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1

The NASA Space Radiation Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

2

Space Radiation Shielding Program http://radiationshielding.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

Space Radiation Shielding Program http://radiationshielding.nasa.gov #12;Multi-Functional Material Physical Modeling #12;Space Radiation Shielding Program Radiation Transport Codes Cross Section of radiation shielding materials for spacecraft, habitat, and space suits ­ Testing and maturation of new

Shepherd, Simon

3

NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

2013-01-01

4

NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

2015-01-01

5

NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue teams will highlight progress and important new knowledge gained. Red teams will challenge the Blue teams on proposed highlights and point to Gaps not considered. We will review the current space radiation Risks and Gaps under investigation at NASA, critical data sets and research highlights anticipated, and possible goals for future research at NSRL.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2010-01-01

6

NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

2007-01-01

7

NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Radiation  

E-print Network

NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Radiation Carcinogenesis following International Space Station, Near Earth Asteroid, and Mars Missions Francis A. Cucinotta NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Sciences Houston, Texas February 2012 #12;THE NASA STI PROGRAM OFFICE . . . IN PROFILE Since its founding

Rathbun, Julie A.

8

Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes  

E-print Network

Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear? Conclusions Zi-Wei Lin University of Alabama in Huntsville/ NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MSFC #12;Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Cucinotta/JSC Individual

Lin, Zi-wei

9

NASA\\/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength normalized to the equatorial\\/minimum value on the field line B\\/B sub 0\\/ for either solar maximum or solar minimum conditions. The most recent versions of the

John D. Gaffey Jr.; Dieter Bilitza

1994-01-01

10

NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In space, astronauts are constantly bombarded with energetic particles. The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the NASA Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. Among the identified radiation risks are cancer, acute and late CNS damage, chronic and degenerative tissue decease, and acute radiation syndrome. The term "safely" means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences can be defined. The NASA Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting the identified radiation risks. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus, the fourth element develops computer algorithms to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining methods to mitigate the risks are keys to a successful radiation protection strategy.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

2007-01-01

11

The Space Radiation Environment and Its Implication for Designing Reliable Electronic Systems: A NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents include the following: The space radiation environment. The effects on electronics. The environment in action NASA approaches to commercial electronics: flight projects; and proactive research. Living with a star space environment testbed status. Final thoughts: atomic interactions; direct ionization; interaction with nucleus.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

12

Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.  

PubMed

Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described. PMID:25551493

Cucinotta, Francis A

2015-02-01

13

Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

2007-01-01

14

Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP, 2000, 2006). However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2007), transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

2012-01-01

15

Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model1 reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties--2010 . The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables. The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

2012-01-01

16

The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

Vette, James I.

1991-01-01

17

The NASA Food Commercial Space  

E-print Network

The NASA Food Technology Commercial Space Center and How Your Company Can Participate space in a range of food development projects. For more information about NASA FTCSC or to arrange a presentation about the NASA FTCSC program, contact Dr. Anthony L. Pometto III Director NASA Food Technology

Lin, Zhiqun

18

NASA Connect: 'Earth From Space'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the 1997-98 'NASA Connect' series. Show entitled 'Earth From Space' Ozone, a naturally occuring special form of oxygen, helps protect us from harmfull Solar radiation. In this clip we see how a NASA Langley scientist makes Ozone in the laboratory. In this CONNECT program, students will explore how scientists have used satellites to study the impact of human activities on the global climate and will examine the mathematics behind the collected data from space-based instruments to study Earth's environment. Students will observe featured student 'researchers' from the Portsmouth Public Schools (Portsmouth, VA) conducting an experiment to investigate the differences in distances traveled by rubber-band rockets when the launch angle and the amount of force vary. By working in pairs or small groups during the Challenge Point portion of the program, viewers will better understand how research teams must work together to conduct investigations.

1999-01-01

19

NASA Space Human Factors Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

1992-01-01

20

NASA space biology accomplishments, 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summaries of NASA's Space Biology Program projects are provided. The goals, objectives, accomplishments, and future plans of each project are described in this publication as individual technical summaries.

Halstead, T. W.; Pleasant, L. G.

1983-01-01

21

NASA/CP--2006214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop  

E-print Network

NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Washington, DC April 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program

de Weck, Olivier L.

22

Space mission support by NASA Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normal NASA operational considerations and Phase 1 of Space Network (SN) interoperability foresees S band cross support between user spacecraft and space networks or partnering agencies. A typical interoperable scenario for an S band user spacecraft of a partner space agency with the NASA SN is presented. ESA's Hermes Manned Spaceplane exemplifies a typical interoperable user. In order to demonstrate the support potential of the NASA SN, the internal and external interfaces of the TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), ATDRSS (Advanced TDRSS), and supporting elements are examined. Communications and operational requirements for a typical mission supported by the NASA SN are discussed.

Godfrey, Robert

1991-01-01

23

Status of NASA`s Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are

J. E. Dudenhoefer; J. M. Winter

1994-01-01

24

NASA Space Grant Contacts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication provides an overview of two NASA funding programs, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (Space Grant) and the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCOR). A listing of contacts for these programs in all 50 states (20 states for EPSCOR), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is provided, as well as a link to the Space Grant homepage.

25

Space Science News Headlines: NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) keeps the public abreast of recent breakthroughs in space science via Space Science News Headlines, an almost daily email service. Recent stories cover SOHO, the Leonid meteor storm, and Europa's frigid oceans. Space Science News Headlines reaches beyond the scientific community; advances and discoveries in space studies are relayed in an understandable, jargon-free manner. Interested readers can browse through past news archives or subscribe to future news stories via the homepage.

26

Emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues: a NASA approach for space flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft performance requirements drive the utilization of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and emerging technologies in systems. The response of these technologies to radiation is often complex. This engenders a set of emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues which include displacement damage in optocouplers, high-precision and hybrid devices, enhanced low dose rate (ELDR) and proton damage enhancement (PDE) in linear circuits, linear

Kenneth A. LaBel; Allan H. Johnston; Janet L. Barth; Robert A. Reed; Charles E. Barnes

1998-01-01

27

NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL SPACE OPERATIONS COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................... 10 International Space Station--SOMD/Mark Uhran. Space Station. Meanwhile, the International Space Station (ISS) is undergoing an unbelievably busy timeNASA ADVISORY COUNCIL SPACE OPERATIONS COMMITTEE February 8, 2011 NASA Headquarters Washington, DC

Waliser, Duane E.

28

Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

Wu, Honglu

2006-01-01

29

NASA space information systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major objective of NASA space missions is the gathering of information that when analyzed, compared, and interpreted furthers man's knowledge of his planet and surrounding universe. A space information system is the combination of data gathering, data processing, and data transport capabilities that interact to provide the underlying services that enable that advancement in understanding. Past space projects have been characterized by rather disjoint data systems that often did not satisfy user requirements. NASA has learned from those experiences, however, and now is conceptualizing a new generation of sophisticated, integrated space information systems suitable to the wide range of near future space endeavors. This paper examines the characteristics of recent data systems and, based upon that characterization, outlines the scope and attributes of future systems. A description if offered of the information system for the Space Station Program as one real example of such advanced capabilities.

Hall, Dana L.

1987-01-01

30

NASA - Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2006-01-01

31

Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

Evans, Austin Lewis

1988-01-01

32

NASA/TM--2005213688 Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation  

E-print Network

NASA/TM--2005­213688 Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space J, Alabama R.M. Winglee University of Washington, Seattle, Washington March 2005 #12;The NASA STI Program Office...in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics

Rathbun, Julie A.

33

NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. This presentation will address the SLS challenges, along with the analysis and decisions to mitigate the threats posed by each.

Bramon, Chris; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

2014-01-01

34

NASA Programs in Space Photovoltaics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.

Flood, Dennis J.

1992-01-01

35

The NASA Space Biology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion is presented of the research conducted under the auspices of the NASA Space Biology Program. The objectives of this Program include the determination of how gravity affects and how it has shaped life on earth, the use of gravity as a tool to investigate relevant biological questions, and obtaining an understanding of how near-weightlessness affects both plants and animals in order to enhance the capability to use and explore space. Several areas of current developmental research are discussed and the future focus of the Program is considered.

Halstead, T. W.

1982-01-01

36

The NASA Space Radiobiology Risk Assessment Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current first phase (2006-2011) has the three major goals of: 1) optimizing the conventional cancer risk models currently used based on the double-detriment life-table and radiation quality functions; 2) the integration of biophysical models of acute radiation syndromes; and 3) the development of new systems radiation biology models of cancer processes. The first-phase also includes continued uncertainty assessment of space radiation environmental models and transport codes, and relative biological effectiveness factors (RBE) based on flight data and NSRL results, respectively. The second phase of the (2012-2016) will: 1) develop biophysical models of central nervous system risks (CNS); 2) achieve comphrensive systems biology models of cancer processes using data from proton and heavy ion studies performed at NSRL; and 3) begin to identify computational models of biological countermeasures. Goals for the third phase (2017-2021) include: 1) the development of a systems biology model of cancer risks for operational use at NASA; 2) development of models of degenerative risks, 2) quantitative models of counter-measure impacts on cancer risks; and 3) indiviudal based risk assessments. Finally, we will support a decision point to continue NSRL research in support of NASA's exploration goals beyond 2021, and create an archival of NSRL research results for continued analysis. Details on near term goals, plans for a WEB based data resource of NSRL results, and a space radiation Wikepedia are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice; Ponomarev, Artem; Patel, Zarana; Kim, Myung-Hee

37

K-means in Space: A Radiation Sensitivity Evaluation Kiri L. Wagstaff kiri.wagstaff@jpl.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

K-means in Space: A Radiation Sensitivity Evaluation Kiri L. Wagstaff kiri of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA Abstract Spacecraft increasingly employ onboard data analysis to inform further data collection and prioritization decisions. However, many spacecraft operate

Wagstaff, Kiri L.

38

NASA Integrated Space Communications Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Integrated Network for Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) has been in the definition phase since 2010. It is intended to integrate NASA s three existing network elements, i.e., the Space Network, Near Earth Network, and Deep Space Network, into a single network. In addition to the technical merits, the primary purpose of the Integrated Network is to achieve a level of operating cost efficiency significantly higher than it is today. Salient features of the Integrated Network include (a) a central system element that performs service management functions and user mission interfaces for service requests; (b) a set of common service execution equipment deployed at the all stations that provides return, forward, and radiometric data processing and delivery capabilities; (c) the network monitor and control operations for the entire integrated network are conducted remotely and centrally at a prime-shift site and rotating among three sites globally (a follow-the-sun approach); (d) the common network monitor and control software deployed at all three network elements that supports the follow-the-sun operations.

Tai, Wallace; Wright, Nate; Prior, Mike; Bhasin, Kul

2012-01-01

39

NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) is the basis of the agency's new Space Launch Initiative (SLI). ISTP was developed to provide a structured methodology and framework to enable the next generation of reusable launch systems which will operate at orders of magnitude lower operating costs and higher levels of reliability and safety. Created in the fall of 1999, ISTP is the culmination of a series of Space Transportation Architecture Studies (STAS I, II, and III) which identified requirements, developed candidate architectures, and identified sets of technologies required to enable those architectures. The studies were conducted as a partnership between NASA and industry. Both new designs and shuttle-derived concepts were examined. Architectures were identified for 2" Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which would reach first operational capability in 2010, and 3rd Generation RLV, which will become operational in the 2025 timeframe, Second Generation RLV's have a goal of placing payloads in low earth orbit (LEO) at a cost of S 1,000/Ibm, and a safety goal of 1/10000 probability of loss of crew, The Third Generation RLV launch system will deliver payloads to LEO at $ 100/Ibm and approach airline-like reliability and safety, with a 1/ 10(exp 6) probability of loss of crew.

Anderson, David M.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

40

Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

2010-01-01

41

NASA Connect: 'Earth From Space'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the 1997-98 'NASA Connect' series. Show entitled 'Earth From Space' This clip examines why different types of sattellites have different orbits, and how these orbits affect data collection. In this CONNECT program, students will explore how scientists have used satellites to study the impact of human activities on the global climate and will examine the mathematics behind the collected data from space-based instruments to study Earth's environment. Students will observe featured student 'researchers' from the Portsmouth Public Schools (Portsmouth, VA) conducting an experiment to investigate the differences in distances traveled by rubber-band rockets when the launch angle and the amount of force vary. By working in pairs or small groups during the Challenge Point portion of the program, viewers will better understand how research teams must work together to conduct investigations.

1999-01-01

42

NASA's Space Science Programming Possibilities for Planetaria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between NASA and the planetarium community is an important one. Indeed, NASA's Office of Space Science has invested in a study of the Space Science Media Needs of Science Center Professionals. Some of the findings indicate a need for exposure to space science researchers, workshops for museum educators, 'canned' programs, and access to a speakers bureau. We will discuss some of the programs of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, distribute sample multimedia products, explain the role of NASA's Educator Resource Center, and review our contributions to NASA's Education and Public Outreach effort.

Adams, M. L.

2003-01-01

43

High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate "Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments" Technology Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performance Processors for Space Environments project will address this challenge by significantly advancing the sustained throughput and processing efficiency of high-per$ormance radiation-hardened processors, targeting delivery of products by the end of FY12.

Johnson, M.; Label, K.; McCabe, J.; Powell, W.; Bolotin, G.; Kolawa, E.; Ng, T.; Hyde, D.

2007-01-01

44

NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

2014-01-01

45

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Education  

E-print Network

in higher education to racially or ethnically underrepresented students, women, and personsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Education Inspire. Engage. Educate. Employ. www.nasa.gov #12;Who We Are Education is a fundamental part of NASA's vision "to reach for new heights and reveal

Waliser, Duane E.

46

Space Robotic Capabilities David Kortenkamp (NASA Johnson Space Center)  

E-print Network

Johnson Space Center Space Robotic Capabilities David Kortenkamp (NASA Johnson Space Center) Liam) David Wettergreen (Carnegie Mellon University) Dan Clancy (NASA Ames) #12;Johnson Space Center 12/18/2001 Space Robotics State-of-Art 2 ! Motivation Science Objectives Mission Concepts Robots Human

Kortenkamp, David

47

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space live Goal 3 Create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future & Mission Vision ­ Declaration of our future: JSC leads a global enterprise in human space exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

48

Space Radiation Cancer Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation cancer risk relies on the three assumptions of linearity, additivity, and scaling along with the use of population averages. We describe uncertainty estimates for this model, and new experimental data that sheds light on the accuracy of the underlying assumptions. These methods make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, i.e., the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including lunar station, deep space outpost, and a Mars mission. Factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties and application of this approach to assess candidate mitigation approaches are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

49

Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2001-01-01

50

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-01-01

51

78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-154)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory...

2013-12-23

52

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-091] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory...

2013-08-13

53

NASA and the practice of space law  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

Hosenball, S. N.

1985-01-01

54

NASA NASA CONNECT: Special World Space Congress. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. This video presents the World Space Congress 2002, the meeting of the decade for space professionals. Topics discussed range from the discovery of distant planets to medical advancements,

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

55

NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wondering when that spacecraft will be cruising over your city during the next ten days? Visit the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page to find out. Satellite sighting information by city is provided by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Visitors to the site can choose a city from the list provided or enter their location using the nifty NASA Skywatch Java applet. Other highlights of the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks (.gif) and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information that includes altitude, location coordinates, speed, and more. Definitions and illustrations of orbital tracking elements and coordinate system terminology make the site accessible to general audiences.

56

Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed

Tore Straume; Sally A Amundson; William F. Blakely; Frederic J. Burns; Allen Chen; Nicholas Dainiak; Stephen Franklin; Julie A. Leary; David J. Loftus; William F. Morgan; Terry C. Pellmar; Viktor Stolc; Kenneth W. Turteltaub; Andrew T. Vaughan; Srinivasan Vijayakumar; Andrew J. Wyrobek

2008-01-01

57

NASA space research and technology overview (ITP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of viewgraphs summarizing NASA space research and technology is presented. Some of the specific topics covered include the organization and goals of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, technology maturation strategy, integrated technology plan for the Civil Space Program, program selection and investment prioritization, and space technology benefits.

Reck, Gregory M.

1992-01-01

58

The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

2006-01-01

59

NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster features several of the NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers, plus suggestions for using the series in the classroom. The series of online articles features NASA explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12 and up.

Iges

2007-01-01

60

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA SLR Operational Center is responsible for: 1) NASA SLR network control, sustaining engineering, and logistics; 2) ILRS mission operations; and 3) ILRS and NASA SLR data operations. NASA SLR network control and sustaining engineering tasks include technical support, daily system performance monitoring, system scheduling, operator training, station status reporting, system relocation, logistics and support of the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group. These activities ensure the NASA SLR systems are meeting ILRS and NASA mission support requirements. ILRS mission operations tasks include mission planning, mission analysis, mission coordination, development of mission support plans, and support of the ILRS Missions Working Group. These activities ensure than new mission and campaign requirements are coordinated with the ILRS. Global Normal Points (NP) data, NASA SLR FullRate (FR) data, and satellite predictions are managed as part of data operations. Part of this operation includes supporting the ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group. Global NP data operations consist of receipt, format and data integrity verification, archiving and merging. This activity culminates in the daily electronic transmission of NP files to the CDDIS. Currently of all these functions are automated. However, to ensure the timely and accurate flow of data, regular monitoring and maintenance of the operational software systems, computer systems and computer networking are performed. Tracking statistics between the stations and the data centers are compared periodically to eliminate lost data. Future activities in this area include sub-daily (i.e., hourly) NP data management, more stringent data integrity tests, and automatic station notification of format and data integrity issues.

Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

2000-01-01

61

NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

2009-01-01

62

XTP for the NASA space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Station is a truly international effort; therefore, its communications systems must conform to established international standards. Thus, NASA is requiring that each network-interface unit implement a full suite of ISO protocols. However, NASA is understandably concerned that a full ISO stack will not deliver performance consistent with the real-time demands of Space Station control systems. Therefore, as a research project, the suitability of the Xpress transfer protocol (XTP) is investigated along side a full ISO stack. The initial plans for implementing XTP and comparing its performance to ISO TP4 are described.

Weaver, Alfred C.

1990-01-01

63

Different types of radiation can be shielded by different materials Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

Rem. Most low- intensity forms of 'EM' radiation can be shielded by using clothing or skin creams. In high dosages, X-rays and gamma-rays require shielding to reduce their health effects, otherwise of the differences in Q, different forms of radiation produce different levels of tissue damage. Beyond this

64

Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

Hertz, Paul L.

2014-07-01

65

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Fiscal Year 2011 Performance & Accountability Report #12;NASA's Performance and Accountability Report The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produces an annual Performance and Accountability Report (PAR) to share the Agency

66

Space radiation health program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

1991-01-01

67

Space radiation health program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

Not Available

1991-11-01

68

NASA's space platform technology program and planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative, NASA has established a space platform technology program which encompasses two ongoing programs as well as active planning for new platform initiatives in such areas as advanced heat rejection technologies, advanced space suits, advanced life support, and better support equipment (refrigerators, furnaces, etc.). Platform technology is extremely important because it provides both the basis for future missions and enhanced national competitiveness in space.

Bennett, Gary L.; Cykoski, Russell C.

1993-01-01

69

NASA/TP-2006-214203 Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight  

E-print Network

NASA/TP-2006-214203 Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight William A. (Andy) Evans, United 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program plays a key part

de Weck, Olivier L.

70

Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard

2012-01-01

71

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

72

Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

1985-01-01

73

Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

1986-01-01

74

NASA Earth and Space Science Reviewed Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Earth and Space Science Reviewed Collection provides educators and students with a direct line of access to quality products reviewed through the NASA product review. The resources have been rigorously reviewed by an independent peer review of teachers, curriculum and design specialists, teacher trainers, and scientists. The review of the learning resources is based on their scientific accuracy, educational value, documentation, ease of use, their power to engage or motivate students, their robustness/sustainability as a digital resource, and ability to foster mastery of significant understandings or skills. Resources in the collection support the NASA Science Mission Directorate: Earth Science education missions.

2003-07-07

75

You and NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

You and NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate #12;Start Here: www.aeronautics.nasa.gov The first "A" in "NASA" stands for "Aeronautics"-- "National Aeronautics and Space Administration." Aeronautics has been part of NASA for more than 50 years

Waliser, Duane E.

76

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Launch Press Kit #12;#12; Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 #12;#12;5 THEMIS Media Contacts NASA Headquarters Dwayne Brown/Tabatha Thompson Policy/Program Management 202/58-726/895 dwayne .c .brown@nasa .gov tabatha .thompson-@nasa .gov NASA Goddard Space Flight

Waliser, Duane E.

77

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Non-Discrimination  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Non-Discrimination Regulations for Federally Assisted Programs www.nasa.gov NASA Office of Diversity and Equal Opportunity National Aeronautics.hq.nasa.gov/office/codee www.nasa.gov NP-2008-09-553-HQ #12;Code of Federal Regulations Title 14: Aeronautics and Space PART

Christian, Eric

78

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov NASA: Supporting Earth System Science the NASA Science Mission Directorate National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov NASA of Richard Armstrong) 5. An Anopheles mosquito takes blood from a human host. This mosquito is a vector

79

NASA's SDR Standard: Space Telecommunications Radio System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.

2007-01-01

80

NASA: Basics of Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online training module created by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) discusses the concepts related to deep space missions. Through a series of animations and quizzes within the eighteen chapters, visitors can learn about the solar system's environment, flight project details, and flight operations. The website is equipped with an astronomical glossary and a Units of Measure page. Although originally developed for JPL operations people, students and educators interested in interplanetary space flight will find this website very informative.

81

NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

1996-01-01

82

The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

2007-01-01

83

NASA space photovoltaic research and technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA programs for increasing conversion efficiency, reduced mass and cost, and extending operating life of photovoltaic converters and arrays and for evaluating advanced solar array concepts are outlined. Research into radiation resistance and annealing, development of thin blankets, high-power low-cost arrays, and lightweight structures for near-Earth and planetary applications are discussed.

Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

1982-01-01

84

NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

85

The NASA space power technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has a broad technology program in the field of space power. This paper describes that program, including the roles and responsibilities of the various NASA field centers and major contractors. In the power source area, the paper discusses the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Project, which has been under way for about seven years and is making substantial progress toward development of components for a 100-kilowatt power system that can be scaled to other sizes. This system is a candidate power source for nuclear electric propulsion, as well as for a power plant for a lunar base. In the energy storage area, the paper describes NASA's battery- and fuel-cell development programs. NASA is actively working on NiCd, NiH2, and lithium batteries. A status update is also given on a U.S. Air Force-sponsored program to develop a large (150 ampere-hour) lithium-thionyl chloride battery for the Centaur upper-stage launch vehicle. Finally, the area of power management and distribution (PMAD) is addressed, including power system components such as solid-state switches and power integrated circuits. Automated load management and other computer-controlled functions offer considerable payoffs. The state of the art in space power is described, along with NASA's medium- and long-term goals in the area.

Stephenson, R. Rhoads

86

77 FR 67028 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...Thomas W. Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Mission...

2012-11-08

87

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-01-19

88

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee. The...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2010-08-23

89

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-07-12

90

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-11-01

91

78 FR 10213 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...includes the following topics: --International Space Station Utilization Status and...

2013-02-13

92

Benefit assessment of NASA space technology goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The socio-economic benefits to be derived from system applications of space technology goals developed by NASA were assessed. Specific studies include: electronic mail; personal telephone communications; weather and climate monitoring, prediction, and control; crop production forecasting and water availability; planetary engineering of the planet Venus; and planetary exploration.

1976-01-01

93

NASA space biology accomplishments, 1983-84  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 42 project summaries from NASA's Space Biology Program are presented. Emphasis is placed on gravitational effects on plant and animal life. The identification of gravity perception; the effects of weightlessness on genetic integrity, cellular differentiation, reproduction, development, growth, maturation, and senescence; and how gravity affects and controls physiology, morphology, and behavior of organisms are studied.

Halstead, T. W.; Dutcher, F. R.; Pleasant, L. G.

1984-01-01

94

NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

1999-01-01

95

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

96

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

97

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

98

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 13 & 14, 2010  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................................................... 3 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION UPDATES (FACA)--MIKE SUFFREDINI ........................ 3 SPACE with the allotted resources, this committee's emphasis being space operations. International Space Station UpdatesNASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 13 & 14, 2010 Johnson Space Center

Waliser, Duane E.

99

Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and implement an overall Risk Management and Analysis process. Currently NASA is drafting spaceflight health standards for neurosensory alterations, space radiation exposure, behavioral health, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular fitness, immunological compromise, bone demineralization, and nutrition.

Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

2006-01-01

100

NASA's future directions in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

Odonnell, W. J.

1983-01-01

101

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

102

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Entry Form for 2012 NASA Langley will become the property of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and will not be returned. I give permission to NASA to use, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publish, distribute copies

Christian, Eric

103

www.nasa.gov Space Technology: Investments in our Future  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov Space Technology: Investments in our Future FY12 Overview March 2011 #12;OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST www.nasa.gov/oct Space Technology: Investments in Our Future · Through NASA, America Continues to Dream Big: NASA's future aeronautics, science and exploration missions are grand in scope

104

NASA's space life sciences training program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-08-01

105

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-01-01

106

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program.  

PubMed

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995. PMID:11537955

Coulter, G; Lewis, L; Atchison, D

1994-01-01

107

81Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Deep Space One Remote AgentDeep Space One Remote Agent  

E-print Network

81Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center of the NASA 1999 Software of the Year Award #12;82Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Deep Space One (DS1)Deep Space One (DS1) l Launched 10/98 l Remote

Kortenkamp, David

108

Reliable Multicore Processors for NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current trend in commercial processors of moving to many cores (30 to100 and beyond) on a single die poses both an opportunity and a challenge for space based processing. 1 2 The opportunity is to leverage this trend for space application and thus provide an order of magnitude increase in onboard processing capability. The challenge is to provide the requisite reliability in an extremely challenging environment. In this paper, we will discuss the requirements for reliable space based multicore computing and approaches being explored to deliver this capability within NASA's extremely tight power, mass, and cost constraints.

Villalpando, Carlos; Rennels, David; Some, Raphael; Cabanas-Holmen, Manuel

2011-01-01

109

INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flags are planted on the roof of the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility under construction just west of the Mississippi Welcome Center at exit 2 on Interstate 10. Stennis and community leaders celebrated the 'topping out' of the new science center Nov. 17, marking a construction milestone for the center. The 72,000-square-foot science and education center will feature space and Earth galleries to showcase the science that underpins the missions of the agencies at Stennis Space Center. The center is targeted to open in 2012.

2010-01-01

110

NASA's future space power needs and requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Space Policy of 1988 established the U.S.'s long-range civil space goals, and has served to guide NASA's recent planning for future space mission operations. One of the major goals was to extend the human presence beyond earth's boundaries and to advance the scientific knowledge of the solar system. A broad spectrum of potential civil space mission opportunities and interests are currently being investigated by NASA to meet the espoused goals. Participation in many of these missions requires power systems with capabilities far beyond what exists today. In other mission examples, advanced power systems technology could enhance mission performance significantly. Power system requirements and issues that need resolution to ensure eventual mission accomplishment are addressed, in conjunction with the ongoing NASA technology development efforts and the need for even greater innovative efforts to match the ambitious solar exploration mission goals. Particular attention is given to potential lunar surface operations and technology goals, based on investigations to date. It is suggested that the nuclear reactor power systems can best meet long-life requirements as well as dramatically reduce the earth-surface-to-lunar-surface transportation costs due to the lunar day/night cycle impact on the solar system's energy storage mass requirements. The state of the art of candidate power systems and elements for the lunar application and the respective exploration technology goals for mission life requirements from 10 to 25 years are examined.

Schnyer, A. D.; Sovie, Ronald J.

1990-01-01

111

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa 400-1489A 07/13 NASA EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES The NASA portal (www.nasa.gov) is the gateway. NASA's goal is to improve interactions for students, educators, and families with NASA and its

Waliser, Duane E.

112

www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Strategic Plan 2014 #12;ii 2014 Strategic PlanNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A `Blue Marble' image of the Western Hemisphere

113

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

24, 1990, the space shuttle Discovery lifted off from Earth with the Hubble Space Telescope nestled of space. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope recently marked its 24th year in space and to celebrate its 25th of a large school bus. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA

114

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-07-01

115

60Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center NASA HCA Applications OutlineNASA HCA Applications Outline  

E-print Network

60Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center NASA HCA Applications OutlineNASA HCA Applications Outline l 3T Control Architecture ­ architecture Satellite Assistant (under development) #12;61Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David

Kortenkamp, David

116

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

117

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

118

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfig- uration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures

G. D. Qualls; J. W. Wilson; C. Sandridge; F. A. Cucinotta; J. E. Nealy; J. H. Heinbockel; C. P. Hugger; J. Verhage; B. M. Anderson; W. Atwell

119

Future trends in NASA space operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a great privilege for me to address my colleagues at SpaceOps 92. Today, I would like to share with you some current directions we are pursuing in NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC). The space agencies of the world have produced some remarkable achievements in conducting our missions. It is also true that we consume significant resources in controlling and operating our spacecraft. In these challenging economic times, the degree to which our agencies can develop new missions will depend on our ability to reduce operating costs. I believe that there are many opportunities for doing this, and I will explore some of our plans in this regard. First, I will review the business of space operations.

Fuechsel, Charles F.

1993-01-01

120

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 2010  

E-print Network

. Leroy Chiao ­ Former NASA Astronaut and International Space Station Commander · Mr. Tommy Holloway ­ Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager · Mr. Glynn Lunney ­ Former NASA (Neumann) · Space Shuttle Program Update (Casper) · International Space Station Program Update (Suffredini

Waliser, Duane E.

121

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee July 2010  

E-print Network

. Leroy Chiao Former NASA Astronaut and International Space Station Commander Mr. Tommy Holloway Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager Mr. Glynn Lunney Former NASA Flight) International Space Station Logistics Plan KSC Site Visit · · · · · · Space Life Sciences Lab, Launch Complexes

Waliser, Duane E.

122

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

123

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA s contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

Pearlman, M. R.; Frey, H. V.; Gross, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Noll, C. E.; Pavilis, E. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.; Zagwodski, T. W.

2012-01-01

124

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Produced in 2011 by the NASA Astrobiology Program to commemorate 50 years of Exobiology and Astrobiology at NASA. #2 Issue #12;Astrobiology A History of Exobiology and Astrobiology at NASA This is the story of life in the Universe--or at least

Waliser, Duane E.

125

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 11 June 2008 GoddardViewNASA Composite Carrier for Hubble Servicing Mission Pg 4 NASA Technology Contributes to National Security Pg 6 One Million People Going to the Moon ­ 2 NASA Exhibit Pays Tribute to Fallen Heroes of Spaceflight

Christian, Eric

126

Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the sate1!ite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation ofthe observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multiconstellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

127

Improving NASA's technology for space science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued advance of the nation's space program is directly dependent upon the development and use of new technology. Technology is the foundation for every aspect of space missions and ground operations. The improvements in technology that will enable future advances are not only in device and system performance, but also in permitting missions to be carried out more rapidly and at lower cost. Although more can be done with current technology, NASA's recent call for new and innovative approaches should not be answered by employing only today's technologies; new technologies with revolutionary potential should be sought. The study reported here was performed to identify means to enhance the development of technologies for the space sciences and applications.

1993-01-01

128

NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

2006-01-01

129

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

2012-01-01

130

Radiation Effects In Space  

SciTech Connect

Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

Tripathi, Ram K. [NASA Langley Research Center, MS - 188 E, Hampton VA 23681 (United States)

2011-06-01

131

NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than sequentially, saving both time and money. These themes are accomplished under the context of a new cross-program integration model that emphasizes peer-to-peer accountability and collaboration towards a common, shared goal. Utilizing the lessons learned through 50 years of human space flight experience, SLS is assigning the right number of people from appropriate backgrounds, providing them the right tools, and exercising the right processes for the job. The result will be a powerful, versatile, and capable heavy-lift, human-rated asset for the future human and scientific exploration of space.

Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

2014-01-01

132

NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the life-cycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reachback support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-ofthe- art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than sequentially, saving both time and money. These themes are accomplished under the context of a new cross-program integration model that emphasizes peer-to-peer accountability and collaboration towards a common, shared goal. Utilizing the lessons learned through 50 years of human space flight experience, SLS is assigning the right number of people from appropriate backgrounds, providing them the right tools, and exercising the right processes for the job. The result will be a powerful, versatile, and capable heavy-lift, human-rated asset for the future human and scientific exploration of space.

Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

2014-01-01

133

NASA FactsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

NASA FactsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D.C. 20546 (202) 358-1600 FACT into the solar system. NASA is working to make this transition ­ from the Space Shuttle Program to the Constellation Program ­ seamless and safe. NASA has a vast array of unique and critical resources that have

134

CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

Allgood, Daniel

2007-01-01

135

Radiation protection in space  

SciTech Connect

The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01

136

Intentional Collaboration & Innovation Spaces at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collaboration and Innovation (C&I) are extremely popular terms in corporate jargon, and institutions with reputations for creativity often have clever and fun spaces set aside for hatching ideas and developing products or services. In and of themselves, a room full of "collaboration furniture" and electronics can't make C&I happen, any more than oil makes a gas or diesel engine run. As with the engine, though, quality lubrication is a huge factor in the smooth operation, power, and longevity of C&I activity. This paper describes spaces deliberately set up at numerous NASA field centers to support collaborative and creative thinking and processes. (Sometimes support is not so much a matter of doing things to spark discussion as it is removing constraints imposed by traditional settings and making information sharing as easy as possible.) Some spaces are rooms or suites dedicated to C&I, with significant electronic support and/or intentional lack thereof (to emphasize the human element). Others are small, comfortable "roosting places" that invite conversations of opportunity. Descriptions include the sponsoring organization, underlying goals and philosophies, lessons learned, and opportunities to excel. There is discussion about how such areas might interconnect within centers, across NASA, and with external entities using current technology and what tools and approaches may be in our future.

Scott, David W.

2014-01-01

137

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

138

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

1998-01-01

139

The NASA space power technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Power Technology Program is driven by missions extending 30 years into the future. The general characteristics of these missions will be described insofar as they drive power system requirements. The various elements of the program will be presented and put into this mission context. Specific technologies discussed include: solar dynamic, nuclear, and photovoltaic power generation; electrochemical energy storage; power generation; electrochemical energy storage; thermal management; and power management and distribution, including environmental interactions and materials. These programs are strongly interlinked and interdependent and focus on meeting a broad range of agency and national needs.

Vanlandingham, E. E.

1986-01-01

140

Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

Eisenberg, Martin A.

1990-01-01

141

NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

2004-01-01

142

VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

Ma, Chopo

2012-01-01

143

Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SL-3 flight on the Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

1980-01-01

144

Radiation risk and human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

2003-01-01

145

Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, SRPE is taking the initiative to promote tissue sharing among the scientists in the space radiation research community. This initiative is enthusiastically supported by the community members as voiced in the responses to a recent survey. For retrospective tissue samples, an online platform will be established for the PIs to post a list of the available samples, and to exchange information with the potential recipients. For future animal experiments, a tissue sharing policy is being developed by SRPE.

Wu, H.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

2014-01-01

146

Space Internet architectures and technologies for NASA enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper

Kul Bhasin; Jeffrey L. Hayden

2001-01-01

147

NASA/TP2009213146REVISION A International Space Station  

E-print Network

NASA/TP­2009­213146­REVISION A International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During of the International Space Station Program Scientist NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Judy Tate-Brown, Tracy­213146­REVISION A International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years

148

NASA Aeronautics and Space Database for bibliometric analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors use the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database to perform bibliometric analysis of citations. This paper explains their research methodology and gives some sample results showing collaboration trends between NASA Centers and other institutions.

Powers, R.; Rudman, R.

2004-01-01

149

76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter...amendment of the Charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee...determined that a renewal of the International Space Station Advisory Committee is...

2011-10-17

150

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

151

Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS) and verified that we received the same result using the internal version of LLIS for our logistics lesson searches. In conducting the research, information from multiple databases was consolidated into a single spreadsheet of 300 lessons learned. Keywords were applied for the purpose of sorting and evaluation. Once the lessons had been compiled, an analysis of the resulting data was performed, first sorting it by keyword, then finding duplication and root cause, and finally sorting by root cause. The data was then distilled into the top 7 lessons learned across programs, centers, and activities.

Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah

2006-01-01

152

The administration of the NASA space tracking system and the NASA space tracking system in Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international activities of the NASA space program were studied with emphasis on the development and maintenance of tracking stations in Australia. The history and administration of the tracking organization and the manning policies for the stations are discussed, and factors affecting station operation are appraised. A field study of the Australian tracking network is included.

Hollander, N.

1973-01-01

153

NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

Dumbacher, Dan

2003-01-01

154

Control of NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

VanZwieten, Tannen S.

2014-01-01

155

The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding. PMID:21346276

Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

2011-03-21

156

The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2011-03-01

157

NASA's Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS Program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

158

76 FR 40753 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...part of the agenda, the Commercial Space Committee will have a joint session with the NASA Advisory Council's Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee regarding Commercial Space. The meeting will be open to the...

2011-07-11

159

78 FR 42111 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory...Collaborations for Commercial Space Capabilities --Aeronautics Research...Learned --Use of Prizes --International Space Station Utilization Status and...

2013-07-15

160

Memories and NASA Spacecraft: A Description of Memories, Radiation Failure Modes, and System Design Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has evolved it's usage of spaceflight computing, memory applications have followed as well. In this slide presentation, the history of NASA's memories from magnetic core and tape recorders to current semiconductor approaches is discussed. There is a brief description of current functional memory usage in NASA space systems followed by a description of potential radiation-induced failure modes along with considerations for reliable system design.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Ray; Oldhamm, Timothy

2010-01-01

161

NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to configure the rocket for the mission. The SLS affordability plan includes streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture where the question Why? is often asked and the answer "Because we've always done it that way" is rarely heard. The SLS Program will deliver affordable space transportation solutions for the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021. As this briefing will show, the SLS will offer a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

162

National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!  

E-print Network

1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! Exploration Precursor Robotic Program (xPRP) and Exploration Scout (xScout): Two · President's Budget challenges NASA to embark on a new human space exploration program that invests near

Waliser, Duane E.

163

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

the country is headed to the International Space Station aboard Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Cygnus spacecraft during reentry in Earth's atmosphere. The International Space Station is a convergence of sci- ence to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Brea Reeves GoddardView The Weekly ­ 2 NASA Cargo Launches

Christian, Eric

164

NASA research and development for space telerobotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to explore and prove out robust concepts for telerobotic support of space servicing, assembly, maintenance, and telescience tasks. This goal is being addressed through a program of coordinated work in artificial intelligence, robotics, and human factors. The general research objective is the fusion of robot sensing and manipulation, teleoperation, and human and machine cognitive skills into an effective architecture for supervised task automation. NASA is evaluating results of this research program in a ground laboratory telerobot testbed under development at JPL. The testbed development activity includes integrated technology demonstrations. The demonstrations will show telerobot capabilities to perform tasks of increasing complexity, and duration in increasingly unstructured environments. The first such demonstration is the ground-based grappling, dockling, and servicing of a satellite taskboard.

Schenker, Paul S.

1988-01-01

165

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 10 Issue 10 August 2014 #12;T he Small Business Administration gave NASA an "A" for awarding 22 percent of its federal contracts to small businesses in 2013--5 percent higher than targeted. On Aug. 1, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden joined Small

Christian, Eric

166

Oregon NASA Space Grant Consortium 92 Kerr Administration Building  

E-print Network

Oregon NASA Space Grant Consortium 92 Kerr Administration Building Corvallis, OR 97331-2103 Phone upon availability of NASA funding Updated September 16, 2011 LMP OSGC Scholarship Programs Guide Guide Page 3 of 11 *Contingent upon availability of NASA funding Updated September 16, 2011 LMP OSGC

Tullos, Desiree

167

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov COMPOSITE STRUCTURES H v ­ 1970s A T I O N INTELLIGENT FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS (IFCS) ­ 1970s-1990s WIND TUNNELS H v ­ 1930s-Today 16 NASA v ­ 1990s 10 #12;1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Starting in the 1970s, NASA began developing

168

NASA Turns To Universities For Research In Space-Age Materials SPACE FORUMS  

E-print Network

NASA Turns To Universities For Research In Space-Age Materials CHANNELS SPACE FORUMS SPACEDAILY TECH SPACE NASA Turns To Universities For Research In Space-Age Materials innovations as simple that can scale the canyons of Mars Chapel Hill - Sep 26, 2002 NASA has selected a consortium of research

Aksay, Ilhan A.

169

The Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits, higher earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations with the phase of the solar cycle. In this paper we concentrate mainly on charged particle radiations. Descriptions of the radiation belts and particles of solar and cosmic origin are reviewed. An overview of the traditional models is presented accompanied by their application areas and limitations. This is followed by discussion of some recent model developments.

Bourdarie, Sebastien; Xapsos, Michael A.

2008-01-01

170

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee February 2011  

E-print Network

Holloway Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager Dr. John Grunsfeld Former Administrator for Space Shuttle · International Space Station and ISS Non-Profit Organization · Mark Uhran Station 8 #12;NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee February 2011 International Space Station 9

Waliser, Duane E.

171

NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The SLS may also provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration for decades to come.

Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Singer, Christer E.

2012-01-01

172

NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS also will provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130 t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and 21st Century Ground Systems programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration.

Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.

2012-01-01

173

NASA Musculoskeletal Space Medicine and Reconditioning Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) group is comprised of certified strength and conditioning coaches and licensed and certified athletic trainers. The ASCR group works within NASA s Space Medicine Division providing direction and supervision to the astronaut corp with regards to physical readiness throughout all phases of space flight. The ASCR group is overseen by flight surgeons with specialized training in sports medicine or physical medicine and rehabilitation. The goals of the ASCR group include 1) designing and administering strength and conditioning programs that maximize the potential for physical performance while minimizing the rate of injury, 2) providing appropriate injury management and rehabilitation services, 3) collaborating with medical, research, engineering, and mission operations groups to develop and implement safe and effective in-flight exercise countermeasures, and 4) providing a structured, individualized post-flight reconditioning program for long duration crew members. This Panel will present the current approach to the management of musculoskeletal injuries commonly seen within the astronaut corp and will present an overview of the pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and post-flight reconditioning program for ISS astronauts.

Kerstman, Eric; Scheuring, Richard

2011-01-01

174

www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

Center Director's Breakfast New Directions New Challenges New Opportunities #12;Space Shuttle Program Safety & Mission Assurance Directorate Ares Project Science and Mission Systems Shuttle Propulsion Spacewww.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration marshall Robert Lightfoot August 2, 2011

175

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Technology Transfer Program  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Technology Transfer Program Bringing NASA that the technologies it creates for aeronautics and space missions--including software--are turned into new products, aeronautics, structural analysis, and robotic and autonomous systems. A long line of such successful

Waliser, Duane E.

176

First among equals: The selection of NASA space science experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process is recounted by which NASA and the scientific community have, since 1958, selected individual experiments for NASA space missions. It explores the scientific and organizational issues involved in the selection process and discusses the significance of the process in the character and accomplishments of U.S. space activities.

Naugle, John E.

1990-01-01

177

NASA Hits: Rewards from Space -- How NASA improves our quality of life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document highlights many of practical benefits society gains from NASA's work in space flight, space science, earth science, and aeronautics research and technology development. Users can learn how space-based beacon locators are used to provide global rescue systems. The website discusses NASA's work on ways to grow plants using hydroponics as well as how the Hubble Space Telescope Program has helped to create a breast cancer biopsy that is performed with a needle instead of a scalpel. Everyone curious about how NASA's work affects their lives should visit website.

178

NASA OAST and its role in space technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several new programs, efforts in space research and technology, are introduced that the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology has begun to support. The four key issues that currently are consuming NASA's energies and should be of great concern are listed. NASA is placing its emphasis in space on: (1) reconstituting the Shuttle capability; (2) maintaining the space station momentum; (3) resolving the current science mission backlog; and (4) rebuilding the technology base. Ways of implementing and funding these issues are discussed.

Romero, J.

1986-01-01

179

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov.  

E-print Network

Space Station after the space shuttle retires and to explore destinations beyond low-Earth orbit the space shuttle Columbia tragedy. That vision called for retiring the space shuttles in 2010, endingNASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov. 6 as the first site to earn certification

180

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The International Space Station is huge than 330 cars put together! The International Space Station is a home in space to astronauts? This is a Soyuz vehicle from the International Space Station. Try to find the Station-related words in the puzzle

Waliser, Duane E.

181

NASA's Growing Commitment: The Space Garden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts cannot live on dehydrated ice cream alone. Like everyone else, they need their vegetables. Enter VEGGIE, the Deployable Vegetable System, currently under development by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC). VEGGIE is the latest in a long line of vegetable production units ORBITEC is currently working on, with NASA assistance, to grow salad crops to supplement prepackaged foods during long stays in space. The primary goal of the VEGGIE project is to provide flight crews with palatable, nutritious, and safe sources of fresh food with minimal volume and operational resources. In addition, ORBITEC recognizes the age-old adage that gardening is good for the soul, and it acknowledges that gardens are beneficial for relaxation and recreation. As evidence, astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), who often stay for periods of 6 months, have been enjoying plant experiments, which provide them with much missed greenery and can occupy valuable free time with an enjoyable task. VEGGIE is a project that grew out of technology developed by ORBITEC for the Biomass Production System (BPS). The BPS is equivalent in size to a Space Shuttle middeck locker, and provides four plant growth chambers. Each chamber has independent control of temperature, humidity, nutrient and water delivery, lighting, and atmospheric composition. The BPS flew to the ISS in 2002, and astronaut Dan Bursch had positive comments about his interaction with the plants while in orbit. Astronaut Peggy Whitson had similarly positive remarks during the following expedition while she was growing soybeans for another experiment. Whitson reflects on her time in space with the plantings on Expedition 5, "Although it doesn t sound like much, it was really exciting to see something green. I assumed that this was just because I really enjoy plants, but it surprised me that both of my crewmates were just as excited. They wanted photos of themselves with the plants and asked if they could eat some of them, too!" The astronauts did not eat the plants, but these initial experiments gave the researchers information they needed about the basics of growing crops in space.

2005-01-01

182

NASA Space Safety Standards and Procedures for Human Rating Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA) has arguably led this planet in space exploration and certainly has been one of two major leaders in those endeavors. NASA governance is institutionalized and managed in a series documents arranged in a hierarchy and flowing down to the work levels. A document tree of NASA s documentation in its totality would likely overwhelm and not be very informative. Taken in segments related to the various business topics and focusing in those segments, however, provides a logical and understandable relationship and flow of requirements and processes. That is the nature of this chapter, a selection of NASA documentation pertaining to space exploration and a description of how those documents together form the plan by which NASA business for space exploration is conducted. Information presented herein is taken from NASA publications and is available publicly and no information herein is protected by copyright or security regulations. While NASA documents are the source of information presented herein, any and all views expressed herein and any misrepresentations of NASA data that may occur herein are those of the author and should not be considered NASA official positions or statements, nor should NASA endorsement of anything presented in this work be assumed.

Shivers, C. Herbert

2009-01-01

183

Space Science Research and Technology at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will summarize the various projects and programs managed in the Space Science Programs and Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Projects in the portfolio include NASA's Chandra X-Ray telescope, Hinode solar physics satellite, various advanced space propulsion technologies, including solar sails and tethers, as well as NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs.

Johnson, Charles L.

2007-01-01

184

Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

2014-01-01

185

NASA Johnson Space Center: Total quality partnership  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of and benefits realized from a joint NASA, support contractor continuous improvement process at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is traced. The joint effort described is the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Directorate relationship with its three support contractors which began in early 1990. The Continuous Improvement effort started in early 1990 with an initiative to document and simplify numerous engineering change evaluation processes. This effort quickly grew in scope and intensity to include process improvement teams, improvement methodologies, awareness, and training. By early 1991, the support contractor had teams in place and functioning, program goals established and a cultural change effort underway. In mid-l991 it became apparent that a major redirection was needed to counter a growing sense of frustration and dissatisfaction from teams and managers. Sources of frustration were isolated to insufficient joint participation on teams, and to a poorly defined vision. Over the next year, the effort was transformed to a truly joint process. The presentation covers the steps taken to define vision, values, goals, and priorities and to form a joint Steering Committee and joint process improvement teams. The most recent assessment against the President's award criteria is presented as a summary of progress. Small, but important improvement results have already demonstrated the value of the joint effort.

Harlan, Charlie; Boyd, Alfred A.

1992-01-01

186

Space Radiation Effects on Electronics: Simple Concepts and New Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics: 1) The Space Radiation Environment; 2) The Effects on Electronics; 3) The Environment in Action; 4) NASA Approaches to Commercial Electronics; 5) Final Thoughts.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

187

Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

188

COTS 2 Mission Press Kit SpaceX/NASA Launch and Mission to Space Station  

E-print Network

Overview of the International Space Station 17 Overview of NASA's COTS Program 19 SpaceX Company Overview Officer International Space Station Program Lead NASA Johnson Space Center 281-483-5111 Michael Braukus that a commercial company will attempt to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station, something only a few

Waliser, Duane E.

189

Fabric space radiators  

SciTech Connect

Future Air Force space missions will require thermal radiators that both survive in the hostile space environment and stow away for minimal bulk during launch. Advances in all aspects of radiator design, construction, and analysis will be necessary to enable such future missions. Currently, the best means for obtaining high strength along with flexibility is through structures known as fabrics. The development of new materials and bonding techniques has extended the application range of fabrics into areas traditionally dominated by monolithic and/or metallic structures. Given that even current spacecraft heat rejection considerations tend to dominate spacecraft design and mass, the larger and more complex designs of the future face daunting challenges in thermal control. Ceramic fabrics bonded to ultra-thin metal liners (foils) have the potential of achieving radiator performance levels heretofore unattainable, and of readily matching the advances made in other branches of spacecraft design. The research effort documented here indicates that both pumped loops and heat pipes constructed in ceramic fabrics stand to benefit in multiple ways. Flexibility and low mass are the main advantages exhibited by fabric radiators over conventional metal ones. We feel that fabric radiators have intrinsic merits not possessed by any other radiator design and need to be researched further. 26 refs., 16 figs., 17 tabs.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Krotiuk, W.J.; Webb, B.J.; Prater, J.T.; Bates, J.M.

1988-01-01

190

Radiation and Long-term Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data on the carcinogenic effects of space radiation on humans are available from the Russian MIR Space Station and the US Space Shuttle missions but are limited to tissue-level studies rather than the organ-level studies which are necessary to accurately determine radiation doses. Now, NASA's National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) has instigated an experiment, called the "torso-experiment," that will use a fully instrumented phantom torso (with head) to provide the necessary depth-dose-equivalent measurements on the International Space Station. Depth-dose-equivalent measurements will be taken as a function of spacecraft altitude, attitude, location, and time, and measurements internal to the phantom torso will be supported by other radiation measurements from the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter and the Charged Particle Direction Spectrometer. Read more about this somewhat bizarre-looking experiment at this Webpage from NSBRI.

191

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov marshall Gene Goldman May 17, 2012 Marshall Space Flight Center Director's Breakfast 2012 People Progress Partnerships #12;Thank you, US Space Budgets 6 #12;Space Launch System 7 #12;Initial Exploration Missions (EM) EM-2 · Crewed lunar orbit

192

Engineers at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in-  

E-print Network

. Stennis Space Center than the space shuttle main engine and the J-2 engine currently planned for exhibitEngineers at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in- stalled an Aerojet AJ26 rocket engine in mid-July for qualification testing. The test series is part of a partnership that highlight's the space agency's commitment

193

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

aboard Space Shuttle Challenger to become the first American female in space. To celebrate the 25thNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 13 July 2008 Goddard Goddard Center Director ­ 2 Dignitaries and Students Gather to Celebrate Dr. Sally Ride and Women in Space

Christian, Eric

194

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee May 2011  

E-print Network

Not attending: Dr. Leroy Chiao Former NASA Astronaut and International Space Station Commander Mr. Tommy Holloway Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager Dr. John Grunsfeld Former safety and viability of astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), which has been extended

Waliser, Duane E.

195

Renewable Energy at NASA's Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Johnson Space Center has implemented a great number of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems are necessary to research and implement if we humans are expected to continue to grow and thrive on this planet. These systems generate energy using renewable sources - water, wind, sun - things that we will not run out of. Johnson Space Center is helping to pave the way by installing and studying various renewable energy systems. The objective of this report will be to examine the completed renewable energy projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center for a time span of ten years, beginning in 2003 and ending in early 2014. This report will analyze the success of each project based on actual vs. projected savings and actual vs. projected efficiency. Additionally, both positive and negative experiences are documented so that lessons may be learned from past experiences. NASA is incorporating renewable energy wherever it can, including into buildings. According to the 2012 JSC Annual Sustainability Report, there are 321,660 square feet of green building space on JSC's campus. The two projects discussed here are major contributors to that statistic. These buildings were designed to meet various Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certification criteria. LEED Certified buildings use 30 to 50 percent less energy and water compared to non-LEED buildings. The objectives of this project were to examine data from the renewable energy systems in two of the green buildings onsite - Building 12 and Building 20. In Building 12, data was examined from the solar photovoltaic arrays. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater system. By examining the data from the two buildings, it could be determined if the renewable energy systems are operating efficiently. Objectives In Building 12, the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays shows that the system is continuously collecting energy from the sun, as shown by the graph below. Building 12 has two solar inverters, located on the second floor, that collected the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays. The data displayed here is the total energy produced by the system. These are cumulative amounts, so the last point on the graph shows all of the energy collected from the system since the start of its operation. The data shown here was manually collected from the solar inverters. However, the data is also automatically recorded through EBI. Through analysis of both sets of data it was determined that the EBI data was faulty. For example, from the manually collected data it can be determined that a total of 73 kWh of energy was collected between the dates of 1/16/2014 1/22/2014. The EBI data reports that approximately 17800 kWh of energy was collected during the same time frame. Not only does this exceed the time frame examined, but it also exceeds the total energy collected from the start of collection as recorded from the inverters. This leads to the belief that there is a malfunction with the automatic recording of the energy. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater dating back many months and found that the pump for the solar water heater system was not operating properly, as exhibited in the graph shown below. The pump operates on a solar energy system, meaning that it collects energy throughout the day from the sun. Because of this, the system would stop operating shortly after the sun set because of a lack of sunlight. At that point, the graph should show a zero flow rate, but as exhibited in the graph below, that is not the case. It is clearly shown that the pump is continuously operating, even during the night. It was also observed that the majority of the time the pump would not turn on at all, despite good weather conditions. This led to the conclusion that the pump is malfunctioning, and needs to be examined and fixed.

McDowall, Lindsay

2014-01-01

196

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Capability Driven Roadmap  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. · Advance aeronautics's aeronautics and space activitie

Waliser, Duane E.

197

NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 1995-1999 Self Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium receives funds from NASA to allow Nebraska colleges and universities to implement balanced programs of research, education and public service related to aeronautics, space science and technology. Nebraska is a capability enhancement state which directs efforts and resources toward developing research infrastructure and enhancing the quality of aerospace research and education for all Nebraskans. Furthermore, the Nebraska Space Grant strives to provide national leadership in applied aspects of aeronautics. Nebraska has met, meets and will continue to meet all requirements set forth by NASA. Nebraska is a top-tier consortium and will continue to be a model program.

Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Schaffart, Mary M.

1999-01-01

198

Overview of Space Science and Information Research Opportunities at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is not possible to review all the opportunities that NASA provides to support the Space Science Enterprise, in the short amount of time allotted for this presentation. Therefore, only a few key programs will be discussed. The programs that I will discuss will concentrate on research opportunities for faculty, graduate and postdoctoral candidates in Space Science research and information technologies at NASA. One of the most important programs for research opportunities is the NASA Research Announcement or NRA. NASA Headquarters issues NRA's on a regular basis and these cover space science and computer science activities relating to NASA missions and programs. In the Space Sciences, the most important NRA is called the "Research Opportunities in Space Science or the ROSS NRA. The ROSS NRA is composed of multiple announcements in the areas of structure and evolution of the Universe, Solar System exploration, Sun-Earth connections, and applied information systems. Another important opportunity is the Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP). The GSRP is designed to cultivate research ties between a NASA Center and the academic community through the award of fellowships to promising students in science and engineering. This program is unique since it matches the student's area of research interest with existing work being carried out at NASA. This program is for U.S. citizens who are full-time graduate students. Students who are successful have made the match between their research and the NASA employee who will act as their NASA Advisor/ Mentor. In this program, the student's research is primarily accomplished under the supervision of his faculty advisor with periodic or frequent interactions with the NASA Mentor. These interactions typically involve travel to the sponsoring NASA Center on a regular basis. The one-year fellowships are renewable for up to three years and over $20,000 per year. These and other important opportunities will be discussed.

Green, James L.

2000-01-01

199

Advances in Ground Transmitters for the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, is equipped with multiple microwave transmitters ranging in average radiated power from 200 W to 400 kW. The transmitters are used for routine or emergency communication with spacecraft, for navigation, and for radio science tasks. The latest advances in transmitter engineering were implemented in a new generation of 20-kW dual-band transmitters developed for the DSN 34-m beam waveguide antennas. Innovations include additional X-band communication capability for near Earth missions, new control algorithms, automated calibration, improved and expanded computerized monitoring and diagnostics, reduced cabling, and improved maintainability. The innovations were very beneficial for the DSN 'overload' during the Mars 2003/2004 missions and will benefit other missions throughout the next decade. This paper describes the current design of the new transmitters and possible future developments.

Vodonos, Yakov I.; Conroy, Bruce L.; Losh, David L.; Silva, Arnold

2007-01-01

200

NASA Space Launch System (SLS) Progress Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The briefing objectives are: (1) Explain the SLS current baseline architecture and the SLS block-upgrade approach. (2) Summarize the SLS evolutionary path in relation to the Advanced Booster and Advanced Development NASA Research Announcements.

Williams, Tom

2012-01-01

201

75 FR 51853 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Secretary, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters...location information for the Johnson Space Center. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...Debris and Radiation Protection, International Space Station and Space Shuttle Program...

2010-08-23

202

Overview of the NASA Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY11, NASA established the Enabling Technologies Development and Demonstration (ETDD) Program, a follow on to the earlier Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) within the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Objective: Develop, mature and test enabling technologies for human space exploration.

LaPointe, Michael

2011-01-01

203

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov STEREO SCIENCE WRITER®S GUIDE A guide for reporters to understand the mission and purpose of NASA®s STEREO observatories #12;NASASCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE HOW NASA IS STRUCTURED TO SEEK SOLAR ANSWERS Q&A ON THE STEREO MISSION

Christian, Eric

204

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

(CFD, por sus siglas en inglés) H v : 1970 - hoy 1 7 CABINA DE MANDO DE VIDRIO H v : 1970 -1980 2 4 5 6National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov ESTRUCTURAS COMPUESTAS H v : 1970 - hoy - hoy 16 ANÁLISIS ESTRUCTURAL DE LA NASA (NASTRAN) H v : 1960 - hoy DINÁMICA COMPUTACIONAL DE FLUIDOS

205

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Implementation Plan FY 2012 ­ FY 2015 March 16, 2012 Enclosure #12;NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic and Inclusion Assessment Survey, deployed in FY 2010, as well as the annual government-wide Employee Viewpoint

Waliser, Duane E.

206

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Education 1993-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993-2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that

Ivie, Christine M.

2009-01-01

207

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) education 1993--2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education

Christine M. Ivie

2009-01-01

208

Radiation dose predictions for SPE events during solar cycle 23 from NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code is a deterministic model for rapid and accurate calculations of the particle radiation fields in the space environment. HZETRN is used to calculate dosimetric quantities on the International Space Station (ISS) and assess astronaut risk to space radiations, including realistic spacecraft and human geometry for final exposure evaluation. HZETRN is used as

Christopher Mertens; Steve Blattnig; Tony Slaba; Brian Kress; Michael Wiltberger; Stan Solomon

2008-01-01

209

Panel Urges NASA to Save Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New York Times news article published July 14, 2004 on the National Academy of Sciences panel recommendation that NASA should commit itself to a servicing mission to extend the life of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Center, Liberty S.

2005-05-17

210

NASA Sees Holiday Lights from Space - Duration: 4:29.  

NASA Video Gallery

Its official our holiday lights are so bright we can see them from space. Thanks to the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite, a joint mission between NASA and NOAA, scientists are present...

211

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center cut the ribbon Aug.  

E-print Network

Participants in the Records Retention Facility ribbon-cutting included: (l to r) Gay Irby, Center Opera- tions NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun visited John C. Stennis Space Center on Aug. 26. While at Sten- nis

212

Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2003-01-01

213

www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics & Space Administration  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics & Space Administration Industry Day Tony Lavoie/Program Manager and Robotic Program #12;2 National Aeronautics & Space Administration LPRP Industry Day, October 20, 2006;3 National Aeronautics & Space Administration LPRP Industry Day, October 20, 2006 Lunar Precursor and Robotic

Rathbun, Julie A.

214

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 San Francisco, CA #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Background: ORNL DAAC · Oak Ridge National in environmental research. http://daac.ornl.gov/ Ranjeet Devarakonda 2 #12;National Aeronautics and Space

215

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT  

E-print Network

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT NEIL A. ARMSTRONG history with Neil Armstrong was conducted on September 19, 2001, for the Johnson Space Center Oral History of that? 19 September 2001 1 #12;Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Neil A. Armstrong ARMSTRONG: I

216

In the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space  

E-print Network

. The external tank carries the fuel that will be used by a trio of space shuttle main engines to lift Atlantis into orbit for its STS-125 mission. All three of the main engines were tested at NASA's John C. Stennis Space was tested March 26, 2004. The engines will burn for eight and one-half minutes as Atlantis roars into space

217

Virtual Environments in Training: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual environment (VE) technology was used to construct a model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and those elements that were replaced or serviced during the December, 1993 repair and maintenance mission conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The VE also included the payload bay of the Space Shuttle and the fixtures used for transporting replacement systems

R. Bowen Loftin; Patrick J. Kenney; Robin Benedetti; Chris Culbert; Mark Engelberg; Robert Jones; Paige Lucas; Mason Menninger; John Muratore; Lac Nguyen; Tim Saito; Robert T. Savely; Mark Voss

218

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

2004-01-01

219

Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the NASA-Lewis Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Convertor Technology Program. The goal is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology,

James E. Dudenhoefer; Jerry M. Winter

1991-01-01

220

NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with exploring flight both within and outside the atmosphere. By the 1980s, NASA had established itself as an agency with considerable achievements on record. The decade was marked by the inauguration of the Space Shuttle flights and haunted by the 1986 Challenger accident that temporarily halted the program. The agency also enjoyed the strong support of President Ronald Reagan, who enthusiastically announced the start of both the Space Station program and the National Aerospace Plane program.

Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

221

Space platforms for NASA - Opportunity or pitfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes NASA efforts to determine if platform to pool payload services are cost effective. It is shown that the platform concept originated from the short Shuttle life on orbit, the Shuttle capability to assemble aggregating structures, and the belief that economics might be obtained from shared services and repair. In addition, about eighty payloads in NASAs future were identified for consideration. Attention is given to platform configurations produced by contractor and in house studies, noting that comparative cost studies are currently being done.

Cuneo, W. J., Jr.; Williams, D. P., III

1979-01-01

222

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Exploration  

E-print Network

Station partnerships 5 #12;Global Exploration Roadmap 6 #12;7 #12;International Space Station that effect severity generally increases with mission duration. 11 #12;International Space Station Infrastructure 6. Significant International and Commercial participation, leveraging current International Space

Waliser, Duane E.

223

NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Radiation Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

2008-01-01

224

Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

Smith, Dan

2011-01-01

225

The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

1988-01-01

226

Space radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

1989-01-01

227

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)  

E-print Network

(NASA) Research and Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS) A Report to the Committee of the International Space Station (ISS), and describes the scientific investigations, strategic research, commercial in their publication, Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006). Those items will be addressed

Waliser, Duane E.

228

The NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT): NASA's Next Step for U.S. Deep Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to enhance the performance and lower the costs of future NASA space science missions. This is being accomplished by producing Engineering Model (EM) and Prototype Model (PM) components, validating these via qualification-level and integrated system testing, and preparing the transition of NEXT technologies to flight system development. The project is currently completing one of the final milestones of the effort, that is operation of an integrated NEXT Ion Propulsion System (IPS) in a simulated space environment. This test will advance the NEXT system to a NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 (i.e., operation of a prototypical system in a representative environment), and will confirm its readiness for flight. Besides its promise for upcoming NASA science missions, NEXT may have excellent potential for future commercial and international spacecraft applications.

Schmidt, George R.; Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

2008-01-01

229

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: NASA Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Features include an overview of the SMD's missions and research on the Earth system, the sun, other planets in our solar system, and on topics in astrophysics. The researchers' page includes information on open solicitations, research opportunities, mission opportunities, grant information, and jobs. The educators' page provides links to NASA education programs and classroom resources. The kids' page provides access to games, activities, movies, and resources to help with homework. The citizen scientists' page provides information on obtaining datasets, participating in research projects, and information for amateur astronomers. The site also includes an image-of-the-day feature, a spotlighted mission, and links to news articles.

230

21Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Design of AA systemsDesign of AA systems  

E-print Network

21Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center in autonomy #12;22Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Generic control system

Kortenkamp, David

231

The U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box 5000, Upton NY 11973 631 344-2345 www.bnl.gov NASA Space Radiation Laboratory  

E-print Network

and easily penetrate shuttle and space station walls, as well as human skin, cells, and DNA. This ionizing Laboratory Assessing the risks of space radiation to human space travelers As the National Aeronautics of cosmic radiation are still uncertain. Before humans can travel for extended periods outside Earth

Ohta, Shigemi

232

Radiation energy conversion in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

Billman, K. W.

1979-01-01

233

NASA Creates Space Technology Mission Directorate  

E-print Network

drew media attention and articles on 3D printing, including coverage by Popular Mechanics and website on 3D printing and prototyping technology to create parts for the Space Launch System at Marshall Space

234

NASA in Crisis: The Space Agency's Public Relations Efforts Regarding the Hubble Space Telescope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) public relations efforts concerning the Hubble telescope. Proposes that NASA's poor public relations exacerbated problems: NASA oversold the telescope before it was deployed, failed to develop a plan for release of images, provided misleading flight reports, and reported

Kauffman, James

1997-01-01

235

Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

2014-01-01

236

NASA Johnson Space Center Biomedical Research Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center (JSC) medical sciences laboratories constitute a national resource for support of medical operations and life sciences research enabling a human presence in space. They play a critical role in evaluating, defining, and mitigation the untoward effect of human adaption to space flight. Over the years they have developed the unique facilities and expertise required to perform: biomedical sample analysis and physiological performance tests supporting medical evaluations of space flight crew members and scientific investigations of the operationally relevant medical, physiological, cellular, and biochemical issues associated with human space flight. A general overview of these laboratories is presented in viewgraph form.

Paloski, W. H.

1999-01-01

237

A systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to but separate from the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper, without compromising safety. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo. The Blue Team process and results are summarized. The Associate Administrator for Space Communications subsequently convened a special management session to discuss the significance and implications of the Blue Team's report and to lay the groundwork and teamwork for the next steps, including the transition from engineering systems to systems engineering. The methodology and progress toward realizing the Code O Family vision and accomplishing the systems engineering initiative for NASA's space communications are presented.

Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

1993-01-01

238

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

NASA Scientist Received Award for Work on Jupiter and Saturn's Largest Moon: Titan - 8 Goddard Space Cover Caption: Space Shuttle Endeavour races into the sky trailing columns of fire from the solid rocket afternoon sky over Florida's east coast. Pilot Charles Hobaugh, and mission specialists Tracy Caldwell

Christian, Eric

239

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 4, Issue 21 December 2008 Goddard and the Virginia Department of Aviation. Established in 1945 by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics contributed to both aeronautical and space flight research. The unveiling ceremony included comments by local

Christian, Eric

240

The Space Economy NASA 50th Anniversary Lecture Series  

E-print Network

The Space Economy NASA 50th Anniversary Lecture Series Michael D. Griffin Administrator National growth that didn't previously exist. This is the emerging Space Economy, an economy that is transforming our lives here on Earth in ways that are not yet fully understood or appreciated. It is not an economy

241

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

by a shuttle main engine. A second, heav begins soon, with the development of a new space- ship. Building on the best of Apollo and shuttleNational Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 1 Issue 6 September 2005 Goddard

Christian, Eric

242

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

and flight systems and maturing technologies evolved from powerful, proven Saturn rocket and space shuttle undergoes hot-fire testing at NASA's Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss., during the engine at Marshall, is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The J-2X

Rathbun, Julie A.

243

NASA SpaceWire Activities/Comments/Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's activities, and proposes recommendations for the further use of the SpaceWire (SpW). The areas covered in this presentation are: (1) Protocol ID assignment, (2) Protocol development, (3) Plug & Play (PnP), (4) Recommended additions t o SpW protocol and (5) SpaceFibre trade.

Rakow, Glenn

2006-01-01

244

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

245

Facilitating Student Involvement in NASA Research: The NASA Space Grant Aeronautics Example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many consider NASA programs to be exclusively space-oriented. However, NASA's roots originated in the aeronautical sciences. Recent developments within NASA elevated the declining role of aeronautics back to a position of priority. On a parallel pattern, aeronautics was a priority in the legislation which authorized the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. This paper outlines the development of the aeronautics aspect of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, and the resulting student opportunities in research. Results from two aeronautics surveys provide a baseline and direction for further development. A key result of this work is the increase in student research opportunities which now exist in more states and at the national level.

Bowen, Brent D.

1998-01-01

246

Prototype space erectable radiator system ground test article development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype heat rejecting system is being developed by NASA-JSC for possible space station applications. This modular system, the Space-Erectable Radiator System Ground Test Article (SERS-GTA) with high-capacity radiator panels, can be installed and replaced on-orbit. The design, fabrication and testing of a representative ground test article are discussed. Acceptance test data for the heat pipe radiator panel and the whiffletree clamping mechanism have been presented.

Alario, Joseph P.

1988-01-01

247

Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

248

Waste management in space: a NASA symposium. Special issue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special issue contains papers from the NASA Symposium on Waste Processing for Advanced Life Support, which was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 11-13, 1990. Specialists in waste management from academia, government, and industry convened to exchange ideas and advise NASA in developing effective methods for waste management in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Innovative and well-established methods were presented to assist in developing and managing wastes in closed systems for future long-duration space missions, especially missions to Mars.

Wydeven, T. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

249

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

250

NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond June 3, 2005  

E-print Network

#12;#12;NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond June 3, 2005 NASA plan is available at www.nasa.gov #12;#12;NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond June 3, 2005 Tenth Edition Summary June 3, 2005 This edition of NASA's Implementation Plan

251

NASA's Approach to Critical Risks for Extended Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration Humans are exposed to a great variety of hazards in the space environment. These include the effects of weightlessness, radiation, isolation and confinement, altered day-night cycles, and others. These inherent hazards have both physiological and behavioral consequences. The adaptive capabilities of humans in these situations is remarkable, and often exceed our expectations. However, the demanding environment and challenging operational pace can push some of these adaptive processes to their limits. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with mitigating the most serious of these effects on human health, safety, and performance, in long-duration space flight. This can involve the development and deployment of physiological countermeasures, better understanding of the physiological alterations and avoidance of exacerbating situations, inputs to the design of future spacecraft to minimize risks, and in some cases the awareness that some level of risk might have to be accepted based on the resulting consequences and their likelihood. HRP has identified a few areas that are of special concern due to their severity, lack of understanding of underlying causes, or potential for negative impact on health or performance. Some of these areas are visual impairment possibly due to increased intracranial pressure, behavioral and performance problems due to sleep deficits and isolation, and acute and chronic effects of radiation. These problems can, if not addressed, be expected to increase on longer and more distant missions. The evidence from spaceflight, laboratory, and analog studies that supports the selection of the most critical risks will be discussed. Current and planned research programs that address these risks, and their anticipated outcomes, will also be described.

Shelhamer, Mark

2014-01-01

252

Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance on natural light sources and with much greater spatial resolution. NASA pursues lidar technology not only as science instruments, providing atmospherics and surface topography data of Earth and other solar system bodies, but also as viable guidance and navigation sensors for space vehicles. This paper summarizes the current NASA lidar missions and describes the lidar systems being considered for deployment in space in the near future.

Amzajerdian, Farzin

2008-01-01

253

Operational Aspects of Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session FA4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Solar Particle Events and the International Space Station; Radiation Environment on Mir and ISS Orbits During the Solar Cycle; New approach to Radiation Risk Assessment; An Industrial Method to Predict Major Solar Flares for a Better Protection of Human Beings in Space; Description of the Space Radiation Control System for the Russian Segment of ISS; Orbit Selection and Its Impact on Radiation Warning Architecture for a Human Mission to Mars; and Space Nuclear Power - Technology, Policy and Risk Considerations in Human Missions to Mars.

1997-01-01

254

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human spaceflight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Making its first uncrewed test flight in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, capable of supporting human missions into deep space and to Mars. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130 t lift capability. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and recordbreaking engine testing, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2013. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how the Space Launch System is being designed to enable or enhance not only human exploration missions, but robotic scientific missions as well. Because of its unique launch capabilities, SLS will support simplifying spacecraft complexity, provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduce mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious science missions by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. A traditional baseline approach for a mission to investigate the Jovian system would require a complicated trajectory with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, offering significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, providing scientific results sooner and at lower operational cost. The SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure, and will revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

255

NASA Center for Integrated Space Microsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Develop and maintain a world class, leading edge capability in Advanced Avionic Systems and Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for future highly integrated, miniaturized, autonomous spacecraft systems for deep-space and Earth orbiting missions.

Alkalai, L.

1998-01-01

256

Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute Radiation Assessment Detector. Also, the University of Florida hybrid phantoms, which are flexible in morphometry and positioning, are being explored as alternatives to the current NASA computational phantoms.

Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

2011-01-01

257

The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

258

NASA Shuttle Web: John Glenn Returns to Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Glenn, the first American in space, became the world's oldest astronaut when he returned to the stars yesterday, 36 years after his first flight on the nation's 123rd manned mission. At the NASA Shuttle Website for the mission, users can read about the crew, payloads, mission objectives, some of the experiments on aging and space involving Senator Glenn, and updates on the mission's current status. Realtime data offered at the site include telemetry, tracking displays, sightings, and orbital elements. The site also hosts several multimedia offerings such as preflight and launch videos (MPEG), animations (MPEG), Net Show broadcasts of NASA TV, photos, and RealPlayer audio broadcasts.

259

Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

1990-01-01

260

Space Weathering Investigations Enabled by NASA's Virtual Heliophysical Observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural and chemical impact of the heliospheric space environment on exposed planetary surfaces and interplanetary dust grains may be generally defined as space weathering . In the inner solar system, from the asteroid belt inwards towards the Sun, the surface regolith structures of airless bodies are primarily determined by cumulative meteoritic impacts over billions of years, but the molecular composition to meters in depth can be substantially modified by irradiation effects. Plasma ions at eV to keV energies may both erode uppermost surfaces by sputtering, and implant or locally produce exogenic material, e.g. He-3 and H2O, while more energetic ions drive molecular change through electronic ionization. Galactic cosmic ray ions and more energetic solar ions can impact chemistry to meters in depth. High energy cosmic ray interactions produce showers of secondary particles and energetic photons that present hazards for robotic and human exploration missions but also enable detection of potentially useable resources such as water ice, oxygen, and many other elements. Surface sputtering also makes ejected elemental and molecular species accessible for in-situ compositional analysis by spacecraft with ion and neutral mass spectrometers. Modeling of relative impacts for these various space weathering processes requires knowledge of the incident species-resolved ion flux spectra at plasma to cosmic ray energies and as integrated over varying time scales. Although the main drivers for investigations of these processes come from NASA's planetary science and human exploration programs, the NASA heliophysics program provides the requisite data measurement and modeling resources to enable specification of the field & plasma and energetic particle irradiation environments for application to space weather and surface weathering investigations. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO), Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX), and Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) services now provide a wide range of inner heliospheric spacecraft data that can be applied to space weathering of potential exploration destinations including the Moon, asteroids, and the moons of Mars, as well to radiation hazard assessment for the spacecraft and human explorers. For example, the new VEPO service for time-averaging of multi-source ion flux spectra enables the specification of composite flux spectra from a variety of ongoing and legacy missions for applications to surface interaction modeling. Apollo to Artemis data resources of LunaSOX enable specific space weathering investigations for the Moon, while VHO more generally covers the space field and plasma environments of the inner and outer solar system from the sunward-most perihelia of the twin Helios spacecraft to the ongoing heliosheath passages of the twin Voyagers. Composite multi-source spectra from VEPO can also be applied to the continuing compilation of accumulated 1-AU fluence spectra, mostly contributed by solar wind plasma and energetic particle events, for determination of time-averaged particle compositional and kinetic energy output from the Sun and for modeling of long-term irradiation impacts on planetary surfaces.

Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Lal, Nand; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Hills, Howard K.; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Kovalick, Tamara J.; Johnson, Rita C.; McGuire, Robert E.; Narock, Thomas W.; Szabo, Adam; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; McKibben, Robert B.

2012-01-01

261

Space Internet Architectures and Technologies for NASA Enterprises  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future communications services will be supplied through a space communications network that mirrors the terrestrial Internet in its capabilities and flexibility. The notional requirements for future data gathering and distribution by this Space Internet have been gathered from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), the Human Exploration and Development in Space (HEDS), and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). This paper describes a communications infrastructure for the Space Internet, the architectures within the infrastructure, and the elements that make up the architectures. The architectures meet the requirements of the enterprises beyond 2010 with Internet 'compatible technologies and functionality. The elements of an architecture include the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft and proximity communication parts. From the architectures, technologies have been identified which have the most impact and are critical for the implementation of the architectures.

Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

2001-01-01

262

Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

1994-01-01

263

Advanced technologies for NASA space programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the technology requirements for future space programs is presented. The technologies are emphasized with a discussion of their mission impact. Attention is given to automation and robotics, materials, information acquisition/processing display, nano-electronics/technology, superconductivity, and energy generation and storage.

Krishen, Kumar

1991-01-01

264

Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.  

PubMed

For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts. PMID:11604058

Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

2001-11-01

265

NASA Lessons Learned from Space Lubricated Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reviews the lessons learned from short-life and long life lubricated space mechanisms. A short-life lubricated mechanisms complete their life test qualification requirements after a few cycles. The mechanisms include the hinges, motors and bearings for deployment, release mechanisms, latches, release springs and support shops. Performance testing can be difficult and expensive but must be accomplished. A long-life lubricated mechanisms requires up to 5 years of life testing, or 10 to 100 years of successful flight. The long-life mechanisms include reaction wheels, momentum wheels, antenna gimbals, solar array drives, gyros and despin mechanisms. Several instances of how a mechanisms failed either in test, or in space use, and the lessons learned from these failures are reviewed. The effect of the movement away from CFC-113 cleaning solvent to ODC (Ozone-Depleting Chemical) -free is reviewed, and some of the alternatives are discussed.

Predmore, Roamer E.

2000-01-01

266

NASA's Long Term Space Astrophysics Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have carried out a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of interstellar molecules using data obtained from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Molecular observations provide a unique probe of the astrophysical Universe and yield information of general astronomical importance that can obtained in no other way. Molecules are also of importance because they can dominate the cooling of astrophysical media. The key topics addressed by our study have been: (1) the cooling of the interstellar gas; (2) the chemistry and excitation of molecular hydrogen in shocks, diffuse molecular clouds, and X-ray heated regions; (3) the chemistry and excitation of interstellar halides in dense molecular clouds, and the discovery of interstellar hydrogen fluoride; (4) the chemistry and excitation of water vapor in shocks, circumstellar outflows, translucent molecular clouds, and dense molecular clouds; (5) future prospects for probing the high-redshift Universe with molecular and other spectroscopic observations.

2000-01-01

267

America in Space: The First Decade - NASA Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is ten years since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was created to explore space and to continue the American efforts that had already begun with the launch of Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958. Many changes have occurred since that tumbling, 31 -pound cylinder went into an Earth orbit. "NASA Spacecraft" represents one of the broad avenues selected by NASA as an approach to its objective of making widely known the progress that has taken place in its program of space exploration. This report is a vivid illustration of the changes that have occurred and the complexities that have developed. Here one finds descriptions of the present family of spacecraft some small, some large; some spinoriented, some accurately attitude-controlled; some manned, some automated; some in low orbits, some in trajectories to the Moon and the planets; some free in space until they expire, others commanded to return to the Earth or to land on the Moon

1969-01-01

268

Planning and Processing Space Science Observations Using NASA's SPICE System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) team, acting under the directions of NASA's Office of Space Science, has built a data system-named SPICE, to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations from space-borne instruments. The principal objective of this data system is that it will provide geometric and other ancillary data used to plan space science missions and subsequently recover the full value of science instrument data returned from these missions, including correlation of individual instrument data sets with data from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft. SPICE is also used to support a host of mission engineering functions, such as telecommunications system analysis and operation of NASA's Deep Space Network antennas. This paper describes the SPICE system, including where and how it is used. It also touches on possibilities for further development and invites participation it this endeavor.

Acton, Charles H.

2000-01-01

269

NASA Deputy Administrator Tours Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pictured from the left, in the Saturn I mockup, are: William Brooksbank, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Dr. Wernher von Braun, MSFC director; Colonel Clare F. Farley, executive officer of the Office of the Administrator; and Charles J. Donlan, newly appointed deputy associate administrator for Manned Space Flight, technical. The party examined an ordinary man's shoe (held by Paine) outfitted for use in the Saturn I Workshop. The shoe had a unique fastener built into the sole to allow an astronaut to move about the workshop floor and to remain in one position if he desired. Dr. Paine and his party indulged in a two-day tour at the Marshall Space Flight Center getting acquainted with Marshall personnel and programs. It was Paine's first visit to the center since assuming the NASA post on February 1, 1968.

1968-01-01

270

NASA's Space Launch System (SLS): A New National Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new national capability for human space flight and scientific missions to low- Earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy to future generations, confirming America s desire to explore, learn, and progress. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and science experiments for missions beyond Earth s orbit. This paper gives an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will empower. It will detail the plan to move from the computerized drawing board to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range national capability.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

271

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Cooperative Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viability of a Capillary Heat Pump (CHP) concept using a Loop Heat Pipe evaporator and an eductor in a closed loop to reject heat at a higher temperature than it is acquired at with the goal of reducing spacecraft radiator area is examined. Eductor inefficiency resulting from the mixing of high velocity motive flow with low velocity suction flow may preclude spacecraft radiator area savings. The utility of a CHP for thermal management may be limited to those missions where system mass is of secondary concern compared to system reliability, or where a heat pump is required to accommodate relatively high thermal rejection temperatures. Shearography techniques for nondestructive inspection and evaluation were examined for two unique applications. Shearography is shown to give good results in evaluating the quality of bonds holding lead tiles to the SWIFT spacecraft BAT gamma ray mask. Also, a novel technique was developed allowing specular objects to be inspected using shearography to evaluate bonding between the skin and core of a specular surface honeycomb structure. Large-scale bond failures are readily identified.

Fredley, Joseph E.; Lysak, Daniel B.

2004-01-01

272

Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled 'Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies'. This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Richmond, Robert C.; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

273

Rocket Propulsion Testing at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraph presentation on the design and testing Liquid Hydrogen Barge Vaporizers at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Vaporizer Requirements; 2) Vaporizer Design; 3) LH2 # 2 Vaporizer Statistics; 4) Corrective Actions; and 5) Lessons Learned.

Schwer, Robert

2005-01-01

274

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov Volume 10 Issue 12 September 2014 #12;N ASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MA- VEN) spacecraft successfully entered Mars' orbit at 10:24 p.m. EDT Sunday, Sept. 21, where it now will prepare to study the Red Planet's upper atmosphere

Christian, Eric

275

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

at: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/index.html Managing Editor: Trusilla Steele Editor: Alana Little Deadlines: News items and brief announcements for publica- tion in the Goddard View must as space allows. All submissions are subject to editing. By Nick Clooney 02 GoddardUpdates Yesterday

Christian, Eric

276

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

Kelly, Michael P.

2011-01-01

277

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an overview presentation of In Space Propulsion Technology products that have been developed under the sponsorship of the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The materials have been prepared for Outer Planetary Assessment Group Meeting in Atlanta, GA in January 2013.

Pencil, Eric J.; Anderson, David

2013-01-01

278

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science at NASA  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Science at NASA November 10, 2009 www­7 Years 16 Appendix A--Earth Science Missions Currently In Operation 21 Appendix B--Earth Science continues to lead the international scientific community to advance global integrated Earth system science

Christian, Eric

279

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

280

52Hubble Detects More Dark Matter This NASA Hubble Space  

E-print Network

52Hubble Detects More Dark Matter This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the distribution is an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the universe's mass. Hubble cannot see the dark matter, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. If the cluster

281

Power line based LAN on board the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without exception, vehicles have a power distribution system based on metallic conductors of some type. It would be advantageous to make this power distribution network perform double-duty, as an infrastructure supporting both power delivery and broadband digital connectivity. We study the possibility of re-using existing power cables on board the NASA Orbiter (also knows as the Space Shuttle) for providing

Stefano Galli; Thomas Banwell; David Waring

2004-01-01

282

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council  

E-print Network

that the NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program to develop and demonstrate commercial at a deliberate pace. The Commercial Space Committee intends to closely follow the progress of the COTS Cargo. The committee believes that the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program could be a viable

Waliser, Duane E.

283

Developing space occupancy - Perspectives on NASA future space program planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential future manned space flight missions for the time after the development of the space transportation system with the space shuttle are considered, taking into account a sequence of activities concerning a gradually increasing penetration of space by man. The activities are related to the permanent occupancy of near-earth space, the permanent occupancy of near-moon space, the full self-sufficiency of man in earth-moon space, and the permanent occupancy of heliocentric space. Attention is given to Mars orbiting stations, the exploration of the asteroids, comet exploration, planet engineering programs, heliocentric orbit installation, the evolution of the earth orbit space community, space industrialization technology, lunar base development, and evolutionary paths to far-future space endeavors.

Von Puttkamer, J.

1977-01-01

284

The NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are the result of a multitude of intentional and nonintentional electromagnetic sources that currently exists in the world. Many of today's digital systems are susceptible to electronic upset if subjected to certain electromagnetic environments (EME). Modern aerospace designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on sophisticated digital electronic systems to provide critical flight control in both military, commercial, and general aviation aircraft. In an effort to understand and emulate the undesired environment that high energy RF provides modern electronics, the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) of the Flight Electronics and Technology Division (FETD) conducts research on RF and microwave measurement methods related to the understanding of HIRF. In the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory, the effects of high energy radiating electromagnetic fields on avionics and electronic systems are tested and studied.

Williams, Reuben A.

1997-01-01

285

NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

Ewert, Michael K.

2008-01-01

286

INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

1992-01-01

287

TRANSITION IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AT NASA  

E-print Network

;1962 ­ MERCURY-ATLAS ­ JOHN GLENN #12;1965 - GEMINI #12;1969 ­ APOLLO 11 #12;1973 ­ SKYLAB #12;1981 ­ STS-1 #12TRANSITION IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AT NASA Robert Cabana Director, Kennedy Space Center #12;1903 ­ WRIGHT FLYER #12;1927 ­ THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS #12;1961 ­ MERCURY ­ ALAN SHEPHERD #12

288

NASA management of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The management system and management technology described have been developed to meet stringent cost and schedule constraints of the Space Shuttle Program. Management of resources available to this program requires control and motivation of a large number of efficient creative personnel trained in various technical specialties. This must be done while keeping track of numerous parallel, yet interdependent activities involving different functions, organizations, and products all moving together in accordance with intricate plans for budgets, schedules, performance, and interaction. Some techniques developed to identify problems at an early stage and seek immediate solutions are examined.

Peters, F.

1975-01-01

289

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

1991-01-01

290

NASA Space Technology Can Improve Soldier Health, Performance and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary goals of NASA Life Sciences research is '... to enable a permanent human presence in space.' To meet this goal, NASA is creating alternative protocols designed to evaluate and test countermeasures that will account for and correct the environmental effects of space flight on crewmembers health, safety, and operational performance. NASA investigators have previously evaluated the effects of long-duration space flight on physiology and performance of cosmonauts aboard the MIR space station. They also initiated tests of a countermeasure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) designed to prevent and/or correct adverse effects, i.e., facilitate adaptation to space and re-adaptation to Earth. AFTE is a six-hour physiological training program that has proven to be a highly efficient and effective method for enabling people to monitor and voluntarily control a range of their own physiological responses, thereby minimizing adverse reactions to environmental stress. However, because of limited opportunities to test this technology with space flight crews, it is essential to find operational or 'real world' environments in which to validate the efficacy of this approach.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

2000-01-01

291

NASA Deep Space Network performance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Control Center Operations, the Performance Analysis Group has responsibility for validating all committed Deep Space Network support to the various user projects. The group provides the Network with the analysis support necessary to assure that actual Network performance meets or exceeds committed levels throughout the mission. Validation is carried out as the signals are received in real time by monitoring the data streams and comparing the data quality against predicted values and established performance standards and tolerance limits. An important function is to generate the predictions used to point the antennas, acquire the radio frequency, and validate the monitored Network performance. Another function is anomaly investigation. An integral part of validation is the support task of generating and maintaining performance standards and tolerance limits for each flight project. The Performance Analysis Group is broadly divided into two subgroups: real-time personnel and nonreal-time personnel.

Bartok, C. D.

1982-01-01

292

NASA Radiation Protection Research for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HZETRN code was used in recent trade studies for renewed lunar exploration and currently used in engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and EVA equipment. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating high charge and energy (HZE) ions, light-ions and neutrons with either laboratory or space boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light-ion propagation is under development. Atomic and nuclear model requirements to support that development will be discussed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. We discuss limitations of code validation due to the currently available data and recommend priorities for new data sets.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; Mertens, Christopher J.; Walker, Steve A.; Blattnig, Steven R.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

2006-01-01

293

NASA's approach to the commercial use of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA planning activities in the area of commercial development of space resources are reviewed. Examples of specific types of commercial space ventures are given, according to three different categories: new commercial high-technology ventures; new commercial application of existing space technology, and commercial ventures resulting from the transfer of existing space programs to the private sector. Basic objectives for reducing technical, financial and institutional risks for commercial space operations are considered. Attention is given to the cooperative working environment encouraged by Joint Endeavor Agreements (JEAs) and Technical Exchange Agreements (TEAs) between industrial organizations in the development of space systems. Benefits of the commercial development of space resources include the production of purer pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancers, kidney diseases, and diabetes; and the development of ultra-pure semiconductor crystals for use in next generation electronic equipment.

Gillam, I. T., IV

1984-01-01

294

NASA's space physics theory program - An opportunity for collaboration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of theoretical space physics offers a unique opportunity to Latin American scientists for collaborative participation in NASA programs where the greatly increased complexity of both experimental observations and theoretical simulations requires in-depth comparisons between theory and observational data. The key problem areas identified by NASA for aggressive work in the decade of the 1990s are the nature of flows and turbulence, acceleration and transport of particles, the coupling of microphysics and macrophysics, the coupling of local and global dynamics, and nonclassical plasmas.

Vinas, Adolfo F.

1990-01-01

295

FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

Lowrey, Nikki M.

2011-01-01

296

Leadership in Space: Selected Speeches of NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, May 2005 - October 2008  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speech topics include: Leadership in Space; Space Exploration: Real and Acceptable Reasons; Why Explore Space?; Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas; Continuing the Voyage: The Spirit of Endeavour; Incorporating Space into Our Economic Sphere of Influence; The Role of Space Exploration in the Global Economy; Partnership in Space Activities; International Space Cooperation; National Strategy and the Civil Space Program; What the Hubble Space Telescope Teaches Us about Ourselves; The Rocket Team; NASA's Direction; Science and NASA; Science Priorities and Program Management; NASA and the Commercial Space Industry; NASA and the Business of Space; American Competitiveness: NASA's Role & Everyone's Responsibility; Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration; The Next Generation of Engineers; System Engineering and the "Two Cultures" of Engineering; Generalship of Engineering; NASA and Engineering Integrity; The Constellation Architecture; Then and Now: Fifty Years in Space; The Reality of Tomorrow; and Human Space Exploration: The Next 50 Years.

Griffin, Michael

2008-01-01

297

Progress and Status on the Development of NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Applied Sciences Program recently selected a project for funding through the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) solicitation. The project objective is to develop a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is

C. J. Mertens; W. K. Tobiska; S. R. Blattnig; B. T. Kress; M. J. Wiltberger; S. C. Solomon; J. Kunches; J. J. Murray

2008-01-01

298

An Evolvable Space Telescope for NASAs Next UVOIR Flagship Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has sponsored several studies to develop conceptual designs for the next UVOIR Flagship mission, including an Advanced Technology Large Space Telescope (ATLAST). These studies concluded that a space observatory launched in ~2030 will require a telescope aperture of 8 to 16 meters to address the most compelling astrophysical questions raised by missions such as HST, Kepler, TESS, JWST and WFIRST as well as the large ground based telescopes that will coming on-line in the next decade. This telescope will be designed to search for the bio-signatures of life in the universe as well as to study the physics of star formation and to unravel the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Unfortunately, telescopes with this aperture will have a long development time with peak funding requirements that will absorb most NASA's Astrophysics budget for many years. To minimize this impact on NASA's budget and to drastically shorten the time between program start and 'first light' for this UVOIR space observatory we have been developing conceptual designs for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that would be assembled on-orbit in three stages, beginning with the launch of a 2 mirror 4 x 12 meter telescope with 2 instruments 5 to 7 years after program start, and then adding mirror segments and instruments ay ~ 5 year intervals to obtain a 12-m filled aperture, and then a 20-m filled aperture telescope. We describe our approach in this presentation.

Lillie, Charles F.; Breckinridge, James B.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

2015-01-01

299

Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

2012-09-01

300

Updates to the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an update of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) open architecture for NASA space based radios. The STRS architecture has been defined as a framework for the design, development, operation and upgrade of space based software defined radios, where processing resources are constrained. The architecture has been updated based upon reviews by NASA missions, radio providers, and component vendors. The STRS Standard prescribes the architectural relationship between the software elements used in software execution and defines the Application Programmer Interface (API) between the operating environment and the waveform application. Modeling tools have been adopted to present the architecture. The paper will present a description of the updated API, configuration files, and constraints. Minimum compliance is discussed for early implementations. The paper then closes with a summary of the changes made and discussion of the relevant alignment with the Object Management Group (OMG) SWRadio specification, and enhancements to the specialized signal processing abstraction.

Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette; Hall, Charles S.

2008-01-01

301

The 1992-1993 NASA Space Biology Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the calendar years of 1992 and 1993. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and the effects of microgravity on biological processes; determining the effects of the interaction of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems; and using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (Editor)

1994-01-01

302

The 1990-1991 NASA space biology accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space Biology Program, for research conducted during the period May 1990 through May 1991. This program includes both plant and animal research, and is dedicated to understanding the role of gravity and other environmental factors on biological systems and to using the microgravity of the space environment as a tool to advance fundamental scientific knowledge in the biological sciences to improve the quality of life on Earth and contribute to NASA's goal of manned exploration of space. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a list of the accomplishments, an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments, and a list of publications.

Halstead, Thora W. (editor)

1993-01-01

303

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1988-01-01

304

Estimation of The Radiation Environment Based On The NASA Ap-8 and Ae-8 Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we discuss the earth's trapped radiation environment, as described by the NASA models AP-8 and AE-8. We include a description of the sources and structure of the trapped radiation belts, and their dependence on external factors. After describing how to use the models to predict the environment, we present data from various space missions, and compare those data to the models. This shows the limits and strengths of the models. Finally, we describe alternative models of the trapped radiation belts, and discuss why they have not been widely adopted yet.

Morton, Thomas; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

305

Radiation Shielding for Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is presented.

Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.

2003-01-01

306

MY NASA DATA: Comparing Graphs of Temperature and Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will analyze plots of temperature and radiation data to determine change over time. Step-by-step instructions for use of the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) guide students through selecting a data set, importing the data into a spreadsheet, creating graphs, and analyzing data plots. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

307

Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

2012-01-01

308

NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program: Mars Program Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Launch System is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's orbit (BEO), as directed by the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and NASA's 2011 Strategic Plan. This paper describes how the SLS can dramatically change the Mars program's science and human exploration capabilities and objectives. Specifically, through its high-velocity change (delta V) and payload capabilities, SLS enables Mars science missions of unprecedented size and scope. By providing direct trajectories to Mars, SLS eliminates the need for complicated gravity-assist missions around other bodies in the solar system, reducing mission time, complexity, and cost. SLS's large payload capacity also allows for larger, more capable spacecraft or landers with more instruments, which can eliminate the need for complex packaging or "folding" mechanisms. By offering this capability, SLS can enable more science to be done more quickly than would be possible through other delivery mechanisms using longer mission times.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

309

Status of NASA's Stirling space power converter program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of the NASA free-piston stirling space power converter technology program. The authors discuss Stirling experience in space and progress toward 1050 K and 1300 K Stirling space power converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K component test power converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. The authors provide an update of progress in some of these technologies.

Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.

310

NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

2012-01-01

311

Robotics program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard telerobotic program is structured to increase the scope and efficiency of what man can accomplish in space through the use of robotics. The main focus is to service Space Station Freedom and its payloads, but robotic assembly of Space Station Freedom and platforms is also anticipated. The approach being taken to achieve this by telerobotics, where manipulators can be controlled by human operators or computer programs. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the responsability to develop the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) for Space Station Freedom. The current plan at GSFC in support of telerobotics for Space Station Freedom and the in-orbit servicing of platforms are reviewed. Plans for ground demonstrations involving the use of an engineering test bed and an operational facility are discussed.

Ollendorf, Stanford

1989-01-01

312

NASA's Space Biology Outreach Program - Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing and discussing NASA's space missions and research is the goal of the Space Biology Outreach Program Web of Life. Visitors unfamiliar with space biology should definitely check out Space Biology FAQ's on the left hand side menu of the homepage. Questions covered range from those about the effect of weightlessness on the health of the astronauts to the significance of finding life on Mars to the definition of gravity. The Flight Experiments link on the same menu relates almost a dozen experiments that have been performed on space flights. Visitors can read about arterial remodeling and functional adaptations in the space experiment that used rats to model the human arterial system. Additionally, they can learn about how the blood vessels of the rats were examined to detect changes in a gravity-free environment. Finally, teachers should be sure to explore the Learning Resources section, which includes activities, resources, and links for teaching students of all ages.

2012-03-30

313

Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled "Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies". This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. The biological uncertainty in predicting cancer risk for space radiation derives from two primary facts. 1) One animal tumor study has been reported that includes a relevant spectrum of particle radiation energies, and that is the Harderian gland model in mice. Fact #1: Extension of cancer risk from animal models, and especially from a single study in an animal model, to humans is inherently uncertain. 2) One human database is predominantly used for assessing cancer risk caused by space radiation, and that is the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Fact #2: The atomic-bomb-survivor database, itself a remarkable achievement, contains uncertainties. These include the actual exposure to each individual, the radiation quality of that exposure, and the fact that the exposure was to acute doses of predominantly low-LET radiation, not to chronic exposures of high-LET radiation expected on long-duration interplanetary manned missions.

Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

314

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center ED Mall Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA ED Mall Collection, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office, provides teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use.

315

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

316

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Commercial Space  

E-print Network

Meeting Phil McAlister #12;2 Commercial Cargo Status Space X C1 Launch December 8, 2010 SpaceX C2+ Launch May 22, 2012 Orbital A-ONE Launch April 21, 2013 Orbital ORB-D1 Launch September 18, 2013 SpaceX Accomplish? · · · · · Produced two new low-cost U.S. launch vehicles, two new autonomous cargo spacecraft

Waliser, Duane E.

317

Modeling of Radiation Risks for Human Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to any human space flight, calculations of radiation risks are used to determine the acceptable scope of astronaut activity. Using the supercomputing facilities at NASA Ames Research Center, Ames researchers have determined the damage probabilities of DNA functional groups by space radiation. The data supercede those used in the current Monte Carlo model for risk assessment. One example is the reaction of DNA with hydroxyl radical produced by the interaction of highly energetic particles from space radiation with water molecules in the human body. This reaction is considered an important cause of DNA mutations, although its mechanism is not well understood.

Fletcher, Graham

2004-01-01

318

Electromagnetic Dissociation and Space Radiation  

E-print Network

Relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions occur mainly through the Strong or Electromagnetic (EM) interactions. Transport codes often neglect the latter. This work shows the importance of including EM interactions for space radiation applications.

John W. Norbury; Khin Maung Maung

2006-12-08

319

Shaping NASA's Kennedy Space Center Safety for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the completion of the Space Shuttle Program, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) safety function will be required to evolve beyond the single launch vehicle launch site focus that has held prominence for almost fifty years. This paper will discuss how that evolution is taking place. Specifically, we will discuss the future of safety as it relates to a site that will have multiple, very disparate, functions. These functions will include new business; KSC facilities not under the control of NASA; traditional payload and launch vehicle processing; and, operations conducted by NASA personnel, NASA contractors or a combination of both. A key element in this process is the adaptation of the current KSC set of safety requirements into a multi-faceted set that can address each of the functions above, while maintaining our world class safety environment. One of the biggest challenges that will be addressed is how to protect our personnel and property without dictating how other Non-NASA organizations protect their own employees and property. The past history of KSC Safety will be described and how the lessons learned from previous programs will be applied to the future. The lessons learned from this process will also be discussed as information for other locations that may undergo such a transformation.

Kirkpatrick, Paul; McDaniel, Laura; Smith, Maynette

2011-01-01

320

76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this meeting is...

2011-08-19

321

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

322

Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

1979-01-01

323

NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space flight Center (MSFC) for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1. Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debye lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Preventing sustained discharges during testing. 5. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 6. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 7. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 8 . Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapton pyrolization. 9. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 10. Testing for Paschen discharge thresholds. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 11. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 12. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 13. Analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

Ferguson, Dale C.a; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

2005-01-01

324

NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

2003-01-01

325

NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1.Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debuy lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. 5. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Prevention sustained discharges during testing. 6. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 7. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 8. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 9. Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapon (R) pyrolisis. 10. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 11. Testing for Paschen discharge threshold. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 12. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 13. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 14. Analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T,; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

2005-01-01

326

NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. Discussed herein are neutral gas conditions, plasma densities and uniformity, vacuum chamber sizes, sample sizes and Debye lengths, biasing samples versus self-generated voltages, floating samples versus grounded samples, test electrical conditions, arc detection, preventing sustained discharges during testing, real samples versus idealized samples, validity of LEO tests for GEO samples, extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests, snapover, current collection, and glows at positive sample bias, Kapton pyrolysis, thresholds for trigger arcs, sustained arcs, dielectric breakdown and Paschen discharge, tether arcing and testing in very dense plasmas (i.e. thruster plumes), arc mitigation strategies, charging mitigation strategies, models, and analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

2007-01-01

327

NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the requirements needed for missions to BEO destinations, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. In addition, this paper will detail SLS's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS provides game-changing mass and volume lift capability that makes it enhancing or enabling for a variety of unprecedented human and robotic missions.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

328

www.nasa.gov SpaceX CRS-1 Mission Press Kit  

E-print Network

Knotts Public Affairs Officer International Space Station NASA Johnson Space Center 281-483-5111 George Officer International Space Station NASA Johnson Space Center 281-483-5111 #12;2 HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOS flight to the International Space Station in May, SpaceX is set to launch its next Dragon resupply

329

NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

2014-01-01

330

NASA's Controlled Environment Agriculture Testing for Space Habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and other space agencies have an interest in using plants for human life support in space. The plants could provide food and O2 for the humans, while removing CO2 and helping purify wastewater. Studies to date have shown that a wide range of crops can be grown in controlled environment conditions envisioned for space. Light is a critical factor both for crop productivity and system power costs, and recent improvements in LEDs make them a preferred lighting option for space. Because space systems would be tightly closed, issues such as ethylene build-up and management must be considered. Ultimately, the costs and reliability of biological life support options must be compared with more conventional life support approaches. Findings to date suggest that about 20-25 sq. meters of crops could supply the O2 for one human, while about 50 sq. meters would be required for food (dietary calories).

Wheeler, Raymond M.

2014-01-01

331

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals ase the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

2004-01-01

332

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them as part of the $60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy; Bonometti, Joe; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie; Montgomery, Sandy

2004-01-01

333

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: Overview and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5- to 10-kW range to aerocapture and solar sails, substantial advances in - spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called 'propellantless' because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer.tethers, aeroassist and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, as well as NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Baggett, Randy M.; Bonometti, Joseph A.; Herrmann, Melody; James, Bonnie F.; Montgomery, Sandy E.

2004-01-01

334

Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of the NASA-Lewis Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Convertor Technology Program. The goal is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. Stirling experience in space and progress toward 1050 and 1300 K Stirling Space Power Converters is discussed. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converters (CTPC); results of motoring tests of cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. An update is provided of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.

335

Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

Heidersbach, Robert H.

2002-01-01

336

Status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Participation in SNAP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Rauscher will present programatic status and high-level/summary information on the technical status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's participation in the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Goddard's participation falls into four areas, and status in each of these will be covered. These areas are as follows: (I) focal plane array and packaging, (2) Teledyne HAWAII-4RG sensor chip assembly, (3) communications studies, and (4) integration and test studies.

Rauscher, Bernard

2007-01-01

337

Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

2006-01-01

338

Information Systems for NASA's Aeronautics and Space Enterprises  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerospace industry is being challenged to reduce costs and development time as well as utilize new technologies to improve product performance. Information technology (IT) is the key to providing revolutionary solutions to the challenges posed by the increasing complexity of NASA's aeronautics and space missions and the sophisticated nature of the systems that enable them. The NASA Ames vision is to develop technologies enabling the information age, expanding the frontiers of knowledge for aeronautics and space, improving America's competitive position, and inspiring future generations. Ames' missions to accomplish that vision include: 1) performing research to support the American aviation community through the unique integration of computation, experimentation, simulation and flight testing, 2) studying the health of our planet, understanding living systems in space and the origins of the universe, developing technologies for space flight, and 3) to research, develop and deliver information technologies and applications. Information technology may be defined as the use of advance computing systems to generate data, analyze data, transform data into knowledge and to use as an aid in the decision-making process. The knowledge from transformed data can be displayed in visual, virtual and multimedia environments. The decision-making process can be fully autonomous or aided by a cognitive processes, i.e., computational aids designed to leverage human capacities. IT Systems can learn as they go, developing the capability to make decisions or aid the decision making process on the basis of experiences gained using limited data inputs. In the future, information systems will be used to aid space mission synthesis, virtual aerospace system design, aid damaged aircraft during landing, perform robotic surgery, and monitor the health and status of spacecraft and planetary probes. NASA Ames through the Center of Excellence for Information Technology Office is leading the effort in pursuit of revolutionary, IT-based approaches to satisfying NASA's aeronautics and space requirements. The objective of the effort is to incorporate information technologies within each of the Agency's four Enterprises, i.e., Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology, Earth, Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space and Space Sciences. The end results of these efforts for Enterprise programs and projects should be reduced cost, enhanced mission capability and expedited mission completion.

Kutler, Paul

1998-01-01

339

NASA's mobile satellite communications program; ground and space segment technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Mobile Satellite Communications Program of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of the first generation commercial mobile satellite by the private sector, and to technologically enable future generations by developing advanced and high risk ground and space segment technologies. These technologies are aimed at mitigating severe shortages of spectrum, orbital slot, and spacecraft EIRP which are expected to plague the high capacity mobile satellite systems of the future. After a brief introduction of the concept of mobile satellite systems and their expected evolution, this paper outlines the critical ground and space segment technologies. Next, the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described. MSAT-X is the framework through which NASA will develop advanced ground segment technologies. An approach is outlined for the development of conformal vehicle antennas, spectrum and power-efficient speech codecs, and modulation techniques for use in the non-linear faded channels and efficient multiple access schemes. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the current and planned NASA activities aimed at developing complex large multibeam spacecraft antennas needed for future generation mobile satellite systems.

Naderi, F.; Weber, W. J.; Knouse, G. H.

1984-01-01

340

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2010-01-01

341

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2011-01-01

342

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2013-01-01

343

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2012-01-01

344

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2014-01-01

345

National Aeronautics and Space Administration -1 NASA 2012 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan  

E-print Network

#12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration - 1 #12;NASA 2012 Strategic Sustainability-mail: olga.m.dominguez@nasa.gov Telephone: 202-358-2800 #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration - 1 POLICY STATEMENT Worldwide, people have turned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

Waliser, Duane E.

346

Progress update of NASA's free-piston Stirling space power converter technology project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progress update is presented of the NASA LeRC Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Project. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are

James E. Dudenhoefer; Jerry M. Winter; Donald Alger

1992-01-01

347

NASA and the Legacy of the International Space Station Sam Scimemi  

E-print Network

NASA and the Legacy of the International Space Station Sam Scimemi Director, International for private initiative 4 #12;5 2 0 1 3 #12;The International Space Station Today International Space Station NASA Headquarters NASA Advisory Council HEO Committee July 29, 2013 #12

Waliser, Duane E.

348

Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

349

NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

Abshire, James B.

2010-01-01

350

Space radiation dosimetry.  

PubMed

In this report dosimetric measurements are presented which were performed during the missions Spacelab 1, D 1, Biocosmos 8 and Biocosmos 9. Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions and thermoluminescence dosimeters were exposed at different locations inside and outside spacecrafts behind more or less well defined shielding thicknesses. These detector systems which supplement each other in their registration characteristic allow to record all biological relevant portions of the radiation field separately. Dose equivalents for the astronauts have been calculated from the measurements using the quality factors as defined in the old and the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). PMID:11538447

Reitz, G

1994-11-01

351

High-Speed Computational Applications for Space Radiation Shielding Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expanding knowledge of the complexities of the space radiation environment and its interactions with matter, coupled with greater burdens associated with budgetary and time constraints, have given impetus to the need for application of more sophisticated analyses in more abbreviated time spans. Recent work at NASA-LaRC in this area has resulted in development of high efficiency algorithms coupled with high

John E. Nealy; Brooke M. Anderson; John W. Wilson; Garry D. Qualls

2003-01-01

352

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's FY 2015 Management and Performance Governance's Mission is to: Drive advances in science, technology, aeronautics, and space exploration to enhance

Waliser, Duane E.

353

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: Scientific Visualization Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the web page for The Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS), a branch of the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) that generates visuals to promote a greater understanding of Earth and Space Science Research Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Scientific Visualization Studio creates scientific stories by combining the visualization of remote sensing data with conceptual scientific animations for presentation to the scientific community and to the general public through educational institutions, museums, Compact Discs and videos. The Facilities section contains a detailed overview of the instruments used to create the visualizations. The Image Wall contains twenty reports on National Aeronautical & Space Administration projects including El Nino, the Biosphere, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), astronomy, seasonal climate variations, hurricanes, Antarctica, urban growth, and others. The reports come complete with project write-ups and downloadable images and movies.

354

Space Radiation and Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S.; Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bateman, Ted A.

2011-01-01

355

NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will start its missions in 2017 with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how the SLS Program is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and developing advanced technology based on heritage systems, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. It will also detail the significant progress that has already been made toward its first launch in 2017. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they will need for extended trips to explore new frontiers. In addition, this paper will summarize the SLS rocket's capability to support science and robotic precursor missions to other worlds, or uniquely high-mass space facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

356

NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's Contributions to Space Plasma Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-l970's, the Space Plasma Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has contributed critical instrumentation to numerous satellite and sounding rocket missions exploring the plasmas of near-Earth space. This talk will review major discoveries in Earth's ionosphere, plasmasphere, and magnetosphere directly attributable to the researchers of the Space Plasma Physics Group and the significance of these discoveries to the field of plasma physics.

Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

357

Emerging, Photonic Based Technologies for NASA Space Communications Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective of NASA's Computing, Information, and Communications Technology program is to support the development of technologies that could potentially lower the cost of the Earth science and space exploration missions, and result in greater scientific returns. NASA-supported photonic activities which will impact space communications will be described. The objective of the RF microphotonic research is to develop a Ka-band receiver that will enable the microwaves detected by an antenna to modulate a 1.55- micron optical carrier. A key element is the high-Q, microphotonic modulator that employs a lithium niobate microdisk. The technical approach could lead to new receivers that utilize ultra-fast, photonic signal processing techniques, and are low cost, compact, low weight and power efficient. The progress in the liquid crystal (LC) beam steering research will also be reported. The predicted benefits of an LC-based device on board a spacecraft include non-mechanical, submicroradian laser-beam pointing, milliradian scanning ranges, and wave-front correction. The potential applications of these emerging technologies to the various NASA missions will be presented.

Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Levi, Anthony; Bos, Philip; Titus, Charles; Lavrentovich, Oleg

2002-01-01

358

NASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar FundingNASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar Funding The National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

1 NASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar FundingNASA Renews Multi-Million Dollar Funding The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has renewed its support of the Antarctic Im- pulsive Transient

359

NASA space geodesy program: Catalogue of site information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first edition of the NASA Space Geodesy Program: Catalogue of Site Information. This catalogue supersedes all previous versions of the Crustal Dynamics Project: Catalogue of Site Information, last published in May 1989. This document is prepared under the direction of the Space Geodesy and Altimetry Projects Office (SGAPO), Code 920.1, Goddard Space Flight Center. SGAPO has assumed the responsibilities of the Crustal Dynamics Project, which officially ended December 31, 1991. The catalog contains information on all NASA supported sites as well as sites from cooperating international partners. This catalog is designed to provde descriptions and occupation histories of high-accuracy geodetic measuring sites employing space-related techniques. The emphasis of the catalog has been in the past, and continues to be with this edition, station information for facilities and remote locations utilizing the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques. With the proliferation of high-quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) transponders, many co-located at established SLR and VLBI observatories, the requirement for accurate station and localized survey information for an ever broadening base of scientists and engineers has been recognized. It is our objective to provide accurate station information to scientific groups interested in these facilities.

Bryant, M. A.; Noll, C. E.

1993-01-01

360

Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

2004-01-01

361

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report contain supporting documentation, including the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

362

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report include the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

363

An Overview of Space Power Systems for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical commodity for all engineering efforts and is especially challenging in the aerospace field. This paper will provide a broad brush overview of some of the immediate and important challenges to NASA missions in the field of aerospace power, for generation, energy conversion, distribution, and storage. NASA s newest vehicles which are currently in the design phase will have power systems that will be developed from current technology, but will have the challenges of being light-weight, energy-efficient, and space-qualified. Future lunar and Mars "outposts" will need high power generation units for life support and energy-intensive exploration efforts. An overview of the progress in concepts for power systems and the status of the required technologies are discussed.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Scott, John H.

2007-01-01

364

Congress Examines NASA Budget, Space Station, and Relations With Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns about recent Russian activities related to Ukraine loomed over an 8 April congressional hearing focusing on NASA's fiscal year (FY) 2015 budget request. Rep. Frank Wolf (R-Va.), chair of the House of Representatives Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, and several other committee members questioned NASA administrator Charles Bolden about the agency's contingency plans if tensions between Russia and the United States cause key joint scientific endeavors between the two countries to break off. That concern is particularly critical given the countries' longtime partnership on the International Space Station (ISS) and with the United States currently relying on Russian transport to and from the station until U.S. commercial vehicles are ready to transport astronauts back and forth.

Showstack, Randy

2014-04-01

365

Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Testing Capability: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.

DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

2012-01-01

366

NASA's In Space Propulsion Technology Program Accomplishments and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program was managed for 5 years at the NASA MSFC and significant strides were made in the advancement of key transportation technologies that will enable or enhance future robotic science and deep space exploration missions. At the program's inception, a set of technology investment priorities were established using an NASA-wide, mission-driven prioritization process and, for the most part, these priorities changed little - thus allowing a consistent framework in which to fund and manage technology development. Technologies in the portfolio included aerocapture, advanced chemical propulsion, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and various very advanced propulsion technologies with significantly lower technology readiness. The program invested in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program was to lay the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The ambitious goals of the program at its inception included supporting the development of technologies that could support all of NASA's missions, both human and robotic. As time went on and budgets were never as high as planned, the scope of the program was reduced almost every year, forcing the elimination of not only the broader goals of the initial program, but also of funding for over half of the technologies in the original portfolio. In addition, the frequency at which the application requirements for the program changed exceeded the development time required to mature technologies: forcing sometimes radical rescoping of research efforts already halfway (or more) to completion. At the end of its fifth year, both the scope and funding of the program were at a minimum despite the program successfully meeting all of it's initial high priority objectives. This paper will describe the program, its requirements, technology portfolio, and technology maturation processes. Also discussed will be the major technology milestones achieved and the lessons learned from managing a $100M+ technology program.

Johnson, Les C.; Harris, David

2008-01-01

367

Clocks and timing in the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new timing system has been developed for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and is currently in the final stages of integration, testing and implementation in all three DSN sites. The DSN is a distributed antenna network for deep space communication, whose facilities are continuously engaged in spacecraft tracking, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) or Radio Astronomy activities. Its primary components consist of three Deep Space Communication Centers (DSCC) separated nearly equidistant around the Earth in California, USA; Spain; and Australia. Within each DSCC, synchronized, low jitter timing signals must be distributed to many users over distances of up to 30 kilometers. The design criteria for the timing system required state of the art stability and jitter performance, but also extremely high operability and reliability. This paper describes some of the key features and recent system performance data as measured both in the laboratory and the operational DSN.

Lauf, J.; Calhoun, M.; Diener, W.; Gonzalez, J.; Kirk, A.; Kuhnle, P.; Tucker, B.; Kirby, C.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

2005-01-01

368

Earth to space power beaming: A new NASA technology initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser power beaming from the Earth's surface is an innovative and potentially cost-effective option for reliably providing electrical power for applications such as space transportation, Earth-orbiting satellites, and lunar development. The maturation of laser power beaming technology can support low power applications such as upgraded conventional communications satellites in the present decade. Power beaming systems to support extensive lunar base operations that may consume extremely large amounts of power can be implemented early in the 21st century. The synergistic advantages of high-thrust, high specific-impulse electric propulsion may make enhanced, low cost space logistics an area of unique significance for laser power beaming. Economic forces will continue as a driving factor in the selection of major system elements for both commercial applications as well as the avant-garde national space missions envisioned for the 21st century. As a result, the implementation of laser power beaming systems will only take place if they can demonstrate clear economic benefits without sacrificing performance, personnel safety, or the environment. Similarly, the development activities that are a necessary precursor to any operational system will take place only if key industry and government leaders perceive laser power beaming systems as an achievable goal with realistic payoffs in comparison to competing energy options. This paper summarizes NASA's current research to evaluate laser power beaming systems as they apply to applications of greatest interest, and it includes a summary of the current laser power beaming program within the NASA Headquarters Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. This research effort will quantify some key technical certainties and uncertainties pertaining to laser power beaming systems appropriate for space applications as well as establish a path of development that includes maturation of key technology components for reliable laser and millimeter wave power beaming systems during the 1990's. The program is known as 'SELENE', an acronym for Space Laser Energy.

Rather, John D. G.

1992-01-01

369

Internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Test laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is known for hosting all of the United States manned rocket launches as well as many unmanned launches at low inclinations. Even though the Space Shuttle recently retired, they are continuing to support unmanned launches and modifying manned launch facilities. Before a rocket can be launched, it has to go through months of preparation, called processing. Pieces of a rocket and its payload may come in from anywhere in the nation or even the world. The facilities all around the center help integrate the rocket and prepare it for launch. As NASA prepares for the Space Launch System, a rocket designed to take astronauts beyond Low Earth Orbit throughout the solar system, technology development is crucial for enhancing launch capabilities at the KSC. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center greatly contributes to cryogenic research and technology development. The engineers and technicians that work there come up with new ways to efficiently store and transfer liquid cryogens. NASA has a great need for this research and technology development as it deals with cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for rocket fuel, as well as long term space flight applications. Additionally, in this new era of space exploration, the Cryogenics Test Laboratory works with the commercial sector. One technology development project is the Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) Ground Operations Demonstration Unit (GODU). LH2 GODU intends to demonstrate increased efficiency in storing and transferring liquid hydrogen during processing, loading, launch and spaceflight of a spacecraft. During the Shuttle Program, only 55% of hydrogen purchased was used by the Space Shuttle Main Engines. GODU's goal is to demonstrate that this percentage can be increased to 75%. Figure 2 shows the GODU layout when I concluded my internship. The site will include a 33,000 gallon hydrogen tank (shown in cyan) with a heat exchanger inside the hydrogen tank attached to a refrigerator capable of removing 850 Watts at 20 Kelvin (shown in green). The refrigerator and most of its supporting equipment will be kept in a standard shipping container (shown in pink). Currently, GODU is in the fabrication process and some of the large components have already been purchased.

Holland, Katherine

2013-01-01

370

NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) -2006  

E-print Network

NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) - 2006) (formerly REASoN) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Earth Science Data Systems, supports the NASA Earth Science research community in providing Earth science data products

Christian, Eric

371

39Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Requirements OutlineRequirements Outline  

E-print Network

39Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center responsibility: both accept and request #12;40Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center MotivationsMotivations l Adjustable autonomy places severe requirements

Kortenkamp, David

372

Shielding from space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Progress Report covering the period of 1 June 1993 to 1 Dec. 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a one-layer Green's function formalism. The mathematical developments are recasted into an efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 80 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented.

Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

1993-01-01

373

Shielding from space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Progress Report covering the period of 1 June 1993 to 1 Dec. 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a one-layer Green's function formalism. The mathematical developments are recasted into an efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 80 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an Iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented.

Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

1993-01-01

374

Shielding from Space Radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Progress Report for NCC-1-178 presents the details of the engineering development of an analytical/computational solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a multi-layer Green's function formalism as applied to the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) program. The mathematical developments are recasted into a series of efficient computer codes for space applications. The efficiency of applied algorithms is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The codes may also be applied to the accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Correlations with experiments for the isotopic version of the code with 59 and 80 isotopes present for a two layers target material in water has been verified.

Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Francis F.

1998-01-01

375

Shielding from space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Progress Report covering the period of December 1, 1992 to June 1, 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of Green's function formalism. The mathematical development results are recasted into a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution domain. The code may also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments. Results from the isotopic version of the code with 59 isotopes present for a single layer target material, for the case of an iron beam projectile at 600 MeV/nucleon in water is presented. A listing of the single layer isotopic version of the code is included.

Chang, C. Ken; Badavi, Forooz F.; Tripathi, Ram K.

1993-01-01

376

Unusual Light in Dark Space Revealed by Los Alamos, NASA  

ScienceCinema

By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. CIBER, the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, is designed to understand the physics going on between visible stars and galaxies. The relatively small, sub-orbital rocket unloads a camera that snaps pictures of the night sky in near-infrared wavelengths, between 1.2 and 1.6 millionth of a meter. Scientists take the data and remove all the known visible stars and galaxies and quantify what is left.

Smidt, Joseph

2015-01-05

377

High Temperature Materials Needs in NASA's Advanced Space Propulsion Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, NASA has embarked on several new and exciting efforts in the exploration and use of space. The successful accomplishment of many planned missions and projects is dependent upon the development and deployment of previously unproven propulsion systems. Key to many of the propulsion systems is the use of emergent materials systems, particularly high temperature structural composites. A review of the general missions and benefits of utilizing high temperature materials will be presented. The design parameters and operating conditions will be presented for both specific missions/vehicles and classes of components. Key technical challenges and opportunities are identified along with suggested paths for addressing them.

Eckel, Andrew J.; Glass, David E.

2005-01-01

378

Human habitat positioning system for NASA's space flight environmental simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial gravity by centrifugation offers an effective countermeasure to the physiologic deconditioning of chronic exposure to microgravity; however, the system requirements of rotational velocity, radius of rotation, and resultant centrifugal acceleration require thorough investigation to ascertain the ideal human-use centrifuge configuration. NASA's Space Flight Environmental Simulator (SFES), a 16-meter (52-foot) diameter, animal-use centrifuge, was recently modified to accommodate human occupancy. This paper describes the SFES Human Habitat Positioning System, the mechanism that facilitates radius of rotation variability and alignment of the centrifuge occupants with the artificial gravity vector.

Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.; Keas, P.

1998-01-01

379

Unusual Light in Dark Space Revealed by Los Alamos, NASA  

SciTech Connect

By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. CIBER, the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, is designed to understand the physics going on between visible stars and galaxies. The relatively small, sub-orbital rocket unloads a camera that snaps pictures of the night sky in near-infrared wavelengths, between 1.2 and 1.6 millionth of a meter. Scientists take the data and remove all the known visible stars and galaxies and quantify what is left.

Smidt, Joseph

2014-11-07

380

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

1991-01-01

381

Strategic Project Management at the NASA Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes Project Management at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) from a strategic perspective. It develops the historical context of the agency and center's strategic planning process and illustrates how now is the time for KSC to become a center which has excellence in project management. The author describes project management activities at the center and details observations on those efforts. Finally the author describes the Strategic Project Management Process Model as a conceptual model which could assist KSC in defining an appropriate project management process system at the center.

Lavelle, Jerome P.

2000-01-01

382

R.F Microphotonics for NASA Space Communications Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An RF microphotonic receiver has-been developed at Ka-band. The receiver consists of a lithium niobate micro-disk that enables RF-optical coupling to occur. The modulated optical signal (- 200 THz) is detected by the high-speed photonic signal processing electronics. When compared with an electronic approach, the microphotonic receiver technology offers 10 times smaller volume, smaller weight, and smaller power consumption; greater sensitivity; and optical isolation for use in extreme environments. The status of the technology development will be summarized, and the potential application of the receiver to NASA space communications systems will be described.

Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Miranda, Felix; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani; Cohen, David; Levi, A. F. J.

2007-01-01

383

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

384

Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

385

NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges both in delivering the 70-t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130-t vehicle, and how NASA plans to accomplish these goals. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2013-01-01

386

Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

1998-01-01

387

NASA Now: The Future Of Space Travel - Duration: 6:14.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA astronaut Greg Johnson joins NASA Now to discuss the future of space exploration and the logical progression of sending humans to Mars. He talks about sending astronauts back to the moon and t...

388

NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations - Duration: 6:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, you??ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

389

The continuing evolution of manned space flight radiation safety support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative importance of radiation safety in NASA's manned space flight operations has increased over the past several years. Factors driving this change include the initiation of NASA's first "permanent" manned space program, reassessment of the magnitude of health risks from radiation exposure, evidence of previously unrecognized forms of radiation exposure health risks, and improved understanding of the radiation environment inside and outside manned spacecraft in low- Earth orbit. These changes have resulted in a shift in the emphasis of operational space flight radiological control. While flight controllers remain concerned about and vigilant for the very infrequent extreme solar particle events, it is no longer the only focus of operational radiological support. A greater emphasis is now placed on reducing chronic exposure from the ever-present galactic cosmic rays and geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons. As a result, new tools, techniques, and strategies have evolved to manage and reduce ISS astronaut exposures including advanced radiation monitoring instruments, improved real-time insight into the intra - and extra- vehicular radiation environment, dedicated radiation shielding, incorporating outer electron belt dynamics into EVA exposure assessments, the use of administrative exposure limits, and providing more detailed space weather assessments for flight management.

Golightly, M.; Weyland, M.; Johnson, A.; Smith, G.; Semones, E.; Zapp, N.; Shelfer, T.

390

NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

2011-01-01

391

Meson Production and Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation is an important priority for long duration space flight. The National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) has recently recommended that pion and other mesons should be included in space radiation transport codes, especially in connection with the Martian atmosphere. In an interesting accident of nature, the galactic cosmic ray spectrum has its peak intensity near the pion production threshold. The Boltzmann transport equation is structured in such a way that particle production cross sec-tions are multiplied by particle flux. Therefore, the peak of the incident flux of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum is more important than other regions of the spectrum and cross sections near the peak are enhanced. This happens with pion cross sections. The MCNPX Monte-Carlo transport code now has the capability of transporting heavy ions, and by using a galactic cosmic ray spectrum as input, recent work has shown that pions contribute about twenty percent of the dose from galactic cosmic rays behind a shield of 20 g/cm2 aluminum and 30 g/cm2 water. It is therefore important to include pion and other hadron production in transport codes designed for space radiation studies, such as HZETRN. The status of experimental hadron production data for energies relevant to space radiation will be reviewed, as well as the predictive capa-bilities of current theoretical hadron production cross section and space radiation transport models. Charged pions decay into muons and neutrinos, and neutral pions decay into photons. An electromagnetic cascade is produced as these particles build up in a material. The cascade and transport of pions, muons, electrons and photons will be discussed as they relate to space radiation. The importance of other hadrons, such as kaons, eta mesons and antiprotons will be considered as well. Efficient methods for calculating cross sections for meson production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus reactions will be presented. The NCRP has also recom-mended that more attention should be paid to neutron and light ion transport. The coupling of neutrons, light ions, mesons and other hadrons will be discussed.

Norbury, John; Blattnig, Steve; Norman, Ryan; Aghara, Sukesh

392

Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

Atwell, William

2012-02-01

393

NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

394

BioServe space technologies: A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), was established in 1987. As is characteristic of each CCDS designated by NASA, the goals of this commercial center are aimed at stimulating high technology research that takes advantage of the space environment and at leading in the development of new products and services which have commercial potential or that contribute to possible new commercial ventures. BioServe's efforts in these areas focus upon space life science studies and the development of enabling devices that will facilitate ground-based experiments as well as the conversion of such to the microgravity environment. A direct result of BioServe's hardware development and life sciences studies is the training of the next generation of bioengineers who will be knowledgeable and comfortable working with the challenges of the space frontier.

1992-01-01

395

New antenna feed revitalizes Space Shuttle tracker at NASA Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the upgrading of a 12-ft-diameter single-channel monopulse tracking system, which had been relegated to slaved backup status at NASA Edwards, to support research flights for Ames Dryden Research Center and for tracking orbital passes of the Space Shuttle and Shuttle landings both at Edwards and at White Sands. The improved system is now a stand-alone telemetry tracking system. A new conical scanning feed (known as Radscan) replaces the single channel monopulse feed in the upgraded system. Where previously the system would not autotrack at elevation angles below 5 degrees, it now automatically acquires the Space Shuttle when it appears on the horizon and autotracks from approximately 2 degrees in elevation to touchdown, and does so virtually unattended.

Wrin, J. W.; Sullivan, A.

1984-01-01

396

Coherent Frequency Reference System for the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires state-of-the-art frequency references that are derived and distributed from very stable atomic frequency standards. A new Frequency Reference System (FRS) and Frequency Reference Distribution System (FRD) have been developed, which together replace the previous Coherent Reference Generator System (CRG). The FRS and FRD each provide new capabilities that significantly improve operability and reliability. The FRS allows for selection and switching between frequency standards, a flywheel capability (to avoid interruptions when switching frequency standards), and a frequency synthesis system (to generate standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals). The FRS is powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems and includes a monitor and control capability for station operations to interact and control the frequency-standard selection process. The FRD receives the standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals and distributes signals to distribution amplifiers in a fan out fashion to dozens of DSN users that require the highly stable reference signals. The FRD is also powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems. The new DSN Frequency Distribution System, which consists of the FRS and FRD systems described here, is central to all operational activities of the NASA DSN. The frequency generation and distribution system provides ultra-stable, coherent, and very low phase-noise references at 5, l0, and 100 MHz to between 60 and 100 separate users at each Deep Space Communications Complex.

Tucker, Blake C.; Lauf, John E.; Hamell, Robert L.; Gonzaler, Jorge, Jr.; Diener, William A.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

2010-01-01

397

An Overview of contributions of NASA Space Shuttle to Space Science and Engineering education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an indepth overview of the enormous contrbutions made by the NASA Space Shuttle Program to Space science and engineering education over the past thirty years. The author has served as one of the major contributors and editors of NASA book "Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle program" (NASA SP-2010-3409). Every Space Shuttle mission was an education mission: student involvement programs such as Get Away Specials housed in Shuttle payload allowed students to propose research and thus enrich their university education experience. School students were able to operate "EarthKAM" to learn the intricacies of orbital mechanics, earth viewing opportunities and were able to master the science and art of proposal writing and scientific collaboration. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the global student and teaching community in space sciences and engineering to the plethora of educational resources available to them for engaging a wide variety of students (from early school to the undergraduate and graduate level and to inspire them towards careers in Space sciences and technologies. The volume "Wings In Orbit" book is one example of these ready to use in classroom materials. This paper will highlight the educational payloads, experiments and on-orbit classroom activities conducted for space science and engineering students, teachers and non-traditional educators. The presentation will include discussions on the science content and its educational relevance in all major disiciplines in which the research was conducted on-board the Space Shuttle.

Lulla, Kamlesh

2012-07-01

398

NASA's 3D Flight Computer for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program (NMP) Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) for Microelectronics Systems was planning to validate a newly developed 3D Flight Computer system on its first deep-space flight, DS1, launched in October 1998. This computer, developed in the 1995-97 time frame, contains many new computer technologies previously never used in deep-space systems. They include: advanced 3D packaging architecture for future low-mass and low-volume avionics systems; high-density 3D packaged chip-stacks for both volatile and non-volatile mass memory: 400 Mbytes of local DRAM memory, and 128 Mbytes of Flash memory; high-bandwidth Peripheral Component Interface (Per) local-bus with a bridge to VME; high-bandwidth (20 Mbps) fiber-optic serial bus; and other attributes, such as standard support for Design for Testability (DFT). Even though this computer system did not complete on time for delivery to the DS1 project, it was an important development along a technology roadmap towards highly integrated and highly miniaturized avionics systems for deep-space applications. This continued technology development is now being performed by NASA's Deep Space System Development Program (also known as X2000) and within JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM).

Alkalai, Leon

2000-01-01

399

Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

1994-01-01

400

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOEpatents

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

401

Mars Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost-effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is a critical design constraint and a potential 'show stopper'. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the agency's vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. The exposures from ionizing radiation - galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events - and optimized shield design for a swing-by and a long duration Mars mission have been investigated. It is found that the technology of today is inadequate for safe human missions to Mars, and revolutionary technologies need to be developed for long duration and/or deep space missions. The study will provide a guideline for radiation exposure and protection for long duration missions and career astronauts and their safety.

Tripathi, Ram K.; Nealy, John E.

2007-01-01

402

Stirling Radioisotope Power System as an Alternative for NASAs Deep Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide on-board electric power for future NASA deep space missions. The SRPS currently being developed provides about 100 watts and reduces the amount of radioisotope fuel by a factor of four over conventional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The present SRPS design has a specific power of approximately 4 W/kg which is comparable to an RTG. GRC estimates for advanced versions of the SRPS with improved heat source integration, lightweight Stirling convertors, composite radiators, and chip-packaged controllers improves the specific mass to about 8 W/kg. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Shaltens, R. K.; Mason, L. S.; Schreiber, J. G.

2001-01-01

403

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in four areas that include Propulsion System Technologies (Electric and Chemical), Entry Vehicle Technologies (Aerocapture and Earth entry vehicles), Spacecraft Bus and Sample Return Propulsion Technologies (components and ascent vehicles), and Systems/Mission Analysis. Three technologies are ready for flight infusion: 1) the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance; 2) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 3) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; and aerothermal effect models. Two component technologies that will be ready for flight infusion in the near future will be Advanced Xenon Flow Control System, and ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies. Future focuses for ISPT are sample return missions and other spacecraft bus technologies like: 1) Mars Ascent Vehicles (MAV); 2) multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) for sample return missions; and 3) electric propulsion for sample return and low cost missions. These technologies are more vehicle-focused, and present a different set of technology infusion challenges. While the Systems/Mission Analysis area is focused on developing tools and assessing the application of propulsion technologies to a wide variety of mission concepts. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, and sample return missions currently under consideration, as well as having broad applicability to potential Flagship missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the ISPT program, describing the development status and technology infusion readiness of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of electric propulsion, aerocapture, Earth entry vehicles, propulsion components, Mars ascent vehicle, and mission/systems analysis.

Anderson, David J.; Pencil,Eric J.; Peterson, Todd; Vento, Daniel; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Dankanich, John W.

2012-01-01

404

Simulation of Range Safety for the NASA Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a simulation environment that seamlessly combines a number of safety and environmental models for the launch phase of a NASA Space Shuttle mission. The components of this simulation environment represent the different systems that must interact in order to determine the Expectation of casualties (E(sub c)) resulting from the toxic effects of the gas dispersion that occurs after a disaster affecting a Space Shuttle within 120 seconds of lift-off. The utilization of the Space Shuttle reliability models, trajectory models, weather dissemination systems, population models, amount and type of toxicants, gas dispersion models, human response functions to toxicants, and a geographical information system are all integrated to create this environment. This simulation environment can help safety managers estimate the population at risk in order to plan evacuation, make sheltering decisions, determine the resources required to provide aid and comfort, and mitigate damages in case of a disaster. This simulation environment may also be modified and used for the landing phase of a space vehicle but will not be discussed in this paper.

Rabelo, Luis; Sepulveda, Jose; Compton, Jeppie; Turner, Robert

2005-01-01

405

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of ISS. We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015 2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA's Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-06-01

406

www.nasa.gov INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) INTERACTIVE REFERENCE GUIDE National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) INTERACTIVE REFERENCE GUIDE National Aeronautics Node 2 and the Truss is mounted on top of the US Lab. The Canadian Station Remote Manipulator is above the Kibo ELM-PS. Serves as the control Station for the Kibo Remote Manipulator 1 Release grapple

407

NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and the record-breaking testing of the J-2X engine, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

2013-01-01

408

On the validity of the aluminum equivalent approximation in space radiation shielding applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence

Francis F. Badavi; Daniel O. Adams; John W. Wilson

2010-01-01

409

High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA)s for use in reconfigurable architectures. As these component/chip level technologies mature, the RHESE project emphasis shifts to focus on efforts encompassing total processor hardening techniques and board-level electronic reconfiguration techniques featuring spare and interface modularity. This phased approach to distributing emphasis between technology developments provides hardened FPGA/FPAAs for early mission infusion, then migrates to hardened, board-level, high speed processors with associated memory elements and high density storage for the longer duration missions encountered for Lunar Outpost and Mars Exploration occurring later in the Constellation schedule.

Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

2007-01-01

410

Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

Lebo, George

2002-07-01

411

NASA/BAE Systems SpaceWire Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments using Spacewire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements Spacewire in Register Transfer Level VHDL for a Spacewire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the Spacewire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for some spaceflight qualified FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented in their 0.25 micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS driver/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed Spacewire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for Spacewire has been identified by both NASA and ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach. The Transport layer needs to be implemented in hardware-to prevent bottlenecks.

Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

2003-01-01

412

Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

2012-01-01

413

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3), can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

414

NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

2008-01-01

415

NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (<0.2 Gy), and for increased tumor lethality due to the propensity for higher rates of metastatic tumors from high LET radiation suggested by animal experiments. The NSCR-2014 model considers how these qualitative differences modify the overall probability distribution functions (PDF) for cancer mortality risk estimates from space radiation. Predictions of NSCR-2014 for International Space Station missions and Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

Cucinotta, Francis

416

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

2001-01-01

417

Description of Transport Codes for Space Radiation Shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes transport codes and their use for studying and designing space radiation shielding. When combined with risk projection models radiation transport codes serve as the main tool for study radiation and designing shielding. There are three criteria for assessing the accuracy of transport codes: (1) Ground-based studies with defined beams and material layouts, (2) Inter-comparison of transport code results for matched boundary conditions and (3) Comparisons to flight measurements. These three criteria have a very high degree with NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

418

Radiation Assurance for the Space Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for spacecraft electronic systems. A hardness assurance methodology must be followed to assure that the space radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of space-based systems during the mission lifetime. The methodology includes a definition of the radiation environment, assessment of the radiation sensitivity of parts, worst-case analysis of the impact of radiation effects, and part acceptance decisions which are likely to include mitigation measures.

Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Poivey, Christian

2004-01-01

419

NASA GSFC's Role in the US Space Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discussss the GSFC research interests and how GSFC contributes to solve some of most basic questions Humans having been asking for thousands of years. How big is universe? How old is the universe? Will Humans and industrialization of the Earth change the climate significantly? Can Humans live in space? How does the Sun affect life on Earth? Goddard s role in Earth Science is very unique. We buy and build instruments that collect data about weather around the world. By flying those instruments on spacecraft, we have a unique vantage point to observe the weather patterns on a global scale. The best example is a satellite network called GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) which produces the weather pictures and videos you see on the nightly news and weather channel. Earth Science is another area of great interest to Goddard scientists and spacecraft designers. This photo of an oil fire in Iraq taken on March 2Ist of this year shows the down range effect pollution will have on entire region. Space Weather has become extremely important in the Space business. Satellites not only can become inoperable due to the occasional high level of radiation but astronauts can be exposed to dangerous levels of radiation. Space Weather is actually an issue when planning Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). At Goddard, our operation of the Hubble Space Telescope has meant we have worked closely with several Shuttle crews over the years.

Simpson, James E.

2004-01-01

420

Formalizing New Navigation Requirements for NASA's Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a recent NASA-sponsored pilot project intended to gauge the effectiveness of using formal methods in Space Shuttle software requirements analysis. Several Change Requests (CRs) were selected as promising targets to demonstrate the utility of formal methods in this demanding application domain. A CR to add new navigation capabilities to the Shuttle, based on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is the focus of this industrial usage report. Portions of the GPS CR were modeled using the language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). During a limited analysis conducted on the formal specifications, numerous requirements issues were discovered. We present a summary of these encouraging results and conclusions we have drawn from the pilot project.

DiVito, Ben L.

1996-01-01

421

NASA - Johnson Space Center: Office of Technology Transfer and Commercialization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnson Technology Commercialization Center (JTCC) opened in 1993 and is located close to the Johnson Space Center. The JTCC is funded by a grant from NASA and is managed by the IC2 Institute, an international research center for the study of Innovation, Creativity and Capital (ICC) at the University of Texas at Austin. Among its credits, the IC2 Institute manages the Austin Technology Incubator (ATI), a recognized resource for the development of emerging technology companies a model for JTCC. The IC2 introduced a a laboratory-to-market approach, utilized by JTCC, which takes technology output from JSC and matches it with accomplished business and financial partners in the local community. The final transfer can be the result of either of two primary methods, "Small Business Incubator Services" and technology licensing.

422

Research in space-age materials takes off with support from NASA  

E-print Network

Research in space-age materials takes off with support from NASA Steven Schultz Princeton NJ and reliable airplanes and spacecraft. NASA will fund the project with at least $3 million a year for up to 10 institute operated at the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia. In addition to conducting basic research

Aksay, Ilhan A.

423

NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Education, Aeronautics, Space, Autonomy, Earth and Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This first volume of the Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE) Center Press Series on NASA University Research Center's (URC's) Advanced Technologies on Space Exploration and National Service constitute a report on the research papers and presentations delivered by NASA Installations and industry and Report of the NASA's fourteen URC's held at the First National Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico from February 16-19, 1997.

Jamshidi, M. (Editor); Lumia, R. (Editor); Tunstel, E., Jr. (Editor); White, B. (Editor); Malone, J. (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor)

1997-01-01

424

Reconfigurable Transceiver and Software-Defined Radio Architecture and Technology Evaluated for NASA Space Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the development and suitability of a software-based open-architecture for space-based reconfigurable transceivers (RTs) and software-defined radios (SDRs). The main objectives of this project are to enable advanced operations and reduce mission costs. SDRs are becoming more common because of the capabilities of reconfigurable digital signal processing technologies such as field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors, which place radio functions in firmware and software that were traditionally performed with analog hardware components. Features of interest of this communications architecture include nonproprietary open standards and application programming interfaces to enable software reuse and portability, independent hardware and software development, and hardware and software functional separation. The goals for RT and SDR technologies for NASA space missions include prelaunch and on-orbit frequency and waveform reconfigurability and programmability, high data rate capability, and overall communications and processing flexibility. These operational advances over current state-of-art transceivers will be provided to reduce the power, mass, and cost of RTs and SDRs for space communications. The open architecture for NASA communications will support existing (legacy) communications needs and capabilities while providing a path to more capable, advanced waveform development and mission concepts (e.g., ad hoc constellations with self-healing networks and high-rate science data return). A study was completed to assess the state of the art in RT architectures, implementations, and technologies. In-house researchers conducted literature searches and analysis, interviewed Government and industry contacts, and solicited information and white papers from industry on space-qualifiable RTs and SDRs and their associated technologies for space-based NASA applications. The white papers were evaluated, compiled, and used to assess RT and SDR system architectures and core technology elements to determine an appropriate investment strategy to advance these technologies to meet future mission needs. The use of these radios in the space environment represents a challenge because of the space radiation suitability of the components, which drastically reduces the processing capability. The radios available for space are considered to be RTs (as opposed to SDRs), which are digitally programmable radios with selectable changes from an architecture combining analog and digital components. The limited flexibility of this design contrasts against the desire to have a power-efficient solution and open architecture.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

425

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2014-01-01

426

NASA's Commercial Space Centers: Bringing Together Government and Industry for "Out of this World" Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is making significant effort to accommodate commercial research in the utilization plans of the International Space Station (ISS)[1]. NASA is providing 30% of the research accommodations in the ISS laboratory modules to support commercial endeavors. However, the availability of resources alone does not necessarily translate into significant private sector participation in NASA's ISS utilization plans. Due to the efforts of NASA's Commercial Space Centers (CSC's), NASA has developed a very robust plan for involving the private sector in ISS utilization activities. Obtaining participation from the private sector requires a demonstrated capability for obtaining commercially significant research results. Since 1985, NASA CSC's have conducted over 200 commercial research activities aboard parabolic aircraft, sounding rockets, the Space Shuttle, and the ISS. The success of these activities has developed substantial investment from private sector companies in commercial space research.

Robinson, R. Keith; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

427

The NASA Radiation Interuniversity Science and Engineering(RaISE) Project: A Model for Inter-collaboration and Distance Learning in Radiation Physics and Nuclear Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the Radiation Interuniversity Science and Engineering (RaISE) Project, which is a project that has as its goals strengthening and furthering the curriculum in radiation sciences at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Prairie View A&M University and Texas Southern University. Those were chosen in part because of the proximity to NASA Johnson Space Center, a lead center for the Space Radiation Health Program. The presentation reviews the courses that have been developed, both in-class, and on-line.

Denkins, Pamela S.; Saganti, P.; Obot, V.; Singleterry, R.

2006-01-01

428

NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the creation of chemical elements such as oxygen through nuclear reactions in their cores. Such observations also help reveal how the interstellar medium (the gas that occupies the vast spaces between the stars) is enriched with chemical elements because of supernova explosions. Later on, these elements are incorporated into new generations of stars and their accompanying planets. Visible only from Earth's southern hemisphere, the LMC is an irregular galaxy lying about 160,000 light-years from the Milky Way. The supernova remnant appears to be about 3,000 years old, but since its light took 160,000 years to reach us, the explosion actually occurred some 163,000 years ago. This composite image of N132D was created by the Hubble Heritage team from visible-light data taken in January 2004 with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys, and X-ray images obtained in July 2000 by Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This marks the first Hubble Heritage image that combines pictures taken by two separate space observatories. The Hubble data include color filters that sample starlight in the blue, green, and red portions of the spectrum, as well as the pink emission from glowing hydrogen gas. The Chandra data are assigned blue in the color composite, in accordance with the much higher energy of the X-rays, emitted from extremely hot gas. This gas does not emit a significant amount of optical light, and was only detected by Chandra. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J.C. Green (Univ. of Colorado) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) GTO team; NASA/CXO/SAO Electronic image files, video, illustrations and additional information are available at: http://hubblesite.org/news/2005/30 http://heritage.stsci.edu/2005/30 The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Ag

2005-10-01

429

Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

Rodenberg, H.; Myers, K. J.

1995-01-01

430

Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

1994-01-01

431

Overview of HZETRN and BRNTRN Space Radiation Shielding Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Radiation Health Program has supported basic research over the last decade in radiation physics to develop ionizing radiation transport codes and corresponding data bases for the protection of astronauts from galactic and solar cosmic rays on future deep space missions. The codes describe the interactions of the incident radiations with shield materials where their content is modified by the atomic and nuclear reactions through which high energy heavy ions are fragmented into less massive reaction products and reaction products are produced as radiations as direct knockout of shield constituents or produced as de-excitation products in the reactions. This defines the radiation fields to which specific devices are subjected onboard a spacecraft. Similar reactions occur in the device itself which is the initiating event for the device response. An overview of the computational procedures and data base with some applications to photonic and data processing devices will be given.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.; Badavi, F. F.

1997-01-01

432

The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences.  

PubMed

High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours. PMID:11537652

Gurkin, L W

1992-10-01