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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Booster main magnet power supply improvements for NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main

I. Marneris; K. A. Brown; J. W. Glenn; A. McNerney; J. Morris; J. Sandberg; S. Savatteri

2003-01-01

2

NASA Space Shuttle Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Shuttle Processing at Kennedy Space Center. A demonstration of the Space Shuttle silica tiles, a description of its High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI), tile inspections, and tile replacemen...

L. L. Andruske

2010-01-01

3

RESULTS OF THE FIRST RUN OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The results of commissioning of this new facility were reported in [l]. In this report we will describe the results of the first run. The NSRL is capable of making use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. Many modes of operation were explored during the first run, demonstrating all the capabilities designed into the system. Heavy ion intensities from 100 particles per pulse up to 12 x 10{sup 9} particles per pulse were delivered to a large variety of experiments, providing a dose range up to 70 Gy/min over a 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} area. Results presented will include those related to the production of beams that are highly uniform in both the transverse and longitudinal planes of motion [2].

BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BRENNAN,J.M.ET. AL.

2004-07-05

4

NASA - Space Communications  

NASA Website

Glenn's space communications program is to work in partnership with the satellite communications industry and other government agencies to enable new capabilities that enhance the competitiveness of U.S. industry and support the needs of NASA ...

5

NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

6

BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

2003-05-12

7

NASA Robotics for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the 'Vision for S...

R. I. T. Fischer

2007-01-01

8

NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - Space Shuttles  

NASA Website

Space Shuttles Project Summary Among the most prominent aerospace projects associated with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., is the Space Transportation System (STS) ? the space shuttles developed and operated by NASA.

9

NASA programs in space photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.

Flood, D.J.

1992-01-01

10

NASA - NASA eClips™: Home Improvement - Space Station Style  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

11

Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop  

SciTech Connect

A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2008-05-01

12

NASA Space Science Resource Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Office of Space Science Resource Catalog provides a convenient online interface for finding space science products for use in classrooms, science museums, planetariums, and many other venues. Goals in developing this catalog are: (1) create a cataloging system for all NASA OSS education products, (2) develop a system for characterizing education products which is meaningful to a large clientele, (3) develop a mechanism for evaluating products, (4) provide a user-friendly interface to search and access the data, and (5) provide standardized metadata and interfaces to other cataloging and library systems. The first version of the catalog is being tested at the spring 2000 conventions of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and will be released in summer 2000. The catalog may be viewed at the Origins Education Forum booth.

Teays, T.

2000-05-01

13

NASA Now Minute: Nanotechnology and Space  

NASA Video Gallery

In this NASA now program, Dr. Mike Oye describes the scale of nanotechnology, how properties of matter change and how nanowires could be used in future space exploration. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2011-05-17

14

Emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues: a NASA approach for space flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft performance requirements drive the utilization of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and emerging technologies in systems. The response of these technologies to radiation is often complex. This engenders a set of emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues which include displacement damage in optocouplers, high-precision and hybrid devices, enhanced low dose rate (ELDR) and proton damage enhancement (PDE) in linear circuits, linear

Kenneth A. LaBel; Allan H. Johnston; Janet L. Barth; Robert A. Reed; Charles E. Barnes

1998-01-01

15

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs - A 2003 Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments

R. G. Ross; R. F. Boyle; P. Kittel

2004-01-01

16

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs: A 2003 Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and ...

R. G. Ross R. F. Boyle P. Kittel

2004-01-01

17

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs — A 2003 Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA’s Earth and Space Science Enterprises. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments

R. G. Ross; R. F. Boyle; P. Kittel

2004-01-01

18

The NASA Space Radiobiology Risk Assessment Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current first phase (2006-2011) has the three major goals of: 1) optimizing the conventional cancer risk models currently used based on the double-detriment life-table and radiation quality functions; 2) the integration of biophysical models of acute radiation syndromes; and 3) the development of new systems radiation biology models of cancer processes. The first-phase also includes continued uncertainty assessment of space radiation environmental models and transport codes, and relative biological effectiveness factors (RBE) based on flight data and NSRL results, respectively. The second phase of the (2012-2016) will: 1) develop biophysical models of central nervous system risks (CNS); 2) achieve comphrensive systems biology models of cancer processes using data from proton and heavy ion studies performed at NSRL; and 3) begin to identify computational models of biological countermeasures. Goals for the third phase (2017-2021) include: 1) the development of a systems biology model of cancer risks for operational use at NASA; 2) development of models of degenerative risks, 2) quantitative models of counter-measure impacts on cancer risks; and 3) indiviudal based risk assessments. Finally, we will support a decision point to continue NSRL research in support of NASA's exploration goals beyond 2021, and create an archival of NSRL research results for continued analysis. Details on near term goals, plans for a WEB based data resource of NSRL results, and a space radiation Wikepedia are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice; Ponomarev, Artem; Patel, Zarana; Kim, Myung-Hee

19

NASA - Liftoff to Learning: "Space Basics"  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

20

NASA eClips™: Exercise in Space  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

21

NASA - Liftoff to Learning: "Plants in Space"  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

22

NASA - Liftoff to Learning: "Newton in Space"  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

23

Overview of NASA space cryocooler programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA’s Earth and Space Science Enterprises, as well as augmenting existing capabilities in space exploration. An overview is presented of ongoing efforts at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development.

R. F. Boyle; R. G. Ross

2002-01-01

24

75 FR 70951 - NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-148)] NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-11-19

25

NASA NASA CONNECT: Special World Space Congress. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. This video presents the World Space Congress 2002, the meeting of the decade for space professionals. Topics discussed range from the discovery of distant planets to medical advancements,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

26

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. ``When I hear people say,

Randy Showstack

2011-01-01

27

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-11-01

28

NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wondering when that spacecraft will be cruising over your city during the next ten days? Visit the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page to find out. Satellite sighting information by city is provided by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Visitors to the site can choose a city from the list provided or enter their location using the nifty NASA Skywatch Java applet. Other highlights of the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks (.gif) and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information that includes altitude, location coordinates, speed, and more. Definitions and illustrations of orbital tracking elements and coordinate system terminology make the site accessible to general audiences.

2001-01-01

29

Nasa Space Biology Accomplishments, 1983-84.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 42 project summaries from NASA's Space Biology Program are presented. Emphasis is placed on gravitational effects on plant and animal life. The identification of gravity perception; the effects of weightlessness on genetic integrity, cellula...

T. W. Halstead F. R. Dutcher L. G. Pleasant

1984-01-01

30

NASA and Space Florida Begin Partnership Discussions  

NASA Website

NASA has selected Space Florida, the aerospace economic development agency for the state of Florida, for negotiations toward a partnership agreement to maintain and operate the historic Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF).

31

NASA Space Science Partnerships with Minority Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five years NASA has carried out a deliberate and highly successful effort to engage Minority Institutions (MI) in space science activities. Implemented through a uniquely designed grants program now known as the \\

P. J. Sakimoto; J. D. Rosendhal

2004-01-01

32

Overview of NASA space cryocooler programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises, as well as augmenting existing capabilities in space exploration. An overview is presented of ongoing efforts at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. .

R. F. Boyle; R. G. Ross

2002-01-01

33

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs-An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. An overview is presented of ongoing efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Goddard Space Flight Center in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. Highlights of the past year include the launch into space of three new cryocooler systems aboard

R. G. Ross

34

Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In his letter introducing the new 2011 Strategic Plan for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the administrator of NASA referred to the importance of laying the groundwork for a sustainable program of exploration and innovation (NASA...

2011-01-01

35

NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm and the vacuum UV radiation was on the order of 10,000 ESH. The results of these tests are presented in this document

Vaughn, Jason A.

1995-11-01

36

NASA space photovoltaic research and technology programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA programs for increasing conversion efficiency, reduced mass and cost, and extending operating life of photovoltaic converters and arrays and for evaluating advanced solar array concepts are outlined. Research into radiation resistance and annealing, development of thin blankets, high-power low-cost arrays, and lightweight structures for near-Earth and planetary applications are discussed.

Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

1982-06-01

37

NASA Space Science Education Resource Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Space Science Education Resource Directory (SSERD) is an online collection of space science curriculum materials for teachers, science museums, and other educators. The materials can be searched by grade or topic. The information provided includes a description, the format of the material, links to the material, either local and/or off site, and an indication of materials that have passed reviews by panels of teachers and scientists.

2010-09-03

38

76 FR 3673 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-005)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-01-20

39

76 FR 20717 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-035)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-04-13

40

77 FR 20852 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-027)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2012-04-06

41

75 FR 51853 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-092)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-08-23

42

75 FR 5630 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-017)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-02-03

43

75 FR 39973 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-076)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-07-13

44

75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-074)] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-07-13

45

78 FR 42111 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (13-080)] NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2013-07-15

46

NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. “When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, ‘these folks must be living on another planet.’ We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.”

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

47

NASA's space life sciences training program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-08-01

48

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program.  

PubMed

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995. PMID:11537955

Coulter, G; Lewis, L; Atchison, D

1994-01-01

49

NASA Space Cryocooler Programs - A 2003 Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 6 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.

Ross, R. G.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.

2004-06-01

50

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-091] NASA International Space Station...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-5140...open to the public up to the...

2013-08-13

51

Hubble Space Telescope: Should NASA Proceed with a Servicing Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008 instead of 2010. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Se...

D. Morgan

2006-01-01

52

NASA Now Minute: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing  

NASA Video Gallery

The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electronic devices. The results of this research assist NASA scientists and engineers design future spacecraft. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: ›  http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-03-26

53

NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

Pearlman, M. R.; Frey, H. V.; Gross, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.; Zagwodski, T. W.

2012-04-01

54

77 FR 38678 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following topics: --Goddard Space Flight Center's Commercial Space Activities and Plans --Acquisition...m. Local Time, the NAC Commercial Space Committee's meeting will move to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC),...

2012-06-28

55

NASA Invites Media to View Space Launch System Progress  

NASA Website

NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations William Gerstenmaier and other agency officials will debut a new machine for manufacturing NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and check on development progress with the heavy-lift ...

56

History of the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program for the joint USAF/NASA CRRES mission. Part 1. From the origins through the launch, 1981-1990. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The history narrates the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program from its origins in 1981 through the launch of the SPACERAD experiments on the USAF/NASA Combined Release/Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) on July 25, 1990 and the initial data results in October 1990. The SPACERAD Program comprised a coordinated schedule of space-and-ground testing of state-of-the-art microelectronics, together with new satellite measurements of the Earth's radiation belts. The goals for the program were to produce improved standards and procedures for ground-testing future space microelectronics and new dynamic models of the radiation belts. The history discusses programmatic, management and funding issues that arose in the course of its realization.

Liebowitz, R.P.

1992-03-16

57

NASA eClips™: Designing a Capsule for Space  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

58

NASA - Liftoff to Learning: Toys in Space II  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

59

NASA - Liftoff to Learning: "From Undersea to Outer Space"  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

60

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew

K. L. Peddicord; W. E. Bolch

1991-01-01

61

Preliminary ground test radiation results of NASA's MPTB dual-rate 1773 experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) along with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been at the forefront of the space community in terms of the use of fiber optic data busses and links in the space radiation environment. Previously, we have described the ground radiation test program of the small explorer data system (SEDS) 1773 1 Mbps fiber optic

Kenneth A. Label; Mark Flanegan; George L. Jackson; Donald K. Hawkins; Cheryl J. Dale; Paul W. Marshall; Donald Johnson; Christina Seidleck; Rodney K. Bonebright; Jae H. Kim; Eric Y. Chan; Thomas M. Bocek; William G. Bartholet

1996-01-01

62

An Overview of NASA Space Cryocooler Programs—2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises. Many of NASA's space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, or enable the use of advanced detectors to observe a wide range of phenomena—from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, the largest

R. G. Ross; R. F. Boyle

63

The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes and provides an update on the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The partnership with NASA works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy.

Gibbs, M. G.; Walters, A.; Dolan, K.

2011-09-01

64

Internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Test laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is known for hosting all of the United States manned rocket launches as well as many unmanned launches at low inclinations. Even though the Space Shuttle recently retired, they are continuing to support unmanned launches ...

K. Holland

2013-01-01

65

Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost growth in Earth and space science missions conducted by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a longstanding problem with a wide variety of interrelated causes. To address this concern, t...

2010-01-01

66

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2012-01-19

67

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2012-07-12

68

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2010-08-23

69

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Act, Public Law 92-463...of the NASA International Space Station...aboard the International Space Station...Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...open to the public up to the...

2012-11-01

70

NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in four areas that include Propulsion Sys...

D. Vento D. J. Anderson E. J. Pencil J. W. Dankanich L. J. Glaab M. M. Munk T. Peterson

2012-01-01

71

NASA Johnson Space Center: Total quality partnership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of and benefits realized from a joint NASA, support contractor continuous improvement process at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is traced. The joint effort described is the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Directorate relationship with its three support contractors which began in early 1990. The Continuous Improvement effort started in early 1990 with an initiative to document and simplify numerous engineering change evaluation processes. This effort quickly grew in scope and intensity to include process improvement teams, improvement methodologies, awareness, and training. By early 1991, the support contractor had teams in place and functioning, program goals established and a cultural change effort underway. In mid-l991 it became apparent that a major redirection was needed to counter a growing sense of frustration and dissatisfaction from teams and managers. Sources of frustration were isolated to insufficient joint participation on teams, and to a poorly defined vision. Over the next year, the effort was transformed to a truly joint process. The presentation covers the steps taken to define vision, values, goals, and priorities and to form a joint Steering Committee and joint process improvement teams. The most recent assessment against the President's award criteria is presented as a summary of progress. Small, but important improvement results have already demonstrated the value of the joint effort.

Harlan, Charlie; Boyd, Alfred A.

72

NASA GRC and MSFC Space Plasma Arc Testing Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated-space-plasma conditions have been performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for an accurate and meaningful space simulation have

Dale C. Ferguson; Boris V. Vayner; Joel T. Galofaro; G. Barry Hillard; Jason Vaughn; Todd Schneider

2006-01-01

73

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) education 1993--2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education

Christine M. Ivie

2009-01-01

74

Advances in Space Traveling-Wave Tubes for NASA Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in the performance and reliability of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) utilized in amplifying space communication signals for NASA missions have been achieved over the last three decades through collaborative efforts between NASA and primarily L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. (L-3 ETI). This paper summarizes some of the key milestones during this period and includes development of TWTs for the

Jeffrey D. Wilson; Edwin G. Wintucky; Karl R. Vaden; Dale A. Force; Isay L. Krainsky; Rainee N. Simons; Neal R. Robbins; William L. Menninger; Daniel R. Dibb; David E. Lewis

2007-01-01

75

NASA Sets TV Briefing Today to Discuss Space Station Status  

NASA Website

NASA managers will discuss the status of the International Space Station, including the latest on an external cooling loop leak that developed Thursday, during a televised briefing today at 4 p.m. EDT.

76

Going Boldly Beyond: Progress on NASA's Space Launch System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Space Launch System is implementing an evolvable configuration approach to system development in a resource-constrained era. Legacy systems enable non-traditional development funding and contribute to sustainability and affordability. Limited simul...

C. Crumbly J. Singer

2013-01-01

77

NASA Scientists Among 'Most Influential in Space': TIME Magazine  

NASA Website

A cosmic chemist, an observational cosmologist, and a "gamma-ray argonaut" working at three NASA research centers are among "the most influential people in space," according to a special issue of TIME magazine published this month.

78

NASA's Space Launch System Program Kicks Off Preliminary Design Review  

NASA Website

NASA is beginning a preliminary design review for its Space Launch System (SLS). This major program assessment will allow development of the agency's new heavy-lift rocket to move from concept to initial design.

79

NASA Space Research: Membranes on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, produced by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research, discusses the research initiative to develop membranes that could solve some of the problems associated with traveling to and from Mars. With the help of a comprehensible explanation and a diagram, visitors can learn how NASA is planning to extract CO2 from the Martian atmosphere to propel rockets and rovers. The website discusses the scientists' hopes that the technology "may leverage us to actually go to Mars and live and work there someday." The article also addresses the potential use of the system as a way to decrease CO2 emissions on Earth.

80

The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding. PMID:21346276

Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

2011-02-23

81

Managing space system faults: Coalescing NASA's views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering “discipline” required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the

Brian Muirhead; Lorraine Fesq

2012-01-01

82

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: NASA Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Features include an overview of the SMD's missions and research on the Earth system, the sun, other planets in our solar system, and on topics in astrophysics. The researchers' page includes information on open solicitations, research opportunities, mission opportunities, grant information, and jobs. The educators' page provides links to NASA education programs and classroom resources. The kids' page provides access to games, activities, movies, and resources to help with homework. The citizen scientists' page provides information on obtaining datasets, participating in research projects, and information for amateur astronomers. The site also includes an image-of-the-day feature, a spotlighted mission, and links to news articles.

83

Radiation protection in space.  

PubMed

Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

84

NASA in Crisis: The Space Agency's Public Relations Efforts Regarding the Hubble Space Telescope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) public relations efforts concerning the Hubble telescope. Proposes that NASA's poor public relations exacerbated problems: NASA oversold the telescope before it was deployed, failed to develop a plan for release of images, provided misleading flight reports, and reported…

Kauffman, James

1997-01-01

85

Who Has Control: The Battle Between NASA and Congress Over the Space Shuttle to Vision for Space Exploration Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA rests under the Executive Branch as 2005 NASA Authorization Act and Aeronautics and Space act of 1958 fund NASA. NASA Authorization Acts and The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) signed by President Bush in 2004 signaled the end of space explorations. Both Congress and the President are trying to assert control over future human space flight programs as Congress

Ashley Walker

2008-01-01

86

Budgetary Implications of NASA's Current Plans for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2004, President Bush announced his Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, which called for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop new vehicles for spaceflight that would allow humans to return to the moon by 2020. In response, ...

2009-01-01

87

NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including t...

G. J. LeBeau

2011-01-01

88

The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The education and public outreach (EPO) partnership works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy.

M. G. Gibbs

2010-01-01

89

Kansas Students to Speak Live With Space Station NASA Astronauts  

NASA Website

Expedition 36 crew members and NASA astronauts Chris Cassidy and Karen Nyberg, currently orbiting aboard the International Space Station, will speak with students gathered at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center at 9:40 a.m. CDT (10:40 a.m. EDT), ...

90

NASA RESEARCH FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACHES TO CLOSELY SPACED PARALLEL RUNWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

Dawn M. Elliott; R. Brad Perry

2000-01-01

91

NASA's space life sciences training program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours,

G. Coulter; L. Lewis; D. Atchison

1994-01-01

92

Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

Dudenhoefer, J.E.

1994-09-01

93

SILENCING NASA'S SPACE SHUTTLE CRAWLER TRANSPORTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's second largest known tracked vehicle, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a

R. MacDonald; R. Margasahayam

94

NASA Shuttle Web: John Glenn Returns to Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Glenn, the first American in space, became the world's oldest astronaut when he returned to the stars yesterday, 36 years after his first flight on the nation's 123rd manned mission. At the NASA Shuttle Website for the mission, users can read about the crew, payloads, mission objectives, some of the experiments on aging and space involving Senator Glenn, and updates on the mission's current status. Realtime data offered at the site include telemetry, tracking displays, sightings, and orbital elements. The site also hosts several multimedia offerings such as preflight and launch videos (MPEG), animations (MPEG), Net Show broadcasts of NASA TV, photos, and RealPlayer audio broadcasts.

95

Space radiation health research, 1991-1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental,

M. H. Jablin; C. Brooks; G. Ferraro; K. J. Dickson; J. V. Powers; J. Wallace-Robinson; B. Zafren

1993-01-01

96

Space Radiation Health Research, 1991-1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Ass...

M. H. Jablin C. Brooks G. Ferraro K. J. Dickson J. V. Powers

1993-01-01

97

Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT...

D. Smitherman G. Spexarth L. Toups M. Simon

2012-01-01

98

Space Shuttle Accident: NASA's National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Actions to Address the Presidential Commission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a review of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) actions to address the recommendations presented in the Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, dated June 6, 1986. It presents in...

1987-01-01

99

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid

Art B. Chmielewski; Jon S. Pyle

1991-01-01

100

NASA and the Commercial Space Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial aircraft can make parabolic flights for 20-30 seconds of weightlessness at a time. I hope that future suborbital flights will soon be taking paying passengers to the edge of space for approximately 4 minutes of weightlessness, as well as a grea...

M. D. Griffin

2008-01-01

101

NASA and the Business of Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This talk discusses the use of the International Space Station (ISS) to move beyond low Earth orbit. Several benefits are discussed, not the least of them being the international cooperation. Other uses that the ISS has is research on risks to crew health...

M. D. Griffin

2008-01-01

102

Artificial intelligence scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial intelligence (AI) system called Spike has been implemented for scheduling observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The system incorporates innovative methodologies for representing and reasoning with scheduling constraints and preferences and for conducting scheduling search. For the former, a combination of constraint satisfaction techniques and weight-of evidence combination has been devised to propagate temporal constraints and preferences. For

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn Miller

1990-01-01

103

Power line based LAN on board the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without exception, vehicles have a power distribution system based on metallic conductors of some type. It would be advantageous to make this power distribution network perform double-duty, as an infrastructure supporting both power delivery and broadband digital connectivity. We study the possibility of re-using existing power cables on board the NASA Orbiter (also knows as the Space Shuttle) for providing

Stefano Galli; Thomas Banwell; David Waring

2004-01-01

104

Precision orbit determination at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GEODYN Computer program has been developed by the Geodynamics Branch at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for accurate satellite orbit and tracking data analysis. The software is currently used for baseline solutions for the Crustal Dynamic Project (Smith et al. \\/1\\/), gravity field determination for the TOPEX\\/POSEIDON mission (Marsh et al. \\/2\\/), SEASAT and LAGEOS data analysis,

B. Putney; R. Kolenkiewicz; D. Smith; P. Dunn; M. H. Torrence

1990-01-01

105

Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive\\/behavioral changes during long-term space

Robert Hienz; Catherine Davis; Michael Weed; Peter Guida; Virginia Gooden; Joseph Brady; Peter Roma

2010-01-01

106

History of space medicine: the formative years at NASA.  

PubMed

Almost nothing was known about the effects of spaceflight on human physiology when, in May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade. There were more questions than answers regarding the effects of acceleration, vibration, cabin pressure, CO2 concentration, and microgravity. There were known external threats to life, such as solar and ultraviolet radiation, meteorites, and extreme temperatures as well as issues for which the physicians and scientists could not even formulate the questions. And there was no time for controlled experiments with the required numbers of animal or human subjects. Of necessity, risks were evaluated and mitigated or accepted based on minimal data. This article summarizes presentations originally given as a panel at the 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association in Boston in 2008. In it, five pioneers in space medicine at NASA looked back on the development of their field. The authors related personal anecdotes, discussed the roles of various people and presented examples of contributions to emerging U.S. initiatives for human spaceflight. Topics included the development of quarantine facilities for returning Apollo astronauts, the struggles between operational medicine and research personnel, and observations from the first U.S. medical officer to experience weightlessness on orbit. Brief biographies of the authors are appended to document their participation in these historic events. PMID:19378903

Berry, Charles A; Hoffler, G Wyckliffe; Jernigan, Clarence A; Kerwin, Joseph P; Mohler, Stanley R

2009-04-01

107

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

108

Radiation risk and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

2003-01-01

109

Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

2012-09-01

110

Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among

Melanie N. Ott; William Joe; Robert Switzer; Lance Day

111

Hubble Space Telescope: NASA's Plans for a Servicing Mission. CRS Report for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe announ...

D. Morgan

2008-01-01

112

NASA's Space Biology Outreach Program - Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing and discussing NASA's space missions and research is the goal of the Space Biology Outreach Program Web of Life. Visitors unfamiliar with space biology should definitely check out Space Biology FAQ's on the left hand side menu of the homepage. Questions covered range from those about the effect of weightlessness on the health of the astronauts to the significance of finding life on Mars to the definition of gravity. The Flight Experiments link on the same menu relates almost a dozen experiments that have been performed on space flights. Visitors can read about arterial remodeling and functional adaptations in the space experiment that used rats to model the human arterial system. Additionally, they can learn about how the blood vessels of the rats were examined to detect changes in a gravity-free environment. Finally, teachers should be sure to explore the Learning Resources section, which includes activities, resources, and links for teaching students of all ages.

2012-03-30

113

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

114

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center ED Mall Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA ED Mall Collection, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office, provides teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use.

115

1988-1989 NASA (National Aeronautic and Space Administration) Space/Gravitational Biology Accomplishments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consists of individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's space/gravitational biology program, for research conducted during the period May 1988 to April 1989. This program is concerned with using the unique characteristics of ...

T. W. Halstead

1990-01-01

116

Photonic Component Qualification and Implementation Activities at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photonics group in Code 562 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center supports a variety of space flight programs at NASA including the: International Space Station (ISS), Shuttle Return to Flight Mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Express Logistics Carrier (ELC), and the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). Through research, development, and testing of the photonic systems to support

Melanie N. Ott; Xiaodan Linda Jin; Richard F. Chuska; Frank V. LaRocca; Shawn L. Macmurphyc; Adam J. Matuszeski; Ronald S. Zellar; Patricia R. Friedberg; Mary C. Malenab

117

Photonic component qualification and implementation activities at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photonics group in Code 562 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center supports a variety of space flight programs at NASA including the: International Space Station (ISS), Shuttle Return to Flight Mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Express Logistics Carrier (ELC), and the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). Through research, development, and testing of the photonic systems to support

Melanie N. Ott; Xiaodan Linda Jin; Richard F. Chuska; Frank V. LaRocca; Shawn L. Macmurphy; Adam J. Matuszeski; Ronald S. Zellar; Patricia R. Friedberg; Mary C. Malenab

2006-01-01

118

14 CFR 1217.106 - Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. 1217.106 Section 1217...Articles brought into the United States by NASA from space. Pursuant to U.S. note...customs territory of the United States by NASA from space shall not be...

2013-01-01

119

NASA Space Plasma Physics Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research and Analysis (R&A) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Plasma Physics Branch of the Office of Space Science and Applications supports more than 150 grants and contracts for research. This research program is the primary means by which NASA maintains and advances the broad-based infrastructure for research in space plasma physics in a way that is not tied to specific missions. Although funding levels for space plasma physics to date have not kept up with inflation (overall funding levels are reduced 30% over the past decade when corrected for inflation), the R&A program is beginning to recover, as shown in Figure 1, thanks to a “vitality package” augmentation in fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988. Budget totals for the sounding rocket (SR), instrument development, and solar-terrestrial theory (STTP) programs are also shown for comparison (see Eos, April 28, 1987, p. 483). Fiscal health of the R&A program is important to these other programs as well. Although budget authorizations are made strictly on a year-to-year basis, there are several positive signs suggesting that the current upward trend for space plasma physics programs could last several years.

Eastman, Timothy E.

120

The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The education and public outreach (EPO) partnership works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy. The Capitol College SOI serves as a back-up control center for two NASA missions. The first is the Tropical Rainforest Measurement Mission (TRMM), which is a research satellite designed to help our understanding of the water cycle in the current climate system. By covering the tropical and semi-tropical regions of the Earth, TRMM provides much needed data on rainfall and the heat release associated with rainfall. The second is the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission that is providing a vast storehouse of knowledge about the solar system, the Milky Way, and the Universe. The session provides both an update regarding the SOI and provides new information regarding the SOI work with the two NASA missions. Emerging best practices from the learning experiences the SOI provides college students in serving as a real-life back-up control center will also be shared.

Gibbs, M. G.

2010-12-01

121

Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions  

SciTech Connect

This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

Yen, Chen-wan L.

1993-07-20

122

The NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1989, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant) contributes to the nation's science enterprise by funding research, education, and public service projects through a national network of 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia administer programs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. In 1998, the consortia's 703 affiliates include 493 academic institutions and 62 businesses. Other partners include state and local government agencies, other federal agencies, and nonprofit organizations. Space Grant celebrates its tenth year of service in 1999. Since its inception, Space Grant has awarded over 12,000 U.S. citizens with tuition assistance in science, engineering, and related fields of study. Approximately twenty percent of these awards were to students from underrepresented groups and approximately thirty-five percent were to women. The majority of Space Grant student awards include a mentored research experience with university faculty or NASA scientists. Space Grant funds curriculum enhancement and faculty development as well. Space Grant colleges and universities also administer precollege and public service education programs that help to meet the education needs of their states. The Space Grant consortia have leveraged federal funds to more than double the Space Grant budget with matching contributions from state and local sources. Space Grant encourages collaboration among departments, across institutions, and with business and industry. All Space Grant programs emphasize the diversity of human resources, the participation of students in research, and the communication of the benefits of science and technology to the general public.

Atkinson, D. H.; Ward, E. B.; Detroye, D.

1998-09-01

123

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Thesaurus Supplement. Supplement 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The four part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1985 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, Part 3, NASA Thesaurus Definitions, and Part 4, Changes. The semiannual supplement gives complet...

1987-01-01

124

The CDDIS Data Center - NASA's Space Geodesy Data Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1982, the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) has supported the archive and distribution of geodetic data products acquired by NASA programs. These data include GPS (Global Positioning System), GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System), SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging), VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry), and DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiolocation Integrated by Satellite). The data archive was initially conceived to support NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project; since the end of this successful program in 1991, the CDDIS has continued to support NASA's space geodesy activities through the Solid Earth and Natural Hazards (SENH) program. The CDDIS data system and its archive have become increasingly important to many national and international programs, particularly several of the operational services within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), including the International GPS Service (IGS), the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), the International DORIS Service (IDS), and the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). The CDDIS provides easy and ready access to a variety of data sets, products, and information about these data. The specialized nature of the CDDIS lends itself well to enhancement and thus can accommodate diverse data sets and user requirements. Most data sets are accessible to scientists through ftp and the web; general information about each data set is accessible via the web. The CDDIS Data Center, including background information about the system and its user communities, the computer architecture, archive contents, and future plans will be discussed.

Noll, C. E.; Dube, M. P.

2002-05-01

125

KC Space Pirates and NASA's Power Beaming Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Elevator Games with $2 Million in prize money is one of the most exciting challenges in the NASA Centennial Challenges program. We had an 8kW TRUMPF laser beaming power straight up 1 kilometer to a moving vehicle. This paper is the team captain's analysis of the state of the art in power beaming, and the excitement and challenge of the games themselves. Predictions are made of what new technology we will see in the next round of the games coming spring 2010.

Turner, Brian; Lades, Martin

2010-02-01

126

Preliminary ground test radiation results of NASA's MPTB dual-rate 1773 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) along with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been at the forefront of the space community in terms of the use of fiber optic data busses and links in the space radiation environment. Previously, we have described the ground radiation test program of the small explorer data system (SEDS) 1773 1 Mbps fiber optic data bus (FODB), as well as its associated in- flight space radiation-induced performance. Further work has also been presented covering higher speed photonic components utilizing III-V materials. Because of the success of the SEDS 1773 FODB coupled with the radiation testing of III-V devices, a second generation FODB capable of both 1 Mbps and 20 Mbps operation is being developed for spaceflight utilization. We present herein preliminary ground test radiation results of hybrid transceiver devices manufactured by Boeing Space Systems that perform the electro-optic and opto-electric translations in support of this medium rate FODB, the AS1773 bus. These devices, designed to be radiation hard (or rad hard), will be flying on NRL's Microelectronics and Photonics Testbed (MPTB) payload as a NASA experiment. This experiment is described in detail elsewhere in this proceedings.

Label, Kenneth A.; Flanegan, Mark; Jackson, George L.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Dale, Cheryl J.; Marshall, Paul W.; Johnson, Donald; Seidleck, Christina; Bonebright, Rodney K.; Kim, Jae H.; Chan, Eric Y.; Bocek, Thomas M.; Bartholet, William G.

1996-10-01

127

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under U.S. President Bush's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews fro...

J. A. Robinson D. A. Thomas

2006-01-01

128

The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Place is a unique NASA education and public outreach program. It includes a NASA website (spaceplace.nasa.gov) in English and Spanish that targets elementary age children with appealing, content- rich STEM material on space science, Earth science, and technology. The site features science and\\/or technology content related to, so far, over 40 NASA missions. This overall program, as well

N. J. Leon; D. K. Fisher

2008-01-01

129

NASA Sees Orbiting Stars Flooding Space with Gravitational Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientist using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found evidence that two white dwarf stars are orbiting each other in a death grip, destined to merge. The data indicate that gravitational waves are carrying energy away from the star system at a prodigious rate - making it a prime candidate for future missions designed to directly detect these subtle ripples in space-time. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity predicts that a binary star system should emit gravitational waves, which rush away at the speed of light and cause the stars to move closer together. The orbital period of this system, known as RX J0806.3+1527, or J0806, is decreasing by 1.2 milliseconds every year, a rate consistent with theory. Animation of White Dwarfs Animation of White Dwarfs The white dwarf pair in J0806 might have the smallest orbit of any known binary system with the stars only about 50,000 miles apart, a fifth of the distance from the Earth to the Moon. As the stars swirl closer together, traveling in excess of a million miles per hour, the production of gravitational waves increases. "If confirmed, J0806 could be one of the brightest sources of gravitational waves in our Galaxy," said Tod Strohmayer of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center of Greenbelt, Md., who presents his results today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Minneapolis, Minn. "It could be among the first to be detected directly with an upcoming space mission called LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna." White dwarfs are remnants of stars like our Sun that have used up all their fuel. Along with neutron stars and black holes, white dwarfs are called compact objects because they pack a lot of mass into a small volume. The white dwarfs in the J0806 system each have an estimated mass half that of the Sun, yet are only about the size of Earth. Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Optical and X-ray observations of J0806 show periodic variations with a period of 321.5 seconds - barely more than five minutes. The observed five-minute period in J0806 is most likely the orbital period of the white dwarf system. However the possibility that it represents the spin of one of its white dwarfs cannot yet be completely ruled out. "It's either the most compact binary known or one of the most unusual systems we've ever seen," said Strohmayer. "Either way it's got a great story to tell." Strohmayer's Chandra X-ray observations, which will be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal, tighten orbital decay estimates made through optical observations in recent years independently by teams led by GianLuca Israel of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome and by Pasi Hakala of the University of Helsinki. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

2005-05-01

130

The NASA OCEAN project--an ocean-space analog  

PubMed

An advanced life support system (ALS) with bioregenerative components may one day be required for long-term, deep space exploration, in extended missions to Mars or in establishing long-term bases on the moon. Intensive research programs on such ALS systems have been ongoing throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since 1988. Notably, projects have been initiated at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC). The KSC ALS work has been named the "Breadboard Project" because of its approach developing the components and combining them into a breadboard to understanding the bioregenerative ALS picture [also called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)] in smaller pieces, similar to an electronic "breadboard." The Breadboard Project has been involved for 7 years in the study of higher crops grown in a 113 m3 chamber--the longest operating and largest such closed, controlled growth chamber in the world. This chamber has proven itself to be very successful in growing a wide variety of crops from seedlings to harvest and in helping researchers understand the complex biological cycle of such edible plants in closed, environmentally controlled environments. Because the system's ultimate use will be a more challenging environment, moving a specially designed piece of the system into extreme conditions was an important test. Engineers at KSC developed a compact, portable, functional plant module for testing in the world's only fixed seafloor laboratory at Key Largo, FL. The laboratory, called MarineLab, is operated out of the facilities of the Marine Resources Development Foundation in a lagoon of some 10 m depth. The project was called the OCEAN project (Ocean CELSS Experimental Analog NASA). PMID:11538567

Chamberland, D

1996-01-01

131

Radiation and Long-term Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data on the carcinogenic effects of space radiation on humans are available from the Russian MIR Space Station and the US Space Shuttle missions but are limited to tissue-level studies rather than the organ-level studies which are necessary to accurately determine radiation doses. Now, NASA's National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) has instigated an experiment, called the "torso-experiment," that will use a fully instrumented phantom torso (with head) to provide the necessary depth-dose-equivalent measurements on the International Space Station. Depth-dose-equivalent measurements will be taken as a function of spacecraft altitude, attitude, location, and time, and measurements internal to the phantom torso will be supported by other radiation measurements from the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter and the Charged Particle Direction Spectrometer. Read more about this somewhat bizarre-looking experiment at this Webpage from NSBRI.

132

The Impact of Space Commercialization on Space Agencies: the Case of NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that commercialisation of space results in inefficient contracting policies by the space agencies, using the US NASA as a case study. Though commercialisation is seen by many as a way to reduce costs in space programmes, as the space industry is seen as a decreasing costs industry, this is not a problem-free process. Commercialisation of space has affected the US and European space industries and policies in two major ways. The first is that the public sector actively encourages mergers and acquisitions of major contractors, confined, however, within the geographical borders of the US and Europe. This follows largely from the perceived benefits of economies of size when competing in global commercial markets. The second is the formation of an increasing number of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in space programmes and a more `cosy' relationship between the two within a public-assistance strategic trade theoretic framework. As ESA's contracting policy of `juste retour' is marked by limited competition, the paper focuses on the case of NASA, which is expected to be more pro- competitive, to examine the impact of commercialisation. With the use of quantitative methods based on time series econometric analysis, the paper shows that NASA's contracting policy, results in increasingly less competition and more rent-favouring contracting. This is attributed to the decreasing number of major contractors in conjunction with the preferential treatment of the domestic space industry (`Buy American'). The results of the paper verify that the support of the domestic space industry in commercial and public space markets results in inefficient contracting policies, with NASA facing the conflicting tasks of a stated policy of enhancing competition and efficiency in contracting, as well as, supporting the competitiveness of the domestic space industry. The paper concludes with an analysis and assessment of solutions to this dilemma. 1 meeting.

Zervos, Vasilis

2002-01-01

133

Space Operations: NASA Is Not Properly Safeguarding Valuable Data from past Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA is responsible for space exploration and the management, archiving, and dissemination of space science data. Since 1958, the agency has spent about $24 billion on its space science program and successfully launched over 260 scientific missions. Data ...

S. A. Schwartz R. W. Beers M. J. Dolak D. T. Schwartz D. D. Rush

1990-01-01

134

NASA Targets March 1 Launch for Next SpaceX Station Resupply Mission; Media Accreditation Open  

NASA Website

NASA and its international partners are targeting Friday, March 1, as the launch date for the next cargo resupply flight to the International Space Station by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), designated CRS-2.

135

NASA eClips™: Cohesion and Adhesion On Board the International Space Station  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

136

NASA eClips™: Environmental Control on the International Space Station  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

137

NASA CONNECT™: "Functions and Statistics: Dressed for Space" (2001-2002)  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

138

NASA Now Minute: Technology and Design: The Future of Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

John Connolly, deputy manager of the Exploration Missions and Systems Office, describes the physics and environmental differences engineers must consider when designing crewed exploration missions to destinations in space. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-12-05

139

Space studies board issues study on NASA's Research and Data Analysis Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical science questions must form the basis of research and data analysis (R&DA) programs at NASA, a recently published report by the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) emphasizes. The report also warns that NASA is expecting more from its programs without assurances of adequate funding.Called ``Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for

Pamela Whitney

1998-01-01

140

The NASA Office of Space Science Education and Public Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past six years, NASA’s Office of Space Science has implemented what may well be the largest single program in astronomy and space science education ever undertaken. The program goals include the public sharing of the excitement of space science discoveries, enhancement of the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level, and supporting the

J. Rosendhal; P. Sakimoto; R. Pertzborn; L. Cooper

2004-01-01

141

Advanced Optical Technologies in NASA's Space Communication Program: Status, Challenges, and Future Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A goal of the NASA Space Communications Project is to enable broad coverage for high-data-rate delivery to the users by means of ground, air, and space-based assets. The NASA Enterprise need will be reviewed. A number of optical space communications techn...

J. Pouch

2004-01-01

142

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of ISS. We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015 2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA's Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-06-01

143

FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. ...

N. M. Lowrey

2011-01-01

144

Space radiation protection issues.  

PubMed

The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection. PMID:23032885

Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A

2012-11-01

145

NASA Now Minute: Earth and Space Science: 100 Billion Planets  

NASA Video Gallery

Stephen Kane, co-author of the article, “Study Shows Our Galaxy has 100 Billion Planets” reveals details about this incredible study explains just how common planets are in our Milky Way galaxy. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-02-10

146

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology space power flight projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA created a program called In-STEP (in-space technology experiments program) to give the aerospace community an opportunity to validate advanced technologies in space. In-STEP has funded feasibility studies for the following experiments in the power technology arena: a microsphere insulation investigation, a utilized regenerative fuel cell experiment, an inflatable solar collector experiment, a moving belt radiator experiment, and a liquid drop radiator experiment. The following experiments are currently in the experiment definition phase: an integrated two-phase thermal experiment, an electrolysis performance experiment, and a sodium sulfur battery experiment. Three In-STEP experiments are entering the hardware fabrication phase: thermal energy storage technology, solar array module plasma interaction, and heat pipe performance experiments. Each of these experiments is described, with an emphasis on the benefits of technology validation.

Chmielewski, Art B.; Pyle, Jon S.

147

A roadmap for NASA's radiation effects research in emerging microelectronics and photonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electronics Radiation Characterization (ERC) project of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program is responsible for the radiation effects research on microelectronics and photonics for NASA. In this presentation, we present our roadmap for providing aid to NASA flight projects, technology developers, and the aerospace community

Kenneth A. LaBel; Charles E. Barnes; Paul W. Marshall; Cheryl J. Marshall; Allan H. Johnston; Robert A. Reed; Janet L. Barth; Christina M. Seidleck; Sammy A. Kayali; M. V. O'Bryan

2000-01-01

148

Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the space shuttle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA\\/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed

William Atwell; E. R. Beever; A. C. Hardy; R. G. Richmond; B. L. Cash

1989-01-01

149

NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the creation of chemical elements such as oxygen through nuclear reactions in their cores. Such observations also help reveal how the interstellar medium (the gas that occupies the vast spaces between the stars) is enriched with chemical elements because of supernova explosions. Later on, these elements are incorporated into new generations of stars and their accompanying planets. Visible only from Earth's southern hemisphere, the LMC is an irregular galaxy lying about 160,000 light-years from the Milky Way. The supernova remnant appears to be about 3,000 years old, but since its light took 160,000 years to reach us, the explosion actually occurred some 163,000 years ago. This composite image of N132D was created by the Hubble Heritage team from visible-light data taken in January 2004 with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys, and X-ray images obtained in July 2000 by Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This marks the first Hubble Heritage image that combines pictures taken by two separate space observatories. The Hubble data include color filters that sample starlight in the blue, green, and red portions of the spectrum, as well as the pink emission from glowing hydrogen gas. The Chandra data are assigned blue in the color composite, in accordance with the much higher energy of the X-rays, emitted from extremely hot gas. This gas does not emit a significant amount of optical light, and was only detected by Chandra. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J.C. Green (Univ. of Colorado) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) GTO team; NASA/CXO/SAO Electronic image files, video, illustrations and additional information are available at: http://hubblesite.org/news/2005/30 http://heritage.stsci.edu/2005/30 The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Ag

2005-10-01

150

SHIELDING AGAINST SPACE RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the problems in space radiation shielding is presented. ; The problem of penetrating protons is considered in an attempt to iliustrate the ; physical shieiding requirements for manned vehicles and to illuminate some of the ; gaps in present knowledge. Material and magnetic shielding are considered. ; (C.E.S.);

Madey

1963-01-01

151

Lost in space: A critique of NASA's crisis communications in the Columbia disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of space shuttle Columbia on 1 February 2003 shocked the nation and threatened to destroy the image and confidence NASA had labored years to restore in the wake of its poor handling of the Challenger disaster. This paper examines NASA's crisis communications regarding Columbia's explosion. It argues that the space agency did most things right in responding to

James Kauffman

2005-01-01

152

Fabric space radiators  

SciTech Connect

Future Air Force space missions will require thermal radiators that both survive in the hostile space environment and stow away for minimal bulk during launch. Advances in all aspects of radiator design, construction, and analysis will be necessary to enable such future missions. Currently, the best means for obtaining high strength along with flexibility is through structures known as fabrics. The development of new materials and bonding techniques has extended the application range of fabrics into areas traditionally dominated by monolithic and/or metallic structures. Given that even current spacecraft heat rejection considerations tend to dominate spacecraft design and mass, the larger and more complex designs of the future face daunting challenges in thermal control. Ceramic fabrics bonded to ultra-thin metal liners (foils) have the potential of achieving radiator performance levels heretofore unattainable, and of readily matching the advances made in other branches of spacecraft design. The research effort documented here indicates that both pumped loops and heat pipes constructed in ceramic fabrics stand to benefit in multiple ways. Flexibility and low mass are the main advantages exhibited by fabric radiators over conventional metal ones. We feel that fabric radiators have intrinsic merits not possessed by any other radiator design and need to be researched further. 26 refs., 16 figs., 17 tabs.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Krotiuk, W.J.; Webb, B.J.; Prater, J.T.; Bates, J.M.

1988-01-01

153

Development of Thin Solar Cells for Space Applications at NASA Glenn Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA GRC Thin Film Solar Cell program is developing solar cell technologies for space applications which address two critical metrics: higher specific power (power per unit mass) and lower launch stowed volume. To be considered for space applications, an ...

J. E. Dickman A. Hepp K. K. Banger J. D. Harris M. H. Jin

2003-01-01

154

Recent Results from Advanced Research on Space Solar Cells at NASA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA program in space photovoltaic research and development encompasses a wide range of emerging options for future space power systems, and includes both cell and array technology development. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of...

D. J. Flood

1990-01-01

155

NASA Exploration Team (NExT) In-Space Transportation Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation provides an overview of NASA Exploration Team's (NEXT) vision of in-space transportation in the future. Hurdles facing in-space transportation include affordable power sources, crew health and safety, optimized robotic and human operatio...

B. G. Drake D. R. Cooke L. D. Kos

2002-01-01

156

NASA Partner SpaceX Completes Review of 2014 Commercial Crew Abort Test  

NASA Website

In preparation for a summer 2014 test, NASA partner Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) recently laid out its plan to demonstrate the Dragon spacecraft's ability to carry astronauts to safety in the event of an in-flight emergency.

157

The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface radiation budget (SRB), consisting of downward and upward components of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation, is a major component of the energy exchanges between the atmosphere and land/ocean surfaces and thus affects surface temperature fields, fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and every aspect of energy and hydrological cycles. The NASA Global Energy and Water-cycle Experiment (GEWEX) SRB project has recently updated and improved a global dataset of surface radiative fluxes on a 1-degree grid for a 23-year period (July 1983 to June 2006). Both SW and LW fluxes have been produced with two sets of algorithms: one designated as primary and the other as quality-check. The primary algorithms use a more explicit treatment of surface and atmospheric processes while quality-check algorithms use a more parameterized approach. Cloud and surface properties for input to the algorithms have been derived from ISCCP pixel level (DX) data, temperature and humidity profiles from GEOS- 4 reanalysis products, and column ozone from a composite of TOMS, TOVS, and assimilated SBUV-2 datasets. Several top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget parameters have also been derived with the primary algorithms. Surface fluxes from all algorithms are extensively validated with ground-based measurements obtained from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), and the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) archives. The SRB dataset is a major contributor to the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment activity. An overview of the latest version (Release-3.0) of the dataset with global and zonal statistics of fluxes, inferred cloud radiative forcing, and results of the validation activities will be presented. Time series of SRB parameters at the TOA and surface for global, land, ocean, and tropical area means will be presented along with analysis of flux anomalies related to El Nino/La Nina episodes, phases of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and other interannual phenomena of the period. Results will be summarized to characterize the uncertainties, and future plans will be presented to address the deficiencies. The entire dataset is being made available to the worldwide science community by the NASA/LaRC Atmospheric Sciences Data Center at: eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/srb/table srb.html.

Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

158

NASA Now Minute: Earth and Space Science: Asteroids  

NASA Video Gallery

There are thousands of comets and asteroids in our solar system. When these objects enter Earth’s neighborhood, scientists classify them as Near Earth Objects. Senior Research Scientist Don Yeomans tells us where they are, how big they are and if they pose a threat to our planet. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-02-06

159

Accepting space radiation risks.  

PubMed

The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space. PMID:20414667

Schimmerling, Walter

2010-04-23

160

The AGI-ASU-NASA Triad Program for K-12 Earth and Space Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Triad program of the American Geological Institute (AGI) and Arizona State University School of Earth and Space Exploration (ASU SESE) is a three-part effort to promote Earth and space science literacy and STEM education at the national level, funded by NASA through a cooperative agreement starting in 2010. NASA Triad comprises (1) infusion of NASA STEM content into AGI's secondary Earth science curricula; (2) national lead teacher professional development workshops; and (3) an online professional development guide for teachers running NASA STEM workshops. The Triad collaboration draws on AGI's inquiry-based curriculum and teacher professional-development resources and workforce-building programs; ASU SESE's spectrum of research in Mars and Moon exploration, astrobiology, meteoritics, Earth systems, and cyberlearning; and direct access to NASA facilities and dynamic education resources. Triad milestones to date include integration of NASA resources into AGI's print and online curricula and two week-long, national-scale, teacher-leader professional development academies in Earth and space sciences presented at ASU Dietz Museum in Tempe and NASA Johnson Space Flight Center in Houston. Robust front-end and formative assessments of these program components, including content gains, teacher-perceived classroom relevance, teacher-cohort lesson development, and teacher workshop design, have been conducted. Quantitative and qualitative findings from these assessment activities have been applied to identify best and most effective practices, which will be disseminated nationally and globally through AGI and NASA channels.

Pacheco, H. A.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W.; Benbow, A. E.

2011-12-01

161

NASA reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, both ongoing and planned, are described by NASA administrative personnel from the offices of Space Science and Applications, Space Systems Development, Space Flight, Exploration, and from the Johnson Space Center. NASA's multi-year strategic plan, called Vision 21, is also discussed. It proposes to use the unique perspective of space to better

John E. Obrien; Lennard A. Fisk; Arnold A. Aldrich; Thomas E. Utsman; Michael D. Griffin; Aaron Cohen

1992-01-01

162

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit.

Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-01-01

163

The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A twelve-year-plus (July 1983 to October 1995) global dataset of surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative parameters on a 1°x1° grid has been developed under the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Both SW and LW fluxes were computed with two algorithms: a primary algorithm and a quality-check algorithm. Cloud properties used in the project were derived on a 1(-resolution using ISCCP pixel-level (DX) datasets. Other meteorological inputs, namely, the temperature and humidity profiles, were taken from the GEOS-1 reanalysis product of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA/GSFC. Ozone data were obtained from the TOMS archives. Three of the four algorithms provide results on a 3-hourly temporal resolution. The quality-check SW algorithm provides daily values only. All datasets were processed into daily and monthly averages for use in scientific studies. All except quality-check SW data were also processed into monthly/3-hourly averages. Zonal, hemispheric, and global averages were derived for individual months as well as on a climatological basis. The entire dataset is available to the worldwide science community from LaRC Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/. Model derived fluxes were validated at all time resolutions by comparison with ground-based observations obtained from a number of Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) sites. Longwave fluxes showed good agreement for most sites though SW fluxes exhibited large random errors at some. Analysis of the time series showed occurrence of strong surface flux anomalies during the El Nino episodes in May 1987 and March 1992, and the La Nina episode of July 1988. For the May 1987 and July 1988 episodes, surface flux anomalies exhibited strong similarities with corresponding TOA flux anomalies derived from ERBE data. Anomalies related to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991-92 were also apparent. Global annual averages from this dataset compared well with those from other satellite-derived, GCM-based, and observational datasets. Work is underway to extend the time series to the present and to use improved reanalysis products that are now becoming available.

Gupta, S. K.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Cox, S. J.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Chiacchio, M.

164

Meson Production and Space Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation is an important priority for long duration space flight. The National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) has recently recommended that pion and other mesons should be included in space radiation transport codes, especially in connection with the Martian atmosphere. In an interesting accident of nature, the galactic cosmic ray spectrum has

John Norbury; Steve Blattnig; Ryan Norman; Sukesh Aghara

2010-01-01

165

In-Space Propulsion Technology products ready for infusion on NASA's future science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. They have a broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant

David J. Anderson; Eric Pencil; Todd Peterson; John Dankanich; Michelle M. Munk

2012-01-01

166

77 FR 4370 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aeronautics and Space Administration...meeting of the Commercial Space Committee...Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC...Marshall Space Flight Center, AL...Aeronautics and Space Administration...of MSFC's Commercial Space...

2012-01-27

167

Space radiation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

168

NASA Probe Counts Space Rock Impacts on Mars  

NASA Website

Scientists using images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have estimated that the planet is bombarded by more than 200 small asteroids or bits of comets per year forming craters at least 12.8 feet (3.9 meters) across.

169

"Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)|

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

170

Recent Developments in Electric Propulsion under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary source of electric propulsion development throughout NASA is managed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Project at the NASA GRC for the Science Mission Directorate. The objective of the Electric Propulsion project area is to develop near-term electric propulsion technology to enhance or enable science mission while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Major hardware tasks include

Leonard A. Dudzinski; John W. Dankanich

2007-01-01

171

Strategies for Engaging NASA Space Scientists in K-12 > Education and Public Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has made a significant commitment to increase scientist participation in Education and Public Outreach (EPO), with a focus on providing tools and assistance for educators in K-12 education and for public informal education. The general goals are to use NASA scientific discoveries and mission results to contribute to the technical and scientific literacy

R. R. Vondrak

2001-01-01

172

UPC Team Recens' Answer to NASAs Beam Power Space Elevator Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the year 2005 the Spaceward Foundation (1) in California manages NASA's annual beam power and tether challenge also called the Space Elevator Games. Being the first implemented contest of NASA's Centennial Challenges Program the beam power challenge requires designing, building and operating a climber, a machine just powered by a beam of light that can drive up and down

José Antonio Casas Bueno; Pau Corella; Eduardo Alarcón

173

Autonomy, Interdependence, and Social Control: NASA and the Space Shuttle "Challenger."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the organizations responsible for regulating safety at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) failed to identify flaws in management procedures and technical design that, if corrected, might have prevented the "Challenger" tragedy. Regulatory effectiveness was inhibited by the autonomy and interdependence of NASA and…

Vaughan, Diane

1990-01-01

174

Evaluation of ``The Space Place,'' a NASA Integrated, Multi-mission Education and Public Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Place is an integrated NASA education and public outreach program, so far representing over 40 different NASA missions. It combines Web-based, printed, and externally published media to reach underserved audiences across the nation. Its primary mission is to develop and provide a highly desirable suite of attractive and educational products designed to appeal to and immerse the general

Diane K. Fisher; N. J. Leon

2006-01-01

175

Fusion Energy for Space: Feasibility Demonstration. A Proposal to NASA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' r...

N. R. Schulze

1992-01-01

176

NASA Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, NASA Quest has been connecting students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website--Learning Technology Channel, Space Team Online, Aerospace Team Online, and Women of NASA. The NASA Ques

Ashby, Susanne

2000-09-01

177

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although NASA is currently considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain w...

J. Metcalf L. Peterson R. Bagdigian R. Carrasquillo

2012-01-01

178

Impact of the Columbia Supercomputer on NASA Space and Exploration Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer gained worldwide recognition in 2004 for increasing the space agency's computing capability ten-fold, and enabling U.S. scientists and engineers to perform significant, breakthrough simulations. Columbia has ...

R. Biswas D. Kwak C. Kiris S. Lawrence

2006-01-01

179

Advanced Analytical Instrument Facility for Analysis of Return Samples from NASA Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mass spectrometer with laser post-ionization of neutral species constructed at Argonne National Lab is well suited for analyses of return samples from NASA space exploration missions because of its high useful yield and analytical resolutions.

Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.

2006-03-01

180

Avoiding Space Robot Collisions Utilizing the NASA/GSFC Tri-Mode Skin Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A capacitance based proximity sensor, the 'Capaciflector', has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA. We had investigated the use of this sensor for avoiding and maneuvering around unexpected objects. The approach developed there would...

F. B. S. Prinz S. Mahalingam

1992-01-01

181

NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake...

C. F. Sams

2009-01-01

182

Standard Spacecraft Procurement Analysis: A Case Study in NASA-DOD Coordination in Space Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Test Program Standard Satellite (STPSS), a design proposed by the Air Force, and two NASA candidates, the Applications Explorer Mission spacecraft (AEM) and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS), were considered during the first phase. Durin...

E. D. Harris

1980-01-01

183

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Overview and Mission Applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This paper provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, and advanced chemical thrusters. Aerocapture investments have 1) improved models

Tibor Kremic; D. J. Anderson; J. W. Dankanich

2008-01-01

184

Impact of the Columbia supercomputer on NASA space and exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer gained worldwide recognition in 2004 for increasing the space agency's computing capability ten-fold, and enabling U.S. scientists and engineers to perform significant, breakthrough simulations. Columbia has amply demonstrated its capability to accelerate NASA 's key missions in space operations, exploration systems, science, and aeronautics. Columbia is part of an integrated high-end computing (HEC) environment comprised of

Rupak Biswas; Dochan Kwak; Cetin Kiris; Scott Lawrence

2006-01-01

185

Software Element of the NASA Portable Electronic Device Radiated Emissions Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory (HIRF Lab) recently conducted a series of electromagnetic radiated emissions tests under a cooperative agreement with Delta Airlines and an interagency agreement with the FAA....

S. V. Koppen

2002-01-01

186

Involvement of scientists in the NASA Office of Space Science education and public outreach program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990's NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has embarked on an astronomy and space science education and public outreach (E\\/PO) program. Its goals are to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, and to enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level. A key feature of the OSS program

Bernhard Beck-Winchatz

2005-01-01

187

New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle ...

J. P. Sumrall

2006-01-01

188

Some Verification Issues at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is developing increasingly complex missions to conduct new science and exploration. Missions are increasingly turning to multi-spacecraft to provide multiple simultaneous views of phenomena, and to search more of the solar system in less time. Swarms of intelligent autonomous spacecraft, involv- ing complex behaviors and interactions, are being proposed to accomplish the goals of these new missions. The emergent

Michael G. Hinchey; James L. Rash; Christopher A. Rouff

2005-01-01

189

NASA Selects Next Generation of Space Explorers; Google+ Hangout Today  

NASA Website

After an extensive year-and-a-half search, NASA has a new group of potential astronauts who will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system, including an asteroid and Mars.

190

Space-Age Geodesy: The NASA Crustal Dynamics Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Crustal Dynamics Project has deployed satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems and very-long-baseline-interferometer (VLBI) systems for measurements of global and regional crustal motions and Earth rotation parameters. In 1984, the several year buildup of the network approached full capability. During 1984, the SLR systems measured 142 unique baselines between stations for the purpose of determining plate motion between the

Robert Coates; Herbert Frey; Gilbert Mead; John Bosworth

1985-01-01

191

76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Charter of the International Space Station Advisory...a renewal of the International Space Station Advisory...Committee is in the public interest in connection...Miller, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202)...

2011-10-17

192

PARCS: NASA’s laser-cooled atomic clock in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) mission is designed to perform certain tests of relativity theory, to study the performance of individual GPS space-vehicle clocks, to study the dynamics of atom motion in microgravity, to advance the state-of-the art for space clocks, and to serve as a pathfinder for precision instruments based on laser cooling of atoms. After

D. B. Sullivan; N. Ashby; E. A. Donley; T. P. Heavner; L. W. Hollberg; S. R. Jefferts; W. M. Klipstein; W. D. Phillips; D. J. Seidel

2005-01-01

193

Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities

Brad Gersey; Richard Wilkins

2010-01-01

194

The NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1989, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (also known as Space Grant) contributes to the nation's science enterprise by funding research, education, and public service projects through a national network of 52 university-based Space Grant consortia. These consortia administer programs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. In

D. H. Atkinson; E. B. Ward; D. Detroye

1998-01-01

195

The Scientific Visualization Studio at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientific Visualization Studio is a part of the Scientific Applications and Visualization Branch of the Space Data and Computing Division at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It is tasked to provide advanced data visualization support to users of the NASA Center for the Computational Sciences and other NASA funded scientific researchers in both the space and Earth Sciences. Such support includes providing both software and expertise in visualizing large, complex, multidimensional data sets, and in creating videos, films, and other forms of hardcopy of the results. Hardware and software tools include a Cray Y/MP, a Convex C3240, a MasPar MP-1, a family of SGI workstations, video disks and recorders in all the international standards, color printers, photographic and movie transfer tools, and IDL, AVS, and FAST. We demonstrate these capabilities, as applied to various Earth and space science data sets, through a variety of annotated images and a video.

White, R. A.; Strong, J. E.; Pape, D. E.; Mitchell, H. G.; McConnell, A.; Cavallo, J. M.; Twiddy, R. L.; Rais, H.

1993-05-01

196

Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no inte...

A. Butina

2001-01-01

197

Perspectives from Space: Nasa Classroom Information and Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet contains the information and classroom activities included on the backs of the eight poster series, 'Perspectives From Space'. The first series, Earth, An Integrated System, contains information on global ecology, remote sensing from space, d...

1992-01-01

198

NASA's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Program: An Overview and Status Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five years, NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has planned and is now implementing a comprehensive approach to making education at all levels (with a particular focus on K-14 education) and the enhanced public understanding of science integral parts of Space Science missions and research programs. Major progress has been made in realizing OSS's education and public

J. Rosendhal

1999-01-01

199

The NASA Office of Space Science education and public outreach program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past six years, the NASA Office of Space Science has established a national program to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the pre- college level and to help create our 21st century scientific and technical workforce. This is one of the largest programs

J. Rosendhal; P. Sakimoto; R. Pertzborn; L. Cooper

2002-01-01

200

NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013. The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames ...

T. Cohen

2013-01-01

201

Development and Technology Transfer of Software Engineering Technology at NASA. Johnson Space Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United State's big space projects of the next decades, such as Space Station and the Human Exploration Initiative, will need the development of many millions of lines of mission critical software. NASA-Johnson (JSC) is identifying and developing some ...

C. L. Pitman D. M. Erb M. E. Izygon E. M. Fridge G. B. Roush

1992-01-01

202

NASA's next generation all-digital deep space network breadboard receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the breadboard advanced receiver (called ARX) that is currently being built for use in NASA's deep space network (DSN). This receiver has unique requirements in having to operate with very weak signals from deep space probes and provide high-quality telemetry and tracking data. The hybrid analog\\/digital receiver performs multiple functions, including carrier, subcarrier, and symbol synchronization. Tracking

Sami Hinedi

1993-01-01

203

NASA's Flight Opportunities Program  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickly evaluate new technologies in near-space where conditions such as weightlessness, increased radiation and vibrations mimic those of space, before launch into or beyond low-Earth orbit.

Monroe Conner

2012-03-12

204

Biology relevant to space radiation  

SciTech Connect

The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors.

Fry, R.J.M.

1996-08-01

205

PARCS: NASA's laser-cooled atomic clock in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) mission is designed to perform certain tests of relativity theory, to study the performance of individual GPS space-vehicle clocks, to study the dynamics of atom motion in microgravity, to advance the state-of-the art for space clocks, and to serve as a pathfinder for precision instruments based on laser cooling of atoms. After

D. B. Sullivan; N. Ashby; E. A. Donley; T. P. Heavner; L. W. Hollberg; S. R. Jefferts; W. M. Klipstein; W. D. Phillips; D. J. Seidel

2005-01-01

206

Crop production data for bioregenerative life support: Observations from testing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA s Biomass Production Chamber BPC at Kennedy Space Center was decommissioned ca 1998 but in the preceding decade several crop tests were conducted that have not been reported in the open literature These included monoculture studies with wheat soybean potato and tomato For each of these studies 20 m 2 of crops were grown in an atmospherically closed chamber 113 m 3 vol using a nutrient film hydroponic technique along with elevated CO 2 1000 or 1200 mu mol mol -1 Canopy light PAR levels ranged from 30 to 85 mol m -2 d -1 depending on the crop and selected photoperiod Total biomass DM productivities reached 40 g m -2 d -1 for wheat 16 g m -2 d -1 for soybean 33 g m -2 d -1 for potato and 20 g m -2 d -1 for tomato Edible biomass DM productivities reached 13 g m -2 d -1 for wheat 6 g m -2 d -1 for soybean 20 g m -2 d -1 for potato and 10 g m -2 d -1 for tomato The highest radiation use efficiencies for biomass were 0 60 g DM mol -1 PAR for wheat 0 50 g mol -1 for soybean 0 95 g mol -1 for potato and 0 51 g mol -1 for tomato The highest radiation use efficiencies for edible biomass were 0 22 g DM mol -1 for wheat 0 18 g mol -1 for soybean 0 58 g mol -1 for potato and 0 25 g mol -1 for tomato Use of transplanting cycles or spacing techniques to reduce open gaps between plants early in growth would have improved productivities and radiation use efficiencies for soybeans potatoes and

Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

207

How We Get Pictures from Space. NASA Facts (Revised Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet discusses image processing from spacecraft in deep space. The camera system on board the spacecraft, the Deep Space Network (DSN), and the image processing system are described. A table listing photographs taken by unmanned spacecraft from 1959-1977 is provided. (YP)|

Haynes, Robert

208

The NASA light-emitting diode medical program-progress in space flight and terrestrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is supported and managed through the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-SBIR Program. Studies on cells exposed to microgravity and hypergravity indicate that human cells need gravity to stimulate cell growth. As the gravitational force increases or decreases, the cell function responds in a linear fashion. This poses significant health risks for astronauts in long termspace flight. LED-technology developed for NASA plant growth experiments in space shows promise for delivering light deep into tissues of the body to promote wound healing and human tissue growth. This LED-technology is also biologically optimal for photodynamic therapy of cancer. .

Whelan, Harry T.; Houle, John M.; Whelan, Noel T.; Donohoe, Deborah L.; Cwiklinski, Joan; Schmidt, Meic H.; Gould, Lisa; Larson, David L.; Meyer, Glenn A.; Cevenini, Vita; Stinson, Helen

2000-01-01

209

Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

1991-08-01

210

NASA TV Provides Coverage of Space Station Spacewalk  

NASA Website

Two members of the Expedition 35 crew will venture outside the International Space Station on April 19 for a six-hour spacewalk to deploy and retrieve several science experiments and install a new navigational aid.

211

On the validity of the aluminum equivalent approximation in space radiation shielding applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence

Francis F. Badavi; Daniel O. Adams; John W. Wilson

2010-01-01

212

Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel  

SciTech Connect

There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation and this will be taken into account. Work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

Fry, R.J.M.

1984-01-01

213

Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2001-09-06

214

Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-12-01

215

Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-06-15

216

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the launch and commissioning of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) in 2012, space weather data will be generated and broadcast from the spacecraft in near real-time. The RBSP mission targets one part of the space weather chain: the very high energy electrons and ions magnetically trapped within Earth's radiation belts. The understanding gained by RBSP will enable us to better predict the response of the radiation belts to solar storms in the future, and thereby protect space assets in the near-Earth environment. This chapter details the presently planned RBSP capabilities for generating and broadcasting near real-time space weather data, discusses the data products, the ground stations collecting the data, and the users/models that will incorporate the data into test-beds for radiation belt nowcasting and forecasting.

Kessel, R. L.; Fox, N. J.; Weiss, M.

2012-12-01

217

Faculty Institutes for NASA Earth and Space Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys and focus groups suggest that science education faculty and other science faculty who help prepare future teachers can benefit greatly from each other through professional development incorporating educationally-researched pedagogical techniques, the latest Earth and space science discoveries, materials, and new activities. In response, a team of scientists and science educators has delivered four such 2-day faculty institutes, through our

S. S. Shipp; S. J. Slater; T. F. Slater

2009-01-01

218

NASA Roadmap for Fundamental Physics Research in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last year, about 100 fundamental physics researchers met twice to develop plans for the future in this research area. The results of these meetings have been documented in a presentation package titled “A Roadmap for Fundamental Physics in Space”. A summary of the Roadmap is presented along with an overview of the current program. Research is being performed in Low

Ulf E. Israelsson

2000-01-01

219

Galileo to Great Observatories: a NASA Hubble Space Telescope\\/Servicing Mission 4 Content Strand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slated to launch late summer 2008, STS-125 will service the Hubble Space Telescope. This servicing mission will provide the world with more spectacular images than ever before; consequently, providing scientists with enhanced capabilities to make new discoveries. NASA's education effort includes four content strands, one of which is Galileo to Great Observatories. The focus of this strand is to engage

Tara Clopper; D. Seidel

2008-01-01

220

Archive: New NASA Views of Storms in Space, January 19, 2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar took place on January 19, 2011 from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Presenting was Dr. Eric Christian a Research Scientist in the Heliospheric Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Dr Christian gave some g

1900-01-01

221

The NASA\\/DOE space nuclear propulsion project plan—FY 1991 status  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. This paper summarizes the activities of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991, and summarizes the project plan. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both

John S. Clark

1992-01-01

222

The NASA\\/DOE space nuclear propulsion project plan-FY 1991 status  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. This paper summarizes the activities of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991, and summarizes the project plan. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both

John S. Clark

1992-01-01

223

Actinide Sub-Actinide Flux Ratio Estimated from NASA Challenger Space Shuttle Borne Passive Detector Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A video trace analysis of 117 ultra heavy cosmic nuclei detected by NASA space shuttle borne lexan detectors has been presented here. The major axes of the elliptical track etch pits in the long hour etched detectors have been measured using a Hund microscope computerized for the measurements using a Pentium. The major axes distribution exhibits the existence of ultra

Basudhara Basu; D. P. Bhattacharyya; S. Biswas; D. O'Sullivan; A. Thompson

1998-01-01

224

Structural analysis of a frangible nut used on the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural analysis methodology has been developed for the NASA 2.5-inch frangible nut used on the Space Shuttle. Two of these nuts are used to secure the External Tank to the aft end of the Orbiter. Both nuts must completely fracture before the Orbiter can safely separate from the External Tank. Ideally, only one of the two explosive boosters contained

K. E. Metzinger

1993-01-01

225

Concepts and Embodiment Design of a Reentry Recumbent Seating System for the NASA Space Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, ...

S. Mcmillan B. Looby C. Devany C. Chudej B. Brooks

1993-01-01

226

NASA Mission: The Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

227

Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

Garza, Sergio

1977-01-01

228

Controlled Antihydrogen Propulsion for NASA's Future in Very Deep Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

To world-wide notice, in 2002 the ATHENA collaboration at CERN (in Geneva, Switzerland) announced the creation of order 100,000 low energy antihydrogen atoms. Thus, the concept of using condensed antihydrogen as a low-weight, powerful fuel (i.e., it produces a thousand times more energy per unit weight of fuel than fission\\/fusion) for very deep space missions (the Oort cloud and beyond)

Michael Martin Nieto; Michael H. Holzscheiter; Slava G. Turyshev

2004-01-01

229

Space radiation research in Europe: flight experiments and ground-based studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to space radiation has long been acknowledged as a potential showstopper for long-duration manned interplanetary\\u000a missions. In an effort to gain more information on space radiation risk and to develop countermeasures, NASA initiated several\\u000a years ago a Space Radiation Health Program, which is currently supporting biological experiments performed at the Brookhaven\\u000a National Laboratory. Accelerator-based radiobiology research in the field

M. Durante; G. Reitz; O. Angerer

2010-01-01

230

TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory will manage the Chandra science mission for NASA from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center in Cambridge, Mass. TRW has been developing scientific, communications and environmental satellite systems for NASA since 1958. In addition to building the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the company is currently developing the architectures and technologies needed to implement several of NASA's future space science missions, including the Next Generation Space Telescope, the Space Inteferometry Mission, both part of NASA's Origins program, and Constellation-X, the next major NASA X-ray mission after Chandra. Article courtesy of TRW. TRW news releases are available on the corporate Web site: http://www.trw.com.

1999-04-01

231

International Space Station: Improving Life on Earth and in Space. The NASA Research Plan, an Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This ISS Research Plan overview is a NASA implementation plan for the ISS program and it describes how NASA will utilize the ISS platform. This document, when coupled with the technical version of the ISS research plan to be published in 1998 will be a co...

1998-01-01

232

Shielding from space radiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress during the period of 1 Jun. - 1 Dec. 1991 is presented. An analytical solution to heavy ion transport equation in terms of Green's function formalism is developed. The mathematical development is recasted into efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of extending the Green's function over the solution

C. Ken Chang; Forooz F. Badavi

1991-01-01

233

Shielding from space radiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Progress Report covering the period of December 1, 1992 to June 1, 1993 presents the development of an analytical solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of Green's function formalism. The mathematical development results are recasted into a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of this algorithm is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique of

C. Ken Chang; Forooz F. Badavi; Ram K. Tripathi

1993-01-01

234

Controlled Antihydrogen Propulsion for NASA's Future in Very Deep Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

To world-wide notice, in 2002 the ATHENA collaboration at CERN (in Geneva,\\u000aSwitzerland) announced the creation of order 100,000 low energy antihydrogen\\u000aatoms. Thus, the concept of using condensed antihydrogen as a low-weight,\\u000apowerful fuel (i.e., it produces a thousand times more energy per unit weight\\u000aof fuel than fission\\/fusion) for very deep space missions (the Oort cloud and\\u000abeyond)

Michael Martin Nieto; Michael H. Holzscheiter; Slava G. Turyshev

2004-01-01

235

Expedition 34 Space Station Commander Kevin Ford to Visit NASA's Marshall Center on Aug. 8; Media Invited  

NASA Website

Astronaut Kevin Ford, who lived and worked nearly five months as the Expedition 34 commander aboard the International Space Station, will visit NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 8.

236

Data from NASA Rover's Voyage to Mars Aids Planning  

NASA Website

Measurements taken by NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission as it delivered the Curiosity rover to Mars in 2012 are providing NASA the information it needs to design systems to protect human explorers from radiation exposure on deep-space ...

237

Overview of the Space Science Education and Public Outreach Program at NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the space science education and public outreach program at NASA. We will discuss the underlying philosophy and structure of the program and its great strength in forging genuine partnerships between scientists and the educational communities "To inspire the next generation of explorers - As only NASA can." The effort has grown tremendously since its inception and now involves thousands of scientists, educators, museums and planetariums, and community groups from all over the country. We discuss some of the key accomplishments of the program and innovative aspects of the effort including the roles and contributions of a "support network" of forums and broker/facilitators that amplifies the program impact.

Cooper, L. P.; Krishnamurthi, A.

2004-12-01

238

The epistemic integrity of NASA practices in the Space Shuttle Program.  

PubMed

This article presents an account of epistemic integrity and uses it to demonstrate that the epistemic integrity of different kinds of practices in NASA's Space Shuttle Program was limited. We focus on the following kinds of practices: (1) research by working engineers, (2) review by middle-level managers, and (3) communication with the public. We argue that the epistemic integrity of these practices was undermined by production pressure at NASA, i.e., the pressure to launch an unreasonable amount of flights per year. Finally, our findings are used to develop some potential strategies to protect epistemic integrity in aerospace science. PMID:23432770

De Winter, Jan; Kosolosky, Laszlo

2013-01-01

239

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

240

The City University of New York and NASA Goddard Space Fight Center Heliophysics Education Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City University of New York and NASA Goddard Space Fight Center Heliophysics Education Consortium provides undergraduate student research, curriculum enhancement and academic program development, and professional development for faculty in order to support two of NASA’s Heliophysics Science objectives: a) understand the physical processes of the space environment from the Sun to Earth; and b) understand how human society, technological systems and the habitability of Earth are affected by solar variability. Research projects include Electron Density: Interaction between the Solar Wind and the Earth’s Ionosphere/Magnetosphere, Microsatellite-based Monitoring of Ion Density in the Ionosphere, D-Layer Ionosphere & EM pulses from Sun, Solar Weather and Tropical Cyclone Activity, Ratio Plot Analysis of Jupiter’s Stratosphere and Building of VLF Antenna Systems and Monitoring Solar Activity using the Stanford University Solar Weather monitor known as “Super-SID”. Faculty development began with a workshop at the Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) at GSFC. The project is supported by NASA award NNX10AE72G.

Johnson, L. P.; Marchese, P.; Ng, C.; Austin, S. A.; Frost, J.; Cheung, T. K.; Tremberger, G.; Robbins, I.; Paglione, T.; Damas, C.; Steiner, J. C.; Rudolph, E.

2010-12-01

241

Shielding from Space Radiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Final Progress Report for NCC-1-178 presents the details of the engineering development of an analytical\\/computational solution to the heavy ion transport equation in terms of a multi-layer Green's function formalism as applied to the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) program. The mathematical developments are recasted into a series of efficient computer codes for space applications. The efficiency of applied

C. Ken Chang; Francis F. Badavi

1998-01-01

242

The NASA program in Space Energy Conversion Research and Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The considered Space Energy Conversion Program seeks advancement of basic understanding of energy conversion processes and improvement of component technologies, always in the context of the entire power subsystem. Activities in the program are divided among the traditional disciplines of photovoltaics, electrochemistry, thermoelectrics, and power systems management and distribution. In addition, a broad range of cross-disciplinary explorations of potentially revolutionary new concepts are supported under the advanced energetics program area. Solar cell research and technology are discussed, taking into account the enhancement of the efficiency of Si solar cells, GaAs liquid phase epitaxy and vapor phase epitaxy solar cells, the use of GaAs solar cells in concentrator systems, and the efficiency of a three junction cascade solar cell. Attention is also given to blanket and array technology, the alkali metal thermoelectric converter, a fuel cell/electrolysis system, and thermal to electric conversion.

Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.; Ambrus, J. H.; Hudson, W. R.

243

NASA/Capitol College Space Operations Institute Project: A Problem Based Learning Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the experiences and lessons learned during the formation of the NASA/Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership. The partnership works to advance the cause of not only improving science literacy, but directly encouraging and supporting students to enter careers in the STEM disciplines. Specifically, the SOI program conducts the following: Design, build, and implement an Upgraded Ground System for the TOMS satellite. Transfer prime TOMS operations to the control center at Capitol College. Educate undergraduate students with the "right stuff" for future STEM employment. Support the Astronautical Engineering degree program. Implement the TRMM BMOC project. More than 67 students from various majors at Capitol College participated in several NASA missions where they gained hands on experiences preparing them with the skills needed by the Aerospace industry. Examples of NASA missions students were or currently involved with are: UGS, ERBS, UARS, TOMS and TRMM satellite operations and TOMS and TRMM ground system development.

Walters, A.; Wagner, D. M.; Gibbs, M. G.; Marius, J. L.

2010-08-01

244

A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research using the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

Schlagheck, R.

2002-01-01

245

Radiation dose predictions for SPE events during solar cycle 23 from NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code is a deterministic model for rapid and accurate calculations of the particle radiation fields in the space environment. HZETRN is used to calculate dosimetric quantities on the International Space Station (ISS) and assess astronaut risk to space radiations, including realistic spacecraft and human geometry for final exposure evaluation. HZETRN is used as an engineering design tool for materials research for radiation shielding protection. Moreover, it is used to calculate HZE propagation through the Earth and Martian atmospheres, and to evaluate radiation exposures for epidemiological studies. A new research project has begun that will use HZETRN as the transport engine for the development of a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure for both background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure and radiation exposure during solar particle events (SPE) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model, which utilizes real-time observations from ground-based, atmospheric, and satellite measurements. In this paper, we compute the global distribution of atmospheric radiation dose for several SPE events during solar cycle 23, with particular emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure.

Mertens, Christopher; Blattnig, Steve; Slaba, Tony; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Solomon, Stan

246

NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from the Operations Control Center after launch. "As is usually the case, we identified a few issues to be resolved before launch," said Wojtalik. "Overall, however, the observatory performed exceptionally well." The observatory test team discovered a mechanical problem with one of the primary science instruments, the Imaging Spectrometer. A door protecting the instrument did not function when commanded by test controllers. "We do these tests to check and double check every aspect of satellite operation that could affect the ultimate success of the science mission," said Craig Staresinich, TRW Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program manager. "Discovering a problem now is a success. Discovering a problem later, after launch, would be a failure." A team of NASA and contractor engineers are studying the mechanical problem and developing a plan to correct it. The instrument will be sent back to its builder, Lockheed-Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colo., where it will be repaired while the rest of the observatory continues other testing. This should still allow an on-time delivery of the observatory to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Fla., in August, where it will be readied for launch in January. With a resolving power 10 times greater than previous X-ray telescopes, the new X-ray observatory will provide scientists with views of previously invisible X-ray sources, including black holes, exploding stars and interstellar gasses. The third of NASA's Great Observatories, it will join the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. TRW Space & Electronics Group is assembling the observatory and doing verification testing. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirro

1998-07-01

247

NASA'S Education Forums: A Major Resource for the Space Science Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has established four Education Forums corresponding to the four OSS science themes: The Sun-Earth Connection; Solar System Exploration; Origins; and the Structure and Evolution of the Universe. Hosted by leading space science research institutions across the country, the Education Forums work in concert with a network of OSS Broker/Facilitators to provide a variety of important services to the space science community, including identifying and developing high-leverage opportunities for space scientists to participate in education and outreach. This session will sample the broad spectrum of Forum projects and will discuss several forthcoming opportunities of special interest. The discussion will include ways to expand space science presence in the pre-college curriculum; resources to help space scientists collaborate with science museums, planetariums, and other informal science education media; and outstanding challenges in astronomy education.

Gould, R. R.

1999-12-01

248

Microgravity research results and experiences from the NASA/MIR space station program.  

PubMed

The Microgravity Research Program (MRP) participated aggressively in Phase 1 of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges of long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about long-duration on-orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings. PMID:14503490

Schlagheck, R A; Trach, B L

2003-12-01

249

Meson Production and Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation is an important priority for long duration space flight. The National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) has recently recommended that pion and other mesons should be included in space radiation transport codes, especially in connection with the Martian atmosphere. In an interesting accident of nature, the galactic cosmic ray spectrum has its peak intensity near the pion production threshold. The Boltzmann transport equation is structured in such a way that particle production cross sec-tions are multiplied by particle flux. Therefore, the peak of the incident flux of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum is more important than other regions of the spectrum and cross sections near the peak are enhanced. This happens with pion cross sections. The MCNPX Monte-Carlo transport code now has the capability of transporting heavy ions, and by using a galactic cosmic ray spectrum as input, recent work has shown that pions contribute about twenty percent of the dose from galactic cosmic rays behind a shield of 20 g/cm2 aluminum and 30 g/cm2 water. It is therefore important to include pion and other hadron production in transport codes designed for space radiation studies, such as HZETRN. The status of experimental hadron production data for energies relevant to space radiation will be reviewed, as well as the predictive capa-bilities of current theoretical hadron production cross section and space radiation transport models. Charged pions decay into muons and neutrinos, and neutral pions decay into photons. An electromagnetic cascade is produced as these particles build up in a material. The cascade and transport of pions, muons, electrons and photons will be discussed as they relate to space radiation. The importance of other hadrons, such as kaons, eta mesons and antiprotons will be considered as well. Efficient methods for calculating cross sections for meson production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus reactions will be presented. The NCRP has also recom-mended that more attention should be paid to neutron and light ion transport. The coupling of neutrons, light ions, mesons and other hadrons will be discussed.

Norbury, John; Blattnig, Steve; Norman, Ryan; Aghara, Sukesh

250

[Emphasis of biological research for space radiation].  

PubMed

The paper summarized issues, current status and the recent topics in biological research of space radiation. Researches to estimate a risk associated with space radiation exposure during a long-term manned space flight, such as in the International Space Station, is emphasized because of the large uncertainty of biological effects and a complexity of the radiation environment in space. The Issues addressed are; 1) biological effects and end points in low dose radiation, 2) biological effects under low dose rate and long-term radiation exposure, 3) modification of biological responses to radiation under space environments, 4) various aspects of biological end points vs. cellular and molecular mechanisms, 5) estimation of human risk associated with radiation exposure in space flight, 6) regulations for radiation exposure limits for space workers. The paper also summarized and introduced recent progress in space related radiation researches with various biological systems. PMID:11541824

Ohnishi, T; Nagaoka, S

1998-03-01

251

Space Science Visualization at the NASA/GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS) at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center produces visualization of scientific data for use by the news media, educators, and researchers. Space science data presents even greater challenges for visualization and animation but the increased quantity and quality of data from the newest instruments can generate impressive results. All of our work is freely available on the SVS web site, http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov, and we encourage its use by educators and media. Our products are available in a variety of media formats, ranging from high-definition movies, individual movie frames, print-resolution still images, and even some left-right eye frame sets for stereo-viewing systems. Most of the products include metadata describing the science story and datasets used.

Wright, Ernest

2010-01-01

252

The NASA search for evidence of technological civilizations in space: project HRMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA began in 1989 a project to search for microwave radio evidence of technological civilizations in space. The project, designated HRMS for High Resolution Microwave Survey, is designed to search the 1 to 10 GHz microwave window for narrow band signals that could be positively identified as being transmitted by a civilization of extraterrestrial origin. The project will use existing ground-based radio observatories throughout the world for the task. Two complementary strategies will be applied in the conduct of the search: the Targeted Search and the Sky Survey. The Targeted Search will observe about 800 Sol-like stars using the largest and most sensitive antennas available while the Sky Survey will scan the entire celestial sphere by continuously moving the smaller, more flexible antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network. This paper will discuss the overall requirements and concepts of project HRMS, focusing on the Targeted Search.

Brocker, David H.; Backus, Peter R.

1993-08-01

253

The NASA rocky moutain space grant high altitude research balloon project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of U.S. universities, under the auspices of NASA's Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, has initiated a super-pressure balloon research project to measure ozone column density in the atmosphere above 20 kilometers, together with stratospheric circulation between 20 km and 40 km, over the continental U.S.A. Data from a balloon-borne ultraviolet spectrometer, together with time, altitude, latitude and

R. G. Moore; P. Espy

1994-01-01

254

The NASA rocky mountain space grant high altitude research balloon project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of U.S. universities, under the auspices of NASA's Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, has initiated a super-pressure balloon research project to measure ozone column density in the atmosphere above 20 kilometers, together with stratospheric circulation between 20 km and 40 km, over the continental U.S.A. Data from a balloon-borne ultraviolet spectrometer, together with time, altitude, latitude and

R. G. Moore; P. Espy

1994-01-01

255

A cryogenic K-band ground terminal for NASA'S direct-data-distribution space experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A K-band receiver terminal has been designed for ≈77-K operation to support the NASA Glenn Research Center's direct-data-distribution (D3) spare experiment. The D2 experiment involves a 256-element phased-array antenna, aboard the Space Shuttle, transmitting dual 622-Mb\\/s beams to the ground terminal. The beams are left- and right-hand-side circularly polarized for isolation. The terminal consists of a Cassegrain reflector antenna with

Robert R. Romanofsky; Joseph D. Warner; Samuel A. Alterovitz; Laura Covey; A. Smith; Paul Newman; K. George Duh

2000-01-01

256

Preliminary assessment of energy conservation opportunities at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is encouraging energy efficiency in its buildings and facilities as part of an overall strategy to meet the requirements of the Executive Order on Energy Efficiency and the Comprehensive Energy Policy Act of 1992. NASA requested technical assistance from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a site visit, examine selected buildings and facilities, and suggest appropriate and economically acceptable energy efficiency measures and future actions at NASA`s Goddard Space Flight Center. PNL was also tasked to investigate the current and future demand-side management (DSM) programs offered by the servicing electric utility that would be applicable for the site. The information for this assessment was collected during site visits to the Goddard Space Flight Center during September and October 1992. The assessment addresses energy supply and cost, estimated energy distribution and use, and cost-effective options to reduce energy consumption at the center. Applicable utility DSM programs are also identified. A recommended strategy is identified to undertake a more comprehensive long-term energy reduction program at the site. A model approach is also given for the site to develop a partnership with the serving electric utility to implement a ``custom`` site-wide DSM program incorporating the several incentives offered by the utility to governmental agencies.

Hoffman, L. [L. Hoffman and Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Parker, G.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-07-01

257

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOEpatents

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

258

Acoustic emissions verification testing of International Space Station experiment racks at the NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) at the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH, provides acoustic emission testing and noise control engineering services for a variety of specialized customers, particularly developers of equipment and science experiments manifested for NASA's manned space missions. The ATL's primary customer has been the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), a multirack microgravity

James C. Akers; Paul J. Passe; Beth A. Cooper

2005-01-01

259

Results of the radiological survey at the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory, Newport News, Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Radiation Effects Laboratory located in Newport News, Virginia, was operated by the College of William and Mary for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A synchrocyclotron was formerly in operation in this laboratory and a primary beam of 600 MeV protons and secondary beams of 400 MeV pions and muons were produced for the purpose of studying

M. G. Yalcintas

1986-01-01

260

Space radiation effects on CCDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the space radiation environment on Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are discussed. Data obtained from CCDs made by EEV Ltd and Thompson-CSF is presented. Two types of Thompson-CSF devices (the 288 by 385 pixel TH7863 and the 14 by 14 pixel THX31160-1) are irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays and protons (1.5 and 10 MeV). In both cases significant

Gordon R. Hopkinson

1991-01-01

261

Decade of Friction Stir Welding R and D at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and a Glance into the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Welding at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Alabama, has taken a new direction through the last 10 years. Fusion welding processes, namely variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) were once the corner stone o...

A. Nunes B. Carter C. Russell J. Ding J. Schneider K. Lawless M. Suites

2006-01-01

262

Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number

Shijin Wang; Ying Xu; Xianguo Zhang

2010-01-01

263

Benchmarking Radiation Transport Codes for Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For long duration and\\/or deep space human missions, protection from severe space radiation exposure is a challenging design constraint and may be a potential limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft

Ram Tripathi; John Wilson; Larry Townsend; Tony Gabriel; Larry Pinsky; Tony Slaba

2008-01-01

264

Lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE); NASA's first in-space lidar system for atmospheric research  

SciTech Connect

The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is being developed by NASA/Langley Research Center for flight on the Space Shuttle. The system will detect stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, probe the planetary boundary layer, measure cloud top heights, and measure atmospheric temperature and density in the range of 10 to 40 km. The system consists of a nominal 1 m diameter telescope receiver, a three-color neodymium:YAG laser transmitter, and the system electronics. The instrument makes extensive use of Space Shuttle resources for electrical power, thermal control, and command and data handling. The instrument will fly on the Space Shuttle in mid-1993. This paper presents the engineering aspects of the design, fabrication, integration, and operation of the instrument. A companion paper by members of the LITE Science Steering Group that details the science aspects of LITE is the preparation and will be published at a later time.

Couch, R.H.; Rowland, C.W.; Ellis, K.S.; Blythe, M.P.; Regan, C.P.; Koch, M.R.; Antill, C.W.; Kitchen, W.L.; Cox, J.W.; DeLorme, J.F.; Crockett, S.K.; Remus, R.W. (NASA/Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (US)); Casas, J.C. (SpaceTec Ventures, Hampton, VA (US)); Hunt, W.H. (Wyle Lab., Hampton, VA (US))

1991-01-01

265

How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

2003-12-01

266

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum

Daisuke Masuda; Aiko Nagamatsu; Hiroko Indo; Yoichiro Iwashita; Hiromi Suzuki; Toru Shimazu; Sachiko Yano; Fumiaki Tanigaki; Noriaki Ishioka; Chiaki Mukai; Hideyuki J. Majima

2010-01-01

267

SHIELDING MANNED SPACE VEHICLES FROM SPACE RADIATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known major radiations (including primary cosmic, trapped, and solar ; flare radiations) encountered outside the Earth's atmosphere are described. ; Interactions of primary cosmic radiation in the atmosphere are considered and ; primary cosmic radiation dose is estimated. An estimate is also made of doses ; accumulated in passing through the possible importance of the Rossi transition ; effect.

N. K. Ganguly; J. T. Lence

1961-01-01

268

Opportunities for Education and Public Outreach (E\\/PO) Support Through NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Office of Space Science has made strong commitment to education, with an increased emphasis in recent years that is keyed around the participation of the space science research community in K-14 education and public outreach activities. The strategy includes funding of E\\/PO activities embedded into each mission, as well as opportunities for direct funding and participation for space scientists

L. Lowes; J. Rosendhal

2001-01-01

269

A study of the radiation environment on board the Space Shuttle flight STS57  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on Space Shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The Shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5° inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle spectrometer, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and two area passive detectors consisting of combined NASA plastic nuclear track

G. D. Badhwar; W. Atwell; E. V. Benton; A. L. Frank; R. P. Keegan; V. E. Dudkin; O. N. Karpov; Yu. V. Potapov; A. B. Akopova; N. V. Magradze; L. V. Melkumyan; Sh. B. Rshtuni

1995-01-01

270

Nuclear Physics Issues in Space Radiation Risk Assessment-The FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code Used for Space Radiation Measurement and Protection  

SciTech Connect

The long term human exploration goals that NASA has embraced, requires the need to understand the primary radiation and secondary particle production under a variety of environmental conditions. In order to perform accurate transport simulations for the incident particles found in the space environment, accurate nucleus-nucleus inelastic event generators are needed, and NASA is funding their development. For the first time, NASA is including the radiation problem into the . design of the next manned exploration vehicle. The NASA-funded FLUER-S (FLUKA Executing Under ROOT-Space) project has several goals beyond the improvement of the internal nuclear physics simulations. These include making FLUKA more user-friendly. Several tools have been developed to simplify the use of FLUKA without compromising its accuracy or versatility. Among these tools are a general source input, ability of distributive computing, simplification of geometry input, geometry and event visualization, and standard FLUKA scoring output analysis using a ROOT GUI. In addition to describing these tools we will show how they have been used for space radiation environment data analysis in MARIE, IVCPDS, and EVCPDS. Similar analyses can be performed for future radiation measurement detectors before they are deployed in order to optimize their design. These tools can also be used in the design of nuclear-based power systems on manned exploration vehicles and planetary surfaces. In addition to these space applications, the simulations are being used to support accelerator based experiments like the cross-section measurements being performed at HIMAC and NSRL at BNL.

Lee, K. T. [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-02-12

271

Validation of nuclear models used in space radiation shielding applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as these models are developed over time. In this work, simple validation metrics applicable to testing both model accuracy and consistency with experimental data are developed. The developed metrics treat experimental measurement uncertainty as an interval and are therefore applicable to cases in which epistemic uncertainty dominates the experimental data. To demonstrate the applicability of the metrics, nuclear physics models used by NASA for space radiation shielding applications are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by examining subsets of the model parameter space.

Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2013-01-01

272

NASA solar dynamic ground test demonstration (GTD) program and its application to space nuclear power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems are readily adaptable to any heat source contemplated for space application. The inert gas working fluid can be used directly in gas-cooled reactors and coupled to a variety of heat sources (reactor, isotope or solar) by a heat exchanger. This point is demonstrated by the incorporation in the NASA 2 kWe Solar Dynamic (SD) Space Power Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) Program of the turboalternator-compressor and recuperator from the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) program. This paper will review the goals and status of the SD GTD Program, initiated in April 1992. The performance of the BIPS isotope-heated system will be compared to the solar-heated GTD system incorporating the BIPS components and the applicability of the GTD test bed to dynamics space nuclear power R&D will be discussed.

Harper, William B.; Shaltens, Richard K.

1993-01-01

273

NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the tragic accident involving the space shuttle Columbia, the remainder of NASA's space shuttle fleet has been grounded indefinitely. This paper is "a periodically updated document demonstrating our progress toward safe return to flight and implementation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations." Nearly 250 pages in length, the paper looks at specific systems of the space shuttle and identifies those that need to be upgraded, replaced, or redesigned to ensure a greater level of safety for future missions. It also addresses scenarios for dealing with shuttle damage during a mission and repairing it. This document is Revision 1.1 of Volume 1, and many more revisions can be expected over the long process of returning to flight.

274

Large Scale Refrigeration Plant for Ground Testing the James Webb Telescope at NASA Johnson Space Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Telescope and will be placed in an orbit of 1.5 million km from earth. Before launch in 2014, the telescope will be tested in NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) space simulation chamber, Chamber A. The tests will be conducted at deep space conditions. Chamber A's helium cryo-panels are currently cooled down to 20 K by two Linde 3.5 kW helium refrigerators. The new 12.5 kW, 20-K helium coldbox described in this paper is part of the upgrade to the chamber systems for this large test program. The Linde coldbox will provide refrigeration in several operating modes where the temperature of the chamber is being controlled with a high accuracy due to the demanding NASA test requirements. The implementation of two parallel expansion turbine strings and the Ganni cycle-Floating Pressure process results in a highly efficient and flexible process that minimizes the electrical input power. This paper will describe the collaboration and execution of the coldbox project.

Arnold, P.; Decker, Lutz; Howe, D.; Urbin, J.; Homan, Jonathan; Reis, Carl; Creel, J.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

2010-04-01

275

Strategies for Engaging NASA Space Scientists in K-12 > Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has made a significant commitment to increase scientist participation in Education and Public Outreach (EPO), with a focus on providing tools and assistance for educators in K-12 education and for public informal education. The general goals are to use NASA scientific discoveries and mission results to contribute to the technical and scientific literacy of the nation, to inspire youth, and to achieve significant and sustained enhancement of K-12 education. The participation of AGU scientists in EPO activities is vital to achieving these goals. This participation by individual scientists is often voluntary, but it can be funded as supplements to research grants or directly by OSS missions, which are now required to spend a few percent of their total budget on EPO. Scientists can provide inspiring role models for students, be powerful partners with teachers, and can help assure the scientific accuracy of educational materials. Scientists can also contribute by working with their local and regional educational leadership to include modern Earth and space science results in school curricula and in local museum exhibits and programs. The importance of partnerships between scientists and local educators is one element of a new AGU position statement on effective Earth and space science education at the K-12 level. Examples will be presented of highly-effective EPO programs and the successful strategies for active participation of scientists, with emphasis on activities of interest to AGU scientists.

Vondrak, R. R.

2001-05-01

276

LARGE SCALE REFRIGERATION PLANT FOR GROUND TESTING THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE AT NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The James Webb Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Telescope and will be placed in an orbit of 1.5 million km from earth. Before launch in 2014, the telescope will be tested in NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) space simulation chamber, Chamber A. The tests will be conducted at deep space conditions. Chamber A's helium cryo-panels are currently cooled down to 20 K by two Linde 3.5 kW helium refrigerators. The new 12.5 kW, 20-K helium coldbox described in this paper is part of the upgrade to the chamber systems for this large test program. The Linde coldbox will provide refrigeration in several operating modes where the temperature of the chamber is being controlled with a high accuracy due to the demanding NASA test requirements. The implementation of two parallel expansion turbine strings and the Ganni cycle—Floating Pressure process results in a highly efficient and flexible process that minimizes the electrical input power. This paper will describe the collaboration and execution of the coldbox project.

P. Arnold, Lutz Decker, D. Howe, J. Urbin, Jonathan Homan, Carl Reis, J. Creel, V. Ganni, P. Knudsen, A. Sidi-Yekhlef

2010-04-01

277

The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.

Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

1999-09-01

278

NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and orange glass from a pyroclastic deposit. The loan program also includes Meteorite Disks containing six meteorites that will help educators share the early history of the solar system with students and the public. Educators may borrow either lunar or meteorite disks through Johnson Space Center Curatorial Office. In trainings provided by the NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, educators certified to borrow the disk learn about education resources, the proper use of the samples, and the special security for care and shipping of the disks. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program is set up to bridge to new education programs that will carry NASA exploration to more people. Getting Space Rocks out to the public and connecting the public to the current space exploration missions is the focus the NASA disk loan program.

Allen, J. S.

2009-12-01

279

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: A Step Toward Interstellar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space. The maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program is laying the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion systems operating in the 5-10 kW range, to solar sail propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called “propellantless” because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of those propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies that will most significantly advance our exploration of deep space.

Johnson, L.; James, B.; Baggett, R.; Montgomery, E. E., IV

280

Proton radiation testing of laser optical components for NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) is NASA's element of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Based on current trajectories, the spacecraft will spend a significant amount of time in the Jovian radiation belts. Therefore, research endeavors are underway to study the radiation effects on the various parts and components needed to implement the instruments. Data from these studies will be used for component selection and system design to ensure reliable operation throughout the mission duration. The radiation environment en route to Jupiter is nothing new for NASA designed systems, however, the long durations orbiting Jupiter and Europa present new challenges for radiation exposure. High-energy trapped electrons and protons at Jupiter dominate the expected radiation environment. Therefore, most of the initial component level radiation testing is being conducted with proton exposure. In this paper we will present in-situ monitoring of the optical transmission of various laser optical components during proton irradiation. Radiation induced optical attenuation of some components is less than would be expected, based on the authors experiences, and is attributed to the interaction of the protons with the materials. The results are an encouraging first step in screening these optical materials for spaceflight in a high radiation environment.

Thomes, W. Joe, Jr.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Ott, Melanie N.

2011-09-01

281

NASA Advanced Radiator C-C Fin Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust, low mass carbon-carbon composite fin structure was developed for application to both low and high temperature radiator designs. The fabrication and test results of three layer structures with unidirectional cores based on vapor grown carbon fibers and on pitch fibers are presented. The development of attachment techniques for this low thermal expansion fin material to titanium heat transport tubing is also described. Results of a three-dimensional, finite element model which includes three material layers and anisotropic properties are presented and compared with the experimental development work. Promising approaches for fin attachment by brazing are described.

Denham, Hugh B.; Koester, J. Kent; Clarke, William; Juhasz, Albert J.

1994-07-01

282

NASA space communications R and D (Research and Development): Issues, derived benefits, and future directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space communication is making immense strides since ECHO was launched in 1962. It was a simple passive reflector of signals that demonstrated the concept. Today, satellites incorporating transponders, sophisticated high-gain antennas, and stabilization systems provide voice, video, and data communications to millions of people nationally and worldwide. Applications of emerging technology, typified by NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1992, will use newer portions of the frequency spectrum (the Ka-band at 30/20 GHz), along with antennas and signal-processing that could open yet new markets and services. Government programs, directly or indirectly, are responsible for many space communications accomplishments. They are sponsored and funded in part by NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense since the early 1950s. The industry is growing rapidly and is achieving international preeminence under joint private and government sponsorship. Now, however, the U.S. space communications industry - satellite manufacturers and users, launch services providers, and communications services companies - are being forced to adapt to a different environment. International competition is growing, and terrestrial technologies such as fiber optics are claiming markets until recently dominated by satellites. At the same time, advancing technology is opening up opportunities for new applications and new markets in space exploration, for defense, and for commercial applications of several types. Space communications research, development, and applications (RD and A) programs need to adjust to these realities, be better coordinated and more efficient, and be more closely attuned to commercial markets. The programs must take advantage of RD and A results in other agencies - and in other nations.

1989-02-01

283

Engaging Students from Minority Serving Institutions Through Research Internships in NASA Space Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an ongoing partnership with NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) the MESSENGER, New Horizons and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions have hosted science, engineering and computer science undergraduate and masters students in summer internships over the past several years. These programs have proved beneficial to students, their institutions and local communities, and to the NASA missions. The first internship opportunity was a highly successful partnership between MU-SPIN and the MESSENGER program where fifteen undergraduate and masters students were placed at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory during the testing and integration of the MESSENGER spacecraft in Summer 2003. Many of these students are either in NASA related jobs or are pursuing advanced degrees. For example, of the five students from City University of New York one is an Aerospace Engineer at Wallops Flight Facility, another received her MS in Computer Science and is working for the NSF Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program. One just received her BS in Math and was accepted to the NASA Academy at Glenn Research Center while another is continuing his studies in Computer Engineering at City College of New York. The only community college student intern is now a Space Grant Fellow at Penn State, majoring in aerospace engineering. Student interns from the MESSENGER program were also involved in community outreach following their internship. Several students from South Carolina State University presented their internship experiences to local science teachers during an in-service teacher workshop on the MESSENGER mission. The second internship program took place in Summer 2005 and placed students at Goddard Space Flight Center with LRO and at JHUAPL with the New Horizons mission. LRO interns worked with individual instrument teams while New Horizons interns were engaged in environmental testing and software development for the Pluto-bound spacecraft. The majority of the interns have expressed a desire to return next summer and at least two students were given the opportunity to continue work at JHUAPL. During our presentation, we will provide the results of follow-up interviews with the mentors and interns who took part in the 2005 internship program. We will also discussed lessons learned for those who are exploring implementing similar programs at their research centers or colleges and universities.

Stockman, S. A.; Harrington, J. L.

2005-12-01

284

NASA radiation belt models AP-8 and AE-8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical models AP-8 and AE-8 for the trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are currently available from NSSDC. These are the culmination of a series of models developed by J. I. Vette and colleagues. The initial models were begun in the mid-sixties with the most recent model, AE-8, being released in 1980. These models are based on data ranging from 1958 to 1970. They have been well documented by TREND, a group working under a contract with ESA, contains some information on this model. The only models which are still available from NSSDC are the most recent proton and electron models AP-8 and AE-8. A brief summary is presented of the modeling efforts to date based on information from Lemaire, Spjeldvik, and Rothwell. Results from AE8MAX, results from the models previously used at GL (AE6MAX + AEI7HI), and results from code provided by NSSDC are compared.

Jordan, Carolyn E.

1989-09-01

285

Space Radiation, Understanding the Atom Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is the protection from space radiation afforded the earth by the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetic field. The importance of adequate instruments is emphasized by noting how refinements of radiation detection instruments was necessary for increased understanding of space radiation. The role of controversy and accident in the research…

Corliss, William R.

286

Radiation risk and human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the

W. Schimmerling; F. A. Cucinotta; J. W. Wilson

2003-01-01

287

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's testbed for CCSDS compatible systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A testbed for flight and ground systems compatible with the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Recommendations has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The subsystems of an end-to-end CCSDS based data system are being developed. All return link CCSDS telemetry services (except Internet) and both versions of the CCSDS frame formats are being implemented. In key areas of uncertainty, multiple design approaches are being performed. In addition, key flight-qualifiable hardware components, such as Reed-Solomon encoders, are being developed to complement the testbed element development. The testbed and its capabilities are described. The method of dissemination of the testbed results are given, as are plans to make the testbed capabilities available to outside users. Plans for the development of standardized conformance and compatibility tests are provided.

Carper, Richard D.

1993-03-01

288

Neutron Diffraction Characterization of Residual Strain in Welded Inconel 718 for NASA Space Shuttle Flow Liners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work quantitatively assesses residual strains and stresses associated with the weld repair process used to repair cracks on NASA's space shuttle flow liners. The coupons used in this investigation were made of the same INCONEL 718 alloy used for the flow liners. They were subjected to identical welding and certification procedures that were carried out on the space shuttle. Neutron diffraction measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory determined residual strains at selected locations in a welded coupon at 293 K and 135 K. The weld repair process introduced Mises effective residual stresses of up to 555 MPa. On comparing the measurements at 293 K and 135 K, no significant change to the residual strain profile was noted at the low temperature. This indicated minimal mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the base metal and the weld.

Rathod, C. R.; Livescu, V.; Clausen, B.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Femminineo, M.; Vaidyanathan, R.

2004-06-01

289

Neutron Diffraction Characterization of Residual Strain in Welded Inconel 718 for NASA Space Shuttle Flow Liners  

SciTech Connect

This work quantitatively assesses residual strains and stresses associated with the weld repair process used to repair cracks on NASA's space shuttle flow liners. The coupons used in this investigation were made of the same INCONEL 718 alloy used for the flow liners. They were subjected to identical welding and certification procedures that were carried out on the space shuttle. Neutron diffraction measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory determined residual strains at selected locations in a welded coupon at 293 K and 135 K. The weld repair process introduced Mises effective residual stresses of up to 555 MPa. On comparing the measurements at 293 K and 135 K, no significant change to the residual strain profile was noted at the low temperature. This indicated minimal mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the base metal and the weld.

Rathod, C.R.; Vaidyanathan, R. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (United States); Livescu, V.; Clausen, B.; Bourke, M. A. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Notardonato, W.U.; Femminineo, M. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 32899 (United States)

2004-06-28

290

MEMS/NEMS development for space applications at NASA/JPL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the current technology development activities of the MEMS Technology Group at JPL> The group, in collaboration with other research groups at JPL and outside institutions, pursues the development of a wide range of MEMS/NEMS technologies that are primarily applicable to NASA's needs in the area of robotic planetary exploration. The broad classes of technologies being developed include inertial guidance devices, micro- propulsion devices, and adaptive optics for telescope applications, micro-instruments and nano-mechanical resonator devices. End-to-end prototype development of these MEMS/NEMS technologies is conducted at JPL's state-of-the- art Microdevices Laboratory. The group is also pursuing the establishment of a rapid, space-testing program in collaboration with the Aerospace Corporation, in an effort to overcome the traditional barriers to the insertion of new technologies into space missions.

George, Thomas

2002-04-01

291

NASA Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Images was created through a partnership between NASA and the Internet Archive, a non-profit digital library based in San Francisco, to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The site contains everything from classic photos to educational programming and HD video, and is growing all the time as its creators continue to gain both new and archived media from all of NASA's centers. This effort aimes to promote education and facilitate scholarship in math and the sciences at all levels, and to build general interest and excitement around space exploration, aeronautics, and astronomy.

2009-01-01

292

Hazards to space workers from ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compilation of background information and a preliminary assessment of the potential risks to workers from the ionizing radiation encountered in space is provided. The report: (1) summarizes the current knowledge of the space radiation environment to which space workers will be exposed; (2) reviews the biological effects of ionizing radiation considered of major importance to a SPS project; and (3) discusses the health implications of exposure of populations of space workers to the radiations likely to penetrate through the shielding provided by the SPS work stations and habitat shelters of the SPS Reference System.

Lyman, J. T.

1980-07-01

293

Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station, Program 1 Program 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD)...

E. V. Benton A. L. Frank E. R. Benton

1998-01-01

294

Study of the Radiation Environment on Board the Space Shuttle Flight STS-57.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on space shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5 deg inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle...

G. D. Badhwar W. Atwell E. V. Benton A. L. Frank R. P. Keegan

1995-01-01

295

Space radiation effects in high performance fiber optic data links for satellite data management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber optic based technologies are relatively new to satellite applications, and are receiving considerable attention for planned applications in NASA, DOD, and commercial space sectors. We review various activities in recent years aimed at understanding and mitigating radiation related risk in deploying fiber based data handling systems on orbit. Before concluding that there are no critical barriers to designing survivable

Paul W. Marshall; C. J. Dale; Kenneth A. LaBel

1996-01-01

296

Space Station: NASA's software development approach increases safety and cost risks. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology asked NASA to study software development issues for the space station. How well NASA has implemented key software engineering practices for the station was asked. Specifically, the objectives were to determine: (1) if independent verification and validation techniques are being used to ensure that critical software meets specified requirements and functions; (2) if NASA has incorporated software risk management techniques into program; (3) whether standards are in place that will prescribe a disciplined, uniform approach to software development; and (4) if software support tools will help, as intended, to maximize efficiency in developing and maintaining the software. To meet the objectives, NASA proceeded: (1) reviewing and analyzing software development objectives and strategies contained in NASA conference publications; (2) reviewing and analyzing NASA, other government, and industry guidelines for establishing good software development practices; (3) reviewing and analyzing technical proposals and contracts; (4) reviewing and analyzing software management plans, risk management plans, and program requirements; (4) reviewing and analyzing reports prepared by NASA and contractor officials that identified key issues and challenges facing the program; (5) obtaining expert opinions on what constitutes appropriate independent V-and-V and software risk management activities; (6) interviewing program officials at NASA headquarters in Washington, DC; at the Space Station Program Office in Reston, Virginia; and at the three work package centers; Johnson in Houston, Texas; Marshall in Huntsville, Alabama; and Lewis in Cleveland, Ohio; and (7) interviewing contractor officials doing work for NASA at Johnson and Marshall. The audit work was performed in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards, between April 1991 and May 1992.

1992-06-01

297

The Case of the Great Space Exploration: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2004-09-12-LARC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files" episode "The Case of the Great Space Exploration," the tree house detectives learn about NASA's new vision for exploring space. In four segments aimed at grades 3-5, students learn about a variety of aspects of space exploration. Each segment of the guide includes an overview, a set of objectives,…

Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

2004-01-01

298

Structural analysis of a frangible nut used on the NASA Space Shuttle  

SciTech Connect

A structural analysis methodology has been developed for the NASA 2.5-inch frangible nut used on the Space Shuttle. Two of these nuts are used to secure the External Tank to the aft end of the Orbiter. Both nuts must completely fracture before the Orbiter can safely separate from the External Tank. Ideally, only one of the two explosive boosters contained in each nut must detonate to completely break a nut. However, after an uncontrolled change in the Inconel 718 material processing, recent tests indicate that in certain circumstances both boosters may be required. This report details the material characterization and subsequent structural analyses of nuts manufactured from two lots of Inconel 718. The nuts from the HSX lot were observed to consistently separate with only one booster, while the nuts from the HBT lot never completely fracture with a single booster. The material characterization requires only tensile test data and the determination of a tearing parameter based on a computer simulation of a tensile test. Subsequent structural analyses using the PRONTO2D finite element code correctly predict the differing response of nuts fabricated from these two lots. This agreement is important because it demonstrates that this technique can be used to screen lots of Inconel 718 before manufacturing frangible nuts from them. To put this new capability to practice, Sandia personnel have transferred this technology to the Pyrotechnics Group at NASA-JSC.

Metzinger, K.E.

1993-11-01

299

Incorporating the LAL and ATP assays into the NASA procedural requirements document on the microbiological examination of space hardware.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only NASA approved method for the microbial examination of space hardware is the culture-based assay As demands increase for more rapid and sensitive means of assessing spacecraft cleanliness alternatives to the culture-based assays are been pursued Two types of assays that have been recently evaluated for use on space hardware are the LAL Limulus Amebocyte Lysate and ATP Adenosine Triphosphate microbial detection methods This paper will summarize the evaluation of reports on the two methods and will outline the process by which the two assays will be incorporated in the appropriate NASA documents

Stabekis, P.

300

Actinide Sub-Actinide Flux Ratio Estimated from NASA Challenger Space Shuttle Borne Passive Detector Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A video trace analysis of 117 ultra heavy cosmic nuclei detected by NASA space shuttle borne lexan detectors has been presented here. The major axes of the elliptical track etch pits in the long hour etched detectors have been measured using a Hund microscope computerized for the measurements using a Pentium. The major axes distribution exhibits the existence of ultra heavy nuclei of charges of Z ranging from 72 to 96 compatible with the expected results from restricted energy loss calculations. The estimated actinide sub-actinide flux ratio has been found to be 0.0636±0.0248 which is comparable to the earlier observations by Fowler et al., Thompson et al. and O'Sullivan.

Basu, Basudhara; Bhattacharyya, D. P.; Biswas, S.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.

301

Astrophysics Science Division Education and Public Outreach at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether by participating in an after-school program or perusing a blog, discovering the marvels of the universe can inspire a love of astronomy, and science in general, in students and adults alike. The Astrophysics Science Division's (ASD) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight develops programs and curricula to engage students, educators and the general public in the exciting research being done at Goddard and to foster a better understanding of the universe in general. The ASD EPO team provides formal, informal and outreach materials and programming covering all aspects of astrophysics, including topics such as stellar evolution, galaxies, black holes, supernovae, telescopes and spectroscopy. The programs are designed to engage students in hands-on learning activities and to formulate content in such a way that it is relevant to the audience. These programs are essential to enhance the public's understanding of astronomy, to inspire young minds and garner public support for astronomy research.

Tucker, Faith

2011-01-01

302

The evolution of the WPI Advance Space Design Program-an evolving program of technical and social analysis using the NASA Space Shuttle for engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December of 1982, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, with the cooperation and support of the Mitre Corporation, initiated a primarily undergraduate educational program to develop experiments to be flown onboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Christened the MITRE WPI Space Shuttle Program, it sponsored the development of five educationally meritorious experiments over a period of four years. Although the experiments were ready

Fred J. Looft; Robert C. Labonte; William W. Durgin

1991-01-01

303

today@nasa.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today@nasa.gov, contains the latest information and news releases from NASA missions. Visitors can also find out information about NASA's four strategic enterprises: Aeronautics, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Mission to Planet Earth, and Space Science. NASA related sites describe current happenings at NASA and also provide homepages of NASA missions including the Cassini space probe, the Mars Global Surveyor and, most recently, the launch of the Columbia space shuttle. Space exploration provides clues to how the solar system was formed, why life exists on earth and not on other known planets, and what the structures of the universe, matter, and energy are.

1998-01-01

304

NASA High-Power Space-Based Laser Research and Applications Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Applications of high power lasers are discussed which might fulfill the needs of NASA missions, and the technology characteristics of laser research programs are outlined. The status of the NASA programs or lasers, laser receivers, and laser propulsion is...

R. J. Deyoung G. D. Walberg E. J. Conway L. W. Jones

1983-01-01

305

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING AGAINST SPACE RADIATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief but general discussion of the material requirements for ; shielding against space radiations is presented. Emphasis is placed on ; describing the salient features of the space radiation attenuation problem in ; order to deduce the materials that will most likely produce minimum-weight ; shields. The shielding characteristics of the materials are described as a ; function of

Zerby

1963-01-01

306

The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits and

Sébastien Bourdarie; Michael Xapsos

2008-01-01

307

A NASA high-power space-based laser research and applications program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of high power lasers are discussed which might fulfill the needs of NASA missions, and the technology characteristics of laser research programs are outlined. The status of the NASA programs or lasers, laser receivers, and laser propulsion is discussed, and recommendations are presented for a proposed expanded NASA program in these areas. Program elements that are critical are discussed in detail.

Deyoung, R. J.; Walberg, G. D.; Conway, E. J.; Jones, L. W.

1983-05-01

308

Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

2013-04-01

309

NASA Google+ Hangouts  

NASA Website

Hangout with NASA on Google+ to get a unique perspective on America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.

310

NASA International Environmental Partnerships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the In...

P. Lewis S. Valek

2010-01-01

311

Space Radiation Effects in Scintillating Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tests was conducted in a space environment chamber to determine experimentally the space radiation effects in ZnCdS, CaWO4 and CsI. The scintillating materials were exposed to electron and proton beams of varying energy and flux to determine techniques for reducing space radiation induced light emission to a minimum. The objective was to determine whether scintillating materials could

D. B. Ebeoglu; P. J. Doody; C. Lowman; M. Bender; J. F. Long

1970-01-01

312

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

313

Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology.  

PubMed

Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation. PMID:12793723

Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken

2002-12-01

314

Contributions to GOSAT Data Analysis by the NASA Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) Team (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based greenhouse gas measurements provide the accuracy and coverage needed to quantify the abundance and rate of change of CO2 on global scales, but still lack the resolution and spatial extent needed to identify and quantify CO2 fluxes on regional scales. One way to address this need is to collect precise, spatially-resolved, global measurements of the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, from space. High precision is essential because CO2 sources and sinks must be inferred from spatial and temporal variations in XCO2, and this quantity typically varies by no more than 1% on regional scales. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) were the first two satellites designed specifically to measure of XCO2. The OCO and GOSAT science teams formed a close collaboration prior to the launch of these two missions to cross calibrate their instruments and cross validate their CO2 retrievals against common standards. Immediately after the loss of the OCO spacecraft, the GOSAT team invited the OCO science team to join their efforts to analyze GOSAT data. NASA responded by reformulating the OCO science team as the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) team to (i) meet the NASA’s obligations to its GOSAT partners, (ii) recover some of the science knowledge expected from OCO, and (iii) validate the OCO retrieval algorithms in a realistic environment. The third goal has taken on greater significance since the U.S. Congress authorized a restart of the OCO project, and the President’s 2010 budget proposal included funding to produce a “carbon copy” of OCO that could be ready for launch by February 2013. To address these objectives, the ACOS team has hosted a series of GOSAT vicarious calibration campaigns over Railroad Valley, NV, retrieved global estimates of XCO2 from GOSAT soundings, and validated these XCO2 retrievals against ground-based remote sensing observations by Fourier transform spectrometers in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The vicarious calibration experiments have helped to identify and correct for a ~ 13% change in the pre-launch GOSAT radiometric calibration parameters. Comparisons with surface pressure data and TCCON measurements have revealed global, -2% bias in the preliminary ACOS XCO2 retrievals, about half of which can be attributed to a +10 hPa bias in the retrieved surface pressure. The GOSAT data are also being used to assess the impact of clouds, optically thick aerosols, and other environmental conditions on the accuracy, coverage, and total yield of XCO2 soundings. This presentation will summarize the progress each of these areas and review the latest results of the ACOS efforts to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT measurements.

Crisp, D.; Atmospheric Carbon Observations From Space (Acos) Team

2010-12-01

315

Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an updated model of the dust aerosol cycle embedded within the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies `ModelE' atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). The model dust distribution is compared to observations ranging from aerosol optical thickness and surface concentration to deposition and size distribution. The agreement with observations is improved compared to previous distributions computed by either an

R. L. Miller; R. V. Cakmur; J. Perlwitz; I. V. Geogdzhayev; P. Ginoux; D. Koch; K. E. Kohfeld; C. Prigent; R. Ruedy; G. A. Schmidt; I. Tegen

2006-01-01

316

Overview of the 1986 Free-Piston Stirling Activities at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Lewis Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center's free-piston Stirling engine research is presented, including efforts to improve and advance its design for use in specific space power applications. These efforts are a part of the SP-100 program being condu...

D. L. Alger

1986-01-01

317

Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and infonnation transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation ma...

M. M. Schaaf B. D. Bowen M. M. Fink J. S. Nickerson

2003-01-01

318

Space certification and qualification programs for laser diode modules on the NASA ICESat-2 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser diode module (LDM) space certification and qualification program was developed for NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2, ICESat-2 mission. The ICESat-2 laser transmitter is a high performance diode-pumped solid state laser that requires high reliability, high efficiency and high brightness fiber coupled LDMs, capable of supporting a 27,000 hour mission life. The test centric LDM space certification and qualification programs consisted of several key phases including a technology plausibility study, laser diode and LDM pedigree reviews, environmental acceptance and qualification testing, and extensive life testing. The intent of the plausibility study was to analytically and experimentally demonstrate that a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) LDM design was capable of being space-certified. A pedigree review of the laser diode population was conducted to reject out-of-family laser diodes from the population. The laser diode pedigree review was a statistical analysis of several laser diode performance metrics (efficiency, operating current, etc.) with outliers being rejected. All LDMs underwent environmental acceptance testing including vibration, thermal cycling and an extended burn-in. The primary purpose of the acceptance testing was to highlight internal workmanship issues. The pedigree review of the acceptance tested LDMs was conducted to reject out-of-family LDMs in statistical analysis of several performance metrics (operating current, coupling efficiency, etc.). A sub-set of the flight-certified LDMs will be exposed to environmental qualification testing and will subsequently be tested to failure to determine the LDM capability. Multiple LDMs are being life tested under flight-like conditions and show no signs of degradation with run times of 22,000 hours, which is over 80% of the mission life. Details of the LDMs space certification and qualification programs are presented.

Sawruk, Nicholas W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Bruce, Kevin; Eltringham, Thomas F.; Nash, Franklin R.; Piccirilli, Alfonso B.; Slusark, Walter J.; Hovis, Floyd E.

2013-09-01

319

The MicroMAPS Project: A NASA - Virginia Space Grant Consortium Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MicroMAPS instrument is a nadir-viewing, gas filter correlation radiometer that operates in the 4.67-micrometer band of carbon monoxide. MicroMAPS was designed at North Carolina State University and built at Resonance Ltd in Canada for flight on the NASA-Clark spacecraft, under the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative. Because of spacecraft-related delays, the Clark mission was cancelled in February 1998. The instrument was removed from the spacecraft in August 2000 and placed in storage at NASA Langley Research Center until the initiation of the current MicroMAPS project in 2002. The primary goal of the MicroMAPS mission is to examine the chemical and transport processes in the lower atmosphere. The scientific objectives are to 1) demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the two-layer profiles and total column amounts of CO in the troposphere; 2) provide additional CO measurements and profiles to investigators who develop combined chemistry-transport models, data assimilation models, and other regional- to global-scale atmospheric models; and 3) complement the measurement matrix of space-based CO sensors such as MOPITT on the Terra and TES on the AURA spacecrafts. Test flights of the MicroMAPS CO remote sensor on the Proteus 281 aircraft (owned by Scaled Composites, Inc.) will enable the development and testing of data retrieval algorithms for this instrument, and the verification of these remote CO measurements through comparisons with CO profiles that are measured directly. The aerospace engineering student team from Virginia Polytechnic Institute completed the instrument system and the enclosure design in May 2002. The new composite enclosure replaces the nose of the starboard tail boom during MicroMAPS flights. The instrument system consists of MicroMAPS, an optical window, a data acquisition computer, environmental sensors, and a power inverter. The integrated instrument system, after testing at NASA Langley is completed, will be shipped to Scaled Composites, Inc. in Mojave, CA, to be integrated, calibrated, and flown on a series of test flights. These initial data sets will be used to test the prototype retrieval algorithms under development by the engineering student team at the University of Virginia. The MicroMAPS instrument system will fly on-board Proteus, as a non-interfering payload in collaboration with other integrated payloads.

Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G.; Morrow, W.; Companion, J.; Sandy, M.; Hall, C. D.; Wood, H.; Ribando, R. J.

2003-12-01

320

Space radiation transport properties of polyethylene-based composites.  

PubMed

Composite materials that can serve as both effective shielding materials against cosmic-ray and energetic solar particles in deep space, as well as structural materials for habitat and spacecraft, remain a critical and mission enabling component in mission planning and exploration. Polyethylene is known to have excellent shielding properties due to its low density, coupled with high hydrogen content. Polyethylene-fiber reinforced composites promise to combine this shielding effectiveness with the required mechanical properties of structural materials. Samples of polyethylene-fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite 1-5 cm thick were prepared at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and tested against a 500 MeV/nucleon Fe beam at the HIMAC facility of NIRS in Chiba, Japan. This paper presents measured and calculated results for the radiation transport properties of these samples. PMID:15644352

Kaul, R K; Barghouty, A F; Dahche, H M

2004-11-01

321

Space radiation shielding strategies and requirements for deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for estimating crew exposure to radiation and for evaluating shield requirements for spacecraft equipment and crew are examined. The development status for deterministic space radiation transport computer codes and models of their nuclear interaction inputs, which are useful for estimating the composition and thickness of shield materials, is discussed. The relation between shield thickness and exposures is studied. Estimates

Lawrence W. Townsend; John W. Wilson; John E. Nealy

1989-01-01

322

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Not Available

2011-02-01

323

Calibration and performance measurements of the NASA Deep Space Network antennas upgrade for Ka-band (26GHz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Deep Space Network (DSN) has recently installed equipment to support high-data-rate missions (within 2 million kilometers of Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band (26-GHz) downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional TT&C support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band

David J. Rochblatt; Graham Baines; Manuel Vazquez; Ioana Sotuela; Chuck Snedeker; Remi LaBelle; Jeffery Schredder; Tom Ridgway

2010-01-01

324

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program. Best Management Practice Case Study No. 6-Toilets and Urinals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. Because MSFC was built in...

2011-01-01

325

America in Space, the First Decade - Space Physics and Astronomy, Man in Space, Exploring the Moon and Planets, Putting Satellites to Work, NASA Spacecraft, Spacecraft Tracking, Linking Man and Spacecraft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are seven booklets, part of a series published on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The publications are intended as overviews of some important activities, programs, and events of NASA. They are written for the layman and cover several science disciplines. Each booklet…

Corliss, William R.; Anderton, David A.

326

77 FR 38336 - NASA Advisory Council; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces...Time. ADDRESSES: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Building 1...Audit, Finance and Analysis --Commercial Space --Education and Public...

2012-06-27

327

Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle, the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, ?. The risk of radiation exposure to astronauts as well as to hardware from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which could be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of solar cycle phase using a non-homogeneous Poisson model [1] to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy>30 MeV, ?30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses, for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and for a lunar rover during space missions of defined durations. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning for future manned space exploration missions. Internal documentation of NASA Constellation Trade Study (F.A. Cucinotta, personal communication).

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; De Angelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-04-01

328

Space Radiation Dosimetry with the The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle an-alyzer that will fly on the NASA 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD will detect and analyze energetic particle species (p, n, He, 2¡Z¡26) relevant for dosimetry on the Martian surface. The Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles produce both pri-mary and secondary radiation, with secondaries being created in both the atmosphere and the Martian regolith. Fully characterizing and understanding the surface radiation environment is fundamental to quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars, and is an essential precursor measurement for future manned Mars missions. An extensive database to be used for calibration has been obtained for a wide range of energetic charged particle beams at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Neutron calibration data at 5, 15, and 19 MeV were obtained at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This talk will discuss the highlights of the RAD calibration campaigns and talk about what we have learned from these campaigns with respect to operating RAD on the Martian surface. We will also discuss other mission applications for RAD where dosimetry in mixed fields of energetic charged and neutral particles is needed.

Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boehm, Eckhardt; Boettcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Soenke; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kortmann, Onno; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

329

Lunar Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Ionizing Space Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability

R. K. Tripathi; J. E. Nealy

2008-01-01

330

Storms in Space: Bringing NASA Earth-Sun Science Educational Resources to Hearing- Impaired Students.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using assistive technology, children with hearing loss can actively participate in the hearing world. However, to develop the necessary skills, hearing-impaired students need to be immersed in a language-rich environment which compensates for the lack of "incidental" learning that typifies the language acquisition of their peers with typical hearing. For any subject matter taught in class, this means that the conceptual and language framework of the topic has to be provided in addition to regular class materials. In a collaboration between the Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children and the Southwest Research Institute, we are exploring how NASA-developed educational resources covering Space Science topics can be incorporated successfully in blended classrooms containing children with hearing loss and those with typical hearing in grades 3-5. Utilizing the extensive routine language monitoring performed at Sunshine Cottage, student progress is directly monitored during the year as well as from year to year. This allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of the resources used. Since all instruction at Sunshine Cottage is auditory-oral, our experiences in using those materials can be fed back directly into mainstream classrooms of the same grade levels.

Lowry, K.; Sindt, M.; Jahn, J.

2007-12-01

331

Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number of Chinese spacecrafts, such as SZ-4 manned spacecraft, FY-1, FY-3 sun-synchronous orbit satellites, FY-2 geo-synchronous orbit satellite, CE-1 lunar probe satellite, and so on. In particular, the SJ-4 and the SJ-5 satellites, which were used for special experiments of space radiation and theirs effects on spacecrafts, had been launched in 1990's. The sustained space radiation monitoring on LEO and GEO has accumulated a mass of data and can promote studies for empirical model of space radiation. In this article, monitoring at the Chinese spacecrafts from 1990's to the predictive future will be described, and cross-calibration of data and their typical results will be given.

Wang, Shijin; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Xianguo

332

Distance Mentoring in the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the results of a three year video mentoring program, the NASA Virtual Science Mentor (VSM) program, which paired 56 NASA mentor engineers and scientists with 56 middle school science teachers in seven Southwest Florida counties. The study sought to determine the impact on students, mentors, and teachers participating in the…

Buckingham, Gregg

333

The space radiation environment for electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics. The nature and magnitude of the trapped and transiting environments are described in terms of spatial distribution and temporal variation. The internal radiation environment of the spacecraft is described in terms of shielding the high-energy particles of the free-field environment. Exposure

E. G. Stassinopoulos; James P. Raymond

1988-01-01

334

The space radiation environment at 840 km  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F7 satellite, launched in November 1983, carries a dosimeter provided by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The dosimeter uses planar silicon detectors behind four thicknesses of aluminum shielding to measure both radiation dose and high energy particle fluxes in the space radiation environment at 840 km. Energy thresholds in the detectors are set to

E. G. Mullen; M. S. Gussenhoven; D. A. Hardy

1989-01-01

335

Space, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress on developing models of the radiation environment since the 1960s is reviewed with emphasis on models that can be applied to predicting the performance of microelectronics used in spacecraft and instruments. Space, atmospheric, and ground environments are included. It is shown that models must be adapted continually to account for increased understanding of the dynamics of the radiation

J. L. Barth; C. S. Dyer; E. G. Stassinopoulos

2003-01-01

336

NASA - NASA eClips™: Contrails  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

337

The space radiation environment for electronics  

SciTech Connect

The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics. The nature and magnitude of the trapped and transiting environments are described in terms of spatial distribution and temporal variation. The internal radiation environment of the spacecraft is described in terms of shielding the high-energy particles of the free-field environment. Exposure levels are presented in terms of ionizing radiation dose and particle fluence for comparison to electronic component susceptibility.

Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Raymond, J.P.

1988-11-01

338

NASA: Data on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of selected NASA Web sites for K-12 math and science teachers: the NASA Lewis Research Center Learning Technologies K-12 Home Page, Spacelink, NASA Quest, Basic Aircraft Design Page, International Space Station, NASA Shuttle Web Site, LIFTOFF to Space Education, Telescopes in Education, and Space Educator's…

Galica, Carol

1997-01-01

339

NASA: Data on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an annotated bibliography of selected NASA Web sites for K-12 math and science teachers: the NASA Lewis Research Center Learning Technologies K-12 Home Page, Spacelink, NASA Quest, Basic Aircraft Design Page, International Space Station, NASA Shuttle Web Site, LIFTOFF to Space Education, Telescopes in Education, and Space Educator's…

Galica, Carol

1997-01-01

340

14 CFR 1221.109 - Use of the NASA Seal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Use of the NASA Seal. 1221.109 Section 1221.109...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2010-01-01

341

14 CFR 1221.110 - Use of the NASA Insignia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Use of the NASA Insignia. 1221.110 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2010-01-01

342

14 CFR 1221.109 - Use of the NASA Seal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Use of the NASA Seal. 1221.109 Section 1221.109...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

343

14 CFR 1221.106 - Establishment of the NASA Flag.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Flag. 1221.106 Section 1221.106...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

344

14 CFR 1221.104 - Establishment of the NASA Logotype.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Logotype. 1221.104 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

345

14 CFR 1221.102 - Establishment of the NASA Seal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Seal. 1221.102 Section 1221.102...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

346

14 CFR 1221.111 - Use of the NASA Logotype.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Use of the NASA Logotype. 1221.111 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

347

14 CFR 1221.113 - Use of the NASA Flags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Use of the NASA Flags. 1221.113 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

348

14 CFR 1221.110 - Use of the NASA Insignia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Use of the NASA Insignia. 1221.110 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

349

14 CFR 1221.103 - Establishment of the NASA Insignia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Insignia. 1221.103 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

350

14 CFR 1221.105 - Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. 1221.105 Section...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

351

Lunar Colonization and NASA’s Exploration Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space colonization is not part of NASA’s mission planning. NASA’s exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA’s exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era

Raymond B. Gavert

2006-01-01

352

Radiation Shielding Requirements on Long-Duration Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of radiation shielding requirements on long duration space missions is presented. The report finds the principal radiation hazards to be galactic cosmic radiation (cosmic rays) and radiation from solar flares. Galactic cosmic radiation is a co...

J. R. Letaw S. Clearwater

1986-01-01

353

Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment  

SciTech Connect

Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

1999-05-17

354

Design, fabrication and test of a prototype double gimbal control moment gyroscope for the NASA Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the need to develop future technologies in support of the Space Station, NASA's Advanced Development Program (ADP) placed as its goal the design and fabrication of a prototype 4750 Newton-meter-second (3500 ft-lb-sec) Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG). The CMG uses the principle of momentum exchange to impart control torques for counteracting vehicle disturbances. This paper addresses the selection of the

Joseph Blondin; Eric Hahn; John Kolvek; Lewis Cook; Paul Golley

1989-01-01

355

NASA Hypersonic X-Plane Flight Development of Technologies and Capabilities for the 21st Century Access to Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new family of NASA experimental aircraft (X-planes) is being developed to uniquely, yet synergistically tackle a wide class of technologies to advance low-cost, efficient access to space for a range of payload classes. This family includes two non-air-breathing rocket-powered concepts, the X-33 and the X-34 aircraft, and two air-breathing vehicle concepts, the scramjet-powered Hyper-X and the rocket-based combined- cycle

John W. Hicks; Gary Trippensee

356

Using graphics and expert system technologies to support satellite monitoring at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analysts Assistant (GenSAA), was developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of

Peter M. Hughes; Gregory W. Shirah; Edward C. Luczak

1994-01-01

357

Progress on high-energy 2-micron solid state laser for NASA space-based wind and carbon dioxide measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and

Upendra N. Singh

2011-01-01

358

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

359

NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations...

D. King

2005-01-01

360

NASA GSFC Opportunities for STEM Professionals Using the Vantage Point of Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA has a variety of learning opportunities for STEM professionals. Three opportunities at GSFC are examined in this chapter: 1) standard summer research and development internship for undergraduates, 2) senior internship for undergraduate and graduate s...

B. W. Meeson G. B. Robbins

2012-01-01

361

A Major Step Forward in Explaining the Ribbon in Space Discovered by NASA's IBEX Mission  

NASA Website

Using NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), scientists have devised the best model yet for the appearance of a vast ribbon of neutral atoms that curls through the boundaries of Earth's solar system.

362

Twenty-first Century Space Science in The Urban High School Setting: The NASA\\/John Dewey High School Educational Outreach Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique and innovative partnership has recently developed between NASA and John Dewey High School, infusing Space Science into the curriculum. This partnership builds on an existing relationship with MUSPIN\\/NASA and their regional center at the City University of New York based at Medgar Evers College. As an outgrowth of the success and popularity of our Remote Sensing Research Program,

B. Fried; M. Levy; C. Reyes; S. Austin

2003-01-01

363

Heat pipe radiators for space  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized flight-weight prototype fluid-header panel (heatpipe radiator system) was tested in a vacuum environment over a wide range of coolant inlet temperatures, coolant flow rates, and environmental absorbed heat fluxes. The maximum performance of the system was determined. Results are compared with earlier data obtained on a smaller fluid-header feasibility panel, and computer predictions. Freeze-thaw tests are described and

J. P. Sellers

1977-01-01

364

NASA Program Costs: Space Missions Require Substantially More Funding Than Initially Estimated. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to a request to provide information on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) historical experience at estimating space program costs. The Subcommittee was concerned that at the time Congress is asked to authorize ...

1992-01-01

365

Overview of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) CFD Consortium for Applications in Propulsion Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Consortium for Applications in Propulsion Technology (CAPT). The objectives of this consortium are discussed, as is the approach of managing resources and technology to achieve these objectives. Significant results by the three CFD CAPT teams (Turbine, Pump, and Combustion) are briefly highlighted with respect to the advancement of CFD applications, the development and evaluation of advanced hardware concepts, and the integration of these results and CFD as a design tool to support Space Transportation Main Engine and National Launch System development.

McConnaughey, P. K.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.

1992-07-01

366

Forward modeling and radiative transfer for the NASA EOS-Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the radiative transfer modeling developed for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument on board the NASA EOS-Aura satellite. HIRDLS is a 21-channel broadband radiometer operating in the spectral region between 6 and 18 microns. It is designed to rapidly measure limb emission at tangent heights from the upper troposphere into the mesosphere on a global basis.

G. L. Francis; D. P. Edwards; A. Lambert; C. M. Halvorson; J. M. Lee-Taylor; J. C. Gille

2006-01-01

367

A multimegawatt space power source radiator design  

SciTech Connect

The multimegawatt space power sources (MMSPS) proposed for deployment in the late 1990s to meet mission burst power requirements, require an increase by four orders of magnitude in the power rating of equipment currently used in space. Prenger and Sullivan (1982) describe various radiator concepts proposed for such applications. They range from the innovative liquid droplet radiator (Mattick and Hertzberg 1981) to the more conventional heat pipe concept (Girrens 1982). The present paper deals with the design of the radiator for one such system, characterized by both high temperature and high pressure. It provides an estimate of the size, mass, and problems of orbiting such a radiator, based on the assumption that the next generation of heavy launch vehicle with 120-tonne carrying capacity, and 4000-m/sup 3/ cargo volume, will be available for putting hardware into orbit.

Jedruch, J.

1988-01-28

368

Graphite epoxy composite degradation by space radiation  

SciTech Connect

The radiation environment in space is a critical consideration for successful operation in space. All manned space missions with a duration of more than a few days are subjected to elevated ionizing radiation exposures, which are a threat to both personnel and structures in space. The increasing demands for high-performance materials as structural components in the aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries have led to the development of materials such as graphite fiber-reinforced, epoxy resin matrix composites (Gr/Ep). These materials provide important advantages over conventional structural materials, such as ultrahigh specific strength, enhanced specific moduli, and better fatigue resistance. The fact that most advanced composite materials under cyclic fatigue loading evidence little or no observable crack growth prior to rapid fracture suggests that for fail-safe considerations of parts subject to catastrophic failure, a detailed evaluation of radiation damage from very energetic particle is crucial. The Gr/Ep components are believed to suffer severe degradation in space due to highly penetrating secondary radiation, mainly from neutrons and protons. Investigation into the performance and stability of Gr/Ep materials are planned.

Taheri, M.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Bennion, J. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1991-01-01

369

Kennedy Space Center's NASA/Contractor Team-Centered Total Quality Management Seminar: Results, methods, and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is apparent to everyone associated with the Nation's aeronautics and space programs that the challenge of continuous improvement can be reasonably addressed only if NASA and its contractors act together in a fully integrated and cooperative manner that transcends the traditional boundaries of proprietary interest. It is, however, one thing to assent to the need for such integration and cooperation; it is quite another thing to undertake the hard tasks of turning such a need into action. Whatever else total quality management is, it is fundamentally a team-centered and team-driven process of continuous improvement. The introduction of total quality management at KSC, therefore, has given the Center a special opportunity to translate the need for closer integration and cooperation among all its organizations into specific initiatives. One such initiative that NASA and its contractors have undertaken at KSC is a NASA/Contractor team-centered Total Quality Management Seminar. It is this seminar which is the subject of this paper. The specific purposes of this paper are to describe the following: Background, development, and evolution of Kennedy Space Center's Total Quality Management Seminar; Special characteristics of the seminar; Content of the seminar; Meaning and utility of a team-centered design for TQM training; Results of the seminar; Use that one KSC contractor, EG&G Florida, Inc. has made of the seminar in its Total Quality Management initiative; and Lessons learned.

Kinlaw, Dennis C.; Eads, Jeannette

370

Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable candidate. Under this program the research findings of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) are presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators. Projections are made for future space-power requirements over the next few decades. A cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits that a Stirling system has over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power.

Slaby, J.G.

1987-01-01

371

NASA: Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this NASA website, kids will enjoy learning about astronomy through fun games, articles, and activities. Through online storybooks, users can learn about ancient sundials and our sun. The website offers matching games, a short video about Earth's daily cycle, and crossword puzzles. Students can learn how to make sundials, models of planets, solar oven, and many other space science-related tools and phenomena. The website furnishes links to kids' websites for many of NASA's missions, where users can find numerous additional activities, interesting stories, and fun facts.

372

Using radiation risk for assessment of space radiation hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation hazard caused by exposure during a spaceflight is characterized by radiobiological consequences at all levels of organism. These consequences have a stochastic nature. Even deterministic effects are basically random quantity having all attributes of such mathematical values. The radiation risk is defined in this case as an additional probability of health damage or as a death probability in extreme case. For the manned spaceflight additional peculiarity of a human's exposure is added. A natural space radiation environment has a stochastic character because solar particle events and crew of a spacecraft can be exposed to dose from background level up to lethal one. The report presents a procedure of radiation risk assessment for quantitative expression of radiation hazard level during a flight and using this value for developing protection recommendations. It is emphasized that the risk value is connected specifically with the time interval of possible hazard's existent. The form of risk representation must be chosen depending on a time scale of radiobiological processes induced by the exposure (expressing in fact the radiation hazard model). Surviving function specified for the crewmember mortality rate changed by the professional exposure must be used for risk calculation. Solar particle events determine a stochastic character of radiation environment in space that must be taken into account for a risk assessment. The reliability of radiation risk assessment can be used for this goal.

Petrov, V. M.

2011-05-01

373

An Ultra-Lightweight, High Performance Carbon-Carbon Space Radiator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propulsion systems for deep space exploration that rely on nuclear energy require innovative advancements in radiator technology, both materials and construction technique, to meet the demands associated with high rejection temperatures. A five fold reduction in radiator specific mass is achievable and will be needed to meet the demanding challenge of space exploration. Our development of a carbon-carbon (C-C) based radiator design unaffected by long term exposure to high temperature and radiation has wide ranging application, for both small and large power conversion systems. Our results stem from a NASA SBIR program focused on demonstrating thermal performance in a high temperature carbon-carbon (C-C) radiator configured with titanium water- heat pipes, using approximately 500 K water for the working fluid. However, joining strategy and material choices employed are appropriate for very high temperature alkali fluids. Distinct design advantages of carbon-carbon material are its low density, unlimited life, and ability to tailor its physical properties through fiber selection, fiber orientation, and special processing. We will report on our experience in joining of titanium to carbonized materials through direct carbonization and brazing. Results of thermal tests at Sandia National Laboratories on a 1 kW thermal radiator will be presented, along with construction progress and testing of a 2.6 m2 sandwich radiator for NASA Glenn.

Miller, W. O.; Wang, Mike; Shih, Wei; Ramirez, Rogelio; Beach, Duane; Youchison, Dennis; Lenard, Roger; Liguori, Justin; Liguori, Ed

2007-01-01

374

Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in

E. R. Benton; E. V. Benton

2001-01-01

375

NASA Johnson Space Center Mini AERCam texting with the GSS6560.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GPS based programs at NASA-JSC are enumerated on page 1: Several Detailed Test Objectives (DTOs) flown on STS missions featuring GPS are the primary focus of the DTO: GANE on STS-77, RGPS RME on STS-80, ARPK on STS-84 & STS-86, SIGI DTOs on STS-88, ST...

S. P. Cryan

2004-01-01

376

NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of a change in the NASA funding cycle, the present reporting period covers only the six months from March to September 1991. Nevertheless, remarkable progress was made in a number of areas, some of the most noteworthy of which are: (1) Engineering...

K. Ramohalli J. S. Lewis

1991-01-01

377

NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System.

J. S. Allen

2009-01-01

378

NASA - Aeronautical Oddities  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

379

NASA - BioBLAST  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

380

NASA - America's Wings  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

381

Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations. The future success of NASA space programs and Rockwell hinges upon the ability to adopt new, more efficient and effective work processes. Efficiency, proficiency, cost effectiveness, and teamwork are a necessity for economic survival. Continuous improvement initiatives like the CEE are, and will continue to be, vehicles by which the road can be traveled with a vision to the future.

Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

382

Hazards of the Deep: Killing the Dragons - Neurobiological Consequences of Space Radiation Exposures (401st Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Since astronauts hope to spend more time n space, they will receive more exposure to ionizing radiation, a stream of particles that, when pass through a body, has enough energy to damage the components of living cells and tissues. Ionizing radiation may cause changes in cells' ability to carry out repair, reproduction, and cross-talk with other cells. This may lead to mutations, which, in turn, may result in tumors, cancer, genetic defects in offspring, neurodegeneration. A 34 million dollar facility at BNL's NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), built in a cooperative effort by NASA and DOE is one of the few places in the world that can simulate the harsh space radiation environment. At this facility, scientists from some several institutions in the U.S. and abroad will learn about the possible risks to human beings exposed to space radiation. Although the spacecraft itself somewhat reduces radiation exposure, it does not completely shield astronauts from galactic cosmic rays, which are highly energetic heavy ions, or from solar particles, which are primarily energetic protons. Within the NSRL target room, Lab researchers and other NASA-sponsored scientists irradiate a variety of biological specimens, tissues, and cells to study the effects that ion beams have on cells and animals.

Vasquez, Marcelo [NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven Lab

2005-02-15

383

Hazards of the Deep: Killing the Dragons - Neurobiological Consequences of Space Radiation Exposures (401st Brookhaven Lecture)  

ScienceCinema

Since astronauts hope to spend more time n space, they will receive more exposure to ionizing radiation, a stream of particles that, when pass through a body, has enough energy to damage the components of living cells and tissues. Ionizing radiation may cause changes in cells' ability to carry out repair, reproduction, and cross-talk with other cells. This may lead to mutations, which, in turn, may result in tumors, cancer, genetic defects in offspring, neurodegeneration. A 34 million dollar facility at BNL's NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), built in a cooperative effort by NASA and DOE is one of the few places in the world that can simulate the harsh space radiation environment. At this facility, scientists from some several institutions in the U.S. and abroad will learn about the possible risks to human beings exposed to space radiation. Although the spacecraft itself somewhat reduces radiation exposure, it does not completely shield astronauts from galactic cosmic rays, which are highly energetic heavy ions, or from solar particles, which are primarily energetic protons. Within the NSRL target room, Lab researchers and other NASA-sponsored scientists irradiate a variety of biological specimens, tissues, and cells to study the effects that ion beams have on cells and animals.

384

Comparison of space radiation calculations for deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For space radiation protection of astronauts or electronic equipments, it is necessary to develop and use accurate radiation transport codes. Radiation transport codes include deterministic codes, such as HZETRN from NASA and UPROP from the Naval Research Laboratory, and Monte Carlo codes such as FLUKA, the Geant4 toolkit and HETC-HEDS. The deterministic codes and Monte Carlo codes complement each other in that deterministic codes are very fast while Monte Carlo codes are more elaborate. Therefore it is important to investigate how well the results of deterministic codes compare with those of Monte Carlo transport codes and where they differ. In this study we evaluate these different codes in their space radiation applications by comparing their output results in the same given space radiation environments, shielding geometry and material. Typical space radiation environments such as the 1977 solar minimum galactic cosmic ray environment are used as the well-defined input, and simple geometries made of aluminum, water and/or polyethylene are used to represent the shielding material. We then compare various outputs of these codes, such as the dose-depth curves and the flux spectra of different fragments and other secondary particles. These comparisons enable us to learn more about the main differences between these space radiation transport codes. At the same time, they help us to learn the qualitative and quantitative features that these transport codes have in common.

Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, James; Barghouty, Abdulnasser; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Tripathi, Ram; Watts, John; Yepes, Pablo

385

Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code  

SciTech Connect

The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation.

Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C. [NASA, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Cucinotta, F.A. [NASA, Houston, TX (United States). Johnson Space Center] [and others

1998-12-01

386

KOVEC studies of radioisotope thermoelectric generator response (In connection with possible NASA space shuttle accident explosion scenarios)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study leading to a final report (NUS-4543, Report of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Explosion Working Group (EWG), June 8, 1984), concerned with PuO/sub 2/ dispersal should the NASA space shuttle explode during the proposed Galileo and ISPN launches planned for 1986. At DOE's request, LLNL furnished appendices that describe hydrocode KOVEC calculations of potential damage to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators, fueled by PuO/sub 2/, should certain explosion scenarios occur. These appendices are contained in this report.

Walton, J.; Weston, A.; Lee, E.

1984-06-26

387

14 CFR 1221.109 - Use of the NASA Seal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Use of the NASA Seal. 1221.109 Section 1221.109...AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2009-01-01

388

14 CFR 1221.103 - Establishment of the NASA Insignia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Insignia. 1221.103 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2009-01-01

389

14 CFR 1221.110 - Use of the NASA Insignia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Use of the NASA Insignia. 1221.110 Section 1221...AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2009-01-01

390

14 CFR 1212.700 - NASA employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NASA employees. 1212.700 Section 1212.700 Aeronautics...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS NASA Authority and Responsibilities § 1212.700...

2013-01-01

391

A Monte Carlo Simulation of Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using particle transport codes from CERN and INFN (Italy) is described. Spacecraft subject to space radiation are visualized much like a detector in an accelerator beamline. Standard software techniques simulate the evolution of particle cascades through an accurate isotopic-compositional model of the vehicle. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics derived from an architecture called AliRoot structured about a Virtual Monte Carlo whose transport engines are FLUKA and GEANT4 [1]. The output is a detailed depiction of the total space radiation environment, including the secondary albedoes produced. The neutron albedo is of particular concern. Beyond doing the physics transport of incident flux using FLUKA, the simulation provides a self-contained stand-alone object-oriented analysis and visualization infrastructure. The latter is known as ROOT, recently adopted for CDF at Fermilab. Complex spacecraft geometries are represented by aerospace finite element models (FEMs) which readily lend themselves to CAD (Computer-Aided Design) analysis. [1] Brun, R., Carminati, F., & Rademakers, F., in Proc. Int'l. Conf. Computing High-Energy and Nuclear Physics, CHEP (2000).

Pinsky, Lawrence; MacGibbon, Jane; Wilson, Thomas

2000-10-01

392

Synchrotron Radiation Drive for Space Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient long-range space propulsion requires high-velocity exhaust. Plasmas easily reach such velocities but, in toroidal geometry, direct plasma exhaust requires complicated magnets, possibly at high field. A different approach, called synchrotron radiation fusion drive (SRFD), separates the generator and thruster functions. High-temperature, high-magnetic-field plasmas can produce a large fraction of their fusion power as synchrotron radiation. The synchrotron radiation can be carried by waveguides and absorbed in a magnetic-mirror plasma thruster with appropriately resonant magnetic field profiles. The basic SRFD concept appears feasible using conventional embodiments of the tokamak, but this results in marginal performance. The present paper explores basing the design on a higher specific-power device for the synchrotron generator. Possibilities include high-field, advanced tokamaks or linear fusion devices with high-field cells.

Santarius, J. F.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Mogahed, E. A.

1997-11-01

393

NASA Thesaurus: Volume 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program plays a key role in keeping NASA a leader in aeronautical and space sciences. The STI maintains NASA's database of aeronautical and space science information while also reporting on the Agency's research and development. This impressive thesaurus contains a hierarchical listing of all authorized terms contained in NASA's STI database, along with definitions. Although the large size of this PDF file might make navigation difficult, the document is an extremely valuable reference tool for librarians and students of aeronautics and space science.

394

A comparative study of space radiation organ doses and associated cancer risks using PHITS and HZETRN.  

PubMed

NASA currently uses one-dimensional deterministic transport to generate values of the organ dose equivalent needed to calculate stochastic radiation risk following crew space exposures. In this study, organ absorbed doses and dose equivalents are calculated for 50th percentile male and female astronaut phantoms using both the NASA High Charge and Energy Transport Code to perform one-dimensional deterministic transport and the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System to perform three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Two measures of radiation risk, effective dose and risk of exposure-induced death (REID) are calculated using the organ dose equivalents resulting from the two methods of radiation transport. For the space radiation environments and simplified shielding configurations considered, small differences (<8%) in the effective dose and REID are found. However, for the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) boundary condition, compensating errors are observed, indicating that comparisons between the integral measurements of complex radiation environments and code calculations can be misleading. Code-to-code benchmarks allow for the comparison of differential quantities, such as secondary particle differential fluence, to provide insight into differences observed in integral quantities for particular components of the GCR spectrum. PMID:24061091

Bahadori, Amir A; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Slaba, Tony C; Shavers, Mark R; Semones, Edward J; Van Baalen, Mary; Bolch, Wesley E

2013-09-24

395

A comparative study of space radiation organ doses and associated cancer risks using PHITS and HZETRN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA currently uses one-dimensional deterministic transport to generate values of the organ dose equivalent needed to calculate stochastic radiation risk following crew space exposures. In this study, organ absorbed doses and dose equivalents are calculated for 50th percentile male and female astronaut phantoms using both the NASA High Charge and Energy Transport Code to perform one-dimensional deterministic transport and the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System to perform three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Two measures of radiation risk, effective dose and risk of exposure-induced death (REID) are calculated using the organ dose equivalents resulting from the two methods of radiation transport. For the space radiation environments and simplified shielding configurations considered, small differences (<8%) in the effective dose and REID are found. However, for the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) boundary condition, compensating errors are observed, indicating that comparisons between the integral measurements of complex radiation environments and code calculations can be misleading. Code-to-code benchmarks allow for the comparison of differential quantities, such as secondary particle differential fluence, to provide insight into differences observed in integral quantities for particular components of the GCR spectrum.

Bahadori, Amir A.; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Slaba, Tony C.; Shavers, Mark R.; Semones, Edward J.; Van Baalen, Mary; Bolch, Wesley E.

2013-10-01

396

Finding Space in Second Life, NASA Education and Public Outreach in a 3D Metaverse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second Life (SL) is a virtual 3D simulation or metaverse with almost eight million users worldwide. SL has seen explosive growth in the four years it has been available and hosts a number of educational and institutional "islands" or sims. Federal agencies with an SL presence include NASA and NOAA. There are several educational institutions and education specific sims in SL. At any one time there may be as many as 40,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars are able to move around the sim islands by walking or flying and move from island to island or remote locations by teleporting. While a big part of the Second Life experience deals with avatar interactions and exploring, there is an active community of builders who create the scenery, buildings, and other artifacts of the SL world including clothing and other personal items. SL builders start with basic shapes and through size manipulation on three axis and adding texture to the shapes create a myriad of objects - a 3D world. This paper will deal with the design and creation of exhibits halls for NASA's LRO/LCROSS mission slated for launch October 2008 and a NASA sponsored aeronautical engineering student challenge contest. The exhibit halls will be placed on the NASA sponsored Co-Lab sim and will feature models of the spacecraft and the instruments carried on board and student exhibits. There also will be storyboards with information about the mission and contest. Where appropriate there will be links to external websites for further information. The exhibits will be interactive to support the outreach efforts associated with the mission and the contest. Upon completion of the visit to the LRO/LCROSS hall participants will have the opportunity to visit a near by sandbox - SL parlance for a building area - to design and build a spacecraft from a suite of instruments provided for them depending on their area of interest. Real limitations such as mass, power, and cost will be included in the guidelines for building their spacecraft.

Ireton, F. M.

2007-12-01

397

Space Transportation: Nasa Has No Firm Need for Increasingly Costly Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The General Accounting Office's (GAO) findings on the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are described. It was to be a multipurpose space tug used to transport satellites from the space shuttle to other orbits, reboost them when their orbits decayed, retri...

C. Rey J. Morrison

1990-01-01

398

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs of significant commercial potential are usuall...

1985-01-01

399

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs of significant commercial potential are usuall...

1984-01-01

400

High End Computer Network Testbedding at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Earth & Space Data Computing (ESDC) Division, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is involved in development and demonstrating various high end computer networking capabilities. The ESDC has several high end super computers. These are used to run: (1)...

J. P. Gary

1998-01-01

401

Martian regolith as space radiation shielding.  

PubMed

In current Mars scenario descriptions, an entire mission is estimated to take 500-1000 days round trip with a 100-600 day stay time on the surface. To maintain radiation dose levels below permissible limits, dose estimates must be determined for the entire mission length. With extended crew durations anticipated on Mars, the characterization of the radiation environment on the surface becomes a critical aspect of mission planning. The most harmful free-space radiation is due to high energy galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar flare protons. The carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars has been estimated to provide a sufficient amount of shielding from these radiative fluxes to help maintain incurred doses below permissible limits. However, Mars exploration crews are likely to incur a substantial dose while in transit to Mars that will reduce the allowable dose that can be received while on the surface. Therefore, additional shielding may be necessary to maintain short-term dose levels below limits or to help maintain career dose levels as low as possible. By utilizing local resources, such as Martian regolith, shielding materials can be provided without excessive launch weight requirements from Earth. The scope of this synopsis and of Ref. 3 focuses on presenting our estimates of surface radiation doses received due to the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and February 1956 solar flare protons through the Martian atmosphere and through additional shielding provided by Martian regolith. PMID:11537624

Simonsen, L C; Nealy, J E; Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W

402

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http:\\/\\/solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major

A. M. Sohus

2000-01-01

403

NASA's Getaway Special.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Getaway Special" is NASA's semiofficial program for low-budget researchers, who can arrange bookings for their own space experiments on regular flights of the space shuttle. Information about arranging for NASA to take individual experiment packages is presented. (LBH)

Randal, Judith

1978-01-01

404

The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects  

SciTech Connect

The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), UA Huntsville (United States); Space Radiation Analysis Group, NASA Johnson Space Center (United States)

2012-11-20

405

The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan

2012-11-01

406

Advances in space radiation shielding codes.  

PubMed

Early space radiation shield code development relied on Monte Carlo methods and made important contributions to the space program. Monte Carlo methods have resorted to restricted one-dimensional problems leading to imperfect representation of appropriate boundary conditions. Even so, intensive computational requirements resulted and shield evaluation was made near the end of the design process. Resolving shielding issues usually had a negative impact on the design. Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary concept to the final design. For the last few decades, we have pursued deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design methods. A single ray trace in such geometry requires 14 milliseconds and limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given. PMID:12793737

Wilson, John W; Tripathi, Ram K; Qualls, Garry D; Cucinotta, Francis A; Prael, Richard E; Norbury, John W; Heinbockel, John H; Tweed, John; De Angelis, Giovanni

2002-12-01

407

Zoom into NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, using Landsat Imagery (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WMS Global Mosaic dataset was developed at NASAs Jet Propulstion Laboratory (JPL). This global mosaic was produced from visual and near infrared bands taken by the Landsat-7 satellite. Using the panchromatic band to sharpen the final image, a final resolution of 0.5 arc seconds (about 15 meters) can be achieved. This mosaic is available through the Web Mapping Services (WMS) protocol at JPL. This series of images was obtained using a software program called the Digital Earth PC which can use the WMS protocol to obtain images covering an arbitrary region of the earth. These images can be arranged in such a way with the Digital Earth PC software that a nearly continuous zoom effect can be achieved.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Plesea, Lucian

2005-01-12

408

Using NASA Space Imaging Technology to Teach Earth and Sun Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We teach an experimental college-level course, directed toward elementary education majors, emphasizing "hands-on" activities that can be easily applied to the elementary classroom. This course, Physics 240: "The Sun-Earth Connection" includes various ways to study selected topics in physics, earth science, and basic astronomy. Our lesson plans and EPO materials make extensive use of NASA imagery and cover topics about magnetism, the solar photospheric, chromospheric, coronal spectra, as well as earth science and climate. In addition we are developing and will cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. We strive to free the non-science undergraduate from the "fear of science" and replace it with the excitement of science such that these future teachers will carry this excitement to their future students. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. The course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. We have designed this course to provide the non-science student a confident basic understanding of physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards that are addressed in grades K-8. The course focuses on helping education majors: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conduct data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we face while teaching this course.

Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.

2011-12-01

409

Synchrotron Radiation Wake in Free Space  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we derive the transverse radiation force of a bunch of ultrarelativistic charged particles coherently radiating in free space assuming that the bending radius is much larger than the beam dimensions. In contrast to a similar recent study, where the authors decompose the total transverse force and find only a part that is responsible for the distortion of the beam orbit, we derive a full expression for the force and leave the issues of the beam dynamics for a separate consideration. Another approach to the calculation of the transverse force has been previously developed. In many cases considered in this paper, the calculations are extremely cumbersome; they were systematically performed with the use of symbolic engine of the computer program MATHEMATICA.

Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

2011-08-31

410

The City University of New York / NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Center for Global Climate Research - NSF REU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This NSF REU site is a collaboration between the City University of New York (CUNY) and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The Center for Global Climate Research (CGCR) is supporting undergraduate students in research teams anchored by NASA scientists and CUNY faculty mentors. Research investigations on climate change & impacts include: Solar Weather and Tropical Cyclone Activity, Decadal Changes in Aerosol and Asthma, Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone, Urban Heat Island, Sea Surface Temperature and Precipitation, Salinity and River Discharge in the Hudson River Estuary, Aerosol Optical Depth via MFRSR, Ocean turbulence: Vertical Mixing Scheme, and our projects in other areas are NMR Investigation of MnO2 Infused Carbon Nanofoams and Stratospheric Aerosols in the Jovian Atmosphere. We describe student research, significant results and enrichment activities during the Summer and Fall of 2010. The CGCR partners with the New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) at GISS. The center is supported by NSF ATM-0851932 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA).

Marchese, P.; Johnson, L. P.; Carlson, B. E.; Rosenzweig, C.; Austin, S. A.; Peete, D.; Druyan, L.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Scalzo, F.; Frost, J.; Moshary, F.; Greenbaum, S.; Cheung, T. K.; Howard, A.

2010-12-01

411

NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of the natural space environment and its effects on spacecraft is one of the most important and least understood aspects of spacecraft design. The Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program prepared the Meteoroids and Orbital Debris Lesson Plan, a SEE-focused high school curriculum to engage students in creative activities that will…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

412

A monumental task: Translating complex knowledge in NASA's human space flight network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government supported innovations in space technology have produced large and complex engineering systems, like Apollo and the Space Shuttle. These technological systems were designed, produced, operated and maintained through the heterogeneous collaboration of governmental and contractor resources. Over the lifecycle of such large technical projects, an array of complex and distributed knowledge objects (i.e., engineering texts, such as documents, and

Carolyn Elyse Psenka

2008-01-01

413

NASA's study of space solar power. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics of the Committee on Science, U. S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session, October 24, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The testimonies at this hearing concern NASA's Fresh Look Study of the concept of solar space power: that is using space technology to collect the unfiltered, 24-hour a day solar energy in space, and then beam it down to earth. The topics discussed are: Cost Issues; Environmental Impacts; Why Take a Fresh Look ; Space Station Applications; Energy Demand; LEO COMSATS as Demonstrators; What's the Next Step ; Technology Challenges; Environmental Benefits; Will NASA Pursue This ; Dual Use: SPS and Mars; and Getting Industry Involved.

Not Available

1997-01-01

414

Exploration of the Solar System: Achievements and Future Plans in NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus, ground-based and spacecraft observations of Comet Halley, and other NASA solar system exploration is reviewed. The Challenger tragedy significantly delayed the next NASA planetary mission, Galileo, as well as the Ulyss...

W. E. Brunk

1986-01-01

415

The C/NOFS Satellite and its Relation to the Space Weather Objectives of NASA's Living With a Star Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major objective of NASA's Living With a Star mission is to understand the variability of the plasma density in the earth's low and mid latitude ionosphere, including the conditions leading to the formation of equatorial spread-F irregularities and their location, magnitude, and spatial and temporal evolution. The main objectives of the Air Force Communication / Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory are to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities that adversely impact communication and navigation systems. Thus, the C/NOFS mission objectives are directly compatible with fundamental space weather goals of the LWS geospace program. The C/NOFS mission includes a satellite scheduled to be launched in September, 2005 into a low inclination (13°) elliptical (~375 x 710 km) orbit, as well as extensive ground-based observations and theory and modeling activities. The first satellite solely dedicated to forecasting ionospheric irregularities and radio wave scintillations, C/NOFS is equipped with sensors that measure ambient and fluctuating electron densities; ion and electron temperatures; AC and DC electric fields; magnetic fields; neutral winds; ion drifts; optical lightning emissions; ionospheric scintillations; and the electron content along the lines of sight between C/NOFS, GPS satellites, and ground receiver sites. To our knowledge, the sensor suite on C/NOFS is richer than on any previously flown equatorial satellite. C/NOFS is a joint Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and Space Test Program (STP) mission. The neutral wind meter and ion drift meter are provided as part of the UTD Coupled-Ionosphere-Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) package that is funded by NASA's Explorer Program. This talk presents an overview of the C/NOFS mission and discusses its relevance to the LWS Geospace I-T Storm Probe mission.

Pfaff, R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Retterer, J.; Groves, K.; Jeong, L.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Straus, P.; Bernhardt, P.

2005-05-01

416

Physical and biological studies with protons and HZE particles in a NASA supported research center in radiation health.  

PubMed

NASA has established and supports a specialized center for research and training (NSCORT) to specifically address the potential deleterious effects of HZE particles on human health. The NSCORT in radiation health is a joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Colorado State University (CSU). The overall scope of research encompasses a broad range of subjects from microdosimetric studies to cellular and tissue responses to initial damage produced by highly energetic protons and heavy charged particles of the type found in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) spectrum. The objectives of the microdosimetry studies are to determine the response of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) to cosmic rays using ground based accelerators. This includes evaluation of energy loss due to the escape of high-energy delta rays and increased energy deposition due to the enhanced delta ray production in the wall of the detector. In this report major results are presented for 56Fe at 1000, 740, 600 and 400 MeV/nucleon. An assessment of DNA repair and early development of related chromosomal changes is extremely important to our overall understanding of enhanced biological effectiveness of high LET particle radiation. Results are presented with respect to the fidelity of the rejoining of double strand breaks and the implications of misrejoining. The relationship between molecular and cytogenetic measurements is presented by studying damage processing in highly heterochromatic supernumerary (correction of sypernumerary) X chromosomes and the active X-chromosome. One of the important consequences of cell's inability to handle DNA damage can be evaluated through mutation studies. Part of our goal is the assessment of potential radioprotectors to reduce the mutation yield following HZE exposures, and some promising results are presented on one compound. A second goal is the integration of DNA repair and mutation studies. Results are presented on a direct comparison of initial double strand breaks induction, the time course and fidelity of double strand break rejoining, cell killing and mutation induction in the same human model system. In order to understand the carcinogenic potential of protons and HZE particles, the role of damaged microenvironment in this process must be understood. In this project it has been postulated that radiation affects the microenvironment, which then modifies cell interactions in a manner conducive to neoplastic progression. Both TGF-beta and FGF-2 are important components of microenvironment. A recent result on the assessment of the role of FGF-2 and its cross-talk with TGF-beta as a function of radiation quality is presented. Theoretical modeling has so far played a central role in analyzing and integrating experimental data on repair and mutation studies and predicting new phenomena. The integrated NSCORT program also provides a broad training experience for students and postdoctoral fellows in space radiation health. PMID:11770539

Chatterjee, A; Borak, T H

2001-01-01

417

76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services for the International Space Station (ISS...will be open to the public up to the seating...Miller, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527...will be open to the public up to the...

2011-08-19

418

July Space Station Spacewalks to be Previewed and Broadcast on NASA TV  

NASA Website

Two Expedition 36 astronauts will venture outside the International Space Station twice in July on spacewalks to prepare for a new Russian module and perform additional installations on the station's backbone.

419

Matlab based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The viewgraph presentation provides an introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first part provides a brief overview of Matlab toolkits including CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax Toolkits. The toolkit overview examines purpose, layout, how Matlab ...

J. Howard

2007-01-01

420

Nasa Educational Briefs for the Classroom. Orbits of Bodies in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The difference between an orbit and a revolution is explained and it is shown why space shuttle Columbia's period of revolution was longer than its orbital period. Parameters of orbits examined include apoapsis, periapsis, apogee, perigee, aphelion, perih...

1982-01-01

421

Non-Nuclear Testing of Space Nuclear Systems at NASA MSFC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highly realistic non-nuclear testing can be used to investigate and resolve potential issues with space nuclear power and propulsion systems. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for systems designed with fuels and materials operating within their d...

A. E. Garber D. E. Bradley J. B. Pearson J. J. Martin K. C. Aschenbrenner M. G. Houts R. E. Dickens R. T. Harper T. J. Godfroy W. J. Emrich

2010-01-01

422

Interaction of space radiation with matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical interactions of high-energy space radiations with bulk matter are described with particular emphasis on the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions of solar and galactic cosmic rays. Methods of incorporating these interactions into radiation transport models which accurately describe the propagation of the incident cosmic rays and their subsequent-generation reaction products are also explained. Representative results for solar and galactic cosmic ray doses and dose equivalents are presented for various aluminum and water absorber depths. For the first time, the main contributions to human exposure in space from galactic cosmic rays will be presented on a component by component basis, including a breakdown of the dose-equivalent contributions into primary ions, heavy fragments, alpha particles, neutrons, and protons. For the galactic cosmic ray environment outside of the earth's magnetosphere, over 70 percent of the total dose equivalent results from only seven nuclear species (hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and iron ions). Of these, the largest single contributor is cosmic ray iron and its secondaries, which account for nearly one-fourth of the unshielded total dose equivalent during solar minimum.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

1990-10-01

423

14 CFR 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2010-01-01

424

14 CFR 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2010-01-01

425

14 CFR 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

426

14 CFR 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

427

14 CFR 1221.112 - Use of the NASA Program Identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Use of the NASA Program Identifiers. 1221.112 Section...AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA...

2013-01-01

428

Expert Mission Planning and Replanning Scheduling System for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) KSC (Kennedy Space Center) Payload Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EMPRESS (Expert Mission Planning and REplanning Scheduling System) is an expert system created to assist payload mission planners at Kennedy in the long range planning and scheduling of horizontal payloads for space shuttle flights. Using the current flig...

R. Pierce

1987-01-01

429

Passive radiation shielding considerations for the proposed space elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth's natural van Allen radiation belts present a serious hazard to space travel in general, and to travel on the space elevator in particular. The average radiation level is sufficiently high that it can cause radiation sickness, and perhaps death, for humans spending more than a brief period of time in the belts without shielding. The exact dose and

A. M. Jorgensen; S. E. Patamia; B. Gassend

2007-01-01

430

A STUDY OF SPACE RADIATION SHIELDING PROBLEMS FOR MANNED VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of the problem of protecting space vehicle crews from ; charged particles of either solar-flare or trapped-radiation origin will probably ; depend on shielding. The basic problem is concerned with determining ; quantitatively the attenuation requirement of the incident radiation and ; selecting an appropriate material to provide this shielding. The hazards of ; space radiation, the methods

R. K. Wilson; R. A. Miller; R. L. Kloster

1962-01-01

431

Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal settings. We will also show how their use as embedded assessments in classroom instruction to identify and address naïve conceptions of scale in the Solar System. For the International Year of the Solar System, we are sharing these resources with teachers through several teacher professional development programs at The University of Texas at Dallas and at area and state science teacher conferences. All CINDI E/PO materials including our popular "Cindi in Space" comic book, the new "Cindi in the Electric Atmosphere" comic book for high school, and our resource on "How Big is a Million?" are all available for free downloads from our website or on CD.

Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

2010-12-01

432

Office of Education - NASA Headquarters  

NASA Website

brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

433

Great Zoom out of Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2001-09-06

434

Great Zoom out of Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-06-15

435

Great Zoom out of Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-12-01

436

"NASA's Ready, Let's Go"  

NASA Video Gallery

What's it like to be a NASA engineer who's tackling the challenge of improving air traffic flow across the United States? NASA's Todd Farley shows us that dedication and teamwork are just as necessary for improving life every day on Earth as much as they are for exploring space. › See Typical 24 Hours of U.S. Air Traffic › See Other 'Faces of NASA' Videos

Christopher O

2013-03-07

437

NASA: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Popular Topics section of the main NASA site, this collection of NASA resources is jam-packed with great photos, learning tools, announcements, and NASA agency news. Anyone interested in learning more about the solar system or the United States' efforts in space exploration (both manned and unmanned) will want to check out this great resource. In addition to the features on the main page, be sure to check out the Archives section for even more.

438

A successful failure: NASA’s crisis communications regarding Apollo 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1970, NASA faced its second major crisis when an explosion on board Apollo 13 threatened the lives of its three astronauts. NASA’s handling of the crisis not only would determine the fate of the three astronauts, but also the image of the space agency and possibly the future of American manned space exploration. This paper examines NASA’s crisis

James Kauffman

2001-01-01

439

Learning About 'Veggie' at the NASA Social  

NASA Website

Physical Sciences Division Director at NASA Headquarters, talks about the human body in microgravity and other life sciences at a NASA Social exploring science on the International Space Station at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 ...

440

Successful application of software reliability engineering for the NASA Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software Subsystem (PASS) represents a successful integration of many of the computer industry's most advanced software engineering practices and approaches. Beginning in the late 1970's this software development and maintenance project has evolved one of the world's most mature software processes applying the principles of the highest levels of the Software

T. Keller; N. F. Schneidewind

1997-01-01

441

Space policy responsiveness: The relationship between public opinion and NASA funding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is the government responsive to public opinion of space policy? In 1995, Stimson et al. demonstrated that changes in domestic public policy were in response to changes in public opinion. Ten years later, Jacobs and Page demonstrated that foreign policy was not responsive to public opinion, and instead responds to the opinion of business leaders. This research builds off these seminal

Alan Steinberg

442

Computer simulation helps keep down costs for NASA's “lifeboat” for the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of computer simulation helped to significantly reduce the estimated costs of building the International Space Station's (ISS) X-38 emergency crew return vehicle. Lockheed Martin engineers wanted to determine the actual flow conditions within the X-38 cabin, but ruled out physical testing as they lacked a physical prototype of the X-38 and because such testing could prove very difficult.

Brad Eckhardt; Laith Zori

2002-01-01

443

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 1, attachment 1: Executive summary NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

User alignment plan, physical and life sciences and applications, commercial requirements national security, space operations, user needs, foreign contacts, mission scenario analysis and architectural concepts, alternative systems concepts, mission operations architectural development, architectural analysis trades, evolution, configuration, and technology development are discussed.

1983-04-01

444

NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program: Fiscal year 1994 - 1995 testing activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the testing of wire insulation materials for space applications is presented in this report. The wire insulations tested were partially fluorinated polyimide, extruded ETFE, extruded PTFE, PTFE tape, and PTFE/Kapton. The tests performed were flammability tests, odor tests, compatibility tests with aerospace fluids, offgassing tests, and thermal vacuum stability tests.

Johnson, Harry T.; Hirsch, David

1995-11-01

445

Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's problem reporting and corrective action system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Program's Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were; to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The

David J. Korsmeyer; John A. Schreiner

2001-01-01

446

Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's problem reporting and corrective action system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Program's Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were; to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The

J. A. Schreiner

447

Webb Mirrors Arrive at NASA Goddard  

NASA Video Gallery

James Webb Space Telescope's secondary mirror, along with a primary mirror segment arrived at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., on Nov. 5, 2012. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center > Related story > Download high-res video

Robert Garner

2012-11-27

448

A summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy and the use of digital high-speed photography in the accident investigation and NASA's return-to-flight effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of seven crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to

J. Michael Pereira; Matthew E. Melis; Duane M. Revilock

2005-01-01

449

Thunderstorm Characteristics of a Cloud-to-Ground Lightning at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida: A Study of Lightning Initiation Signatures as Indicated by Doppler Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of lightning characteristics was developed for the NASA kennedy Space Center (KSC). From a 1989-1996 data set, the spatial patterns, temporal patterns, and first stroke mean peak current were analyzed. Forty five thunderstorms were chosen due to...

M. S. Gremillion

1998-01-01

450

Radiation Testing of Commercial off the Shelf 62.5\\/125\\/250 Micron Optical Fiber for Space Flight Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 62.5\\/125\\/250 micron optical fiber manufactured by Lucent SFT was tested for gamma radiation resistance at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Cobalt60 chamber. The fiber was tested with 1300 nm light, at 20.7 rads\\/min and 5 rads\\/min at -25°C and at 32.3 rads\\/min and 5 rads\\/min at +25°C. Data was recorded during exposure until the attenuation reached levels below

Melanie Ott; Shawn Macmurphy; Matthew Dodson

451

Radiation shield requirements for manned nuclear propulsion space vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manned nuclear propulsion space vehicles require radiation shielding to protect the crew from a number of diverse radiation sources: the propulsion system reactor, the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts, anomalously large solar proton events (ALSPEs), and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The sources are characterized not only in terms of species and energy spectrum, but also by frequency, duration, and probability

Paul H. Sager

1992-01-01

452

Radiation shield requirements for manned nuclear propulsion space vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manned nuclear propulsion space vehicles require radiation shielding to protect the crew from a number of diverse radiation sources: the propulsion system reactor, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts, anomalously large solar proton events (ALSPEs), and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The sources are characterized not only in terms of species and energy spectrum, but also by frequency, duration, and probability

Paul H. Sager

1992-01-01

453

Space-Radiation Damage to Electronic Components and Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space radiation damage to electronic components and materials is of increasing concern as the nation's space capability develops. This report is a general compilation of information and is intended for use by electronic design engineers during early desig...

D. J. Hamman J. E. Drennan

1966-01-01

454

A space radiation test model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of the energetic populations in the outer radiation belts are being developed to better understand the extreme variations of particle flux in response to magnetospheric and solar activity. The study utilizes the SCATHA SC3 high energy electron data, covering energies from 47 keV to 5 MeV with fine pitch angle measurements (3 deg field of view) over the L-shell range of 5.3 to 8.7. Butter-fly distributions in the dusk sector signify particle losses due to L shell splitting of the particle drift orbits and the subsequent scattering of the particles from the orbits by the magnetopause. To model the temporal variations and diffusion procsses of the particle populations, the data have been organized into phase space distributions, binned according to altitude (L shell), energy, pitch angle, and time. These distributions can then be mapped to the equator and plotted for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants of the inherent particle motion. A new and efficient method for calculating the third adiabatic invariant using a line integral of the relevant magnetic potential a t the particle mirror points has been developed and is undergoing testing. This method will provide a useful means of displaying the radial diffusion signatures of the outer radiation belts during the more active periods when the L shell parameter is not a good concept due to severe drift-shell splitting. The first phase of fitting the energetic electron phase-space distributions with a combined radial and pitch-angle diffusion formulation is underway.

Nightingale, R. W.; Chiu, Y. T.; Davidson, G. T.; Francis, W. E.; Rinaldi, M. A.

1986-03-01

455

Activities of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center pump stage technology team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to advance rocket propulsion technology, the Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Application in Propulsion Technology has been formed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Consortium consists of three Teams: the turbine stage team, the pump stage team (PST), and the combustion devices team. The PST has formulated and is implementing a plan for pump technology development whose end product will be validated CFD codes suitable for application to pump components, test data suitable for validating CFD codes, and advanced pump components optimized using CFD codes. The PST's work during the fall of 1991 and the winter and spring of 1992 is discussed in this paper. This work is highlighted by CFD analyses of an advanced impeller design and collection of laser two-focus velocimeter data for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Pump impeller.

Garcia, R.; McConnaughey, P.; Eastland, A.

1992-07-01

456

Fine guidance sensor, star selector servo subsystem for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the techniques employed to build a highly accurate, ultra slow-moving, two-axis servo subsystem for the Hubble Space Telescope. This system utilizes optical encoders with integral dc torque motors to provide precise digital rate control over a range of 0.5 arcseconds\\/second (0.0333 revolution\\/day) to 16,384 arcseconds\\/second (0.759 rpm) and 21-bit absolute position words to an absolute accuracy of

Lamar Cowger

1987-01-01

457

Controlled Antihydrogen Propulsion for NASA's Future in Very Deep Space1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To world-wide notice, in 2002 the ATHENA collaboration at CERN (in Geneva, Switzerland) announced the creation of order 100,000 low energy antihydrogen atoms. Thus, the concept of using condensed antihydrogen as a low-weight, powerful fuel (i.e., it produces a thousand times more energy per unit weight of fuel than fission\\/fusion) for very deep space missions (the Oort cloud and beyond)

Michael Martin Nieto; Michael H. Holzscheiter; Slava G. Turyshev

458

Academic science and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fiscal 1984 budget of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains some pleasant surprises. The new budget reflects, in some areas, a welcome change from the recent emphasis toward earth-orbiting of space missions of limited scientific content. (For the overall fiscal 1984 NASA budget, see Eos, October 4, 1983, p. 577.)The July 1983 NASA in-house study-group report titled “The Universities and NASA Space Sciences” emphasizes that the past decade's decreasing budgets have resulted in a severe lessening of university capabilities in space science. Smaller budgets have meant significantly fewer start-ups of space missions with scientific emphasis. Meanwhile, data analysis from continuing and completed missions has not been well funded.

Bell, Peter M.

459

NASA Facts, Voyager.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

460

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in

David J. Des Marais; Louis J. Allamandola; Steven A. Benner; Alan P. Boss; David Deamer; Paul G. Falkowski; Jack D. Farmer; S. Blair Hedges; Bruce M. Jakosky; Andrew H. Knoll; David R. Liskowsky; Victoria S. Meadows; Michael A. Meyer; Carl B. Pilcher; Kenneth H. Nealson; Alfred M. Spormann; Jonathan D. Trent; William W. Turner; Neville J. Woolf; Harold W. Yorke

2003-01-01

461

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in

David J. Des Marais; Joseph A. Nuth III; Louis J. Allamandola; Alan P. Boss; Jack D. Farmer; Tori M. Hoehler; Bruce M. Jakosky; Victoria S. Meadows; Andrew Pohorille; Bruce Runnegar; Alfred M. Spormann

2008-01-01

462

NASA NR Hydrogen Maser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, under contract to NASA\\/Goddard Space Flight Center, is engineering a new generation of field operable hydrogen masers (NR) based on prior NASA NP and NX designs. These units incorporate improvements in magnetic shielding, lower noise electronics, better thermal control and have a microprocessor for operation, monitoring and diagnostic functions. They are ruggedly built

L. J. Rueger; A. Bates; L. Stillman; J. Norton; C. M. Blackburn; V. A. Reinhardt

1978-01-01

463

Development of a New Trapped Radiation Data Base for the NASA Living With A Star (LWS) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an initial effort to construct a new-generation of empirical trapped radiation models, a new magnetospheric state-based trapped radiation database is being constructed. An empirical model of a system is a statistical description of the system obtained by synthesizing a set of random samplings of the system. The key to constructing good empirical models thus depends on (1) having good (pertinent) data, and (2) good analysis techniques. To mitigate against early obselescence when updated or new data becomes available, the models' underlying database must be update-able and extensible. In addition, to ensure high model performance, the data base must be parameterize-able, so that the selection of data from the data base for analysis or modeling can vary with magnetospheric conditions or states that vary with solar wind and IMF driving conditions and magnetospheric responses [see Fung, 1996]. By following an object-oriented design, the new trapped radiation data base can be easily updated, extended and re-parameterized. In this paper, we describe our effort in constructing a prototype particle radiation data base for the LWS Program. Fung, S. F., Recent development in the NASA trapped radiation models, Radiation Belts Models and Standards, Geophysical Monogr., 97, AGU, Washington, D. C., 79-91, 1996.

Fung, S. F.; Bell, E. V.; Candey, R. M.; Golightly, M. J.; Huston, S. L.; King, J. H.; McGuire, R. E.; Tan, L. C.

2002-05-01

464

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 - Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. Because MSFC was built in the 1960s, most of the buildings house outdated, inefficient restroom fixtures. The facility engineering team at MSFC developed an innovative efficiency model for replacing these older toilets and urinals.

Not Available

2011-02-01

465

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Scientific and Technical Publications: A Catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This catalog lists 239 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered in the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1987....

1988-01-01

466

Images of Earth and Space: The Role of Visualization in NASA Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This compilation video contains visualizations of Earth and Space Sciences resulting from supercomputer models. The excerpted visualizations include: Ocean Planet, El Nino, Ozone 1991, Clouds, Changes in Glacier Bay, Alaska, Biosphere, Lunar Topography from the Clementine Mission, Musculoskeletal Modeling Dynamic Simulations, Simulations of the Breakup and Dynamical Evolution of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, Convective Penetration in Stellar Interiors, Topological Features of a Compressible Plasma Vortex Sheet: A Model for the Outer Heliospheric Solar Wind, R-Aquarii Jet, The Evolution of Distorted Black Holes, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in a Supernova, Galaxy Harassment, N-Body Simulation of the Cold Dark Matter Cosmology.

Pape, Dave; Strong, Jim; Starr, Cindy; Oneil, Pamela; Bajuk, Mark; Acuna, Andy

1996-02-08

467

Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights.  

PubMed

NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation methods--shielding and anti-carcinogens. PMID:11669119

Denkins, P; Badhwar, G; Obot, V; Wilson, B; Jejelewo, O

468

Space Radiation Dosimetry with the The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle an-alyzer that will fly on the NASA 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD will detect and analyze energetic particle species (p, n, He, 2¡Z¡26) relevant for dosimetry on the Martian surface. The Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles produce both pri-mary and secondary radiation, with secondaries being

Donald M. Hassler; Cary Zeitlin; Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber; Eckhardt Boehm; Stephan Boettcher; Soenke Burmeister; Francis A. Cucinotta; Onno Kortmann; Cesar Martin; Arik Posner; Scot Rafkin; Guenther Reitz

2010-01-01

469

Nasa Supported Research Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the scientific NASA grants and achievements accomplished by the University of California, Los Angles, is presented. The development of planetary and space sciences as a major curriculum of the University, and statistical data on graduate prog...

W. F. Libby

1975-01-01

470

NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke pat...

M. Shadoan N. Myers

1998-01-01

471

NASA - NASA eClips™: Designing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

472

NASA - NASA eClips™: Digging in Moon Dirt  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

473

Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright-red-light stimulus (LED-digital counter) as soon as the stimulus appears, which stops the stimulus counter and displays the reaction time for each trial in milliseconds for a 1-sec period. Simple to perform, the PVT has only very minor learning effects, is widely used in human risk assessments in operational environments, and has been recently developed and adopted for use on the ISS for astronauts as a "self test" to provide performance feedback, detect changes in alertness, prevent errors, and manage fatigue from sleep loss, circadian dis-ruption, and high workload requirements. A rodent version of the PVT, the rPVT, has been developed and demonstrated to track the same types of performance variables as the human PVT -i.e., general motor function and speed, fine motor control, inhibitory control ("impul-sivity"), timing, selective attention, motivation, and basic sensory function. Five cohorts of 16 rats each (total N = 80) were trained on the rPVT, exported to BNL for head-only radiation exposure (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 cGy protons @ 150 MeV/n), then returned to Johns Hopkins for follow-up testing. RESULTS The rPVT was readily learned by all rats and required as little as 5-7 days of training to acquire baseline performance levels. Following irradiation, performances in the rPVT were disrupted at exposure levels of 50, 100, and 200 cGy, showing a consistent, significant increase (i.e., slowing) in reaction times and increased lapses in responding, both indicative of a decrease in sustained attention. Additionally, premature responses showed consistent increases at the higher radiation levels. None of these changes were observed in the non-exposed control animals. Over this same time period, no significant changes were observed in discrimination accuracy, motivation (as indicated by trials completed), or food intake. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The results of these experiments demonstrate the sensitivity of tests such as the rPVT for assessing the effects of head-only space radiation on cognitive neurobehavioral function. Expo-sure to protons at as litt

Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

474

Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly

Myung-Hee Y. Kim; Giovanni De Angelis; Francis A. Cucinotta

2011-01-01

475

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear

Zi-Wei Lin

2007-01-01

476

Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technique to extract electrooptic Cerenkov radiation from a LiTaO3 crystal into free space. This permits the generation of collimated beams of terahertz radiation into free space and overcomes previous limitations imposed by total internal reflection.

B. B. Hu; X.-C. Zhang; D. H. Auston; P. R. Smith

1990-01-01

477

Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a technique to extract electro-optic Cherenkov radiation from a LiTaO3 crystal into free space. This permits the generation of collimated beams of terahertz radiation into free space and overcomes previous limitations imposed by total internal reflection.

B. B. Hu; X.-C. Zhang; D. H. Auston; P. R. Smith

1990-01-01

478

The NASA astrobiology program.  

PubMed

The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. PMID:12448992

Morrison, D

2001-01-01

479

Passive radiation shielding considerations for the proposed space elevator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's natural van Allen radiation belts present a serious hazard to space travel in general, and to travel on the space elevator in particular. The average radiation level is sufficiently high that it can cause radiation sickness, and perhaps death, for humans spending more than a brief period of time in the belts without shielding. The exact dose and the level of the related hazard depends on the type or radiation, the intensity of the radiation, the length of exposure, and on any shielding introduced. For the space elevator the radiation concern is particularly critical since it passes through the most intense regions of the radiation belts. The only humans who have ever traveled through the radiation belts have been the Apollo astronauts. They received radiation doses up to approximately 1 rem over a time interval less than an hour. A vehicle climbing the space elevator travels approximately 200 times slower than the moon rockets did, which would result in an extremely high dose up to approximately 200 rem under similar conditions, in a timespan of a few days. Technological systems on the space elevator, which spend prolonged periods of time in the radiation belts, may also be affected by the high radiation levels. In this paper we will give an overview of the radiation belts in terms relevant to space elevator studies. We will then compute the expected radiation doses, and evaluate the required level of shielding. We concentrate on passive shielding using aluminum, but also look briefly at active shielding using magnetic fields. We also look at the effect of moving the space elevator anchor point and increasing the speed of the climber. Each of these mitigation mechanisms will result in a performance decrease, cost increase, and technical complications for the space elevator.

Jorgensen, A. M.; Patamia, S. E.; Gassend, B.

2007-02-01

480

The effects of space radiation on flight film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.

Holly, Mark H.

1995-09-01

481

Overview of NASA Cryocooler Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science Enterprises, as well as augmenting existing capabilities in space exploration. An over-view is presented of on-going efforts at the Goddard Space Flight ...

R. F. Boyle R. G. Ross

2001-01-01

482

Small negative cloud-to-ground lightning reports at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and Air Force Eastern Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network™ (NLDN), and a volumetric lightning mapping array, the Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system, to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations. Data obtained from these systems during June-August 2006 have been examined to check the classification of small, negative CGLSS reports that have an estimated peak current, ?Ip? less than 7 kA, and to determine the smallest values of Ip that are produced by first strokes, by subsequent strokes that create a new ground contact (NGC), and by subsequent strokes that remain in a preexisting channel (PEC). The results show that within 20 km of the KSC-ER, 21% of the low-amplitude negative CGLSS reports were produced by first strokes, with a minimum Ip of -2.9 kA; 31% were by NGCs, with a minimum Ip of -2.0 kA; and 14% were by PECs, with a minimum Ip of -2.2 kA. The remaining 34% were produced by cloud pulses