. In-situ diagnostics during production included time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from the plume. The improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymer/nanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large Surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs. Comparison with existing technologies and possible future improvements in the SWCNT materials sill be presented.

  6. Nanomaterials Work at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center focus on single wall carbon nanotube production, characterization and their applications for aerospace. Nanotubes are produced by arc and laser methods and the growth process is monitored by in-situ diagnostics using time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence of the active species. Parametric study of both these processes are conducted to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, laser fluence and arc current. Characterization of the nanotube material is performed using the NASA-JSC protocol developed by combining analytical techniques of SEM, TEM, UV-VIS-NIR absorption, Raman, and TGA. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymernanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  7. Deep Space Test Bed for Radiation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other Exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation and flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status.

  8. NASA GRC and MSFC Space Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale C. Ferguson; Boris V. Vayner; Joel T. Galofaro; G. Barry Hillard; Jason Vaughn; Todd Schneider

    2006-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated-space-plasma conditions have been performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for an accurate and meaningful space simulation have

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov STS-135: The Final Mission Dedicated to the courageous men and women who have devoted their lives to the Space Shuttle Program and the pursuit of space;1981 1989 1990 STS-1: The First Mission 1985 #12;JULY 2011 CONTENTS i CONTENTS Section Page SPACE SHUTTLE

  10. Renewable Energy at NASA's Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowall, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center has implemented a great number of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems are necessary to research and implement if we humans are expected to continue to grow and thrive on this planet. These systems generate energy using renewable sources - water, wind, sun - things that we will not run out of. Johnson Space Center is helping to pave the way by installing and studying various renewable energy systems. The objective of this report will be to examine the completed renewable energy projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center for a time span of ten years, beginning in 2003 and ending in early 2014. This report will analyze the success of each project based on actual vs. projected savings and actual vs. projected efficiency. Additionally, both positive and negative experiences are documented so that lessons may be learned from past experiences. NASA is incorporating renewable energy wherever it can, including into buildings. According to the 2012 JSC Annual Sustainability Report, there are 321,660 square feet of green building space on JSC's campus. The two projects discussed here are major contributors to that statistic. These buildings were designed to meet various Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certification criteria. LEED Certified buildings use 30 to 50 percent less energy and water compared to non-LEED buildings. The objectives of this project were to examine data from the renewable energy systems in two of the green buildings onsite - Building 12 and Building 20. In Building 12, data was examined from the solar photovoltaic arrays. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater system. By examining the data from the two buildings, it could be determined if the renewable energy systems are operating efficiently. Objectives In Building 12, the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays shows that the system is continuously collecting energy from the sun, as shown by the graph below. Building 12 has two solar inverters, located on the second floor, that collected the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays. The data displayed here is the total energy produced by the system. These are cumulative amounts, so the last point on the graph shows all of the energy collected from the system since the start of its operation. The data shown here was manually collected from the solar inverters. However, the data is also automatically recorded through EBI. Through analysis of both sets of data it was determined that the EBI data was faulty. For example, from the manually collected data it can be determined that a total of 73 kWh of energy was collected between the dates of 1/16/2014 – 1/22/2014. The EBI data reports that approximately 17800 kWh of energy was collected during the same time frame. Not only does this exceed the time frame examined, but it also exceeds the total energy collected from the start of collection as recorded from the inverters. This leads to the belief that there is a malfunction with the automatic recording of the energy. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater dating back many months and found that the pump for the solar water heater system was not operating properly, as exhibited in the graph shown below. The pump operates on a solar energy system, meaning that it collects energy throughout the day from the sun. Because of this, the system would stop operating shortly after the sun set because of a lack of sunlight. At that point, the graph should show a zero flow rate, but as exhibited in the graph below, that is not the case. It is clearly shown that the pump is continuously operating, even during the night. It was also observed that the majority of the time the pump would not turn on at all, despite good weather conditions. This led to the conclusion that the pump is malfunctioning, and needs to be examined and fixed.

  11. Overview of Space Science and Information Research Opportunities at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.

    2000-01-01

    It is not possible to review all the opportunities that NASA provides to support the Space Science Enterprise, in the short amount of time allotted for this presentation. Therefore, only a few key programs will be discussed. The programs that I will discuss will concentrate on research opportunities for faculty, graduate and postdoctoral candidates in Space Science research and information technologies at NASA. One of the most important programs for research opportunities is the NASA Research Announcement or NRA. NASA Headquarters issues NRA's on a regular basis and these cover space science and computer science activities relating to NASA missions and programs. In the Space Sciences, the most important NRA is called the "Research Opportunities in Space Science or the ROSS NRA. The ROSS NRA is composed of multiple announcements in the areas of structure and evolution of the Universe, Solar System exploration, Sun-Earth connections, and applied information systems. Another important opportunity is the Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP). The GSRP is designed to cultivate research ties between a NASA Center and the academic community through the award of fellowships to promising students in science and engineering. This program is unique since it matches the student's area of research interest with existing work being carried out at NASA. This program is for U.S. citizens who are full-time graduate students. Students who are successful have made the match between their research and the NASA employee who will act as their NASA Advisor/ Mentor. In this program, the student's research is primarily accomplished under the supervision of his faculty advisor with periodic or frequent interactions with the NASA Mentor. These interactions typically involve travel to the sponsoring NASA Center on a regular basis. The one-year fellowships are renewable for up to three years and over $20,000 per year. These and other important opportunities will be discussed.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Capability Driven Roadmap

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. · Advance aeronautics's aeronautics and space activitie

  13. Space Math: Radiation Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sten Odenwald

    This booklet includes 19 problems that explore the topic of radiation and human exposure to its different forms. The problems span math abilities from basic multiplication and unit conversions, to algebra and calculus. For example, students learn about the various natural radiation dosages to which they are exposed daily, work quantitatively with authentic radiation dosage units to estimate the total annual dosages resulting from different lifestyles, and determine probabilities of occurrence for flares and other radiation events in space. Math skills include graph analysis, Venn diagramming, probability and statistics, evaluating equations in more than one variable, extrapolation and forecasting, scientific notation, integral calculus. (8.5 x11, 28 pages, 11 color images, PDF file)

  14. NASA Space Launch System (SLS) Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The briefing objectives are: (1) Explain the SLS current baseline architecture and the SLS block-upgrade approach. (2) Summarize the SLS evolutionary path in relation to the Advanced Booster and Advanced Development NASA Research Announcements.

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Crew Vehicle Design Pg 4 NASA Spacecraft Ready to Explore Outer Solar System Pg 9 #12;Goddard Uncrated After 35 Years, Helps New Crew Vehicle Design ­ 4 Top Winners Announced for Discovery Education 3M Spotless Sun: Blankest Year of the Space Age ­ 8 NASA Spacecraft Ready to Explore Outer Solar System ­ 9

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) education 1993--2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Ivie

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Education 1993-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993-2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that…

  18. Advances in Space Traveling-Wave Tubes for NASA Missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Wilson; Edwin G. Wintucky; Karl R. Vaden; Dale A. Force; Isay L. Krainsky; Rainee N. Simons; Neal R. Robbins; William L. Menninger; Daniel R. Dibb; David E. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances in the performance and reliability of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) utilized in amplifying space communication signals for NASA missions have been achieved over the last three decades through collaborative efforts between NASA and primarily L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. (L-3 ETI). This paper summarizes some of the key milestones during this period and includes development of TWTs for the

  19. Developing industrial participation in space - An approach for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madigan, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Maximizing industrial utilization of NASA's Space Transportation System (STS) requires the identification of potential STS users, determination of user needs, and initiation of integrated technical/market development efforts. With the involvement of potential end-users, R&D must be funded to demonstrate STS capabilities in technologies which have industrial potential. An integrated user development plan for NASA is discussed, emphasizing major activities and functional relationships in a user development program. Opportunities for private industry are noted. Results presented are those developed in support of a recent NASA contract intended as an initial step in the implementation by NASA of a user development program for the STS.

  20. Exploring the Architectural Trade Space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Exploring the Architectural Trade Space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program Marc of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible, Bernie Seery NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 8800 Greenbelt Road Greenbelt, MD 20771 301

  1. NASA's Space Launch System Building Orion Adapter - Duration: 114 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is hard at work designing the nation's next flagship rocket, a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will carry explorers deeper into space than ever before. While the first full-configuration won't ...

  2. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

  3. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  4. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with exploring flight both within and outside the atmosphere. By the 1980s, NASA had established itself as an agency with considerable achievements on record. The decade was marked by the inauguration of the Space Shuttle flights and haunted by the 1986 Challenger accident that temporarily halted the program. The agency also enjoyed the strong support of President Ronald Reagan, who enthusiastically announced the start of both the Space Station program and the National Aerospace Plane program.

  5. Engineers at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in-

    E-print Network

    to work with commercial companies to provide space transportation. Stennis has partnered with Orbital space launch vehicle. Orbital is working with NASA to provide eight commercial cargo transportation's commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station. AJ26 testing moves forward #12;Page 2 LAGNIAPPE

  6. Commission Fleshes Out Bush Administration's Space Exploration Agenda for NASA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Showstack

    2004-01-01

    A commission appointed by President George W. Bush has unanimously endorsed his plan to dramatically re-orient NASA to focus on space exploration and manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The 16 June report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy finds that the new space agenda announced by Bush on

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Top 20 NASA Contractors

    E-print Network

    . http://www.jacobs.com/supplierDiversity/ $663,761,534 UNITED SPACE ALLIANCE, LLC httpNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Top 20 NASA Contractors Fiscal Year 2012 Vendor Name://www.atk.com/suppliers/?supplier-type=diversity $325,494,121 NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE AND MISSION SYSTEMS CORP. https

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Top 20 NASA Contractors

    E-print Network

    . http://www.jacobs.com/supplierDiversity/ $663,761,534 UNITED SPACE ALLIANCE, LLC httpNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Top 20 NASA Contractors Fiscal Year 2013 Vendor Name://www.atk.com/suppliers/?supplier-type=diversity $325,494,121 NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE AND MISSION SYSTEMS CORP. https

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 San Francisco, CA #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Background: ORNL DAAC · Oak Ridge National of interest #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ranjeet Devarakonda 5 What is Mercury

  10. www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics & Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics & Space Administration Industry Day Tony Lavoie/Program Manager and Robotic Program #12;2 National Aeronautics & Space Administration LPRP Industry Day, October 20, 2006;3 National Aeronautics & Space Administration LPRP Industry Day, October 20, 2006 Lunar Precursor and Robotic

  11. Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

  12. Reducing the complexity of NASA's space communications infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Raymond E.; Liu, Hong; Song, Junehwa

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the range of activities performed during the annual reporting period in support of the NASA Code O Success Team - Lifecycle Effectiveness for Strategic Success (COST LESS) team. The overall goal of the COST LESS team is to redefine success in a constrained fiscal environment and reduce the cost of success for end-to-end mission operations. This goal is more encompassing than the original proposal made to NASA for reducing complexity of NASA's Space Communications Infrastructure. The COST LESS team approach for reengineering the space operations infrastructure has a focus on reversing the trend of engineering special solutions to similar problems.

  13. NASA Facts, Why Survey from Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    In this NASA publication, the technology behind the art of high-altitude surveying is explained in language understood by high school students. The principles behind ground-based surveys are first explained, then several diagrams are utilized in the explanation of photographic surveys. Additional information is provided concerning the use of…

  14. NASA support for commerce in space - Broadening opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Livingston, Candace D.

    1989-01-01

    The status of the NASA Office of Commercial Program's initiatives to implement the 1988 commercial space policy and expand industrial interest in the commercial development of space in the post-Challenger era is presented. Specific objectives have been developed to capture the drive and creativity of the private sector, for increasing NASA's effectiveness in conducting business with industrial firms, and impacting the commercial space market. An aggressive, comprehensive, and forward-looking program has been defined which provides the type of infrastructure and organization required to bring industry into the mainstream of space activities.

  15. The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

  16. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: The Pursuit of Tomorrow's Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Steven D.; Hardage, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    A hazard to all spacecraft orbiting the earth and exploring the unknown in deep space is the existence of a harsh and ever changing environment with its subsequent effects. Some of these environmental hazards, such as plasma, extreme thermal excursions, meteoroids, and ionizing radiation result from natural sources, whereas others, such as orbital debris and neutral contamination are induced by the presence of spacecraft themselves. The subsequent effects can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft, its materials, and its instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies, National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and advocates technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will provide an overview of the Program's purpose, goals, database management and technical activities. In particular, the SEE Program has been very active in developing improved ionizing radiation models and developing related flight experiments which should aid in determining the effect of the radiation environment on modern electronics.

  17. NASA's commercial space program - Initiatives for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's commercial development of the space program aimed at the stimulation and assistance of expanded private sector involvement and investment in civil space activities is discussed, focusing on major new program initiatives and their implementation. NASA's Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) program, composed of competitively selected consortia of universities, industries, and government involved in early research and testing phases of potentially commercially viable technologies is described. The 16 centers concentrate on seven different technical areas such as automation and robotics; remote sensing; life sciences; and space power, propulsion, and structures. Private sector participation, CCDS technology development, government and commercially supplied access to space in support of CCDS programs, CCDS hardware development, and CCDS spinoffs are discussed together with various cooperative and reimbursable agreements between NASA and the private sector.

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - NASA Science Mission Directorate - Earth Science Reviewed Products Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NASA Earth and Space Science Reviewed Collection provides educators and students with a direct line of access to quality products reviewed through the NASA product review. The resources have been rigorously reviewed by an independent peer review of teachers, curriculum and design specialists, teacher trainers, and scientists. The review of the learning resources is based on their scientific accuracy, educational value, documentation, ease of use, their power to engage or motivate students, their robustness/sustainability as a digital resource, and ability to foster mastery of significant understandings or skills. Resources in the collection support the NASA Science Mission Directorate: Earth Science education missions.

  19. 2014 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Radiation Program Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 21, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated Research Plan for the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure (Degen Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (ARS Risk), and the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis (Cancer Risk). The SRP thought the teleconference was very informative and that the Space Radiation Program Element did a great job of outlining where the Element is with respect to our state of knowledge on the risks of carcinogenesis, central nervous system effects, and the risk of cardiovascular disease and other degenerative tissue effects from exposure to space radiation. The SRP was impressed with the quality of research that is being conducted and the progress the Space Radiation Program Element has made in the past year. While much work has been done, the SRP had a few remaining questions regarding the broad applicability of these findings to a manned deep space mission (in terms of cognitive function, the paradigms were still hippocampal based and also using Alzheimer disease models). The SRP believes that NASA should consider developing an approach to follow astronauts long-term (beyond retirement) for potential side-effects/risks of space exposure that may be unknown. Radiation toxicities often occur decades after exposure, and potential consequences would be missed if intensified exams stop after retirement of the astronauts. In addition, while cancer is one consequence of radiation exposure that is monitored, potential other side effects (CNS, Alzheimer Disease, loss of cognitive function, etc.) are not included in long-term studies and would be missed. Inclusion of long-term data would be of benefit to the astronauts themselves who have given their service to the corps but also to future astronauts and the future of space exploration.

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: NASA Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Features include an overview of the SMD's missions and research on the Earth system, the sun, other planets in our solar system, and on topics in astrophysics. The researchers' page includes information on open solicitations, research opportunities, mission opportunities, grant information, and jobs. The educators' page provides links to NASA education programs and classroom resources. The kids' page provides access to games, activities, movies, and resources to help with homework. The citizen scientists' page provides information on obtaining datasets, participating in research projects, and information for amateur astronomers. The site also includes an image-of-the-day feature, a spotlighted mission, and links to news articles.

  1. Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

  2. Space radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

  3. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  4. The NASA Space Radiobiology Risk Assessment Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis A. Cucinotta; Janice Huff; Artem Ponomarev; Zarana Patel; Myung-Hee Kim

    2008-01-01

    The current first phase (2006-2011) has the three major goals of: 1) optimizing the conventional cancer risk models currently used based on the double-detriment life-table and radiation quality functions; 2) the integration of biophysical models of acute radiation syndromes; and 3) the development of new systems radiation biology models of cancer processes. The first-phase also includes continued uncertainty assessment of

  5. NASA in Crisis: The Space Agency's Public Relations Efforts Regarding the Hubble Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) public relations efforts concerning the Hubble telescope. Proposes that NASA's poor public relations exacerbated problems: NASA oversold the telescope before it was deployed, failed to develop a plan for release of images, provided misleading flight reports, and reported…

  6. Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Atwell; E. R. Beever; A. C. Hardy; R. G. Richmond; B. L. Cash

    1989-01-01

    Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA\\/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed

  7. Facilitating Student Involvement in NASA Research: The NASA Space Grant Aeronautics Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.

    1998-01-01

    Many consider NASA programs to be exclusively space-oriented. However, NASA's roots originated in the aeronautical sciences. Recent developments within NASA elevated the declining role of aeronautics back to a position of priority. On a parallel pattern, aeronautics was a priority in the legislation which authorized the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. This paper outlines the development of the aeronautics aspect of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, and the resulting student opportunities in research. Results from two aeronautics surveys provide a baseline and direction for further development. A key result of this work is the increase in student research opportunities which now exist in more states and at the national level.

  8. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics are compiled. The theme of the conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for the application of telerobotic technology to the space systems planned for the 1990's and beyond. Volume 4 contains papers related to the following subject areas: manipulator control; telemanipulation; flight experiments (systems and simulators); sensor-based planning; robot kinematics, dynamics, and control; robot task planning and assembly; and research activities at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  9. First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ahmad (compiler); Stavnes, Mark W. (compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications held at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH, July 23-24, 1991. The workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters Code QE Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division and hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Power Technology Division, Electrical Components and Systems Branch. The workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications. Speakers from government, industry and academia presented and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, wiring applications and requirements, and new candidate insulation materials and constructions. Presentation materials provided by the various speakers are included in this document.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    photovoltaic cells. The cells can convert about 28 percent of the solar energy that hits them into electricityNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Dawn Mission to Vesta and Ceres National Aeronautics and Space Administration #12;JPL 400-1474 05/12 Vesta and Ceres in the asteroid belt. FOR MORE

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! Exploration Precursor Robotic Program (xPRP) and Exploration Scout (xScout): Two Elements of ESMDs Preparation to Explore Near Earth Objects! Michael J. Wargo, ScD! Chief Lunar Scientist

  12. The Space Economy NASA 50th Anniversary Lecture Series

    E-print Network

    . NASA opens new frontiers and creates new opportunities, and because of that is a critical driver assets. It also includes the nascent space tourism industry and the development of space logistics galaxies or Martian craters. The challenge of the frontier, the final frontier, the frontier that begins

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 21 December 2008 Goddard and the Virginia Department of Aviation. Established in 1945 by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics contributed to both aeronautical and space flight research. The unveiling ceremony included comments by local

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Cover Caption: Space Shuttle Endeavour races into the sky trailing columns of fire from the solid rocket boosters as it begins mission STS-118. Photo credit: NASA Table of Contents GoddardView Info Goddard View and boosters roaring and spectators cheering, the Space Shuttle headed spaceward as it cut through the late

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 1 Issue 9 November 2005 Goddard is an official publication of the Goddard Space Flight Center. It is published bi-weekly by the Office of Public growth, you can contribute towards maintaining a competent and highly motivated workforce. In working

  16. Technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presented to Civil Space Technology Development workshop on technology transfer and effectiveness are provided. Topics covered include: obstacles to technology transfer; technology transfer improvement program at GSFC: communication between technology developers and users; and user feedback to technologists.

  17. NASA Johnson Space Center Biomedical Research Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) medical sciences laboratories constitute a national resource for support of medical operations and life sciences research enabling a human presence in space. They play a critical role in evaluating, defining, and mitigation the untoward effect of human adaption to space flight. Over the years they have developed the unique facilities and expertise required to perform: biomedical sample analysis and physiological performance tests supporting medical evaluations of space flight crew members and scientific investigations of the operationally relevant medical, physiological, cellular, and biochemical issues associated with human space flight. A general overview of these laboratories is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. Waste management in space: a NASA symposium. Special issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    This special issue contains papers from the NASA Symposium on Waste Processing for Advanced Life Support, which was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 11-13, 1990. Specialists in waste management from academia, government, and industry convened to exchange ideas and advise NASA in developing effective methods for waste management in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Innovative and well-established methods were presented to assist in developing and managing wastes in closed systems for future long-duration space missions, especially missions to Mars.

  19. NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Art B. Chmielewski; Jon S. Pyle

    1991-01-01

    NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid

  20. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute Radiation Assessment Detector. Also, the University of Florida hybrid phantoms, which are flexible in morphometry and positioning, are being explored as alternatives to the current NASA computational phantoms.

  1. Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

  2. NASA's Approach to Critical Risks for Extended Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration Humans are exposed to a great variety of hazards in the space environment. These include the effects of weightlessness, radiation, isolation and confinement, altered day-night cycles, and others. These inherent hazards have both physiological and behavioral consequences. The adaptive capabilities of humans in these situations is remarkable, and often exceed our expectations. However, the demanding environment and challenging operational pace can push some of these adaptive processes to their limits. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with mitigating the most serious of these effects on human health, safety, and performance, in long-duration space flight. This can involve the development and deployment of physiological countermeasures, better understanding of the physiological alterations and avoidance of exacerbating situations, inputs to the design of future spacecraft to minimize risks, and in some cases the awareness that some level of risk might have to be accepted based on the resulting consequences and their likelihood. HRP has identified a few areas that are of special concern due to their severity, lack of understanding of underlying causes, or potential for negative impact on health or performance. Some of these areas are visual impairment possibly due to increased intracranial pressure, behavioral and performance problems due to sleep deficits and isolation, and acute and chronic effects of radiation. These problems can, if not addressed, be expected to increase on longer and more distant missions. The evidence from spaceflight, laboratory, and analog studies that supports the selection of the most critical risks will be discussed. Current and planned research programs that address these risks, and their anticipated outcomes, will also be described.

  3. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  4. Future prospects for space life sciences from a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1989-01-01

    Plans for future NASA research programs in the life sciences are reviewed. Consideration is given to international cooperation in space life science research, the NASA approach to funding life science research, and research opportunities using the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and Biological Satellites. Several specific programs are described, including the Centrifuge Project to provide a controlled acceleration environment for microgravity studies, the Rhesus Project to conduct biomedical research using rhesus monkeys, and the LifeSat international biosatellite project. Also, the Space Biology Initiative to design and develop life sciences laboratory facilities for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station and the Extended Duration Crew Operations program to study crew adaptation needs are discussed.

  5. NASA's big push for the space station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Oberg

    2000-01-01

    While concerned about the risks, most space experts who talked privately agreed that further waiting would be unlikely to reduce risks; it was time to do a shakedown under real night conditions. Because of the orbital stability of the space station and the presence of the fully functioning Russian modules, the actual threat of vehicle or crew loss due to

  6. Preliminary ground test radiation results of NASA's MPTB dual-rate 1773 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Flanegan, Mark C.; Jackson, George L.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Dale, Cheryl J.; Marshall, Paul W.; Johnson, Donald; Seidleck, Christina; Bonebright, Rodney K.; Kim, Jae H.; Chan, Eric Y.; Bocek, Thomas M.; Bartholet, William G.

    1996-10-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) along with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been at the forefront of the space community in terms of the use of fiber optic data busses and links in the space radiation environment. Previously, we have described the ground radiation test program of the small explorer data system (SEDS) 1773 1 Mbps fiber optic data bus (FODB), as well as its associated in- flight space radiation-induced performance. Further work has also been presented covering higher speed photonic components utilizing III-V materials. Because of the success of the SEDS 1773 FODB coupled with the radiation testing of III-V devices, a second generation FODB capable of both 1 Mbps and 20 Mbps operation is being developed for spaceflight utilization. We present herein preliminary ground test radiation results of hybrid transceiver devices manufactured by Boeing Space Systems that perform the electro-optic and opto-electric translations in support of this medium rate FODB, the AS1773 bus. These devices, designed to be radiation hard (or rad hard), will be flying on NRL's Microelectronics and Photonics Testbed (MPTB) payload as a NASA experiment. This experiment is described in detail elsewhere in this proceedings.

  7. Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2008-01-01

    The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance on natural light sources and with much greater spatial resolution. NASA pursues lidar technology not only as science instruments, providing atmospherics and surface topography data of Earth and other solar system bodies, but also as viable guidance and navigation sensors for space vehicles. This paper summarizes the current NASA lidar missions and describes the lidar systems being considered for deployment in space in the near future.

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human spaceflight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Making its first uncrewed test flight in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, capable of supporting human missions into deep space and to Mars. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130 t lift capability. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and recordbreaking engine testing, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2013. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how the Space Launch System is being designed to enable or enhance not only human exploration missions, but robotic scientific missions as well. Because of its unique launch capabilities, SLS will support simplifying spacecraft complexity, provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduce mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious science missions by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. A traditional baseline approach for a mission to investigate the Jovian system would require a complicated trajectory with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, offering significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, providing scientific results sooner and at lower operational cost. The SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure, and will revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  9. The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  10. NASA Shuttle Web: John Glenn Returns to Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Glenn, the first American in space, became the world's oldest astronaut when he returned to the stars yesterday, 36 years after his first flight on the nation's 123rd manned mission. At the NASA Shuttle Website for the mission, users can read about the crew, payloads, mission objectives, some of the experiments on aging and space involving Senator Glenn, and updates on the mission's current status. Realtime data offered at the site include telemetry, tracking displays, sightings, and orbital elements. The site also hosts several multimedia offerings such as preflight and launch videos (MPEG), animations (MPEG), Net Show broadcasts of NASA TV, photos, and RealPlayer audio broadcasts.

  11. Space Weathering Investigations Enabled by NASA's Virtual Heliophysical Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Lal, Nand; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Hills, Howard K.; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Kovalick, Tamara J.; Johnson, Rita C.; McGuire, Robert E.; Narock, Thomas W.; Szabo, Adam; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; McKibben, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and chemical impact of the heliospheric space environment on exposed planetary surfaces and interplanetary dust grains may be generally defined as space weathering . In the inner solar system, from the asteroid belt inwards towards the Sun, the surface regolith structures of airless bodies are primarily determined by cumulative meteoritic impacts over billions of years, but the molecular composition to meters in depth can be substantially modified by irradiation effects. Plasma ions at eV to keV energies may both erode uppermost surfaces by sputtering, and implant or locally produce exogenic material, e.g. He-3 and H2O, while more energetic ions drive molecular change through electronic ionization. Galactic cosmic ray ions and more energetic solar ions can impact chemistry to meters in depth. High energy cosmic ray interactions produce showers of secondary particles and energetic photons that present hazards for robotic and human exploration missions but also enable detection of potentially useable resources such as water ice, oxygen, and many other elements. Surface sputtering also makes ejected elemental and molecular species accessible for in-situ compositional analysis by spacecraft with ion and neutral mass spectrometers. Modeling of relative impacts for these various space weathering processes requires knowledge of the incident species-resolved ion flux spectra at plasma to cosmic ray energies and as integrated over varying time scales. Although the main drivers for investigations of these processes come from NASA's planetary science and human exploration programs, the NASA heliophysics program provides the requisite data measurement and modeling resources to enable specification of the field & plasma and energetic particle irradiation environments for application to space weather and surface weathering investigations. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO), Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX), and Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) services now provide a wide range of inner heliospheric spacecraft data that can be applied to space weathering of potential exploration destinations including the Moon, asteroids, and the moons of Mars, as well to radiation hazard assessment for the spacecraft and human explorers. For example, the new VEPO service for time-averaging of multi-source ion flux spectra enables the specification of composite flux spectra from a variety of ongoing and legacy missions for applications to surface interaction modeling. Apollo to Artemis data resources of LunaSOX enable specific space weathering investigations for the Moon, while VHO more generally covers the space field and plasma environments of the inner and outer solar system from the sunward-most perihelia of the twin Helios spacecraft to the ongoing heliosheath passages of the twin Voyagers. Composite multi-source spectra from VEPO can also be applied to the continuing compilation of accumulated 1-AU fluence spectra, mostly contributed by solar wind plasma and energetic particle events, for determination of time-averaged particle compositional and kinetic energy output from the Sun and for modeling of long-term irradiation impacts on planetary surfaces.

  12. Space Internet Architectures and Technologies for NASA Enterprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper describes a communications infrastructure for the Space Internet, the architectures within the infrastructure, and the elements that make up the architectures. The architectures meet the requirements of the enterprises beyond 2010 with Internet 'compatible technologies and functionality. The elements of an architecture include the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft and proximity communication parts. From the architectures, technologies have been identified which have the most impact and are critical for the implementation of the architectures.

  13. NASA Wavelength: A Full Spectrum of NASA Resources for Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.

  14. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    E-print Network

    Straume, Tore

    2008-01-01

    ? -ray doses relevant to medical decisions in a radiologicaldoses as well as to provide effective triage tools for first-responders in mass-casualty radiologicaldose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological

  15. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  16. History of space medicine: the formative years at NASA.

    PubMed

    Berry, Charles A; Hoffler, G Wyckliffe; Jernigan, Clarence A; Kerwin, Joseph P; Mohler, Stanley R

    2009-04-01

    Almost nothing was known about the effects of spaceflight on human physiology when, in May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade. There were more questions than answers regarding the effects of acceleration, vibration, cabin pressure, CO2 concentration, and microgravity. There were known external threats to life, such as solar and ultraviolet radiation, meteorites, and extreme temperatures as well as issues for which the physicians and scientists could not even formulate the questions. And there was no time for controlled experiments with the required numbers of animal or human subjects. Of necessity, risks were evaluated and mitigated or accepted based on minimal data. This article summarizes presentations originally given as a panel at the 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association in Boston in 2008. In it, five pioneers in space medicine at NASA looked back on the development of their field. The authors related personal anecdotes, discussed the roles of various people and presented examples of contributions to emerging U.S. initiatives for human spaceflight. Topics included the development of quarantine facilities for returning Apollo astronauts, the struggles between operational medicine and research personnel, and observations from the first U.S. medical officer to experience weightlessness on orbit. Brief biographies of the authors are appended to document their participation in these historic events. PMID:19378903

  17. OMB Approval Number 2700-0087 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA)

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    i OMB Approval Number 2700-0087 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) HEADQUARTERS Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcement (NRA), entitled Research Opportunities #12;ii RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN SPACE AND EARTH SCIENCES (ROSES)­2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This National

  18. NASA Radiation Protection Research for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; Mertens, Christopher J.; Walker, Steve A.; Blattnig, Steven R.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code was used in recent trade studies for renewed lunar exploration and currently used in engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and EVA equipment. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating high charge and energy (HZE) ions, light-ions and neutrons with either laboratory or space boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light-ion propagation is under development. Atomic and nuclear model requirements to support that development will be discussed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. We discuss limitations of code validation due to the currently available data and recommend priorities for new data sets.

  19. Advanced technologies for NASA space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A review of the technology requirements for future space programs is presented. The technologies are emphasized with a discussion of their mission impact. Attention is given to automation and robotics, materials, information acquisition/processing display, nano-electronics/technology, superconductivity, and energy generation and storage.

  20. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts. PMID:11604058

  1. America in Space: The First Decade - NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    It is ten years since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was created to explore space and to continue the American efforts that had already begun with the launch of Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958. Many changes have occurred since that tumbling, 31 -pound cylinder went into an Earth orbit. "NASA Spacecraft" represents one of the broad avenues selected by NASA as an approach to its objective of making widely known the progress that has taken place in its program of space exploration. This report is a vivid illustration of the changes that have occurred and the complexities that have developed. Here one finds descriptions of the present family of spacecraft some small, some large; some spinoriented, some accurately attitude-controlled; some manned, some automated; some in low orbits, some in trajectories to the Moon and the planets; some free in space until they expire, others commanded to return to the Earth or to land on the Moon

  2. NASA Launches ATREX Space Network to Begin New Design Phase

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    NASA Launches ATREX Pg 3 Space Network to Begin New Design Phase Pg 8 Visitor Center Hosts Titan instru- mented payloads to measure the pressure and temperature in the atmosphere at the height Design Phase - 8 Dual Frequency Radar Arrives at Goddard - 9 Goddard Community Visitor Center Hosts Titan

  3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 2 Issue 11 June 2006 GoddardViewGOES-N;GoddardView Volume 2 Issue 11 June 2006 Table of Contents Goddard Updates GOES-N Satellite Safely in Orbit of the nation's most advanced envi- ronmental satellite GOES-N launching from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  5. FY 2008 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    the Department of Defense. At the end of a protracted period of negotiation, the President largely prevailedFY 2008 Appropriations for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) http Bill, signed by President 12/26/07 (12/31/07): President Bush signed the 2008 omnibus appropriations

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Recommendations to

    E-print Network

    4-5 BIOLOGICAL 30 30 30 31 31 APPENDIX A ­ ACRONYMS 33 APPENDIX B ­ NASA ENGINEERING / SAFETY APOLLO A Updated with imagery from Apollo missions 12, 14-17. Added Appendix D: Available Photo Documentation of Apollo Hardware 10/28/2011 #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration 3 HUMAN EXPLORATION

  7. Chief FOIA Officer Report National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    1 Chief FOIA Officer Report National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) FY 10 I. Steps agency is working to apply the presumption of openness. a. Describe how the President's FOIA Memorandum and the Attorney General's FOIA Guidelines have been publicized throughout your agency. Copies of the President

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    launch aboard a Lockheed-Martin Atlas V rocket, the New Horizons spacecraft set out on a journey crane, lower the New Horizons space- craft onto a spin table. The spacecraft will undergo a spin testView New Horizons Launches Pg 2 NASA Remembers Pg 4 - 5 Goddard Astrophysicist Receives Rossi Prize Pg 11

  9. NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Anderson, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an overview presentation of In Space Propulsion Technology products that have been developed under the sponsorship of the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The materials have been prepared for Outer Planetary Assessment Group Meeting in Atlanta, GA in January 2013.

  10. Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

  11. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Cooperative Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredley, Joseph E.; Lysak, Daniel B.

    2004-01-01

    The viability of a Capillary Heat Pump (CHP) concept using a Loop Heat Pipe evaporator and an eductor in a closed loop to reject heat at a higher temperature than it is acquired at with the goal of reducing spacecraft radiator area is examined. Eductor inefficiency resulting from the mixing of high velocity motive flow with low velocity suction flow may preclude spacecraft radiator area savings. The utility of a CHP for thermal management may be limited to those missions where system mass is of secondary concern compared to system reliability, or where a heat pump is required to accommodate relatively high thermal rejection temperatures. Shearography techniques for nondestructive inspection and evaluation were examined for two unique applications. Shearography is shown to give good results in evaluating the quality of bonds holding lead tiles to the SWIFT spacecraft BAT gamma ray mask. Also, a novel technique was developed allowing specular objects to be inspected using shearography to evaluate bonding between the skin and core of a specular surface honeycomb structure. Large-scale bond failures are readily identified.

  12. Estimation of The Radiation Environment Based On The NASA Ap-8 and Ae-8 Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the earth's trapped radiation environment, as described by the NASA models AP-8 and AE-8. We include a description of the sources and structure of the trapped radiation belts, and their dependence on external factors. After describing how to use the models to predict the environment, we present data from various space missions, and compare those data to the models. This shows the limits and strengths of the models. Finally, we describe alternative models of the trapped radiation belts, and discuss why they have not been widely adopted yet.

  13. Parallel CFD Supporting NASA's Space Operations Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in support of NASA's space operations. Particular attention was devoted to the development of the Space Shuttle, and the use of CFD in designing the shuttle and the work after the Columbia accident. The presentation ends with a discussion of the reasons for CFD and the use of parallel computers in the design and testing of spacecraft.

  14. NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

  15. NASA Space Science Mathematics: Weekly Math Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page features weekly mathematics problem sets that are designed to teach intermediate and upper-level students about space weather. The downloadable problem sets include one or more math problems to be solved using the information provided, a teachers' guide or answer key, and an inquiry question about the results. The web page features the current week's problem set, sets from previous weeks, and an archive of problem sets from past years. There are also downloadable books of the 20 most interesting problems published each year.

  16. National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www and scientists. #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Our Solar System National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune #12;LG-2013

  17. An Evolvable Space Telescope for NASA’s Next UVOIR Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Breckinridge, James B.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    NASA has sponsored several studies to develop conceptual designs for the next UVOIR Flagship mission, including an Advanced Technology Large Space Telescope (ATLAST). These studies concluded that a space observatory launched in ~2030 will require a telescope aperture of 8 to 16 meters to address the most compelling astrophysical questions raised by missions such as HST, Kepler, TESS, JWST and WFIRST as well as the large ground based telescopes that will coming on-line in the next decade. This telescope will be designed to search for the bio-signatures of life in the universe as well as to study the physics of star formation and to unravel the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Unfortunately, telescopes with this aperture will have a long development time with peak funding requirements that will absorb most NASA's Astrophysics budget for many years. To minimize this impact on NASA's budget and to drastically shorten the time between program start and 'first light' for this UVOIR space observatory we have been developing conceptual designs for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that would be assembled on-orbit in three stages, beginning with the launch of a 2 mirror 4 x 12 meter telescope with 2 instruments 5 to 7 years after program start, and then adding mirror segments and instruments ay ~ 5 year intervals to obtain a 12-m filled aperture, and then a 20-m filled aperture telescope. We describe our approach in this presentation.

  18. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  19. NASA's space physics theory program - An opportunity for collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1990-01-01

    The field of theoretical space physics offers a unique opportunity to Latin American scientists for collaborative participation in NASA programs where the greatly increased complexity of both experimental observations and theoretical simulations requires in-depth comparisons between theory and observational data. The key problem areas identified by NASA for aggressive work in the decade of the 1990s are the nature of flows and turbulence, acceleration and transport of particles, the coupling of microphysics and macrophysics, the coupling of local and global dynamics, and nonclassical plasmas.

  20. FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

  1. NASA's approach to the commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1984-01-01

    NASA planning activities in the area of commercial development of space resources are reviewed. Examples of specific types of commercial space ventures are given, according to three different categories: new commercial high-technology ventures; new commercial application of existing space technology, and commercial ventures resulting from the transfer of existing space programs to the private sector. Basic objectives for reducing technical, financial and institutional risks for commercial space operations are considered. Attention is given to the cooperative working environment encouraged by Joint Endeavor Agreements (JEAs) and Technical Exchange Agreements (TEAs) between industrial organizations in the development of space systems. Benefits of the commercial development of space resources include the production of purer pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancers, kidney diseases, and diabetes; and the development of ultra-pure semiconductor crystals for use in next generation electronic equipment.

  2. Leadership in Space: Selected Speeches of NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, May 2005 - October 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speech topics include: Leadership in Space; Space Exploration: Real and Acceptable Reasons; Why Explore Space?; Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas; Continuing the Voyage: The Spirit of Endeavour; Incorporating Space into Our Economic Sphere of Influence; The Role of Space Exploration in the Global Economy; Partnership in Space Activities; International Space Cooperation; National Strategy and the Civil Space Program; What the Hubble Space Telescope Teaches Us about Ourselves; The Rocket Team; NASA's Direction; Science and NASA; Science Priorities and Program Management; NASA and the Commercial Space Industry; NASA and the Business of Space; American Competitiveness: NASA's Role & Everyone's Responsibility; Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration; The Next Generation of Engineers; System Engineering and the "Two Cultures" of Engineering; Generalship of Engineering; NASA and Engineering Integrity; The Constellation Architecture; Then and Now: Fifty Years in Space; The Reality of Tomorrow; and Human Space Exploration: The Next 50 Years.

  3. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (editor); Seraji, Homayoun (editor)

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics held in Pasadena, January 31 to February 2, 1989. The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

  4. The 1990-1991 NASA space biology accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the period May 1990 through May 1991. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems and to using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

  5. The 1992-1993 NASA Space Biology Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the calendar years of 1992 and 1993. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and the effects of microgravity on biological processes; determining the effects of the interaction of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems; and using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

  6. Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

  7. The NASA Space Solar Cell Advanced Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Two major requirements for space solar cells are high efficiency and survivability in the naturally occurring charged particle space radiation environment. Performance limits for silicon space cells are well understood. Advanced cells using GaAs and InP are under development to provide significantly improved capability for the future.

  8. Recent developments in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space tracking facilities in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Coleby

    1987-01-01

    Following NASA's announcement in 1979 of a plan to consolidate its deep space tracking and earth orbiting spacecraft tracking networks into three centers - Canberra, Madrid and Goldstone - substantial engineering changes have been made to the NASA facilities within Australia. The paper describes these engineering and organizational changes and recent developments which strengthen the capabilities of the Australian facilities

  9. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  10. Commission Fleshes Out Bush Administration's Space Exploration Agenda for NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-06-01

    A commission appointed by President George W. Bush has unanimously endorsed his plan to dramatically re-orient NASA to focus on space exploration and manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The 16 June report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy finds that the new space agenda announced by Bush on 14 January will help the U.S. economy, security, and technological leadership, and provide educational opportunities. The report presents a series of recommendations for implementing the plan.

  11. The 1985-86 NASA space/gravitational biology accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Individual Technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space/Gravitational Biology Program are presented. This Program is concerned with using the unique characteristics of the space environment, particularly microgravity, as a tool to advance knowledge in the biological sciences; understanding how gravity has shaped and affected life on Earth; and understanding how the space environment affects both plant and animal species. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a listing of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  13. Radiation Shielding for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2003-01-01

    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is presented.

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Centennial Challenges were initiated in

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts NASA Centennial Challenges were initiated. Sample Return Robot Challenge National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts NASA Centennial and the nation. The program seeks inno- vations from diverse and non- traditional sources. Competitors

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance in science, technology, aeronautics, and space exploration to enhance knowledge, education, innovation the leadership of the Administrator, NASA offices at Headquarters in Washington, DC, guide and direct the Agency

  16. [A NASA / University Joint Venture in Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wold, Donald C.

    1996-04-01

    MILAGRO is a water-Cherenkov detector for observing cosmic gamma rays over a broad energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV. MILAGRO will be the first detector that has sensitivity overlapping both air-Cherenkov and air-shower detectors. With this detector scientists in the collaboration will study previously observed celestial sources at their known emission energies, extend these observations into a new energy regime, and search for new sources at unexplored energies. The diffuse gamma-radiation component in our galaxy, which originates from interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and photons, provides important information about the density, distribution, and spectrum of the cosmic rays that pervade the interstellar medium. Events in the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) are being observed up to about 30 GeV, differing by slightly more than order of magnitude from the low energy threshold of MILAGRO. By looking in coincidence at sources, correlated observations will greatly extend the astrophysics potential of MILAGRO and NASA's GRO. A survey of cosmic-ray observatories is being prepared for scientists and others to provide a resource and reference which describes high energy cosmic-ray research activities around the world. This summary presents information about each research group, such as names of principal investigators, number of persons in the collaboration, energy range, sensitivity, angular resolution, and surface area of detector. Similarly, a survey of gamma-ray telescopes is being prepared to provide a resource and reference which describes gamma-ray telescopes for investigating galactic diffuse gamma-ray flux currently observed in the GeV energy range, but is expected to extend into the TeV range. Two undergraduate students are compiling information about gamma-ray telescopes and high energy cosmic-ray observatories for these surveys. Funding for this project was provided by the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium. Also enclosed Appendix A, B, C, D and E.

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center ED Mall Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NASA ED Mall Collection, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office, provides teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use.

  18. Modeling of Radiation Risks for Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Prior to any human space flight, calculations of radiation risks are used to determine the acceptable scope of astronaut activity. Using the supercomputing facilities at NASA Ames Research Center, Ames researchers have determined the damage probabilities of DNA functional groups by space radiation. The data supercede those used in the current Monte Carlo model for risk assessment. One example is the reaction of DNA with hydroxyl radical produced by the interaction of highly energetic particles from space radiation with water molecules in the human body. This reaction is considered an important cause of DNA mutations, although its mechanism is not well understood.

  19. Recent developments in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space tracking facilities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleby, R. S.

    Following NASA's announcement in 1979 of a plan to consolidate its deep space tracking and earth orbiting spacecraft tracking networks into three centers - Canberra, Madrid and Goldstone - substantial engineering changes have been made to the NASA facilities within Australia. The paper describes these engineering and organizational changes and recent developments which strengthen the capabilities of the Australian facilities at the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.

  20. NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

  1. NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. Discussed herein are neutral gas conditions, plasma densities and uniformity, vacuum chamber sizes, sample sizes and Debye lengths, biasing samples versus self-generated voltages, floating samples versus grounded samples, test electrical conditions, arc detection, preventing sustained discharges during testing, real samples versus idealized samples, validity of LEO tests for GEO samples, extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests, snapover, current collection, and glows at positive sample bias, Kapton pyrolysis, thresholds for trigger arcs, sustained arcs, dielectric breakdown and Paschen discharge, tether arcing and testing in very dense plasmas (i.e. thruster plumes), arc mitigation strategies, charging mitigation strategies, models, and analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

  2. NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T,; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1.Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debuy lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. 5. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Prevention sustained discharges during testing. 6. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 7. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 8. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 9. Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapon (R) pyrolisis. 10. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 11. Testing for Paschen discharge threshold. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 12. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 13. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 14. Analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

  3. NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

  4. NASA's polygeneration plant to supply Space Shuttle Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Manfredi, L.; Kundsen, C.W.; Cascone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific Design's technical and economic feasibility study of a coal-based polygeneration plant at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) concluded that the proposed project would be technically feasible, environmentally clean, and economically attractive for NASA or private owners. The plant would reliably supply liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) Space Shuttle propellants and gaseous utility nitrogen (GN2) as primary objectives. Using either Texaco or GKT entrained-coal gasifiers, the options studied would cost from $65 to $154 million (1983 dollars) and consume 96 to 688 short tons per day of coal depending on cogenerated electricity. The larger plant includes a gas turbine combined-cycle power plant; hydrogen is extracted by membrane separation from cleaned syngas fuel without using a CO-shift reactor. This offers unusual operating flexibility and the potential for expanding production for additional Shuttle launches.

  5. www.nasa.gov INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) INTERACTIVE REFERENCE GUIDE National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Propellant Tanks Micrometeorite Protection Nadir Docking Port Kurs Rendezvous Antenna Thermal Control.nasa.gov INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) INTERACTIVE REFERENCE GUIDE National Aeronautics and Space Administration The FGB was the first element of the International Space Station, built in Russia under a U.S. contract

  6. NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Robinson; Tracy L. Thumm; Donald A. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments

  7. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  8. NASA's Space Research and Technology Program. Report of a workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The status of the spacecraft and subsystem industry and the civil and military uses of space were examined. Genetic and specific enabling technologies were identified. It was found that U.S. spacecraft manufacturers support civil and commercial uses, the military and NASA and, in turn, are supported by subsystem suppliers. However, no single spacecraft program carries sufficient resources to develop advanced critical subsystem technologies and increasingly, U.S. suppliers are facing strong competition from foreign industry that is government subsidized.

  9. Starting to partner with NASA in space and Earth science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc S. Allen; Paul L. Hertz

    2011-01-01

    NASA research programs offer many opportunities for productive partnerships with investigators in other countries. While spacecraft projects are complex and very expensive, there are other, lower-cost partnerships that can yield important scientific results and offer excellent opportunities for building up new space and Earth science programs and for training new researchers.KeywordsPartnering with NASASpace scienceEarth scienceGround-based measurementsSuborbital investigationsGLOBE programIntroductionFew areas of

  10. Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

  11. NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy; Bonometti, Joe; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie; Montgomery, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the $60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

  12. Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.

    An overview is presented of the NASA-Lewis Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Convertor Technology Program. The goal is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. Stirling experience in space and progress toward 1050 and 1300 K Stirling Space Power Converters is discussed. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converters (CTPC); results of motoring tests of cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. An update is provided of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

  13. NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in - spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer.tethers, aeroassist and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

  14. NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals ase the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

  15. Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA-Lewis Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Convertor Technology Program. The goal is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. Stirling experience in space and progress toward 1050 and 1300 K Stirling Space Power Converters is discussed. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converters (CTPC); results of motoring tests of cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. An update is provided of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

  16. The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program - Preparing the way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biro, Ronald; Munsey, Bill; Long, Irene

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to the goals and methods adopted in the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) for preparing scientists and engineers for space-related life-sciences research and operations. The SLSTP is based on six weeks of projects and lectures which give an overview of payload processing and experiment flow in the space environment. The topics addressed in the course of the program include descriptions of space vehicles, support hardware, equipment, and research directions. Specific lecture topics include the gravity responses of plants, mission integration of a flight experiment, and the cardiovascular deconditioning. The SLSTP is shown to be an important part of the process of recruiting and training qualified scientists and engineers to support space activities.

  17. NASA's Controlled Environment Agriculture Testing for Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and other space agencies have an interest in using plants for human life support in space. The plants could provide food and O2 for the humans, while removing CO2 and helping purify wastewater. Studies to date have shown that a wide range of crops can be grown in controlled environment conditions envisioned for space. Light is a critical factor both for crop productivity and system power costs, and recent improvements in LEDs make them a preferred lighting option for space. Because space systems would be tightly closed, issues such as ethylene build-up and management must be considered. Ultimately, the costs and reliability of biological life support options must be compared with more conventional life support approaches. Findings to date suggest that about 20-25 sq. meters of crops could supply the O2 for one human, while about 50 sq. meters would be required for food (dietary calories).

  18. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration -1 NASA 2012 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration - 1 #12;NASA 2012 Strategic Sustainability-mail: olga.m.dominguez@nasa.gov Telephone: 202-358-2800 #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration - 1 POLICY STATEMENT Worldwide, people have turned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  20. Information Systems for NASA's Aeronautics and Space Enterprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The aerospace industry is being challenged to reduce costs and development time as well as utilize new technologies to improve product performance. Information technology (IT) is the key to providing revolutionary solutions to the challenges posed by the increasing complexity of NASA's aeronautics and space missions and the sophisticated nature of the systems that enable them. The NASA Ames vision is to develop technologies enabling the information age, expanding the frontiers of knowledge for aeronautics and space, improving America's competitive position, and inspiring future generations. Ames' missions to accomplish that vision include: 1) performing research to support the American aviation community through the unique integration of computation, experimentation, simulation and flight testing, 2) studying the health of our planet, understanding living systems in space and the origins of the universe, developing technologies for space flight, and 3) to research, develop and deliver information technologies and applications. Information technology may be defined as the use of advance computing systems to generate data, analyze data, transform data into knowledge and to use as an aid in the decision-making process. The knowledge from transformed data can be displayed in visual, virtual and multimedia environments. The decision-making process can be fully autonomous or aided by a cognitive processes, i.e., computational aids designed to leverage human capacities. IT Systems can learn as they go, developing the capability to make decisions or aid the decision making process on the basis of experiences gained using limited data inputs. In the future, information systems will be used to aid space mission synthesis, virtual aerospace system design, aid damaged aircraft during landing, perform robotic surgery, and monitor the health and status of spacecraft and planetary probes. NASA Ames through the Center of Excellence for Information Technology Office is leading the effort in pursuit of revolutionary, IT-based approaches to satisfying NASA's aeronautics and space requirements. The objective of the effort is to incorporate information technologies within each of the Agency's four Enterprises, i.e., Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology, Earth, Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space and Space Sciences. The end results of these efforts for Enterprise programs and projects should be reduced cost, enhanced mission capability and expedited mission completion.

  1. Space Chemical Propulsion Test Facilities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, Donald C.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, has a number of space chemical propulsion test facilities which constitute a significant national space testing resource. The purpose of this paper is to make more users aware of these test facilities and to encourage their use through cooperative agreements between the government, industry, and universities. Research which is of interest to the government is especially encouraged and often can be done in a cooperative manner that best uses the resources of all parties. An overview of the Lewis test facilities is presented.

  2. Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

  3. The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    The surface radiation budget (SRB), consisting of downward and upward components of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation, is a major component of the energy exchanges between the atmosphere and land/ocean surfaces and thus affects surface temperature fields, fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and every aspect of energy and hydrological cycles. The NASA Global Energy and Water-cycle Experiment (GEWEX) SRB project has recently updated and improved a global dataset of surface radiative fluxes on a 1-degree grid for a 23-year period (July 1983 to June 2006). Both SW and LW fluxes have been produced with two sets of algorithms: one designated as primary and the other as quality-check. The primary algorithms use a more explicit treatment of surface and atmospheric processes while quality-check algorithms use a more parameterized approach. Cloud and surface properties for input to the algorithms have been derived from ISCCP pixel level (DX) data, temperature and humidity profiles from GEOS- 4 reanalysis products, and column ozone from a composite of TOMS, TOVS, and assimilated SBUV-2 datasets. Several top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget parameters have also been derived with the primary algorithms. Surface fluxes from all algorithms are extensively validated with ground-based measurements obtained from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), and the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) archives. The SRB dataset is a major contributor to the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment activity. An overview of the latest version (Release-3.0) of the dataset with global and zonal statistics of fluxes, inferred cloud radiative forcing, and results of the validation activities will be presented. Time series of SRB parameters at the TOA and surface for global, land, ocean, and tropical area means will be presented along with analysis of flux anomalies related to El Nino/La Nina episodes, phases of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and other interannual phenomena of the period. Results will be summarized to characterize the uncertainties, and future plans will be presented to address the deficiencies. The entire dataset is being made available to the worldwide science community by the NASA/LaRC Atmospheric Sciences Data Center at: eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/srb/table srb.html.

  4. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  5. Modeling the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a renaissance of interest in space radiation environment modeling. This has been fueled by the growing need to replace long time standard AP-9 and AE-8 trapped particle models, the interplanetary exploration initiative, the modern satellite instrumentation that has led to unprecedented measurement accuracy, and the pervasive use of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) microelectronics that require more accurate predictive capabilities. The objective of this viewgraph presentation was to provide basic understanding of the components of the space radiation environment and their variations, review traditional radiation effects application models, and present recent developments.

  6. Guidance, Navigation and Control Innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, Aprille Joy

    2002-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on guidance navigation and control innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The topics include: 1) NASA's vision; 2) NASA's Mission; 3) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE); 4) Guidance, Navigation and Control Division (GN&C); 5) Landsat-7 Earth Observer-1 Co-observing Program; and 6) NASA ESE Vision.

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will start its missions in 2017 with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how the SLS Program is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and developing advanced technology based on heritage systems, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. It will also detail the significant progress that has already been made toward its first launch in 2017. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they will need for extended trips to explore new frontiers. In addition, this paper will summarize the SLS rocket's capability to support science and robotic precursor missions to other worlds, or uniquely high-mass space facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  8. Emerging, Photonic Based Technologies for NASA Space Communications Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Levi, Anthony; Bos, Philip; Titus, Charles; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An objective of NASA's Computing, Information, and Communications Technology program is to support the development of technologies that could potentially lower the cost of the Earth science and space exploration missions, and result in greater scientific returns. NASA-supported photonic activities which will impact space communications will be described. The objective of the RF microphotonic research is to develop a Ka-band receiver that will enable the microwaves detected by an antenna to modulate a 1.55- micron optical carrier. A key element is the high-Q, microphotonic modulator that employs a lithium niobate microdisk. The technical approach could lead to new receivers that utilize ultra-fast, photonic signal processing techniques, and are low cost, compact, low weight and power efficient. The progress in the liquid crystal (LC) beam steering research will also be reported. The predicted benefits of an LC-based device on board a spacecraft include non-mechanical, submicroradian laser-beam pointing, milliradian scanning ranges, and wave-front correction. The potential applications of these emerging technologies to the various NASA missions will be presented.

  9. The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The education and public outreach (EPO) partnership works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy. The Capitol College SOI serves as a back-up control center for two NASA missions. The first is the Tropical Rainforest Measurement Mission (TRMM), which is a research satellite designed to help our understanding of the water cycle in the current climate system. By covering the tropical and semi-tropical regions of the Earth, TRMM provides much needed data on rainfall and the heat release associated with rainfall. The second is the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission that is providing a vast storehouse of knowledge about the solar system, the Milky Way, and the Universe. The session provides both an update regarding the SOI and provides new information regarding the SOI work with the two NASA missions. Emerging best practices from the learning experiences the SOI provides college students in serving as a real-life back-up control center will also be shared.

  10. Ohio State forum explores NASA's past, present, and future NASA's space missions have been a catalyst for the creation of new products and services; new businesses and industries;

    E-print Network

    Ohio State forum explores NASA's past, present, and future NASA's space missions have been to a close after 30 years, NASA is preparing to usher in the next era of exploration. On February 20-21, the NASA Future Forum was held on campus to discuss the role NASA will play in further advancing innovation

  11. The NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Ward, E. B.; Detroye, D.

    1998-09-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1989, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant) contributes to the nation's science enterprise by funding research, education, and public service projects through a national network of 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia administer programs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. In 1998, the consortia's 703 affiliates include 493 academic institutions and 62 businesses. Other partners include state and local government agencies, other federal agencies, and nonprofit organizations. Space Grant celebrates its tenth year of service in 1999. Since its inception, Space Grant has awarded over 12,000 U.S. citizens with tuition assistance in science, engineering, and related fields of study. Approximately twenty percent of these awards were to students from underrepresented groups and approximately thirty-five percent were to women. The majority of Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists. Space Grant funds curriculum enhancement and faculty development as well. Space Grant colleges and universities also administer precollege and public service education programs that help to meet the education needs of their states. The Space Grant consortia have leveraged federal funds to more than double the Space Grant budget with matching contributions from state and local sources. Space Grant encourages collaboration among departments, across institutions, and with business and industry. All Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public.

  12. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report include the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

  13. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report contain supporting documentation, including the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

  14. An Overview of Space Power Systems for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Power is a critical commodity for all engineering efforts and is especially challenging in the aerospace field. This paper will provide a broad brush overview of some of the immediate and important challenges to NASA missions in the field of aerospace power, for generation, energy conversion, distribution, and storage. NASA s newest vehicles which are currently in the design phase will have power systems that will be developed from current technology, but will have the challenges of being light-weight, energy-efficient, and space-qualified. Future lunar and Mars "outposts" will need high power generation units for life support and energy-intensive exploration efforts. An overview of the progress in concepts for power systems and the status of the required technologies are discussed.

  15. NASA space geodesy program: Catalogue of site information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, M. A.; Noll, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    This is the first edition of the NASA Space Geodesy Program: Catalogue of Site Information. This catalogue supersedes all previous versions of the Crustal Dynamics Project: Catalogue of Site Information, last published in May 1989. This document is prepared under the direction of the Space Geodesy and Altimetry Projects Office (SGAPO), Code 920.1, Goddard Space Flight Center. SGAPO has assumed the responsibilities of the Crustal Dynamics Project, which officially ended December 31, 1991. The catalog contains information on all NASA supported sites as well as sites from cooperating international partners. This catalog is designed to provde descriptions and occupation histories of high-accuracy geodetic measuring sites employing space-related techniques. The emphasis of the catalog has been in the past, and continues to be with this edition, station information for facilities and remote locations utilizing the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques. With the proliferation of high-quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) transponders, many co-located at established SLR and VLBI observatories, the requirement for accurate station and localized survey information for an ever broadening base of scientists and engineers has been recognized. It is our objective to provide accurate station information to scientific groups interested in these facilities.

  16. NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

  17. Recent Results of NASA's Space Environments and Effects Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Brewer, Dana S.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program is a multi-center multi-agency program managed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The program evolved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), analysis of LDEF data, and recognition of the importance of the environments and environmental effects on future space missions. It is a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environments, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Formal funding of the SEE Program began initially in FY95. A NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicited research proposals in the following categories: 1) Engineering environment definitions; 2) Environments and effects design guidelines; 3) Environments and effects assessment models and databases; and, 4) Flight/ground simulation/technology assessment data. This solicitation resulted in funding for eighteen technology development activities (TDA's). This paper will present and describe technical results rom the first set of TDA's of the SEE Program. It will also describe the second set of technology development activities which are expected to begin in January 1998. These new technology development activities will enable the SEE Program to start numerous new development activities in support of mission customer needs.

  18. Nasa astronauts, prosthetics and the manned space program.

    PubMed

    Frenger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The author has collaborated with NASA astronauts, scientists and engineers since 2006. Manned deep space missions, beyond the Moon?s orbit, are being planned in this post-Shuttle era. The spacecraft required for longer flights will have relatively restricted crew interior volume. To decrease the negative impact of these tight quarters, the author has proposed recruiting smaller astronauts (abbreviated SAs), persons about one-half the height of current near-Earth crewmembers. This includes achondroplastic dwarfs, lower extremity amputees and persons with certain height-reducing birth defects such as phocomelia. To overcome issues of physical competence, strength and mobility of SAs, the author describes using advanced cybernetic prostheses for those with limb amputations or deformities, and motorized exoskeletons for the others. Muscle and bone-sparing space exercise programs for SAs should be simpler. For example, a motorized exoskeleton used for routine duties in space would also provide both resistance workouts and passive range of motion conditioning for the astronauts, even while resting. Complex personalized artificial intelligence functions may be added. These initial suggestions previously presented to NASA offer a starting point for deep space manned missions to the asteroid belt, Mars and beyond. PMID:25405422

  19. 14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.106 Articles brought into the...

  20. 14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.106 Articles brought into the...

  1. 14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.106 Articles brought into the...

  2. 14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.106 Articles brought into the...

  3. 14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.106 Articles brought into the...

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Landing Site 3-5 5 Water on Mars! 3-5 6 Taking a Stroll around a Martian Crater 3-5 7 Exploring the GaleNational Aeronautics and Space Administration MarsMath #12;Space Math http-Composite image of Mars obtained by NASA orbiting spacecraft: Mars Observer; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Top

  5. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing B Panel 2: Robotics, Communications, and Navigation TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems TA05 Communication and Navigation Systems C Panel 3: Instruments and Computing TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, and Data Processing D Panel 4: Human Health and Surface Exploration TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems E Panel 5: Materials Panel TA10 Nanotechnology TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing TA14 Thermal Management Systems F Panel 6: Entry, Descent, and Landing Panel TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems In addition to drawing on the expertise represented on the steering committee and panels, the committee obtained input from each of 14 public workshops held on each of the 14 roadmaps. At these 1-day workshops, invited speakers, guests, and members of the public engaged in discussions on the different technology areas and their value to NASA. Broad community input was also solicited from a public website, where more than 240 public comments were received on the draft roadmaps in response to application of criteria (such as benefit, risk and reasonableness, and alignment with NASA and national goals) that the steering committee established. This interim report reflects the results of deliberations by the steering committee in light of these public inputs as well as additional inputs from the six panels. The steering committee's final report will be completed early in 2012. That report will prioritize the technologies that span the entire scope of the 14 roadmaps and provide additional guidance on crosscutting themes and other relevant topics.

  6. Clocks and timing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauf, J.; Calhoun, M.; Diener, W.; Gonzalez, J.; Kirk, A.; Kuhnle, P.; Tucker, B.; Kirby, C.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A new timing system has been developed for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and is currently in the final stages of integration, testing and implementation in all three DSN sites. The DSN is a distributed antenna network for deep space communication, whose facilities are continuously engaged in spacecraft tracking, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) or Radio Astronomy activities. Its primary components consist of three Deep Space Communication Centers (DSCC) separated nearly equidistant around the Earth in California, USA; Spain; and Australia. Within each DSCC, synchronized, low jitter timing signals must be distributed to many users over distances of up to 30 kilometers. The design criteria for the timing system required state of the art stability and jitter performance, but also extremely high operability and reliability. This paper describes some of the key features and recent system performance data as measured both in the laboratory and the operational DSN.

  7. NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) -2006

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) - 2006) (formerly REASoN) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Earth Science Data Systems, supports the NASA Earth Science research community in providing Earth science data products

  8. Multi-Objective Scheduling for NASA's Future Deep Space Network Array

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Steven

    Multi-Objective Scheduling for NASA's Future Deep Space Network Array Mark D. Johnston Jet.d.johnston @jpl.nasa.gov Abstract We describe a multi-objective approach to the scheduling problem presented by the future NASA Deep Space Array- Based Network (DSAN), the communications system that will support missions

  9. Earth to space power beaming: A new NASA technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rather, John D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Laser power beaming from the Earth's surface is an innovative and potentially cost-effective option for reliably providing electrical power for applications such as space transportation, Earth-orbiting satellites, and lunar development. The maturation of laser power beaming technology can support low power applications such as upgraded conventional communications satellites in the present decade. Power beaming systems to support extensive lunar base operations that may consume extremely large amounts of power can be implemented early in the 21st century. The synergistic advantages of high-thrust, high specific-impulse electric propulsion may make enhanced, low cost space logistics an area of unique significance for laser power beaming. Economic forces will continue as a driving factor in the selection of major system elements for both commercial applications as well as the avant-garde national space missions envisioned for the 21st century. As a result, the implementation of laser power beaming systems will only take place if they can demonstrate clear economic benefits without sacrificing performance, personnel safety, or the environment. Similarly, the development activities that are a necessary precursor to any operational system will take place only if key industry and government leaders perceive laser power beaming systems as an achievable goal with realistic payoffs in comparison to competing energy options. This paper summarizes NASA's current research to evaluate laser power beaming systems as they apply to applications of greatest interest, and it includes a summary of the current laser power beaming program within the NASA Headquarters Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. This research effort will quantify some key technical certainties and uncertainties pertaining to laser power beaming systems appropriate for space applications as well as establish a path of development that includes maturation of key technology components for reliable laser and millimeter wave power beaming systems during the 1990's. The program is known as 'SELENE', an acronym for Space Laser Energy.

  10. NASA Space Science Day Events-Engaging Students in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxworth, S.; Mosie, A.; Allen, J.; Kent, J.; Green, A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Science Day Event follows the same format of planning and execution at all host universities and colleges. These institutions realized the importance of such an event and sought funding to continue hosting NSSD events. In 2014, NASA Johnson Space Center ARES team has supported the following universities and colleges that have hosted a NSSD event; the University of Texas at Brownsville, San Jacinto College, Georgia Tech University and Huston-Tillotson University. Other universities and colleges are continuing to conduct their own NSSD events. NASA Space Science Day Events are supported through continued funding through NASA Discovery Program. Community Night begins with a NASA speaker and Astromaterials display. The entire community surrounding the host university or college is invited to the Community Night. This year at the Huston-Tillotson (HTU) NSSD, we had Dr. Laurie Carrillo, a NASA Engineer, speak to the public and students. She answered questions, shared her experiences and career path. The speaker sets a tone of adventure and discovery for the NSSD event. After the speaker, the public is able to view Lunar and Meteorite samples and ask questions from the ARES team. The students and teachers from nearby schools attended the NSSD Event the following day. Students are able to see the university or college campus and the university or college mentors are available for questions. Students rotate through hour long Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) sessions and a display area. These activities are from the Discovery Program activities that tie in directly with k- 12 instruction. The sessions highlight the STEM in exploration and discovery. The Lunar and Meteorite display is again available for students to view and ask questions. In the display area, there are also other interactive displays. Angela Green, from San Jacinto College, brought the Starlab for students to watch a planetarium exhibit for the NSSD at Huston-Tillotson University. Many HTU mentors were leading activities in the display room such as build a comet, volcano layering and robotics manipulation. Students were exposed to a variety STEM career possibilities and information. The students could relate the displays and sessions to what they were learning in school. The HTU mentors made the connection clear for the students. The students ended the event with a mission design presentation. They were able to take what they had learned during the day and were able to create a mission. Students presented their Mission Design and gained confidence in STEM. Conclusion: NASA Space Science Day Events provides an out of school experiential learning environment for students to enhance their STEM curriculum and let students see a college campus. The experiences students gain from attending NSSD gives them the confidence to see themselves on a college campus, possibly majoring in a STEM degree, and understand the importance of completing school.

  11. Internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Test laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is known for hosting all of the United States manned rocket launches as well as many unmanned launches at low inclinations. Even though the Space Shuttle recently retired, they are continuing to support unmanned launches and modifying manned launch facilities. Before a rocket can be launched, it has to go through months of preparation, called processing. Pieces of a rocket and its payload may come in from anywhere in the nation or even the world. The facilities all around the center help integrate the rocket and prepare it for launch. As NASA prepares for the Space Launch System, a rocket designed to take astronauts beyond Low Earth Orbit throughout the solar system, technology development is crucial for enhancing launch capabilities at the KSC. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center greatly contributes to cryogenic research and technology development. The engineers and technicians that work there come up with new ways to efficiently store and transfer liquid cryogens. NASA has a great need for this research and technology development as it deals with cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for rocket fuel, as well as long term space flight applications. Additionally, in this new era of space exploration, the Cryogenics Test Laboratory works with the commercial sector. One technology development project is the Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) Ground Operations Demonstration Unit (GODU). LH2 GODU intends to demonstrate increased efficiency in storing and transferring liquid hydrogen during processing, loading, launch and spaceflight of a spacecraft. During the Shuttle Program, only 55% of hydrogen purchased was used by the Space Shuttle Main Engines. GODU's goal is to demonstrate that this percentage can be increased to 75%. Figure 2 shows the GODU layout when I concluded my internship. The site will include a 33,000 gallon hydrogen tank (shown in cyan) with a heat exchanger inside the hydrogen tank attached to a refrigerator capable of removing 850 Watts at 20 Kelvin (shown in green). The refrigerator and most of its supporting equipment will be kept in a standard shipping container (shown in pink). Currently, GODU is in the fabrication process and some of the large components have already been purchased.

  12. Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie L.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

  13. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)\\/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Guidotti

    1976-01-01

    An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

  14. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidotti, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

  15. Reflections on the NASA standardization effort. [space qualified equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnemann, H.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA standardization effort which has been in existence for four years is described. A significant number of equipments have been declared standard in order to achieve multimission utilization with the consequent avoidance of high nonrecurring development costs. The small numbers of equipments and significant gaps in time before the next user requires the item raise questions of the value of maintaining a standard, how to assure its producibility economically in the future, and how to prevent its technical obsolescence. Increasing pressures to broaden the participation of industry in the space program have also contributed to a reexamination of the philosophy of standardization.

  16. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  17. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  18. Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

  19. The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Cox, S. J.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Chiacchio, M.

    A twelve-year-plus (July 1983 to October 1995) global dataset of surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative parameters on a 1°x1° grid has been developed under the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Both SW and LW fluxes were computed with two algorithms: a primary algorithm and a quality-check algorithm. Cloud properties used in the project were derived on a 1(-resolution using ISCCP pixel-level (DX) datasets. Other meteorological inputs, namely, the temperature and humidity profiles, were taken from the GEOS-1 reanalysis product of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA/GSFC. Ozone data were obtained from the TOMS archives. Three of the four algorithms provide results on a 3-hourly temporal resolution. The quality-check SW algorithm provides daily values only. All datasets were processed into daily and monthly averages for use in scientific studies. All except quality-check SW data were also processed into monthly/3-hourly averages. Zonal, hemispheric, and global averages were derived for individual months as well as on a climatological basis. The entire dataset is available to the worldwide science community from LaRC Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/. Model derived fluxes were validated at all time resolutions by comparison with ground-based observations obtained from a number of Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) sites. Longwave fluxes showed good agreement for most sites though SW fluxes exhibited large random errors at some. Analysis of the time series showed occurrence of strong surface flux anomalies during the El Nino episodes in May 1987 and March 1992, and the La Nina episode of July 1988. For the May 1987 and July 1988 episodes, surface flux anomalies exhibited strong similarities with corresponding TOA flux anomalies derived from ERBE data. Anomalies related to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991-92 were also apparent. Global annual averages from this dataset compared well with those from other satellite-derived, GCM-based, and observational datasets. Work is underway to extend the time series to the present and to use improved reanalysis products that are now becoming available.

  20. Diverse Studies in the Reactivated NASA/Ames Radiation Facility: From Shock Layer Spectroscopy to Thermal Protection System Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert J.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA/Ames' Hypervelocity Free-Flight Radiation Facility has been reactivated after having been decommissioned for some 15 years, first tests beginning in early 1994. This paper discusses two widely different studies from the first series, one involving spectroscopic analysis of model shock-layer radiation, and the other the production of representative impact damage in space shuttle thermal protection tiles for testing in the Ames arc-jet facilities. These studies emphasize the interorganizational and interdisciplinary value of the facility in the newly-developing structure of NASA.

  1. Some comments on space flight and radiation limits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, W.E.

    1997-04-30

    Setting limits on human exposure to space-related radiation involves two very different processes - the appropriate hard science, and certain emotional aspects and expectations of the groups involved. These groups include the general public and their elected politicians, the astronauts and flight crews, and NASA managers, each group with different expectations and concerns. Public and political views of human space flight and human radiation exposures are often poorly informed and are often based on emotional reactions to current events which may be distorted by {open_quotes}experts{close_quotes} and the media. Career astronauts` and cosmonauts` views are much more realistic about the risks involved and there is a willingness on their part to accept increased necessary risks. However, there is a concern on their part about career-threatening dose limits, the potential for overexposures, and the health effects from all sources of radiation. There is special concern over radiation from medical studies. This last concern continues to raise the question of {open_quotes}voluntary{close_quotes} participation in studies involving radiation exposure. There is greatly diversity in spaceflight crews and their expectations; and {open_quotes}official{close_quotes} Astronaut Office positions will reflect strong management direction. NASA management has its own priorities and concerns and this fact will be reflected in their crucial influence on radiation limits. NASA, and especially spaceflight crews, might be best served by exposure limits which address all sources of spaceflight radiation and all potential effects from such exposure.

  2. NASA Now: The Future Of Space Travel - Duration: 6 minutes, 14 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Greg Johnson joins NASA Now to discuss the future of space exploration and the logical progression of sending humans to Mars. He talks about sending astronauts back to the moon and t...

  3. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  4. Sign Up for NASA's Space Apps Challenge - Duration: 104 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    One of NASA's missions is to watch over and help care for Earth. This year, NASA will launch an unprecedented five Earth Science missions, highlighting NASA's role as an innovation leader in Earth ...

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges both in delivering the 70-t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130-t vehicle, and how NASA plans to accomplish these goals. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  6. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  7. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  8. Shielding from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    1993-01-01

    This Progress Report covering the period of 1 June 1993 to 1 Dec. 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a one-layer Green's function formalism. The mathematical developments are recasted into an efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 80 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an Iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented.

  9. Shielding from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    1993-01-01

    This Progress Report covering the period of 1 June 1993 to 1 Dec. 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a one-layer Green's function formalism. The mathematical developments are recasted into an efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 80 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented.

  10. Shielding from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    1993-01-01

    This Progress Report covering the period of December 1, 1992 to June 1, 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of Green's function formalism. The mathematical development results are recasted into a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 59 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented. A listing of the single layer isotopic version of the code is included.

  11. Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, D. L.

    1985-12-01

    Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

  12. Space chemical propulsion test facilities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, Donald C.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio has a number of space chemical propulsion test facilities which constitute a significant national space testing resource. The purpose of this paper is to make more users aware of these test facilities and to encourage their use through cooperative agreements between the government, industry, and universities. Research which is of interest to the government is especiallly encouraged and often can be done in a cooperative manner that best uses the resources of all parties. This paper presents an overview of the Lewis test facilities. These facilities are clustered into three test areas: the Rocket Engine Test Facilities (RETF), the Rocket Laboratory (RL), and the Cryogenic Components Laboratory (CCL).

  13. The NASA OCEAN project--an ocean-space analog

    PubMed

    Chamberland, D

    1996-01-01

    An advanced life support system (ALS) with bioregenerative components may one day be required for long-term, deep space exploration, in extended missions to Mars or in establishing long-term bases on the moon. Intensive research programs on such ALS systems have been ongoing throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since 1988. Notably, projects have been initiated at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC). The KSC ALS work has been named the "Breadboard Project" because of its approach developing the components and combining them into a breadboard to understanding the bioregenerative ALS picture [also called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)] in smaller pieces, similar to an electronic "breadboard." The Breadboard Project has been involved for 7 years in the study of higher crops grown in a 113 m3 chamber--the longest operating and largest such closed, controlled growth chamber in the world. This chamber has proven itself to be very successful in growing a wide variety of crops from seedlings to harvest and in helping researchers understand the complex biological cycle of such edible plants in closed, environmentally controlled environments. Because the system's ultimate use will be a more challenging environment, moving a specially designed piece of the system into extreme conditions was an important test. Engineers at KSC developed a compact, portable, functional plant module for testing in the world's only fixed seafloor laboratory at Key Largo, FL. The laboratory, called MarineLab, is operated out of the facilities of the Marine Resources Development Foundation in a lagoon of some 10 m depth. The project was called the OCEAN project (Ocean CELSS Experimental Analog NASA). PMID:11538567

  14. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its results and impact. We will highlight the insights gained by applying the Model Based System Engineering and provide recommendations for its applications and improvements.

  15. BioServe space technologies: A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), was established in 1987. As is characteristic of each CCDS designated by NASA, the goals of this commercial center are aimed at stimulating high technology research that takes advantage of the space environment and at leading in the development of new products and services which have commercial potential or that contribute to possible new commercial ventures. BioServe's efforts in these areas focus upon space life science studies and the development of enabling devices that will facilitate ground-based experiments as well as the conversion of such to the microgravity environment. A direct result of BioServe's hardware development and life sciences studies is the training of the next generation of bioengineers who will be knowledgeable and comfortable working with the challenges of the space frontier.

  16. Stirling Radioisotope Power System as an Alternative for NASAs Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Mason, L. S.; Schreiber, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide on-board electric power for future NASA deep space missions. The SRPS currently being developed provides about 100 watts and reduces the amount of radioisotope fuel by a factor of four over conventional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The present SRPS design has a specific power of approximately 4 W/kg which is comparable to an RTG. GRC estimates for advanced versions of the SRPS with improved heat source integration, lightweight Stirling convertors, composite radiators, and chip-packaged controllers improves the specific mass to about 8 W/kg. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  18. Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, William

    2012-02-01

    During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

  19. NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil,Eric J.; Peterson, Todd; Vento, Daniel; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in four areas that include Propulsion System Technologies (Electric and Chemical), Entry Vehicle Technologies (Aerocapture and Earth entry vehicles), Spacecraft Bus and Sample Return Propulsion Technologies (components and ascent vehicles), and Systems/Mission Analysis. Three technologies are ready for flight infusion: 1) the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance; 2) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 3) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; and aerothermal effect models. Two component technologies that will be ready for flight infusion in the near future will be Advanced Xenon Flow Control System, and ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies. Future focuses for ISPT are sample return missions and other spacecraft bus technologies like: 1) Mars Ascent Vehicles (MAV); 2) multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) for sample return missions; and 3) electric propulsion for sample return and low cost missions. These technologies are more vehicle-focused, and present a different set of technology infusion challenges. While the Systems/Mission Analysis area is focused on developing tools and assessing the application of propulsion technologies to a wide variety of mission concepts. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, and sample return missions currently under consideration, as well as having broad applicability to potential Flagship missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the ISPT program, describing the development status and technology infusion readiness of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of electric propulsion, aerocapture, Earth entry vehicles, propulsion components, Mars ascent vehicle, and mission/systems analysis.

  20. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOEpatents

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  1. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOEpatents

    Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  2. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar-O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model is used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a GCR measurements database from various particle detectors to determine the boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  3. The NASA Radiation Interuniversity Science and Engineering(RaISE) Project: A Model for Inter-collaboration and Distance Learning in Radiation Physics and Nuclear Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, Pamela S.; Saganti, P.; Obot, V.; Singleterry, R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Radiation Interuniversity Science and Engineering (RaISE) Project, which is a project that has as its goals strengthening and furthering the curriculum in radiation sciences at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Prairie View A&M University and Texas Southern University. Those were chosen in part because of the proximity to NASA Johnson Space Center, a lead center for the Space Radiation Health Program. The presentation reviews the courses that have been developed, both in-class, and on-line.

  4. Simulation of Range Safety for the NASA Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Sepulveda, Jose; Compton, Jeppie; Turner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation environment that seamlessly combines a number of safety and environmental models for the launch phase of a NASA Space Shuttle mission. The components of this simulation environment represent the different systems that must interact in order to determine the Expectation of casualties (E(sub c)) resulting from the toxic effects of the gas dispersion that occurs after a disaster affecting a Space Shuttle within 120 seconds of lift-off. The utilization of the Space Shuttle reliability models, trajectory models, weather dissemination systems, population models, amount and type of toxicants, gas dispersion models, human response functions to toxicants, and a geographical information system are all integrated to create this environment. This simulation environment can help safety managers estimate the population at risk in order to plan evacuation, make sheltering decisions, determine the resources required to provide aid and comfort, and mitigate damages in case of a disaster. This simulation environment may also be modified and used for the landing phase of a space vehicle but will not be discussed in this paper.

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3), can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

  6. On the validity of the aluminum equivalent approximation in space radiation shielding applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis F. Badavi; Daniel O. Adams; John W. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence

  7. Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebo, George

    2002-07-01

    At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

  8. Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebo, George

    2002-01-01

    At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

  9. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and the record-breaking testing of the J-2X engine, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explanatory Guide to the NASA Science Mission Directorate

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    A: Key NASA Links B: Operating Principles of the NASA Space Science E/PO Support Network C of the Explanatory Guide To The Office Of Space Science Education & Public Outreach Evaluation Factors Version 3.0, (March 2004) to account for the merger of the Office of Space Science and the Office of Education

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explanatory Guide to the NASA Science Mission Directorate

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explanatory Guide to the NASA Science Mission the role of the United States as a leader in aeronautics, space science, and technology. High achievement 2007 Updated contact email Corrected FAQ numbering 3 #12;Preface NASA's founding legislation, the Space

  13. NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) — comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (<0.2 Gy), and for increased tumor lethality due to the propensity for higher rates of metastatic tumors from high LET radiation suggested by animal experiments. The NSCR-2014 model considers how these qualitative differences modify the overall probability distribution functions (PDF) for cancer mortality risk estimates from space radiation. Predictions of NSCR-2014 for International Space Station missions and Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

  14. NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

  15. NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

  16. NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

  17. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA)s for use in reconfigurable architectures. As these component/chip level technologies mature, the RHESE project emphasis shifts to focus on efforts encompassing total processor hardening techniques and board-level electronic reconfiguration techniques featuring spare and interface modularity. This phased approach to distributing emphasis between technology developments provides hardened FPGA/FPAAs for early mission infusion, then migrates to hardened, board-level, high speed processors with associated memory elements and high density storage for the longer duration missions encountered for Lunar Outpost and Mars Exploration occurring later in the Constellation schedule.

  18. NASA space and Earth science data on CD-ROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towheed, Syed S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is very interested in facilitating the widest possible use of the scientific data acquired through NASA spaceflight missions. Therefore, NSSDC has participated with projects and data management elements throughout the NASA science environment in the creation, archiving, and dissemination of data using Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). This CD-ROM technology has the potential to enable the dissemination of very large data volumes at very low prices to a great many researchers, students and their teachers, and others. This catalog identifies and describes the scientific CD-ROM's now available from NSSDC including the following data sets: Einstein Observatory CD-ROM, Galileo Cruise Imaging on CD-ROM, International Halley Watch, IRAS Sky Survey Atlas, Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM), Magellan (MIDR), Magellan (ARCDR's), Magellan (GxDR's), Mars Digital Image Map (MDIM), Outer Planets Fields & Particles Data, Pre-Magellan, Selected Astronomical Catalogs, TOMS Gridded Ozone Data, TOMS Ozone Image Data, TOMS Update, Viking Orbiter Images of Mars, and Voyager Image.

  19. Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS-121 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Rutledge, R.; Lin, T.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation impact to astronauts depends on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk experienced by astronauts can be determined with the radiation LET spectrum measured and the risk response function obtained from radiobiology. Systematical measurement of the space radiation is an important part for the research on the impact of radiation to astronauts and to make the radiation ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). For NASA space missions at low Earth orbit (LEO), the active dosimeter used for all LET is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the passive dosimeters used for the astronauts and for the monitored areas are the combination of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLDs) for low LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs were used to measure the radiation during STS-121 space mission. LET spectra and radiation quantities were obtained with active and passive dosimeters. This paper will introduce the physical principles for TEPC and CR-39 detectors, the LET spectrum method for radiation measurement using CR-39 detectors and TEPC, and will present and compare the radiation LET spectra and quantities measured with TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs.

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2014 Management and Performance

    E-print Network

    , in 2012, NASA launched an Agency-level system, called Performance Warehouse, to manage data collectedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2014 Management and Performance Including www.nasa.gov #12;Management and Performance INTRODUCTION M&P-2 The Management and Performance section

  1. Guidance, Navigation and Control Innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, Aprille Joy; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses NASA's role in sponsoring on-going research projects involving innovations in spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems. Topics covered include: partnerships, ESE Spaceborne Missions, spacecraft systems supported and designed by NASA Goddard Flight Center, NASA's changing mission, Large Aperture Sensing Spectrum, Distributed Spacecraft Systems, Landsat-7/ Earth Observer-1 Co-observing Program, and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna program.

  2. NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Education, Aeronautics, Space, Autonomy, Earth and Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamshidi, M. (Editor); Lumia, R. (Editor); Tunstel, E., Jr. (Editor); White, B. (Editor); Malone, J. (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This first volume of the Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE) Center Press Series on NASA University Research Center's (URC's) Advanced Technologies on Space Exploration and National Service constitute a report on the research papers and presentations delivered by NASA Installations and industry and Report of the NASA's fourteen URC's held at the First National Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico from February 16-19, 1997.

  3. Space radiation research in Europe: flight experiments and ground-based studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Durante; G. Reitz; O. Angerer

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to space radiation has long been acknowledged as a potential showstopper for long-duration manned interplanetary\\u000a missions. In an effort to gain more information on space radiation risk and to develop countermeasures, NASA initiated several\\u000a years ago a Space Radiation Health Program, which is currently supporting biological experiments performed at the Brookhaven\\u000a National Laboratory. Accelerator-based radiobiology research in the field

  4. International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

  6. NASA - Johnson Space Center: Office of Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Johnson Technology Commercialization Center (JTCC) opened in 1993 and is located close to the Johnson Space Center. The JTCC is funded by a grant from NASA and is managed by the IC2 Institute, an international research center for the study of Innovation, Creativity and Capital (ICC) at the University of Texas at Austin. Among its credits, the IC2 Institute manages the Austin Technology Incubator (ATI), a recognized resource for the development of emerging technology companies a model for JTCC. The IC2 introduced a a laboratory-to-market approach, utilized by JTCC, which takes technology output from JSC and matches it with accomplished business and financial partners in the local community. The final transfer can be the result of either of two primary methods, "Small Business Incubator Services" and technology licensing.

  7. NASA Johnson Space Center: Mini AERCam Testing with GSS6560

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cryant, Scott P.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) with the GPS/SBAS simulation system, GSS6560. There is a listing of several GPS based programs at NASA Johnson, including the testing of Shuttle testing of the GPS system. Including information about Space Integrated GPS/INS (SIGI) testing. There is also information about the standalone ISS SIGI test,and testing of the SIGI for the Crew Return Vehicle. The Mini AERCam is a small, free-flying camera for remote inspections of the ISS, it uses precise relative navigation with differential carrier phase GPS to provide situational awareness to operators. The closed loop orbital testing with and without the use of the GSS6550 system of the Mini AERCam system is reviewed.

  8. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  9. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butina, Anthony J.

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines-it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in April of 2006. Space logistics is a new concept that will have wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. What is it like to do something that no one has done before? What challenges do you face? What kind of organization do you put together to perform this type of task? How do you optimize your resources to procure what you need? How do you change a paradigm within a space agency? How do you coordinate and manage a one of a kind system with approximately 5,700 Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs)? How do you plan for preventive and corrective maintenance, when you need to procure spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors? How do you transport large sections of ISS hardware around the country? These are some of the topics discussed in this paper. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operation. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station and only time will tell if we did it right. This paper discusses some of the experiences of the author after working 12 years on the International Space Station's integrated logistics & maintenance program. From his early days as a contractor supportability engineer and manager, to the NASA manager responsible for the entire ISS Logistics and Maintenance program. .

  10. Radiation Assurance for the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Poivey, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for spacecraft electronic systems. A hardness assurance methodology must be followed to assure that the space radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of space-based systems during the mission lifetime. The methodology includes a definition of the radiation environment, assessment of the radiation sensitivity of parts, worst-case analysis of the impact of radiation effects, and part acceptance decisions which are likely to include mitigation measures.

  11. Space radiator simulation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, W. Z.; Wulff, W.

    1972-01-01

    A transient heat transfer analysis was carried out on a space radiator heat rejection system exposed to an arbitrarily prescribed combination of aerodynamic heating, solar, albedo, and planetary radiation. A rigorous analysis was carried out for the radiation panel and tubes lying in one plane and an approximate analysis was used to extend the rigorous analysis to the case of a curved panel. The analysis permits the consideration of both gaseous and liquid coolant fluids, including liquid metals, under prescribed, time dependent inlet conditions. The analysis provided a method for predicting: (1) transient and steady-state, two dimensional temperature profiles, (2) local and total heat rejection rates, (3) coolant flow pressure in the flow channel, and (4) total system weight and protection layer thickness.

  12. Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the Space Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Beever, E. R.; Hardy, A. C.; Richmond, R. G.; Cash, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed as an engineering tool to aid in making premission radiation dose calculations and is discussed in detail. The anatomical man models are also discussed. A comparison between the onboard dosimeter measurements for the 24 Shuttle missions to date and the dose calculations using the radiation environment and shielding models is presented.

  13. NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the creation of chemical elements such as oxygen through nuclear reactions in their cores. Such observations also help reveal how the interstellar medium (the gas that occupies the vast spaces between the stars) is enriched with chemical elements because of supernova explosions. Later on, these elements are incorporated into new generations of stars and their accompanying planets. Visible only from Earth's southern hemisphere, the LMC is an irregular galaxy lying about 160,000 light-years from the Milky Way. The supernova remnant appears to be about 3,000 years old, but since its light took 160,000 years to reach us, the explosion actually occurred some 163,000 years ago. This composite image of N132D was created by the Hubble Heritage team from visible-light data taken in January 2004 with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys, and X-ray images obtained in July 2000 by Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This marks the first Hubble Heritage image that combines pictures taken by two separate space observatories. The Hubble data include color filters that sample starlight in the blue, green, and red portions of the spectrum, as well as the pink emission from glowing hydrogen gas. The Chandra data are assigned blue in the color composite, in accordance with the much higher energy of the X-rays, emitted from extremely hot gas. This gas does not emit a significant amount of optical light, and was only detected by Chandra. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J.C. Green (Univ. of Colorado) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) GTO team; NASA/CXO/SAO Electronic image files, video, illustrations and additional information are available at: http://hubblesite.org/news/2005/30 http://heritage.stsci.edu/2005/30 The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Ag

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    . This image shows South America from September 2004. Image Credit: NASA image courtesy Reto Stöckli and Robert,' NASA is pleased to share the newest in its series of stunning Earth images, affectionately named at an entire year in the life of our planet. In sharing these Blue Marble images, NASA hopes the public

  15. Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: Building a New Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventually landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO). The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO. The initial configuration will be able to deliver greater mass to orbit than any contemporary launch vehicle, and the evolved configuration will have greater performance than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. The basic capabilities of SLS have been driven by studies on the requirements of human deep-space exploration missions, and continue to be validated by maturing analysis of Mars mission options. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

  17. Overview of HZETRN and BRNTRN Space Radiation Shielding Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.; Badavi, F. F.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Health Program has supported basic research over the last decade in radiation physics to develop ionizing radiation transport codes and corresponding data bases for the protection of astronauts from galactic and solar cosmic rays on future deep space missions. The codes describe the interactions of the incident radiations with shield materials where their content is modified by the atomic and nuclear reactions through which high energy heavy ions are fragmented into less massive reaction products and reaction products are produced as radiations as direct knockout of shield constituents or produced as de-excitation products in the reactions. This defines the radiation fields to which specific devices are subjected onboard a spacecraft. Similar reactions occur in the device itself which is the initiating event for the device response. An overview of the computational procedures and data base with some applications to photonic and data processing devices will be given.

  18. Overview of Space Weather Impacts and NASA Space Weather Center Services and Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into two major components. First, I will give an overview of space weather phenomenon and their associated impacts. Then I will describe the comprehensive list of products and tools that NASA Space Weather Center has developed by leveraging more than a decade long modeling experience enabled by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and latest scientific research results from the broad science community. In addition, a summary of the space weather activities we have been engaged in and our operational experience will be provided.

  19. Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodenberg, H.; Myers, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

  20. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  1. Hybrid vision activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, is active in several aspects of hybrid image processing. (The term hybrid image processing refers to a system that combines digital and photonic processing). The major thrusts are autonomous space operations such as planetary landing, servicing, and rendezvous and docking. By processing images in non-Cartesian geometries to achieve shift invariance to canonical distortions, researchers use certain aspects of the human visual system for machine vision. That technology flow is bidirectional; researchers are investigating the possible utility of video-rate coordinate transformations for human low-vision patients. Man-in-the-loop teleoperations are also supported by the use of video-rate image-coordinate transformations, as researchers plan to use bandwidth compression tailored to the varying spatial acuity of the human operator. Technological elements being developed in the program include upgraded spatial light modulators, real-time coordinate transformations in video imagery, synthetic filters that robustly allow estimation of object pose parameters, convolutionally blurred filters that have continuously selectable invariance to such image changes as magnification and rotation, and optimization of optical correlation done with spatial light modulators that have limited range and couple both phase and amplitude in their response.

  2. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences.

    PubMed

    Gurkin, L W

    1992-10-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours. PMID:11537652

  3. Friction Stir Welding Development at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston; Gentz, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state process that pan be used to join materials without melting. The process was invented by The Welding Institute (TWI), Cambridge, England. Friction stir welding exhibits several advantages over fusion welding in that it produces welds with fewer defects and higher joint efficiency and is capable of joining alloys that are generally considered non-weldable with a fusion weld process. In 1994, NASA-Marshall began collaborating with TWI to transform FSW from a laboratory curiosity to a viable metal joining process suitable for manufacturing hardware. While teamed with TWI, NASA-Marshall began its own FSW research and development effort to investigate possible aerospace applications for the FSW process. The work involved nearly all aspects of FSW development, including process modeling, scale-up issues, applications to advanced materials and development of tooling to use FSW on components of the Space Shuttle with particular emphasis on aluminum tanks. The friction stir welding process involves spinning a pin-tool at an appropriate speed, plunging it into the base metal pieces to be joined, and then translating it along the joint of the work pieces. In aluminum alloys the rotating speed typically ranges from 200 to 400 revolutions per minute and the translation speed is approximately two to five inches per minute. The pin-tool is inserted at a small lead angle from the axis normal to the work piece and requires significant loading along the axis of the tool. An anvil or reaction structure is required behind the welded material to react the load along the axis of the pin tool. The process requires no external heat input, filler material, protective shielding gas or inert atmosphere typical of fusion weld processes. The FSW solid-state weld process has resulted in aluminum welds with significantly higher strengths, higher joint efficiencies and fewer defects than fusion welds used to join similar alloys.

  4. The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Brewer, Dana; Kauffman, Billy; Howard, Regan; Griffin, Geoff; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and flights of opportunity on other commercial and technology missions. This paper presents the status of the project so far, including a description of the types of experiments that are intended to fly on SET-1 and a description of the SET-1 carrier parameters.

  5. Recent results from advanced research on space solar cells at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA program in space photovoltaic research and development encompasses a wide range of emerging options for future space power systems, and includes both cell and array technology development. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of achieving 300 W/kg for planar arrays, and 300 W/sq m for concentrator arrays. InP and GaAs planar and concentrator cell technologies are under investigation for their potential high efficiency and good radiation resistance. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program is a near term effort aimed at demonstrating 130 W/kg beginning of life specific power using thin (62 pm) silicon cells. It is intended to be technology transparent to future high efficiency cells and provides the baseline for development of the 300 W/kg array.

  6. Lori Garver, NASA Deputy Administrator Stennis Space Center Ammunition Plant Transfer

    E-print Network

    to deliver a simple but straight-forward message: NASA is on the cusp of a new era of space exploration phase of our space exploration, including our just successfully concluded 30-year Shuttle program. Let

  7. R&D Activities at NASA Langley in Support of the Space Shuttle, the Mars

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    R&D Activities at NASA Langley in Support of the Space Shuttle, the Mars Science Laboratory, descent, and landing instrumentation and processing of interferograms. wwwwwwwww and landing; thermal protection system instrumentation, and acoustic leak detection in space habitats

  8. NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  9. NASA Now: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing - Duration: 5 minutes, 57 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electron...

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance Governance's Mission is to: Drive advances in science, technology, aeronautics, and space exploration to enhance oversight. Under the leadership of the Administrator, NASA offices at Headquarters in Washington, DC, guide

  11. The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rowe; P. L. Butler; R. L. Glassell; J. N. Herndon

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including

  12. Results of the NASA Loya Jirga II: large space telescopes and infrastructure support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Friedman; Rud Moe; Paul Graf; Jim Oschmann

    2005-01-01

    Two recent meetings sponsored by NASA have helped define the in-space capabilities (technology, operations and infrastructure) necessary to enable and enhance future space missions. The activities preceded NASA's roadmapping efforts that occurred from the fall of 2004 to spring of 2005. These Loya Jirga meetings (using a Pashto expression for \\

  13. Faculty Institutes for NASA Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2009-12-01

    Surveys and focus groups suggest that science education faculty and other science faculty who help prepare future teachers can benefit greatly from each other through professional development incorporating educationally-researched pedagogical techniques, the latest Earth and space science discoveries, materials, and new activities. In response, a team of scientists and science educators has delivered four such 2-day faculty institutes, through our Faculty Institute for NASA Earth and Space Science Education (FINESSE). One challenge to inquiry is the time spent obtaining true data, and yet the majority of astronomers and planetary scientists are using existing data acquired by robotic missions, telescopes, and orbiters. Through these workshops, participating College of Science and College of Education faculty have co-developed mechanisms for working inquiry into a deeper understanding of science by using existing on-line data to develop and research Earth and space science topics, progressing from creating a valid and easily testable question, to simple data analysis, arriving at a conclusion, and finally presenting and supporting that conclusion in the classroom. This framework is the foundation of the FINESSE institutes, which also incorporate discussions on the nature of inquiry, assessment, presentations by Earth and space science researchers, and opportunities for the participants to design implementation plans of their own. This project was developed to help faculty overcome several roadblocks, including: many education faculty surveyed stated that they desired, but lacked, access to professional development experiences; education faculty responsible for training pre-service education students varied greatly in their own science experiences and level of expertise, with a majority having a science background in biology but little or no experience in Earth or space science; the modeling of best science education practices (e.g., building understanding through authentic inquiry, use of real data, connections to educational research, alignment with standards, etc.) in methods classes also varied greatly, as did the education faculty’s awareness and training in the use of appropriate Earth and space science resources; and that science faculty often have the content expertise, but rarely model teaching practices that are needed by classroom teachers, making it more challenging for pre-service students to translate science into their future classrooms.

  14. Heritage Systems Engineering Lessons from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for all five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to be the result of technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the systemwide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications. The paper summarizes the study s lessons learned in more detail and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the technology and heritage risks inherent in the design solution.

  15. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  16. The Space Shuttle Decision: NASA's Search for a Reusable Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppenheimer, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    This significant new study of the decision to build the Space Shuttle explains the Shuttle's origins and early development. In addition to internal NASA discussions, this work details the debates in the late 1960s and early 1970s among policymakers in Congress, the Air Force, and the Office of Management and Budget over the roles and technical designs of the Shuttle. Examining the interplay of these organizations with sometimes conflicting goals, the author not only explains how the world's premier space launch vehicle came into being, but also how politics can interact with science, technology, national security, and economics in national government. The weighty policy decision to build the Shuttle represents the first component of the broader story: future NASA volumes will cover the Shuttle's development and operational histories.

  17. An overview of remote sensing education projects sponsored by the NASA Space Grant Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Wersinger; E. Ward

    1996-01-01

    Congress established the NASA National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (Space Grant) with legislation enacted in 1988. Congress conceived the program to ensure continued US strength in space-related research and education and to capitalize on the multiple opportunities afforded by the space environment. Space Grant consists of a national network of 52 university-based consortia in the 50 states, the

  18. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  19. Access from Space: A New Perspective on NASA's Space Transportation Technology Requirements and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The need for robust and reliable access from space is clearly demonstrated by the recent loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia; as well as the NASA s goals to get the Shuttle re-flying and extend its life, build new vehicles for space access, produce successful robotic landers and s a q k retrr? llisrions, and maximize the science content of ambitious outer planets missions that contain nuclear reactors which must be safe for re-entry after possible launch aborts. The technology lynch pin of access from space is hypersonic entry systems such the thermal protection system, along with navigation, guidance and control (NG&C). But it also extends to descent and landing systems such as parachutes, airbags and their control systems. Current space access technology maturation programs such as NASA s Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program or the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) program focus on maturing laboratory demonstrated technologies for potential adoption by specific mission applications. A key requirement for these programs success is a suitable queue of innovative technologies and advanced concepts to mature, including mission concepts enabled by innovative, cross cutting technology advancements. When considering space access, propulsion often dominates the capability requirements, as well as the attention and resources. From the perspective of access from space some new cross cutting technology drivers come into view, along with some new capability opportunities. These include new miniature vehicles (micro, nano, and picosats), advanced automated systems (providing autonomous on-orbit inspection or landing site selection), and transformable aeroshells (to maximize capabilities and minimize weight). This paper provides an assessment of the technology drivers needed to meet future access from space mission requirements, along with the mission capabilities that can be envisioned from innovative, cross cutting access from space technology developments.

  20. Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development at NASA Langley Research Center for NASA Space-Based 3-D Winds Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the 20-plus years of pulsed transmit laser development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to enable a coherent Doppler wind lidar to measure global winds from earth orbit. We briefly also discuss the many other ingredients needed to prepare for this space mission.

  1. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  2. A System for Fault Management for NASA's Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Spirkovska, Liljana; Aaseng, Gordon B.; Mccann, Robert S.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Ossenfort, John P.; Smith, Irene Skupniewicz; Iverson, David L.; Schwabacher, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test the automation technologies necessary to support highly autonomous DSH operations. One such technology is a fault management tool to support performance monitoring of vehicle systems operations and to assist with real-time decision making in connection with operational anomalies and failures. Toward that end, we are developing Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS), a tool that combines dynamic and interactive graphical representations of spacecraft systems, systems modeling, automated diagnostic analysis and root cause identification, system and mission impact assessment, and mitigation procedure identification to help spacecraft operators (both flight controllers and crew) understand and respond to anomalies more effectively. In this paper, we describe four major architecture elements of ACAWS: Anomaly Detection, Fault Isolation, System Effects Analysis, and Graphic User Interface (GUI), and how these elements work in concert with each other and with other tools to provide fault management support to both the controllers and crew. We then describe recent evaluations and tests of ACAWS on the DSH testbed. The results of these tests support the feasibility and strength of our approach to failure management automation and enhanced operational autonomy.

  3. Space Radiation, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    Described is the protection from space radiation afforded the earth by the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetic field. The importance of adequate instruments is emphasized by noting how refinements of radiation detection instruments was necessary for increased understanding of space radiation. The role of controversy and accident in the research…

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Automated Information Security Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Automated Information Security Handbook provides NASA's overall approach to automated information systems security including discussions of such aspects as: program goals and objectives, assignment of responsibilities, risk assessment, foreign national access, contingency planning and disaster recovery, awareness training, procurement, certification, planning, and special considerations for microcomputers.

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science at NASA

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    as the foundation for the assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the quadrennial ozone assessment by the World Meteorological Organization--are derived from NASA's Earth Science, the use of satellites, aircraft, and ground-based monitoring stations provides NASA effectively

  6. NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space Committee May 1, 2012

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    center that provides game changing innovations to enable NASA to make significant contributions Langley at a Glance (2012) Founded in 1917 1st civil aeronautical research lab ~$831m PY2012 Budget ~$804m NASA Langley budget ~$ 27m External business ~3,600 Workforce ~1,900 Civil Servants ~1,700 Contractors

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches that have increased decision velocity and reduced associated costs. This paper will summarize recent SLS Program accomplishments, as well as the challenges and opportunities ahead for the most powerful and capable launch vehicle in history.

  8. Evaluation of “The Space Place,” a NASA Integrated, Multi-mission Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Space Place is an integrated NASA education and public outreach program, so far representing over 40 different NASA missions. It combines Web-based, printed, and externally published media to reach underserved audiences across the nation. Its primary mission is to develop and provide a highly desirable suite of attractive and educational products designed to appeal to and immerse the general public in space exploration. Its primary target audience is elementary school age kids. The program has developed an extensive network of partnerships with museums and libraries in rural areas, English and Spanish language newspapers, astronomy societies, rocketry clubs, and national youth organizations. Materials are distributed monthly through all these channels. Originally a New Millennium Program (NMP) outreach effort only, it is open to all NASA missions. NMP (a NASA-level program managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) continues to provide the base of support to build and maintain the outreach program’s infrastructure. Obtaining independent evaluation and reporting of the effectiveness of the program is one of NASA’s requirements for education and public outreach efforts. The Program Evaluation and Research Group (PERG) at Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, was retained to perform this service for The Space Place. PERG is also evaluating education and public outreach programs for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. PERG recently delivered a report evaluating The Space Place program. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, PERG surveyed representative samples of Space Place partner museums, astronomy clubs, and newspapers. The survey included questions about all the products the program provides. The report concludes that The Space Place fills a niche by serving small institutions, giving them a personal alliance with NASA that they would otherwise not have. By providing free, quality materials, The Space Place program provides these under-served populations access to space and science as only NASA can.

  9. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  10. 75 FR 70951 - NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-148...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  11. Status of Solar Sail Material Characterization at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehles, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar(TradeMark), Teonex(TraeMark), and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). Experimental data will be presented on sail material response to charged particle radiation and subsequent Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Data will also be presented indicating mechanical property variations in sail material resulting from electron exposure, proton exposure, and a combined electron and proton exposure. Tabular data consisting of areal density, thickness, thermo-optical, mechanical, and electrical properties, vacuum stability and outgassing will be presented.

  12. NASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar FundingNASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar Funding The National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has renewed its support of the Antarctic Im- pulsive Transient1 NASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar FundingNASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar Funding The National- tecting the freedoms provided by our nation. What follows are excerpts from his speech: "One of the senior

  13. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from galactic cosmic rays greatly limit space mission lengths and potential risk mitigation evaluations. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death and protects against uncertainties using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. Revisions to this model for lifetime cancer risks from space radiation and new estimates of model uncertainties are described here. We review models of space environments and transport code predictions of organ exposures, and characterize uncertainties in these descriptions. We summarize recent analysis of low linear energy transfer radio-epidemiology data, including revision to Japanese A-bomb survivor dosimetry, longer follow-up of exposed cohorts, and reassessments of dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors. We compare these projections and uncertainties with earlier estimates. Current understanding of radiation quality effects and recent data on factors of relative biological effectiveness and particle track structure are reviewed. Recent radiobiology experiment results provide new information on solid cancer and leukemia risks from heavy ions. We also consider deviations from the paradigm of linearity at low doses of heavy ions motivated by non-targeted effects models. New findings and knowledge are used to revise the NASA risk projection model for space radiation cancer risks.

  14. NASA CONNECT(TradeMark): Space Suit Science in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, William B.; Giersch, Chris; Bensen, William E.; Holland, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA CONNECT's(TradeMark) program titled Functions and Statistics: Dressed for Space initially aired on Public Broadcasting Stations (PBS) nationwide on May 9, 2002. The program traces the evolution of past space suit technologies in the design of space suits for future flight. It serves as the stage to provide educators, parents, and students "space suit science" in the classroom.

  15. "Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

  16. Design of radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors for space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. El-Sayed

    2000-01-01

    The overall objective the research work described in this paper was to design a radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensor (APS), which is intended for use in imaging systems flown on future NASA space missions in the era of ever decreasing mass and power budgets. The radiation hard designs of essential circuits required to enable the design of an experimental

  17. Pharmacy in Space: A Session on NASA Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, Vice-president Gore was charged with creation of a correctional plan for the poor findings from an efficiency study of governmental agencies. That correctional analysis was then used to support efforts to balance the budget in ways anticipated to improve the value returned per tax payer dollar spent. The final result was a broad initiative collectively termed "reinventing the government", which included major restructuring within NASA as well, termed "reinventing NASA This included substantial elimination of middle management and downsizing such that about 2 million government workers employed in 1992 has shrunk now to about 1.2 million government workers who are employed in ways that at least somewhat decrease bureaucratic and programmatic inefficiencies. Today, "reinvented NASA" has an awareness of contractual commitment to the public. NASA now operates within a so-called "strategic plan" that requires awareness and response to domestic needs. This is important to this audience because it means that NASA is committed to exploring interactions that you may wish to initiate. That is, you are urged to explore with NASA on topics of educational support, collaborative research, or commercial partnerships in drug development and application, as the pertinent examples here, in ways that can include involvement of central NASA resources and missions.

  18. Visual Risk Assessment of Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Hesham F.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure during an interplanetary mission is an important challenge for mission design and operations. If sufficient protection is not provided near solar maximum, the risk can be significant due to exposure to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Polyethylene shielded "storm shelters" inside spacecraft have been shown to limit total exposure from a large SPE to a permissible level, preventing acute risks and providing a potential approach to fulfill the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) requirement. For accurate predictions of radiation dose to astronauts involved in future space exploration missions, detailed variations of radiation shielding properties are required. Radiation fluences and doses vary considerably across both the spacecraft geometry and the body-shielding distribution. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE(TradeMark), which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. Visual assessment of radiation distribution at different points inside a spacecraft module and in the human body for a given radiation environment are described. Results will ultimately guide in developing requirements for maximal protection for astronauts from space radiation.

  19. NASA - Johnson Space Center's New Capabilities for Air Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has some unique and challenging air purification problems that cannot be adequately met with COTS technology: 1) ammonia removal from air, 2) hydrazine removal from air, 3) CO conversion to CO2 in low temperature, high humidity environments. NASA has sponsored the development of new sorbents and new catalysts. These new sorbents and catalysts work better than COTS technology for our application. If attendees have a need for an effective ammonia sorbent, an effective hydrazine sorbent, or an effective CO conversion catalyst, we should learn to see if NASA sponsored technology development can help.

  20. IAC-10.D3.4.2 TOWARDS A PROCESS MODEL OF NASA'S SPACE SCIENCE INNOVATION SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 IAC-10.D3.4.2 TOWARDS A PROCESS MODEL OF NASA'S SPACE SCIENCE INNOVATION SYSTEM Zoe Szajnfarber-shock-based conceptualization of NASA's space science innovation system. The model is based on four retrospective longitudinal in this paper is primarily from NASA, and specifically the space science directorate at GSFC, our observations

  1. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

  2. Cella Energy Limited, a spinout company from STFC, is to set up a new facility at NASA's iconic Kennedy Space Center (NASA KSC) after a new round of

    E-print Network

    Kennedy Space Center (NASA KSC) after a new round of funding led by a $1million investment by Space Innovations Club This issue: 1 Space Florida invest, to land Cella at Kennedy Space Centre 2 European Space at Kennedy Space Centre Image: Credit: Cella Energy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cella Energy's Chief Scientific Officer

  3. Curation of Antarctic Meteorites at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, K. M.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Antarctic meteorite program began in the 1970 s and has provided more than 18,000 samples in over three decades. The program is based on a three agency agreement between NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution. The collection, stored at the Johnson Space Center and the Smithsonian, is one of the largest collections of meteorites in the world and features samples from the moon and Mars, asteroids, and material from the early solar system. A brief consideration of the collection shows that it contains 92.2% ordinary chondrites, 3.2% carbonaceous chondrites, 3.7% achondrites (1.7% HED), as well as many puzzling ungrouped meteorites. JSC has sent splits of nearly 20,000 meteorite samples to more than 500 scientists around the world since 1977. After the meteorites are collected in Antarctica, they are shipped frozen to JSC in Houston, usually arriving in April following the field season. The Astromaterials Curation Office at JSC is responsible for: - receiving the frozen meteorites. - staging: repackaging and changing the samples field identification numbers with official names. - submitting the names to the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society for approval as new meteorites. - initial processing: weighing, measuring, describing and photographing the sample and providing a chip for classification to the Smithsonian Institution staff. - the issuing of two newsletters per year, announcing hundreds of new meteorites. - the handling of requests from the scientific community and the allocation of those requests that are approved. - providing supplies and tools for the field team such as teflon bags and tape, aluminum foil, clean tweezers and tongs. - maintaining the meteorite database with more than 76,000 sample splits. - making petrographic thin and thick sections for the JSC library and scientific investigators. - providing storage and handling of the meteorites in a class 10,000 clean room. Samples that have not been requested for three years are sent to the Smithsonian for permanent storage. There have been several seasons in recent years with two field teams, increasing the number of acquired samples (>1000 in a few seasons). We have recently increased our storage space and additional staff to better serve the scientific community.

  4. Space Shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) testing at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlowski, J. F.; Quinn, M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the significance of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the Space Shuttle. On the basis of a study regarding the use of the GPS on the Space Shuttle, it was decided that such a system would greatly benefit Space Shuttle navigation. Studies with GPS user equipment were, therefore, conducted to obtain data and information which would provide a base for the formulation and the further refinement of NASA requirements with respect to the type of set the Shuttle would need. Attention is given to orbit determination, satellite numbers, background information concerning the GPS, the currently available GPS sets, the conducted studies, Shuttle sonic boom recording sites, tests performed with the aid of the Kuiper airborne observatory, and questions regarding the test applicability to Shuttle GPS.

  5. Chief FOIA Officer Report Reporting Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Chief FOIA Officer Report Reporting Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) I FOIA Report. NASA has remained relatively constant in both of these categories for both fiscal years the President's FOIA Memorandum and Attorney General's FOIA Guidelines and providing training on them

  6. NASA Headquarters/Kennedy Space Center: Organization and Small Spacecraft Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierra, Albert; Beddel, Darren

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) Program are to provide safe, reliable, cost effective ELV launches, maximize customer satisfaction, and perform advanced payload processing capability development. Details are given on the ELV program organization, products and services, foreign launch vehicle policy, how to get a NASA launch service, and some of the recent NASA payloads.

  7. Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov Cassini Delivers Holiday Treats From Saturn 32

    E-print Network

    Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov Cassini Delivers Holiday Treats From Saturn 32 Saturn Titan (about 5000 kilometers across) with Saturn in the background, and the smaller moon Dione From Saturn December 22, 2011 http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/whycassini/cassini20111222.html

  8. Evaluation of ``The Space Place,'' a NASA Integrated, Multi-mission Education and Public Outreach Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane K. Fisher; N. J. Leon

    2006-01-01

    The Space Place is an integrated NASA education and public outreach program, so far representing over 40 different NASA missions. It combines Web-based, printed, and externally published media to reach underserved audiences across the nation. Its primary mission is to develop and provide a highly desirable suite of attractive and educational products designed to appeal to and immerse the general

  9. UPC Team Recens' Answer to NASAs Beam Power Space Elevator Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Antonio Casas Bueno; Pau Corella; Eduardo Alarcón

    Since the year 2005 the Spaceward Foundation (1) in California manages NASA's annual beam power and tether challenge also called the Space Elevator Games. Being the first implemented contest of NASA's Centennial Challenges Program the beam power challenge requires designing, building and operating a climber, a machine just powered by a beam of light that can drive up and down

  10. A joint space-borne radar technology demonstration mission for NASA and the Air Force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Rosen; M. E. Davis

    2003-01-01

    NASA and the Air Force are currently studying joint technology demonstration concepts for large aperture Space Based Radar (SBR) systems. The mission focuses on elements of NASA's earth science enterprise strategic plan and Air Force long term needs for global airborne and ground moving target indication (GMTI and AMTI) surveillance, and represents an unprecedented multi-agency approach to scientific and technological

  11. Space radiation studies. Annual report, November 1985-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

  12. 75 FR 17437 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-039...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  13. 75 FR 39973 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-076...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  14. 77 FR 20852 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-027...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  15. 76 FR 20717 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-035...Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  16. 75 FR 5630 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-017...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  17. 76 FR 3674 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-006...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  18. 76 FR 40753 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-061...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  19. 77 FR 4370 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-006...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  20. 75 FR 16197 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-036...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  1. 75 FR 28821 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-060...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  2. 75 FR 53349 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-098...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  3. 76 FR 17712 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-027...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  4. 75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-074...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a...

  5. Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

    NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

  6. From 2001 to 1994: Political environment and the design of NASA's Space Station system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, Sylvia Doughty

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. civilian space station, a hope of numerous NASA engineers since before the agency was founded in 1958 and promoted by NASA as the country's 'next logical step' into space, provides an excellent case study of the way public-sector research and development agencies continuously redefine new technologies in the absence of the market discipline that governs private-sector technological development. The number of space station design studies conducted since 1959, both internally by NASA or contracted by the agency to the aerospace industry, easily exceeds a hundred. Because of this, three clearly distinguishable examples are selected from the almost thirty-year history of space station design in NASA. Together these examples illustrate the difficulty of defining a new technological system in the public sector as that system becomes increasingly subject, for its development, to the vagaries of federal research and development politics.

  7. A study of the characteristics of thunderstorm cessation at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    E-print Network

    Hinson, Michael Shawn

    1997-01-01

    A lightning summary was developed for a 100xlOO kilometer area centered at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Spatial and temporal patterns, and first stroke peak currents were analyzed from 1986-1995, Three thunderstorms were chosen due...

  8. Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara Valley Science & Engineering Fair and San Francisco Bay Aera Science Fair (Students are addressed by Bob Rosen, Ames Associate Director for Aerospace Programs)

  9. Advancing Innovation Through Collaboration: Implementation of the NASA Space Life Sciences Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    On October 18, 2010, the NASA Human Health and Performance center (NHHPC) was opened to enable collaboration among government, academic and industry members. Membership rapidly grew to 90 members (http://nhhpc.nasa.gov ) and members began identifying collaborative projects as detailed in this article. In addition, a first workshop in open collaboration and innovation was conducted on January 19, 2011 by the NHHPC resulting in additional challenges and projects for further development. This first workshop was a result of the SLSD successes in running open innovation challenges over the past two years. In 2008, the NASA Johnson Space Center, Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) began pilot projects in open innovation (crowd sourcing) to determine if these new internet-based platforms could indeed find solutions to difficult technical problems. From 2008 to 2010, the SLSD issued 34 challenges, 14 externally and 20 internally. The 14 external challenges were conducted through three different vendors: InnoCentive, Yet2.com and TopCoder. The 20 internal challenges were conducted using the InnoCentive platform, customized to NASA use, and promoted as NASA@Work. The results from the 34 challenges involved not only technical solutions that were reported previously at the 61st IAC, but also the formation of new collaborative relationships. For example, the TopCoder pilot was expanded by the NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate to the NASA Tournament Lab in collaboration with Harvard Business School and TopCoder. Building on these initial successes, the NHHPC workshop in January of 2011, and ongoing NHHPC member discussions, several important collaborations have been developed: (1) Space Act Agreement between NASA and GE for collaborative projects (2) NASA and academia for a Visual Impairment / Intracranial Hypertension summit (February 2011) (3) NASA and the DoD through the Defense Venture Catalyst Initiative (DeVenCI) for a technical needs workshop (June 2011) (4) NASA and the San Diego Zoo for a joint challenge in biomimicry (5) NASA and the FAA Center of Excellence for Commercial Space Flight for five collaborative projects (6) NASA and ESA for a Space Medicine Workshop (July 2011) (7) NASA and Tufts University for an education pilot (8) Establishment of long-term contracts (August 2011) to enable future challenges (9) Establishment of a new Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation (July 2011) for all federal agencies in the US

  10. Space and radiation protection: Scientific requirements for space research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Schimmerling

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data

  11. Lidar Past, Present, and Future in NASA's Earth and Space Science Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, Franco; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Abshire, James B.

    2004-01-01

    Lidar is firmly entrenched in the family of remote sensing technologies that NASA is developing and using. Still a relatively new technology, lidar should continue to experience significant advances and progress. Lidar is used in each one of the major research themes, including planetary exploration, in the Earth Sciences Directorate at Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA has and will continue to generate new lidar applications from ground, air and space for both Earth science and planetary exploration.

  12. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Paradigm Shift in Design for NASA's Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    implications of NASA's new space exploration initiative at the value, system architecture and vehicle levels. The space exploration system is expected to accomplish a wide variety of defined and undefined mission. The new design process is defined and then applied to the space exploration system with decisions

  13. NASA announced Sept. 30 that John C. Stennis Space Center Director

    E-print Network

    ; and as commander of Endeavour on STS-88 ­ the first International Space Station assembly mission ­ in 1998. Before of international operations of the International Space Station Program; director of NASA's Human Flight Program in Russia; deputy director of the International Space Station Program; and director of Flight Crew

  14. THE FUTURE OF THE COMMERCIAL SPACE INDUSTRY Remarks by NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr.

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    . And we at NASA are listening. The question is: how will you find your place on that frontier? Are you can't find their place in that new competition as well. It is my hope that a space tourism industry. Space tourism can evolve to space passenger services. Scientists and researchers are preparing

  15. Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov The Launch of the Mars Science Laboratory 29

    E-print Network

    of stills was obtained from a YouTube.com video of the launch of MSL by United Space Alliance availableSpace Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov The Launch of the Mars Science Laboratory 29 This sequence shows the launch of the MSL mission from the Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 49 on November 27

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Farewell from all your NASA colleagues

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Farewell from all your NASA colleagues HISTORICAL in Aerospace History, no. 54 Roger D. Launius National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office ANALOGS FOR THE STIMULATION OF SPACE COMMERCE Monographs in Aerospace History, no. 54 Roger D. Launius www

  17. BIOLOGICAL COUNTERMEASURES IN SPACE RADIATION HEALTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann R. Kennedy; Paul Todd

    Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. The major types of radiation considered to be of importance during space travel are protons and particles of high atomic number and high energy (HZE particles). It

  18. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Bourdarie; Michael Xapsos

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits and

  19. FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA-MSFC directive MID 5340.1 requires FOD prevention for all flight hardware projects, and requires all support organizations to comply. MSFC-STD-3598 implements a standard approach for FOD prevention, tailored from NAS 412. Three levels of FOD Sensitive Area are identified, adopting existing practices at other NASA facilities. Additional emphasis is given to prevention of impact damage and mitigation of facility FOD sources, especially leaks and spills. Impact Damage Susceptible (IDS) items are identified as FOD-sensitive as well as hardware vulnerable to entrapment of small items.

  20. A survey of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of space radiation and its significance for space missions, as they increase in scope, duration, and complexity are discussed. Type of radiation hazard may depend on location or on special equipment used. It is emphasized that it is necessary to search for potential radiation problems in the design stage of a mission. Problem areas such as radiation damage to solar cells and the revolutionary advances are discussed. Radiation effect to electronics components other than solar cells, and several specialized areas such as radioactivity and luminescence are also examined.

  1. 77 FR 52067 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...Commercial Space Activities and Plans --Dryden Flight Research Center's Commercial Space Activities and Plans --Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Commercial Space Activities and Plans It is imperative that the meeting be held on these dates to...

  2. Space Radiation Risks for Astronauts on Multiple International Space Station Missions

    PubMed Central

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA’s radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members’ radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate. PMID:24759903

  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    to the editor via e-mail at alittle@pop100.gsfc.nasa.gov. Ideas for new stories are welcome. It was equipped with three batteries, a radio transmitter and internal sensors to measure its temperature and battery power and transmit messages. Over 300 individuals from around the world reported successful

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    This is a montage of New Horizons images of Jupiter and its volcanic moon Io, taken during the spacecraft's Jupiter may submit contribu- tions to the editor via e-mail at alana.m.little@nasa.gov. Ideas for new stories

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Advisory Council Presentation

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Module Assembly Complete ­ Ready for Integration 6 #12;Orion Launch Abort System Assembly Complete.l.webster@nasa.gov 4 #12;Orion Crew Module Functional Testing Underway ­ On Track for May Delivery 5 #12;Orion Service ­ Ready for Integration 7 #12;SLS Core Stage Major Welding Tools at Michoud Assembly Facility www

  6. Space-Age Geodesy: The NASA Crustal Dynamics Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Coates; Herbert Frey; Gilbert Mead; John Bosworth

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Crustal Dynamics Project has deployed satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems and very-long-baseline-interferometer (VLBI) systems for measurements of global and regional crustal motions and Earth rotation parameters. In 1984, the several year buildup of the network approached full capability. During 1984, the SLR systems measured 142 unique baselines between stations for the purpose of determining plate motion between the

  7. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked against the physics-based CMIT (Coupled Magnetosphere- Ionosphere-Thermosphere) and SEP-trajectory models.

  8. Heat pipe radiator technology for space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Ercegovic, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    High-reliability high-performance deployable monogroove and dual-slot heat pipe radiator systems to meet the requirements for electric power in future space missions, such as the 300-kW(e) electric powder demand projected for NASA's Space Station, are discussed. Analytical model trade studies of various configurations show the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight reduction potential over the 50-350 F temperature range. The ammonia-aluminum monogroove heat pipe, limited to below-180 F operating temperatures, is under development, and can employ methanol-stainless steel heat pipes to achieve operating temperatures in excess of 300 F. Dual-slot heat pipe configuration proof-of-concept testing was begun in 1985.

  9. Photonic Component Qualification and Implementation Activities at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Jin, Xiaodan Linda; Chuska, Richard F.; LaRocca, Frank V.; MacMurphy, Shawn L.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Friedberg, Patricia R.; Malenab, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The photonics group in Code 562 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center supports a variety of space flight programs at NASA including the: International Space Station (ISS), Shuttle Return to Flight Mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Express Logistics Carrier, and the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). Through research, development, and testing of the photonic systems to support these missions much information has been gathered on practical implementations for space environments. Presented here are the highlights and lessons learned as a result of striving to satisfy the project requirements for high performance and reliable commercial optical fiber components for space flight systems. The approach of how to qualify optical fiber components for harsh environmental conditions, the physics of failure and development lessons learned will be discussed.

  10. NASA-HBCU Space Science and Engineering Research Forum Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Yvonne D. (editor); Freeman, Yvonne B. (editor); George, M. C. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) forum are presented. A wide range of research topics from plant science to space science and related academic areas was covered. The sessions were divided into the following subject areas: Life science; Mathematical modeling, image processing, pattern recognition, and algorithms; Microgravity processing, space utilization and application; Physical science and chemistry; Research and training programs; Space science (astronomy, planetary science, asteroids, moon); Space technology (engineering, structures and systems for application in space); Space technology (physics of materials and systems for space applications); and Technology (materials, techniques, measurements).

  11. Solar energetic particles: Is there time to hide? NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA

    E-print Network

    Reames, Donald V.

    Solar energetic particles: Is there time to hide? Don Reames NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center@lheavx.gsfc.nasa.gov (D. Reames) #12;accelerated on open magnetic ®eld lines stream out to Earth over a limited cone

  12. A NASA/University Joint Venture in Space Science (JOVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Danny M.

    1997-01-01

    Several papers have been given to national level meeting and a paper has been published in an international journal. Several additional papers have been co-author by students. The initial research project on the Atchafalaya Delta seems to have died in part due to a transfer of the NASA colleague to another location and subsequent reassigment to another job title. I have continued to include credit to NASA for many of my papers presented and published: A major debris flow along the Wasatch front in Northern Ogden; Spatial and volumetric changes in the Atchafalaya delta, Louisiana; An analysis of prehistoric Greenstone artifact in northern Alabama; An assessment of surfacing algorithm; Analysis of georeferencing algorithms to assess spatial accuracy.

  13. NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earth’s climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASA’s Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

  14. NASA Johnson Space Center: Modeling the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This learning module for Grades 5-8 contains four lessons that explore the scale, relative sizes, and interior structures of the planets in our solar system. Each lesson provides opportunity for students to build physical models and investigate within a context that is easily understood. Lesson 1 models the orbital distances between the planets; Lesson 2 compares the relative sizes of the planets to those of fruits and vegetables; Lesson 3 models planetary interiors/cores; and Lesson 4 examines characteristics of planet surfaces that make them able to support or not support life. This resource is part of NASA's Solar System Exploration website. See Related Materials for an editor-recommended digital solar system simulator and for a link to NASA's Kepler Mission, "A Search for Habitable Planets".

  15. Radiation energy conversion in space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Billman

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving\\/rectifying 'rectennas'

  16. Space, Atmospheric, and Terrestrial Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Dyer, C. S.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    2003-01-01

    The progress on developing models of the radiation environment since the 1960s is reviewed with emphasis on models that can be applied to predicting the performance of microelectronics used in spacecraft and instruments. Space, atmospheric, and ground environments are included. It is shown that models must be adapted continually to account for increased understanding of the dynamics of the radiation environment and the changes in microelectronics technology. The IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference is a vital forum to report model progress to the radiation effects research community.

  17. Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2007-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  18. Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, Franklin D.

    2005-02-01

    The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved, not just as contractors to NASA, but as sources of investment and direct beneficiaries of returns; in short, full participants in a long-term program that can transform the future of mankind. In order to make the vision both sustainable and affordable, true partnerships involving industry, academia and government must exist to create Earth benefits while working on needed exploration technologies and, at the same time, provide the added investments that will inevitably be required in extended periods of fiscal restraint. Such partnership programs, embodied in the Research Partnership Centers, have long existed within NASA. They have recently been realigned to more fully support the exploration vision and brought into the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This program and its past and potential contributions to the exploration vision will be described in detail at the conference.

  19. A crisis in the NASA space and earth sciences programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis, J.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.; Black, David C.; Baker, D. James; Banks, Peter M.; Bretherton, Francis; Brown, Robert A.; Burke, Kevin C.; Burns, Joseph A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1987-01-01

    Problems in the space and earth science programs are examined. Changes in the research environment and requirements for the space and earth sciences, for example from small Explorer missions to multispacecraft missions, have been observed. The need to expand the computational capabilities for space and earth sciences is discussed. The effects of fluctuations in funding, program delays, the limited number of space flights, and the development of the Space Station on research in the areas of astronomy and astrophysics, planetary exploration, solar and space physics, and earth science are analyzed. The recommendations of the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee on the development and maintenance of effective space and earth sciences programs are described.

  20. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  1. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1992-10-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  2. Spacecraft Power Systems Engineering: Solutions for NASA's Manned Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of spacecraft power systems is presented, with a focus on applications in the manned space program. The topics include: 1) History; 2) State-of-the-art; 3) Development directions; 4) Focus on applications in the manned space program led from JSC; 5) Power Systems Engineering Trade Space; 6) Power Generation and Energy Storage; 7) Power Distribution and Control; and 8) Actuation

  3. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  4. Nonlinear and adaptive control of a flexible space structure - The NASA\\/IEEE SCOLE problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Bennett; H. G. Kwatny; C. Lavigna; G. Blankenship

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Spacecraft COntrols Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge provides a significant and detailed design problem for large angle attitude reorientation and LOS pointing of a flexible space structure. The problem statement focuses attention on rapid, large angle slewing and LOS pointing of a realistic flexible space structure problem. The application of new methods for nonlinear control design are presented

  5. An Overview of Program Development for NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Newton, Robby

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes many of the changes affecting NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program since the initiation of the Vision for Space Exploration. Programmatic and procedural changes are discussed, six new technical tasks applicable to any return to the Moon or onward towards Mars are highlighted, and personnel changes and new contact information is given.

  6. Neutron Diffraction Characterization of Residual Strain in Welded Inconel 718 for NASA Space Shuttle Flow Liners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Rathod; V. Livescu; B. Clausen; M. A. M. Bourke; W. U. Notardonato; M. Femminineo; R. Vaidyanathan

    2004-01-01

    This work quantitatively assesses residual strains and stresses associated with the weld repair process used to repair cracks on NASA's space shuttle flow liners. The coupons used in this investigation were made of the same INCONEL 718 alloy used for the flow liners. They were subjected to identical welding and certification procedures that were carried out on the space shuttle.

  7. Automation of orbit determination functions for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-supported satellite missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mardirossian; K. Heuerman; A. Beri; M. V. Samii; C. E. Doll

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides spacecraft trajectory determination for a wide variety of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-supported satellite missions, using the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and Ground Spaceflight and Tracking Data Network (GSTDN). To take advantage of computerized decision making processes that can be used in spacecraft navigation, the

  8. NASA payload data book: Payload analysis for space shuttle applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Data describing the individual NASA payloads for the space shuttle are presented. The document represents a complete issue of the original payload data book. The subjects discussed are: (1) astronomy, (2) space physics, (3) planetary exploration, (4) earth observations (earth and ocean physics), (5) communications and navigation, (6) life sciences, (7) international rendezvous and docking, and (8) lunar exploration.

  9. NASA\\/JSC Radio Frequency Analysis in support of Space Shuttle Communication System Design & Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. U. Hwu

    2011-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) and Communication System Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)\\/Johnson Space Center (JSC) were established to perform manned spacecraft communication system performance and compatibility tests and simulation analysis. The ESTL and CSSL have developed system design evaluation testing techniques as well as analytical and numerical simulation tools that model spacecraft

  10. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  11. NASA Langley Teacher Resource Center at the Virginia Air and Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maher, Kim L.

    1999-01-01

    Nation's education goals through expanding and enhancing the scientific an technological competence of students and educators. To help disseminate NASA instructional materials and educational information, NASA's Education Division has established the Educator Resource Center Network. Through this network (ERCN), educators are provided the opportunity to receive free instructional information, materials, consultation, and training workshops on NASA educational products. The Office of Education at NASA Langley Research Center offers an extension of its Precollege Education program by supporting the NASA LARC Educator Resource Center at the Virginia Air & Space Center, the official visitor center for NASA LARC. This facility is the principal distribution point for educators in the five state service region that includes Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina and South Carolina. The primary goal, to provide expertise and facilities to help educators access and utilize science, mathematics, and technology instructional products aligned with national standards and appropriate state frameworks and based on NASA's unique mission and results, has been accomplished. This ERC had 15,200 contacts and disseminated over 190,000 instructional items during the period of performance. In addition the manager attended 35 conferences, workshops, and educational meetings as an GR, presenter, or participant. The objective to demonstrate and facilitate the use of educational technologies has been accomplished through the following: The ERC's web page has been developed as a cyber-gateway to a multitude of NASA and other educational resources as well as to Our own database of current resource materials. NASA CORE CD-ROM technology is regularly demonstrated and promoted using the center's computers. NASA TV is available, demonstrated to educators, and used to facilitate the downlinking of NASA educational programming.

  12. System Safety in Early Manned Space Program: A Case Study of NASA and Project Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Frederick D.; Pitts, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides a review of National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) involvement in system safety during research and evolution from air breathing to exo-atmospheric capable flight systems culminating in the successful Project Mercury. Although NASA has been philosophically committed to the principals of system safety, this case study points out that budget and manpower constraints-as well as a variety of internal and external pressures can jeopardize even a well-designed system safety program. This study begins with a review of the evolution and early years of NASA's rise as a project lead agency and ends with the lessons learned from Project Mercury.

  13. Scientific American Inventions From Outer Space: Everyday Uses For NASA Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present some of the inventions highlighted in the yearly publication of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spinoff. These inventions cover a wide range, some of which include improvements in health, medicine, public safety, energy, environment, resource management, computer technology, automation, construction, transportation, and manufacturing technology. NASA technology has brought forth thousands of commercial products which include athletic shoes, portable x-ray machines, and scratch-resistant sunglasses, guidance systems, lasers, solar power, robotics and prosthetic devices. These products are examples of NASA research innovations which have positively impacted the community.

  14. Customer interviews to improve NASA office of space science education and public outreach leveraging success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, L. L.

    2002-01-01

    Leveraging with organizations that serve our customers and focusing on the needs of those organizations are two prime elements of the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Strategy. On behalf of NASA OSS, the Solar System Exploration (SSE) Education and Public Outreach Forum has conducted a series of customer interviews with representatives from leading organizations who serve some of the audiences we wish to reach.

  15. Advanced radiator systems for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Space power systems generating powers of 1 MWe and higher will require new approaches in radiator design in order to reject large waste heat loads without the unmanageable weight burden of conventional pumped-loop radiator systems. This paper discusses recent design concepts for radiator systems which have the potential for reducing radiator mass by as much as an order of magnitude below the mass of conventional systems. These advanced concepts, including the heat pipe radiator, particle (dust and droplet) radiators, moving belt radiator, rotating membrane radiator, and several interesting variations of these, achieve low mass by reducing the armor requirement for protection against micrometeoroids. The design and performance of each of these concepts is discussed, along with technical issues which must be addressed to bring these concepts to fruition.

  16. Radiation Hardness Assurance for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for on-board electronic box and systems. The characteristics of the radiation environment are highly dependent on the type of mission (date, duration and orbit). Radiation accelerates the aging of the electronic parts and material and can lead to a degradation of electrical performance; it can also create transient phenomena on parts. Such damage at the part level can induce damage or functional failure at electronic box, subsystem, and system levels. A rigorous methodology is needed to ensure that the radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of the electronics during the system life. This methodology is called hardness assurance. It consists of those activities undertaken to ensure that the electronic piece parts placed in the space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the space environment. It deals with system requirements, environmental definitions, part selection, part testing, shielding and radiation tolerant design. All these elements should play together in order to produce a system tolerant to.the radiation environment. An overview of the different steps of a space system hardness assurance program is given in section 2. In order to define the mission radiation specifications and compare these requirements to radiation test data, a detailed knowledge of the space environment and the corresponding electronic device failure mechanisms is required. The presentation by J. Mazur deals with the Earth space radiation environment as well as the internal environment of a spacecraft. The presentation by J. Schwank deals with ionization effects, and the presentation by T. Weatherford deals with Single particle Event Phenomena (SEP) in semiconductor devices and microcircuits. These three presentations provide more detailed background to complement the sections 3 and 4. Part selection and categorization are discussed in section 5. Section 6 presents the organization of the hardness assurance within a project. Section 7 discusses emerging radiation hardness assurance issues.

  17. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, the Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the middecade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including: Development, test, evaluation, and verification. Program management and control. Flight readiness certification. Launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations. Sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate that the crew transportation system operates in the appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks. The Commercial Crew Program will present progress to date and how it manages safety and reduces risk.

  18. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Environment Design Specifications for NASA'S Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Blackwell, William C.; Howard, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belts are necessary for the design requirements of total ionizing radiation dose, single event effects, and spacecraft charging. Space radiation and plasma environment specifications for hardware design are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments.

  19. Third NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad (compiler); Stavnes, Mark (compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications, and transferred information and technology related to space wiring for use in government and commercial applications. Speakers from space agencies, U.S. Federal labs, industry, and academia presented program overviews and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, advancements in insulation materials and constructions, and new wiring system topologies.

  20. NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide Expanded Into CD-ROM Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Several NASA missions suffered failures and anomalies due to problems in applying space mechanisms technology to specific projects. Research shows that engineers often lack either adequate knowledge of mechanism design or sufficient understanding of how mechanisms affect sensitive systems. The Space Mechanisms Project conducted a Lessons Learned study and published a Space Mechanisms Handbook to help space industry engineers avoid recurring design, qualification, and application problems. The Space Mechanisms Handbook written at the NASA Glenn Research Center details the state-of-the-art in space mechanisms design as of 1998. NASA's objective in developing this Space Mechanisms Handbook was to provide readily accessible information on such areas as space mechanisms design, mechanical component availability and use, testing and qualification of mechanical systems, and a listing of worldwide space mechanisms experts and testing facilities in the United States. This handbook has been expanded into a two-volume CD-ROM set in an Adobe Acrobat format. In addition to the handbook, the CD's include (1) the two volume Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study, (2) proceedings from all the NASA hosted Aerospace Mechanisms Symposia held through the year 2000, (3) the Space Materials Handbook, (4) the Lubrication Handbook for the Space Industry, (5) the Structural & Mechanical Systems Long-Life Assurance Design Guidelines, (6) the Space Environments and Effects Source-Book, (7) the Spacecraft Deployable Appendages manual, (8) the Fastener Design Manual, (9) A Manual for Pyrotechnic Design, Development and Qualification, (10) the Report on Alternative Devices to Pyrotechnics on Spacecraft, and (11) Gearing (a manual). In addition, numerous other papers on tribology and lubrication are included.This technical summary of the project provides information on how to obtain the handbook and related information.