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1

Time synchronization of NASA tracking stations via LORAN-C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is presented of the results observed in comparison between LORAN-C and accurate portable clocks carried to the stations of NASA's world-wide space tracking and data network. It is believed that such information can provide a meaningful determination of the accuracy of the LORAN-C technique. The investigation shows the need for the employment of portable clocks during, or shortly after the installation of LORAN-C receivers.

Mazur, W. E., Jr.

1973-01-01

2

Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

Lavery, J. E.

1972-01-01

3

NASA: Satellite Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While NASA has offered a number of fine sites about their research for the general public over the years, this particular site may be one of their best. With a minimum of fuss, visitors can use several of the online tracking applications offered here to locate hundreds of satellites and other such large objects in space. A good way to start a visit to this site is by taking a look at the J-Track 2.5 section, as it offers a quick way to find out the current location of the Space Station and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Additionally, visitors can also locate weather satellites using this application. The Live 3D Java Tracking Display here allows visitors to monitor close to 700 satellites that are in motion around the earth. Finally, visitors can also use a handy application offered here that allows them to determine which satellites might be seen from their location in the night sky.

2005-01-01

4

NASA Research at Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers information on past, present, and future projects at the International Space Station. Users can view the many experiments and facilities by time periods or topic. The research areas include bioastronautics, physical sciences, fundamental space biology, and space product development. For each experiment, students and researchers can find information on the significance of the project, descriptions of the operations, its results, and much more. The website provides flight schedules and information on facilities. Throughout the site, visitors can enjoy numerous images from space.

5

NASA Tracking Ship Navigation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is b...

J. J. Mckenna

1976-01-01

6

Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

1988-01-01

7

NASA satellite to track North Pole expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed expedition of a lone explorer and the use of Nimbus 6 (NASA meteorological research satellite) to track his journey is reported. The journey is scheduled to start March 4, 1978, and will cover a distance of 6.000 Km (3,728 miles) from northern Canada to the North Pole and return, traveling the length of Greenland's isolated interior. The mode of transportation for the explorer will be by dog sled. Instrumentation and tracking techniques are discussed.

1978-01-01

8

NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

2006-01-01

9

Goldstone. [Tracking/Communications Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldstone is a complex of deep space communications antennas that command and receive information from satellites or receive information from satellites or about distant stars and galaxies. The video feature discusses the Goldstone complex and its 30 plus years of service to NASA.

1991-01-01

10

DISTRIBUTION STATION IN FOREGROUND, TRACK FOOTINGS AT LEFT CENTER, WATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISTRIBUTION STATION IN FOREGROUND, TRACK FOOTINGS AT LEFT CENTER, WATER TOWER (BLDG. 0516) IN BACKGROUND. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

11

NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

12

NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply with existing technologies, not only will a new category of autonomous vehicles deliver cargo, but a commercial business base will be incubated that will improve the likelihood of commercial convergence with the next generation of RLVs. Traditional paradigms in government management and acquisition philosophy are being challenged in order to bring about the objective of the AAS project. The phased procurement approach is proving to be the most questionable aspect to date. This work addresses the fresh approach AAS is adopting in management and procurement through a study of the AAS history, current solutions, key technologies, procurement complications, and an incremental forward plan leading to the purchase of a service to deliver goods to ISS. Included in this work is a discussion of the Commercial Space Act of 1998 and how it affects government purchase of space launch and space vehicle services. Industry should find these topics pertinent to their current state of business.

Bailey, M. D.; Crumbly, C.

2002-01-01

13

NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research - and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply with existing technologies, not only will a new category of autonomous vehicles deliver cargo, but a commercial business base will be incubated that will improve the likelihood of commercial convergence with the next generation of RLVs. Traditional paradigms in government management and acquisition philosophy are being challenged in order to bring about the objective of the AAS project. The phased procurement approach is proving to be the most questionable aspect to date. This work addresses the fresh approach AAS is adopting in management and procurement through a study of the AAS history, current solutions, key technologies, procurement complications, and an incremental forward plan leading to the purchase of a service to deliver goods to ISS. Included in this work is a discussion of the Commercial Space Act of 1998 and how it affects government purchase of space launch and space vehicle services. Industry should find these topics pertinent to their current state of business.

Bailey, Michelle D.; Crumbly, Chris

2001-01-01

14

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: December 3, 2012,...

2012-11-01

15

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: August 28, 2012,...

2012-07-12

16

NASA: Atlas of Extratropical Storm Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies offers an online atlas of fundamental information on extratropical storm systems in the mid-latitude during the last half of the twentieth century. Users can find maps of storm frequency and intensity and monthly and seasonal means as well as graphs of individual storm paths and the most severe storms. Researchers can download the storm track data and a FORTRAN program used to extract time and geographic subsets of the database. The website adequately describes how the computations and plots were created.

17

International Space Station Utilization: Tracking Investigations from Objectives to Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first module was assembled on the International Space Station (ISS), on-orbit investigations have been underway across all scientific disciplines. The facilities dedicated to research on ISS have supported over 1100 investigations from over 900 scientists representing over 60 countries. Relatively few of these investigations are tracked through the traditional NASA grants monitoring process and with ISS National Laboratory use growing, the ISS Program Scientist s Office has been tasked with tracking all ISS investigations from objectives to results. Detailed information regarding each investigation is now collected once, at the first point it is proposed for flight, and is kept in an online database that serves as a single source of information on the core objectives of each investigation. Different fields are used to provide the appropriate level of detail for research planning, astronaut training, and public communications. http://www.nasa.gov/iss-science/. With each successive year, publications of ISS scientific results, which are used to measure success of the research program, have shown steady increases in all scientific research areas on the ISS. Accurately identifying, collecting, and assessing the research results publications is a challenge and a priority for the ISS research program, and we will discuss the approaches that the ISS Program Science Office employs to meet this challenge. We will also address the online resources available to support outreach and communication of ISS research to the public. Keywords: International Space Station, Database, Tracking, Methods

Ruttley, T. M.; Mayo, Susan; Robinson, J. A.

2011-01-01

18

78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: January 7, 2014,...

2013-12-23

19

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: September 3, 2013,...

2013-08-13

20

NASA reconfigures Voyager 2, ground stations for Uranus flyby  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes have been implemented on board the Voyager 2 spacecraft and at NASA ground stations to ensure continued signal reception at both ends of the link. Voyager 2 will be 1.8 billion miles from earth during its Uranus encounter. The primary ground link will be the 64 m and two 34 m antennas at the NASA Australian complex. The data

B. A. Smith

1985-01-01

21

NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

22

IET. Coupling station and track foundations under construction. Camera facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET. Coupling station and track foundations under construction. Camera facing northerly. Four-rail track foundations lead to coupling station. Service leads from there will go through opening for "quick connects" below. Retaining wall under construction will separate earthen shielding of control building (out of view to right) from coupling station and track. Date: October 20, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12550 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

23

Smoked Aluminum Track Stations Record Flying Squirrel Occurrence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Smoked aluminum track stations are a useful technique for studying patterns of abundance and distribution of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). They are easily transported to remote field sites, allow permanent preservation of tracks, and yiel...

M. G. Raphael C. A. Taylor R. H. Barrett

1986-01-01

24

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

25

1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

26

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

27

NASA Facts, Spacecraft Tracking and Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various systems for communicating with manned and unmanned spacecraft are described in this pamphlet written for general science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review questions, suggested activities, and…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

28

Commonality analysis for the NASA Space Station Common Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of commonality to enhance cost savings, as applied to NASA's Space Station Common Module (CM), is explored. The equipment to be included in the CM is organized by subsystems of structure, power, thermal, command and data handling, environmental control and life support, and crew station. The weight, volume, and quantity of each instrument item will be subsequently added to support a cost model. The CM concept, its reference configuration, power distribution and management, and cost sensitivity options are discussed in detail. Some computer programs are outlined, stressing the importance of the existing capabilities of the STS and the optimum commonality case.

Powell, L. E.; Beam, E. E.

1985-01-01

29

IET distant contextual view of coupling station, tracks and retaining ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET distant contextual view of coupling station, tracks and retaining wall. experiment shack on left side of coupling station remains from snaptran tests. Camera facing northerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-7-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

30

Supply support of NASA tracking networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent which supply support for Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network and Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Flight Tracking and Data Network should be consolidated is considered along with the Identification of opportunities for improvements in each of the supply systems without regard to consolidation. There is a considerable amount of commonality between the items in the stock catalogs at the two network depots, 58% for federal stock number items and 30% overall. The workload at the DSIF Supply Depot (DSD) is small (less than 20%) compared to the Network Logistics Depot (NLD). A number of important benefits in supply support would result from a consolidation of DSD into NLD. LMI found that a consolidation as is, without any changes in inventory management techniques, would reduce annual operating costs by from $208,000 to $358,000. However, if the consolidation were coupled with a change to use of economic order quantities, the annual operating cost reduction would range from $930,000 to $1,078,000.

1973-01-01

31

Fast-Tracked Soyuz Docks to Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The Soyuz TMA-08M spacecraft carrying three new Expedition 35 crew members docks with the International Space Station at 10:28 p.m. EDT Thursday, completing its accelerated journey to the orbiting ...

32

A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

1989-01-01

33

Geoid undulation computations at laser tracking stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the use of two new methods for gravimetric geoid undulation computations: The Molodenskii's and Sjöberg's methods that both modify the original Stokes'function so that certain rms errors are minimized. These new methods were checked against the traditional methods of Stokes' and Meissl's modification with the criterion of the global rms undulation error that each method implies. Sjöberg's method gave consistently the smallest global rms undulation error of all the other methods for capsizes 0° to 10°. However with the exception of Stokes' method, for capsizes between 0° to 5°, all the methods gave approximately (within±5 cm) the same global rms undulation error. Actual gravity data within a cap of 2° and potential coefficient information were then combined to compute the undulation of 39 laser stations distributed around the world. The rms discrepancy between the gravimetric undulations using all the four methods and the undulations computed as the ellipsoidal minus the orthometric height of 28 at the above stations was±1.70,±1.65,±1.66,±1.65 m for the Stokes', Meissl's, Molodenskii's and Sjöberg's method respectively. For five oceanic laser stations where no terrestrial gravity data was available, the GEOS-3/SEASAT altimeter sea surface heights were used to compute the undulations of these stations in a collocation method. The rms discrepancy between the altimeter derived undulation and the ellipsoidal mirus orthometric value of the undulation was ±1.30 m for the above five laser stations.

Despotakis, Vasilios K.

1989-12-01

34

Comparing adaptive optics approaches for NASA LCRD Ground Station #2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD) aims to demonstrate a geosynchronous satellite laser communications (lasercom) relay between two independent ground terminals. We report on the design of two adaptive optics (AO) techniques for LCRD Ground Station #2 (GS-2). GS-2 leverages the ground terminal developed for NASA's Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD). Equipping GS-2's 40cm diameter receive telescope with AO to mitigate atmospheric turbulence effects will enable the use of single mode, optically preamplified receivers for high data-rate near-Earth relay applications. In this work a direct wavefront sensing AO approach using a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a continuous facesheet micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) was compared with an indirect sensing, hill-climbing or multidither approach using a segmented MEMS DM. Design concepts and recent experimental progress for the two approaches are presented.

Stewart, Jason B.; Murphy, Daniel V.; Moores, John D.; Fletcher, Andrew S.; Bonneau, Keith M.

2013-03-01

35

Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches should be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JSC. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 2, containing Appendices K through U.

Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

1988-01-01

36

Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JCS. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 1, containing the main body and Appendices A through J.

Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

1988-01-01

37

Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

Speth, Randall C.

1998-01-01

38

29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

39

Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

1976-01-01

40

The OSU 275 system of satellite tracking station coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the methods and data used in the OSU 275 geodetic system is given along with the summary of the results. Survey information regarding the tracking stations in the system is given in tabular form along with the geodetic and geophysical parameters, origin and orientation, Cartisian coordinates, and systematic differences with global and nonglobal geodetic systems.

Mueller, I. I.; Kumar, M.

1975-01-01

41

Communications, tracking, and docking on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the communications, tracking, and docking functions on a large manned orbiting Space Station - one that is modular and made of metal - will have to be performed by optical systems out of necessity. This paper discusses four practical approaches to accomplishing Space Station functions using optical communications technology. It also provides the results of preliminary experiments involved in the design of particular systems. Major operational factors considered in each system design include: (a) electromagnetic interference problems, (b) data bandwidth requirements, (c) zero-gravity operations, (d) free-space operations, (e) data security, and (f) modular expansion of the Space Station structure. The technologies discussed are the following: (a) local infrared communications, (b) optical tracking and docking techniques, (c) long distance free space optical communications, and (d) local area optical networks.

Erwin, H. O.; Coden, M. H.; Scholl, F. W.

1982-01-01

42

Space Station communications and tracking systems modeling and RF link simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this final report, the effort spent on Space Station Communications and Tracking System Modeling and RF Link Simulation is described in detail. The effort is mainly divided into three parts: frequency division multiple access (FDMA) system simulation modeling and software implementation; a study on design and evaluation of a functional computerized RF link simulation/analysis system for Space Station; and a study on design and evaluation of simulation system architecture. This report documents the results of these studies. In addition, a separate User's Manual on Space Communications Simulation System (SCSS) (Version 1) documents the software developed for the Space Station FDMA communications system simulation. The final report, SCSS user's manual, and the software located in the NASA JSC system analysis division's VAX 750 computer together serve as the deliverables from LinCom for this project effort.

Tsang, Chit-Sang; Chie, Chak M.; Lindsey, William C.

1986-01-01

43

Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

Haines, R. F.

1975-01-01

44

Open solutions to distributed control in ground tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of high speed local area networks has made it possible to interconnect small, powerful computers to function together as a single large computer. Today, distributed computer systems are the new paradigm for large scale computing systems. However, the communications provided by the local area network is only one part of the solution. The services and protocols used by the application programs to communicate across the network are as indispensable as the local area network. And the selection of services and protocols that do not match the system requirements will limit the capabilities, performance, and expansion of the system. Proprietary solutions are available but are usually limited to a select set of equipment. However, there are two solutions based on 'open' standards. The question that must be answered is 'which one is the best one for my job?' This paper examines a model for tracking stations and their requirements for interprocessor communications in the next century. The model and requirements are matched with the model and services provided by the five different software architectures and supporting protocol solutions. Several key services are examined in detail to determine which services and protocols most closely match the requirements for the tracking station environment. The study reveals that the protocols are tailored to the problem domains for which they were originally designed. Further, the study reveals that the process control model is the closest match to the tracking station model.

Heuser, William Randy

1994-01-01

45

NASA/FAA North Texas Research Station Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NTX Research Staion: NASA research assets embedded in an interesting operational air transport environment. Seven personnel (2 civil servants, 5 contractors). ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, 3 air carrier AOCs(American, Eagle and Southwest), and 2 major airports all within 12 miles. Supports NASA Airspace Systems Program with research products at all levels (fundamental to system level). NTX Laboratory: 5000 sq ft purpose-built, dedicated, air traffic management research facility. Established data links to ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, air carriers, airport and NASA facilities. Re-configurable computer labs, dedicated radio tower, state-of-the-art equipment.

Borchers, Paul F.

2012-01-01

46

NASA's System for Tracking Foreign Contracts and Subcontracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the nation's leading research and development organization in the fields of space and aeronautics. Each year, NASA spends almost 90 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition of supplies and...

2006-01-01

47

Evolution of NASA's Near-Earth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is now in its 23rd year of operations and its spacecraft fleet includes three second-generation spacecraft launched since the year 2000; a figure illustrates the first generation TDRSS spacecraft. During this time frame the TDRSS has provided communications relay support to a broad range of missions, with emphasis on low-earth-orbiting (LEO) spacecraft that include unmanned science spacecraft (e.g., Hubble Space Telescope), and human spaceflight (Space Shuttle and Space Station). Furthermore, the TDRSS has consistently demonstrated its uniqueness and adaptability in several ways. First, its S- and K-band services, combined with its multi-band/steerable single-access (SA) antennas and ground-based configuration flexibility, have permitted the mission set to expand to unique users such as scientific balloons and launch vehicles. Second, the bent-pipe nature of the system has enabled the introduction of new/improved services via technology insertion and upgrades at each of the ground terminals; a specific example here is the Demand Access Service (DAS), which, for example, is currently providing science-alert support to NASA science missions Third, the bent-pipe nature of the system, combined with the flexible ground-terminal signal processing architecture has permitted the demonstration/vaIidation of new techniques/services/technologies via a real satellite channel; over the past 10+ years these have, for example, included demonstrations/evaluations of emerging modulation/coding techniques. Given NASA's emerging Exploration plans, with missions beginning later this decade and expanding for decades to come, NASA is currently planning the development of a seamless, NASA-wide architecture that must accommodate missions from near-earth to deep space. Near-earth elements include Ground-Network (GN) and Near-Earth Relay (NER) components and both must efficiently and seamlessly support missions that encompass: earth orbit, including dedicated science missions and lunar support/cargo vehicles; earth/moon transit; lunar in-situ operations; and other missions within approximately 2 million km of earth (e.g., at the sun/earth libration points). Given that the NER is an evolution of TDRSS, one element of this NASA-wide architecture development activity is a trade study of future NER architecture candidates. The present paper focuses on trade study aspects associated with the NER, highlights study elements, and provides representative interim results.

Flaherty, Roger; Stocklin, Frank; Weinberg, Aaron

2006-01-01

48

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including transportation...possibilities for using the ISS for future space exploration. DATES: February 9, 2012, 12...ADDRESSES: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters,...

2012-01-19

49

Modular Space Station Phase B Extension NASA Administrators Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary design, reference program, costs, and sortie and program options for the modular space station are outlined. The Phase B has a barbell configuration baseline with a manipulator. The baseline includes two capability plateaus, a 6-man statio...

1971-01-01

50

Automatic data-quality monitoring for continuous GPS tracking stations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has more than 300 Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking stations maintained by the Ministry of the Interior (MOI), Academia Sinica, the Central Weather Bureau and the Central Geological Survey. In the future, GPS tracking stations may replace the GPS control points after being given a legal status. Hence, the data quality of the tracking stations is an increasingly significant factor. This study considers the feasibility of establishing a system for monitoring GPS receivers. This investigation employs many data-quality indices and examines the relationship of these indices and the positioning precision. The frequency stability of the GPS receiver is the most important index; the cycle slip is the second index and the multipath is the third index. An auto-analytical system for analysing GPS data quality and monitoring the MOI's tracking stations can quickly find and resolve problems, or changes in station environment, to maintain high data quality for the tracking stations.

Yeh, T. K.; Wang, C. S.; Chao, B. F.; Chen, C. S.; Lee, C. W.

2007-10-01

51

The NASA tracking and data acquisition networks - Their history and their future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Tracking and Data Acquisition Networks were begun in the late 1950s as a part of the U.S. activities associated with the 1958-59 International Geophysical Year. The first network, the Minitrack Net, evolved into the Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN) for support of scientific satellites in earth orbit. The NASA Mercury and Apollo manned flight programs produced

Charles T. Force

1987-01-01

52

Verification and Validation of the GNSS Stations at the Prototype Core Site for NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two operational GNSS stations, GODN and GODS, were established within 100 m of each other at the prototype core site of NASA's next generation Space Geodesy Network. The planned network will co-locate each of the four space geodetic techniques, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of meeting modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. This prototype site is located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two GNSS stations at the prototype site have been producing tracking data from the GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo constellations since January 17, 2012. We present results from the verification and validation of these two stations, focusing in particular on GPS-based positioning of these two sites to monitor their relative baseline vector. We compare baseline recovery from independent precise point positioning of each station to a network-based approach. We also show the impact on the baseline as well as station repeatability from various improvements to our processing approach, namely the application of empirical antenna calibrations, elevation-dependent weighting, and site-specific troposphere modeling. Together, these approaches have resulted in a factor of two improvement in the precision of the baseline length. The standard deviation of the baseline vector, when using independent precise positioning of each station, is 0.5, 0.4, 1.6, and 0.4 mm in the east, north, up, and length components. The difference between the GPS-based baseline length and that from an independent local tie survey is < 1 mm.

Desai, S. D.; Gross, J.; Haines, B. J.; Stowers, D. A.

2013-12-01

53

Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

1988-01-01

54

NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

2010-01-01

55

NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

2010-01-01

56

NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [calibration, functional checks, and operation of measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information required to calibrate, functionally check, and operate the Instrumentation Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The calibration section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and calibrated by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.

1973-01-01

57

Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

Gavert, Raymond B.

1990-01-01

58

NASA Office of Space Sciences and Applications study on Space Station attached payload pointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been conducted to determine the articulated-pointing requirements of a suite of instruments carried by the NASA Space Station, and define a pointing system architecture accomodating those requirements. It is found that these pointing requirements are sufficiently exacting, and the Space Station's disturbance environment sufficiently severe, to preclude the successful use of a conventional gimbal-pointing system; a gimbaled system incorporating an isolation stage is judged capable of furnishing the requisite levels of pointing performance.

Laskin, R. A.; Estus, J. M.; Lin, Y. H.; Spanos, J. T.; Satter, C. M.

1988-01-01

59

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments

Julie A. Robinson; Tracy L. Thumm; Donald A. Thomas

2007-01-01

60

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

61

NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake Measurement; 3) Nutrition; 4) CCISS; 5) Sleep; 6) Braslet; 7) Integrated Immune; 8) Epstein Barr; 9) Biophosphonates; 10) Integrated cardiovascular; and 11) VO2 max.

Sams, Clarence F.

2009-01-01

62

Applicability of NASA Polar Technologies to British Antarctic Survey Halley VI Research Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 1993 through 1997 NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed a variety of environmental infrastructure technologies for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The objective of this program was to reduce the cost of operating the South Pole Station, reduce the environmental impact of the Station, and to increase the quality of life for Station inhabitants. The result of this program was the development of a set of sustainability technologies designed specifically for Polar applications. In the intervening eight years many of the technologies developed through this program have been commercialized and tested in extreme environments and are now available for use throughout Antarctica and circumpolar north. The objective of this document is to provide information covering technologies that might also be applicable to the British Antarctic Survey s (BAS) proposed new Halley VI Research Station. All technologies described are commercially available.

Flynn, Michael

2005-01-01

63

Performance of the NASA Laser Ranging System in Satellite Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the ranging accuracy of the laser systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have employed both long-arc orbital comparison, using optical and Doppler observations of Geos-I, and predicted trajectory comparison. The long-arc technique compares the ranges measured by the laser with those predicted by a reference orbit computed without using laser data. The second method, utilizing computed

S. J. Moss; THOMAS S. JOHNSON

1971-01-01

64

Structural Dynamic Interaction with Solar Tracking Control for Evolutionary Space Station Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sun tracking control system design of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and the interaction of the control system with the flexible structure of Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolutionary concepts are addressed. The significant components of the space...

T. W. Lim P. A. Cooper J. K. Ayers

1992-01-01

65

NASA-ARC 91.5-cm airborne infrared telescope. [tracking mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 91.5 cm aperture telescope installed aboard NASA-Lockheed C-141A aircraft for the performance of infrared astronomy is described. A unique feature of the telescope is that its entire structure is supported by a 41 cm spherical air bearing which effectively uncouples it from aircraft angular motion, and with inertial stabilization and star tracking, limits tracking errors to less than 1 arc second in most applications. A general description of the system, a summary of its performance, and a detailed description of an offset tracking mechanism is presented.

Mobley, R. E.; Brown, T. M.

1979-01-01

66

Pointing and tracking subsystem design for optical communications link between the International Space Station and ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a preliminary design for a tracking and pointing subsystem for the optical communication link between the International Space Station and a ground receiver at Table Mountain Facility. The link is intended to demonstrate high rate downlink capability of rates up to 2.5 Gbps. The design objective of tracking and pointing subsystem is to limit the pointing loss to

Shinhak Lee; James W. Alexander; Muthu Jeganathan

2000-01-01

67

Automated tracking for advanced satellite laser ranging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging Network was originally developed during the 1970s to track satellites carrying corner cube reflectors. Today eight NASA systems, achieving millimeter ranging precision, are part of a global network of more than 40 stations that track 17 international satellites. To meet the tracking demands of a steadily growing satellite constellation within existing resources, NASA is embarking on

Jan F. McGarry; John J. Degnan; Paul Titterton; Harold Sweeney; Brion P. Conklin; Peter J. Dunn; Hughes STX

68

Automated tracking for advanced satellite laser ranging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging Network was originally developed during the 1970's to track satellites carrying corner cube reflectors. Today eight NASA systems, achieving millimeter ranging precision, are part of a global network of more than 40 stations that track 17 international satellites. To meet the tracking demands of a steadily growing satellite constellation within existing resources, NASA is embarking on

Jan F. McGarry; John J. Degnan; Paul J. Titterton; Harold E. Sweeney; Brion P. Conklin; Peter J. Dunn

1996-01-01

69

NASA Growth Space Station missions and candidate nuclear/solar power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief summary is presented of a NASA study contract and in-house investigation on Growth Space Station missions and appropriate nuclear and solar space electric power systems. By the year 2000 some 300 kWe will be needed for missions and housekeeping power for a 12 to 18 person Station crew. Several Space Station configurations employing nuclear reactor power systems are discussed, including shielding requirements and power transmission schemes. Advantages of reactor power include a greatly simplified Station orientation procedure, greatly reduced occultation of views of the earth and deep space, near elimination of energy storage requirements, and significantly reduced station-keeping propellant mass due to very low drag of the reactor power system. The in-house studies of viable alternative Growth Space Station power systems showed that at 300 kWe a rigid silicon solar cell array with NiCd batteries had the highest specific mass at 275 kg/kWe, with solar Stirling the lowest at 40 kg/kWe. However, when 10 year propellant mass requirements are factored in, the 300 kWe nuclear Stirling exhibits the lowest total mass.

Heller, Jack A.; Nainiger, Joseph J.

1987-01-01

70

Microgravity Research Results and Experiences from the NASA Mir Space Station Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity Research Program Office (MRPO) participated aggressively in Phase I of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges to long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both NASA and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about dealing with long duration on orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. Microgravity participation in the NASA Mir Program began with the first joint NASA Mir flight to the Mir Space Station. The earliest participation setup acceleration measurement capabilities that were used throughout the Program. Research, conducted by all Microgravity science disciplines, continued on each subsequent increment for the entire three-year duration of the Program. The Phase I Program included the Microgravity participation of over 30 Fluids, Combustion, Materials, and Biotechnology Sciences and numerous commercially sponsored research payloads. In addition to the research gained from Microgravity investigations, long duration operation of facility hardware was tested. Microgravity facilities operated on Mir included the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Microgravity Glovebox (MGBX), the Biotechnology System (BTS) and the Canadian Space Agency sponsored Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM). The Russian OPTIZONE Furnace was also incorporated into our material science research. All of these efforts yielded significant and useful scientific research data. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings. Most importantly this paper highlights the various disciplines of microgravity research conducted during the International Space Station, Phase 1 Program onboard the Mir Station. A capsulation of significant research and the applicability of our findings are provided. In addition, a brief discussion of how future microgravity science gathering capabilities, hardware development and payload operations techniques have enhanced our ability to conduct long duration microgravity research.

Schagheck, R. A.; Trach, B.

2000-01-01

71

NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration home page provides information on current events at NASA, general information about NASA, and links to a plethora of NASA web sites, educational resources, and NASA Centers.

72

Science in Flux: NASA's Nuclear Program at Plum Brook Station 1955-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science in Flux traces the history of one of the most powerful nuclear test reactors in the United States and the only nuclear facility ever built by NASA. In the late 1950's NASA constructed Plum Brook Station on a vast tract of undeveloped land near Sandusky, Ohio. Once fully operational in 1963, it supported basic research for NASA's nuclear rocket program (NERVA). Plum Brook represents a significant, if largely forgotten, story of nuclear research, political change, and the professional culture of the scientists and engineers who devoted their lives to construct and operate the facility. In 1973, after only a decade of research, the government shut Plum Brook down before many of its experiments could be completed. Even the valiant attempt to redefine the reactor as an environmental analysis tool failed, and the facility went silent. The reactors lay in costly, but quiet standby for nearly a quarter-century before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to decommission the reactors and clean up the site. The history of Plum Brook reveals the perils and potentials of that nuclear technology. As NASA, Congress, and space enthusiasts all begin looking once again at the nuclear option for sending humans to Mars, the echoes of Plum Brook's past will resonate with current policy and space initiatives.

Bowles, Mark D.

2006-01-01

73

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

74

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

75

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

76

Permanent change of station: The NASA employee's guide to an easier move  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This guide is for the NASA employee preparing to make a permanent change of station. Whether a transferee or a new appointee, this guide contains information that will help a Government-authorized move go more smoothly from start to finish. The guide outlines the allowances and expense reimbursements one is entitled to under Federal Travel Regulations (FTR). It provides samples of forms one may need to fill out to start the transfer rolling and to claim reimbursements. However, it is important to note that this guide is not a copy of the FTR. Information in the FTR and the NASA Travel Regulations, FMM 9760, is far more detailed and is always updated and correct.

1993-01-01

77

The management approach to the NASA space station definition studies at the Manned Spacecraft Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall management approach to the NASA Phase B definition studies for space stations, which were initiated in September 1969 and completed in July 1972, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the management approach used by the Manned Spacecraft Center. The internal working organizations of the Manned Spacecraft Center and its prime contractor, North American Rockwell, are delineated along with the interfacing techniques used for the joint Government and industry study. Working interfaces with other NASA centers, industry, and Government agencies are briefly highlighted. The controlling documentation for the study (such as guidelines and constraints, bibliography, and key personnel) is reviewed. The historical background and content of the experiment program prepared for use in this Phase B study are outlined and management concepts that may be considered for future programs are proposed.

Heberlig, J. C.

1972-01-01

78

75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National Aeronautics...EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project located near Sandusky, Ohio...comments on construction and operation of the wind farm. The purpose of constructing...

2010-08-25

79

Reports on work in support of NASA's tracking and communication division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a report on the research conducted during the period October 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. The research is divided into two primary areas: (1) generalization of the Fault Isolation using Bit Strings (FIBS) technique to permit fuzzy information to be used to isolate faults in the tracking and communications system of the Space Station; and (2) a study of the activity that should occur in the on board systems in order to attempt to recover from failures that are external to the Space Station.

Feagin, Terry; Lekkos, Anthony

1991-01-01

80

Effects of varying environmental parameters on trace contaminant concentrations in the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration trace contaminant production and depletion level effects of CO2, O2, humidity, temperature, and pressure variations, on the basis of a computer model of the Reference Configuration's chemical reactions and physical processes as functions of time. The effects of changes in the initial concentrations of such contaminants as nonmethane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are also examined, and these are found to result in more significant changes in the concentration levels of trace contaminants than pressure and humidity variations. O2 and CO2 changes are found to have negligible effects on trace contaminant concentrations.

Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1986-01-01

81

NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013! The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group is doing 2 sets of experiments, both with astronauts using Eclipse RCP applications to remotely control robots. One experiment will control SPHERES with an Android Smartphone on the ISS the other experiment will control a K10 rover on Earth.

Cohen, Tamar

2013-01-01

82

Track and capture of the orbiter with the space station remote manipulator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the first study using the real-time, man-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) for track and capture of the Space Shuttle Orbiter with the space station manipulator are presented. The objectives include evaluation of the operational coordination required between the orbiter pilot and the space station manipulator operator, evaluation of the locations and required number of closed-circuit television cameras, and evaluation of the orbiter grapple fixture clearance geometry. The SES is a premium quality real-time facility with full fidelity orbiter and space station crew workstations and cockpits.

Bains, E. M.; Price, C. R.; Walter, L. M.

1987-01-01

83

Results of a Telephone Survey of Television Station Managers Concerning the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telephone survey of television station managers concerning 2 instructional television programs, the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM), offered by the NASA Langley Center for Distance Learning (CDL) was conducted. Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.1 percent) or satisfied (19.9 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of the NASA SCI Files(TM). Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.9 percent) or satisfied (19.1 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of NASA CONNECT(TM) .

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

2004-01-01

84

Along-Track Products from NASA's Operation IceBridge Flight Line Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of value-added data products (VAPs)is being developed at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) from the along-flight multi-sensor data sets gathered during the IceBridge flights of the DC-8 and P-3 NASA aircraft. These new products co-locate data from the IceBridge sensor suite and derive useful analysis parameters using one or more of the data streams. There are two along-track data sets being developed at NSIDC, one intended to facilitate ice sheet dynamics investigations, and one to characterize ice sheet surface and near-surface processes. Ice dynamics along-track products currently incorporate data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), Sanders Gravimeter, Multi-Channel Coherent Depth Sounder (MCORDS) ice-penetrating radar system, and Digital Mapping System (DMS) camera. Derived products currently include regional slope (four hundred meter horizontal scale) and driving stress. Ice-dynamics along-track products currently under development focus on comparisons of the gravity and ice thickness data, as well as more detailed ice flow analysis. The along-track IceBridge data will be integrated with existing ice-sheet-wide data sets (for Greenland and Antarctica) such as DEMs, bed elevation and ice thickness, free-air anomaly from satellite data, and balance velocity. Ice sheet surface properties along-track products combine co-located data from the ATM, snow radar or accumulation radar, and DMS instrument, extracting roughness data, layer depth for radar reflections and images along with basic instrument measurement values. In addition to scientific parameters, various data vetting parameters determine how well aligned the sensors are for a given flight line point. A related product for sea ice properties, sea ice freeboard, and estimated sea ice thickness is being developed by NASA-GSFC personnel. The along-track VAPs are formatted into comma-separated values files for easy access by the science community. They are being integrated into the NSIDC Operation IceBridge data portal to facilitate browsing and preliminary analysis of areas overflown by Operation IceBridge. Development directions for the IceBridge along-track products are: combining airborne gravity and ice thickness measurements to generate an estimated sub-glacial rock density, more extensive layer-tracking software, and parameters leading to along-flight estimates of snow accumulation (or surface net mass balance) from the shallow radars. NSIDC will also seek to integrate the emerging gridded VAP from the IceBridge Science Team with the along-track products we develop.

Rogers, S. R.; Scambos, T. A.; Raup, B. H.; Haran, T. M.; Kaminski, M. L.

2011-12-01

85

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 6: Study issues report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload specialists and mission specialists to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be on-board the Freedom Space Station. This simulation Computer System (SCS) study issues report summarizes the analysis and study done as task 1-identify and analyze the CSC study issues- of the SCS study contract.This work was performed over the first three months of the SCS study which began in August of 1988. First issues were identified from all sources. These included the NASA SOW, the TRW proposal, and working groups which focused the experience of NASA and the contractor team performing the study-TRW, Essex, and Grumman. The final list is organized into training related issues, and SCS associated development issues. To begin the analysis of the issues, a list of all the functions for which the SCS could be used was created, i.e., when the computer is turned on, what will it be doing. Analysis was continued by creating an operational functions matrix of SCS users vs. SCS functions to insure all the functions considered were valid, and to aid in identification of users as the analysis progressed. The functions will form the basis for the requirements, which are currently being developed under task 3 of the SCS study.

1989-01-01

86

NASA systems autonomy demonstration project: Advanced automation demonstration of Space Station Freedom thermal control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP) was initiated in response to Congressional interest in Space station automation technology demonstration. The SADP is a joint cooperative effort between Ames Research Center (ARC) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate advanced automation technology feasibility using the Space Station Freedom Thermal Control System (TCS) test bed. A model-based expert system and its operator interface were developed by knowledge engineers, AI researchers, and human factors researchers at ARC working with the domain experts and system integration engineers at JSC. Its target application is a prototype heat acquisition and transport subsystem of a space station TCS. The demonstration is scheduled to be conducted at JSC in August, 1989. The demonstration will consist of a detailed test of the ability of the Thermal Expert System to conduct real time normal operations (start-up, set point changes, shut-down) and to conduct fault detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) on the test article. The FDIR will be conducted by injecting ten component level failures that will manifest themselves as seven different system level faults. Here, the SADP goals, are described as well as the Thermal Control Expert System that has been developed for demonstration.

Dominick, Jeffrey; Bull, John; Healey, Kathleen J.

1990-01-01

87

The International Space Station: Improving Life On Earth and In Space: The NASA Research Plan, An Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report describes how the International Space Station (ISS) will be used to further NASA's mission of scientific research and exploration of space. The research plan is divided into five sections with the heart of the report contained in Putting Space to Work the World Over. This section is subdivided into categories dealing with the benefits offered by the ISS. The other four sections are: Excerpts From the Research Agenda for the International Space Station, Serving Our Customers, Research Capability Evolution, and an Appendix of Additional Reading. The document is filled with a wealth of information on how the ISS benefits society, from engineering to biotechnology.

1998-01-01

88

Freedom is an international partnership. [foreign contributions to NASA Space Station project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Station Freedom (SSF) project initiated in 1984 is a collaborative one among the U.S., Japan, Canada, and the 10 nations participating in ESA. The SSF partners have over the last six years defined user requirements, decided on the hardware to be manufactured, and constructed a framework for long-term cooperation. SSF will be composed of user elements furnished by the foreign partners and a U.S.-supplied infrastructure encompassing the truss assembly, electrical power system, and crew living quarters. The U.S. will also furnish a lab and a polar-orbit platform; ESA, a second lab and the coorbiting Free-Flying Laboratory, as well as a second polar platform. Japan's Japanese Experiment Module shall include an Exposed Facility and an Experimental Logistics module. Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System robotic assembler/maintainer for the whole of SFF.

Kohrs, Richard H.

1990-01-01

89

Restoration of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF), located at the Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is a non-vitiated, free-jet facility, capable of testing large-scale propulsion systems at Mach Numbers from 5 to 7. As a result of a component failure in September of 1996, a restoration project was initiated in mid- 1997 to repair the damage to the facility. Following the 2-1/2 year effort, the HTF has been returned to an operational condition. Significant repairs and operational improvements have been implemented in order to ensure facility reliability and personnel safety. As of January 2000, this unique, state-of-the-art facility was ready for integrated systems testing.

Woodling, Mark A.

2000-01-01

90

Geostationary satellites launched by NASA. Part 1: NASDA tracking and control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software used by the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan is described. The telemetry and command processing (on-line) and housekeeping data processing; orbit determination, including tracking data preprocessing and orbital event prediction; attitude determination, including telemetry data preprocessing and sensor event prediction; maneuver planning and command generation, including apogee kick motor firing, station acquisition and keeping, and command evaluation and the mission analysis subsystems are discussed. The system operates on-line during the launch phase and off-line during the stationary phase. The system has proven reliable for all NASDA missions.

Takenouchi, T.; Suzuki, M.

1981-08-01

91

A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

1986-01-01

92

Tracking the Relative Motion of Four Space Payloads Launched From a Sub-Orbital NASA Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One problem, which is comparatively new in the field of GPS applications, is the determination of the relative trajectories of space vehicles. Applications include the docking of spacecraft, collision avoidance in the area of space stations, and trajectory reconstruction of multiple payloads. The required precision in any of these applications will vary, according to the requirements of the task and abilities of GPS to cope with the environment and the dynamics. This paper describes the post-mission reconstruction of the relative trajectories of four GPS receivers attached to four payloads jettisoned from a rocket in a sub-orbital NASA science mission. It is shown that the sub-decimetre level were achieved with single frequency GPS receivers.

Martel, Hugh; Bull, Barton

1999-01-01

93

NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

2008-01-01

94

Use of Scented Sugar Bait Stations to Track Mosquito-Borne Arbovirus Transmission in California  

PubMed Central

Laboratory and field research was conducted to determine if Culex tarsalis Coquillett expectorated West Nile virus (WNV) during sugar feeding and if a lure or bait station could be developed to exploit this behavior for WNV surveillance. Experimentally infected Cx. tarsalis repeatedly expectorated WNV onto filter paper strips and into vials with wicks containing sucrose that was readily detectable by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Few females (33%, n = 27) became infected by imbibing sugar solutions spiked with high concentrations (107 plaque forming units/ml) of WNV, indicating sugar feeding stations probably would not be a source of WNV infection. In nature, sugar bait stations scented with the floral attractant phenyl acetaldehyde tracked WNV transmission activity in desert but not urban or agricultural landscapes in California. When deployed in areas of the Coachella Valley with WNV activity during the summer of 2011, 27 of 400 weekly sugar samples (6.8%) tested positive for WNV RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence of positives varied spatially, but positive sugar stations were detected before concurrent surveillance measures of infection (mosquito pools) or transmission (sentinel chicken seroconversions). In contrast, sugar bait stations deployed in urban settings in Los Angeles or agricultural habits near Bakersfield in Kern County supporting WNV activity produced 1 of 90 and 0 of 60 positive weekly sugar samples, respectively. These results with sugar bait stations will require additional research to enhance bait attractancy and to understand the relationship between positive sugar stations and standard metrics of arbovirus surveillance.

LOTHROP, HUGH D.; WHEELER, SARAH S.; FANG, YING; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

2012-01-01

95

Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 5: User impact and ground station design, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The configuration of the user transponder on the Tracking and Data Relay satellite is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) transponder concepts and trades, (2) ground station design, (3) antenna configurations for ground equipment, (4) telemetry facilities, (5) signal categories, and (6) satellite tracking.

Hill, T. E.

1972-01-01

96

Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk calculation procedure.

Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

2011-01-01

97

Comparisons of the NASA ER-2 meteorological measurement system with radar tracking and radiosonde data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of aircraft longitude, latitude, and velocity, and measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and horizontal wind from the meteorological measurement system (MMS) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft were compared with independent measurements of these quantities from radiosondes and radar tracking of both the ER-2 and radiosonde balloons. In general, the comparisons were good and within the expected measurement accuracy and natural variability of the meteorological parameters. Radar tracking of the ER-2 resolved the velocity and position drift of the inertial navigation system (INS). The rms errors in the horizontal velocity components of the ER-2, due to INS errors, were found to be 0.5 m/s. The magnitude of the drift in longitude and latitude depends on the sign and magnitude of the corresponding component velocity drift and can be a few hundredths of a degree. The radar altitudes of the ER-2 and radiosondes were used as the basis for comparing measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and horizontal wind from these two platforms. The uncertainty in the MMS horizontal wind measurement is estimated to be +/- 2.5 m/s. The accuracy of the MMS pressure and temperature measurements were inferred to be +/- 0.3 hPa and +/- 0.3 K.

Gaines, Steven E.; Bowen, Stuart W.; Hipskind, R. S.; Bui, T. P.; Chan, K. R.

1992-01-01

98

Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities At NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world?s largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center?s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

2012-01-01

99

GLGM-3: A degree-150 lunar gravity model from the historical tracking data of NASA Moon orbiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966

E. Mazarico; F. G. Lemoine; Shin-Chan Han; D. E. Smith

2010-01-01

100

SeaTrack: Ground station orbit prediction and planning software for sea-viewing satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbit prediction software package (Sea Track) was designed to assist High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations in the acquisition of direct broadcast data from sea-viewing spacecraft. Such spacecraft will be common in the near future, with the launch of the Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1994, along with the continued Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series on NOAA platforms. The Brouwer-Lyddane model was chosen for orbit prediction because it meets the needs of HRPT tracking accuracies, provided orbital elements can be obtained frequently (up to within 1 week). Sea Track requires elements from the U.S. Space Command (NORAD Two-Line Elements) for the satellite's initial position. Updated Two-Line Elements are routinely available from many electronic sources (some are listed in the Appendix). Sea Track is a menu-driven program that allows users to alter input and output formats. The propagation period is entered by a start date and end date with times in either Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or local time. Antenna pointing information is provided in tabular form and includes azimuth/elevation pointing angles, sub-satellite longitude/latitude, acquisition of signal (AOS), loss of signal (LOS), pass orbit number, and other pertinent pointing information. One version of Sea Track (non-graphical) allows operation under DOS (for IBM-compatible personal computers) and UNIX (for Sun and Silicon Graphics workstations). A second, graphical, version displays orbit tracks, and azimuth-elevation for IBM-compatible PC's, but requires a VGA card and Microsoft FORTRAN.

Lambert, Kenneth S.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Patt, Frederick S.

1993-01-01

101

K- and Ka-band mobile-vehicular satellite-tracking reflector antenna system for the NASA ACTS mobile terminal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of the K- and Ka-band mobile-vehicular satellite-tracking reflector antenna system for NASA's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. ACTS is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellites. The AMT project will make the first experimental use of ACTS soon after the satellite is operational, to demonstrate mobile communications via the satellite from a van on the road. The AMT antenna system consists of a mechanically steered small reflector antenna, using a shared aperture for both frequency bands and fitting under a radome of 23 cm diameter and 10 cm height, and a microprocessor controlled antenna controller that tracks the satellite as the vehicle moves about. The RF and mechanical characteristics of the antenna and the antenna tracking control system are discussed. Measurements of the antenna performance are presented.

Densmore, Art; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Wu, T. K.; Woo, Ken

1993-01-01

102

NASA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the most exciting documentary footage traces the 25-year history of nasa. Emphasis is placed on the numerous challenges and accomplishments which have marked a quarter century of air and space research and exploration. Primary audience: mass audie...

1994-01-01

103

NASA philosophy concerning space stations as operations centers for construction and maintenance of large orbiting energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future United States plans for manned space-flight activities are summarized, emphasizing the long-term goals of achieving permanent occupancy and limited self-sufficiency in space. NASA-sponsored studies of earth-orbiting Space Station concepts are reviewed along with lessons learned from the Skylab missions. Descriptions are presented of the Space Transportation System, the Space Construction Base, and the concept of space industrialization (the processing and manufacturing of goods in space). Future plans for communications satellites, solar-power satellites, terrestrial observations from space stations, and manned orbital-transfer vehicles are discussed.

Freitag, R. F.

1976-01-01

104

The NASA Physical Science Program in Reduced Gravity: Combustion and Fluid Physics Work at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) includes the launching and installa-tion of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), providing an unprecedented capability for conducting fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences. In addition to ongoing work, NASA has initiated a variety of investigations in combus-tion and fluid physics including ground-based testing and theoretical development to prepare for the utilization of these ISS capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the CIR and FIR facilities and the portfolio of investigations that are currently aboard the ISS utilizing these facilities and the investigations that are underway for future utilization.

Sacksteder, Kurt

105

The analytical control program for the NASA Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Recovery Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Marshall has striven to maximize quality assurance and quality control measures in the course of Water Recovery Test (WRT) development for the Space Station Freedom ECLSS. The WRT was subjected to an independent analytical control program that is governed by the Analytical Control Test Plan and the Microbiological Methods for Water Recovery Testing Plan. Attention is given to analysis results for volatiles, sodium, and conductivity.

Tatara, James D.; Minton, Silvia

1992-01-01

106

Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

Peterson, B. L.; Kus, B. E.; Deutschman, D. H.

2004-01-01

107

A New Direction for NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA recently created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer scientific and technology results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. Accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on nanomaterials and biomaterials type research. Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for this research. Discussion will be included to explain the changing concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program. Finally, the paper will address the initial utilization schedule and strategy for the various materials science payloads including their corresponding hardware.

Schlagheck, Ronald; Trach, Brian; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

108

A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

109

A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research using the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

Schlagheck, R.

2002-01-01

110

NASA Human Spaceflight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Human Spaceflight site provides information on all crewed NASA missions, especially the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. Materials include realtime data and tracking information, updates for ongoing missions, press releases, videos and photos, and daily news and events from the various NASA centers. There is also information on historic crewed missions, and fact sheets on astronauts, shuttle missions, first flights, and scientific research facilities. Users may also subscribe to an e-mail service to receive status reports, news releases, and other current information.

2002-01-01

111

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

112

Modeling and analysis of selected space station communications and tracking subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Communications and Tracking System on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) provides space-to-ground, space-to-space, audio, and video communications, as well as tracking data reception and processing services. Each major category of service is provided by a communications subsystem which is controlled and monitored by software. Among these subsystems, the Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS) and the Space-to-Ground Subsystem (SGS) provide communications with the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System. The ACS is effectively SSF's command link, while the SGS is primarily intended as the data link for SSF payloads. The research activities of this project focused on the ACS and SGS antenna management algorithms identified in the Flight System Software Requirements (FSSR) documentation, including: (1) software modeling and evaluation of antenna management (positioning) algorithms; and (2) analysis and investigation of selected variables and parameters of these antenna management algorithms i.e., descriptions and definitions of ranges, scopes, and dimensions. In a related activity, to assist those responsible for monitoring the development of this flight system software, a brief summary of software metrics concepts, terms, measures, and uses was prepared.

Richmond, Elmer Raydean

1993-01-01

113

Orbital Debris Detection and Tracking Strategies for the NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MCAT (Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope) is a 1.3m f/4 Ritchey-Chr tien on a double horseshoe equatorial mount that will be deployed in early 2011 to the western pacific island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll to perform orbital debris observations. MCAT will be capable of tracking earth orbital objects at all inclinations and at altitudes from 200 km to geosynchronous. MCAT s primary objective is the detection of new orbital debris in both low-inclination low-earth orbits (LEO) and at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). MCAT was thus designed with a fast focal ratio and a large unvignetted image circle able to accommodate a detector sized to yield a large field of view. The selected primary detector is a close-cycle cooled 4Kx4K 15um pixel CCD camera that yields a 0.9 degree diagonal field. For orbital debris detection in widely spaced angular rate regimes, the camera must offer low read-noise performance over a wide range of framing rates. MCAT s 4-port camera operates from 100 kHz to 1.5 MHz per port at 2 e- and 10 e- read noise respectively. This enables low-noise multi-second exposures for GEO observations as well as rapid (several frames per second) exposures for LEO. GEO observations will be performed using a counter-sidereal time delay integration (TDI) technique which NASA has used successfully in the past. For MCAT the GEO survey, detection, and follow-up prediction algorithms will be automated. These algorithms will be detailed herein. For LEO observations two methods will be employed. The first, Orbit Survey Mode (OSM), will scan specific orbital inclination and altitude regimes, detect new orbital debris objects against trailed background stars, and adjust the telescope track to follow the detected object. The second, Stare and Chase Mode (SCM), will perform a stare, then detect and track objects that enter the field of view which satisfy specific rate and brightness criteria. As with GEO, the LEO operational modes will be fully automated and will be described herein. The automation of photometric and astrometric processing (thus streamlining data collection for environmental modeling) will also be discussed.

Mulrooney, M.; Hickson, P.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

2010-01-01

114

NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

1985-01-01

115

NASA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

for further information see main entry title number a10671.Some of the most exciting documentary footage traces the 25-year history of NASA. Emphasis is placed on the numerous challenges and accomplishments which have marked a quarter century of air and s...

1994-01-01

116

International Space Station: Approaches for Ensuring Utilization through 2020 Are Reasonable but Should be Revisited as NASA Gains More Knowledge of On-Orbit Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASAs approach to determining, obtaining, and delivering necessary spare parts to the ISS is reasonable to ensure continued utilization of the station through 2020. The statistical process and methodology being used to determine the expected lifetimes of ...

2011-01-01

117

International Space Station: Improving Life on Earth and in Space. The NASA Research Plan, an Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This ISS Research Plan overview is a NASA implementation plan for the ISS program and it describes how NASA will utilize the ISS platform. This document, when coupled with the technical version of the ISS research plan to be published in 1998 will be a co...

1998-01-01

118

North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre: SOFAR Floats Tracked by Moored Listening Stations.  

PubMed

In 1980, SOFAR (sound fixing and ranging) floats were tracked acoustically in the western North Atlantic entirely by means of moored autonomous listening stations. During a 5-month period 17 float trajectories were obtained in the eastern (45 degrees to 65 degrees W) Gulf Stream and subtropical gyre interior at depths of 700 and 2000 meters. These mid-depth trajectories suggest a time-varying Gulf Stream with instances of both a narrow, swift, westward recirculation south of the stream and a northeastward penetration into the Newfoundland Basin. A hundredfold increase of eddy kinetic energy was observed at 2000 meters from the gyre interior (south of 30 degrees N) to the Gulf Stream. PMID:17760187

Richardson, P L; Price, J F; Owens, W B; Schmitz, W J; Rossby, H T; Bradley, A M; Valdes, J R; Webb, D C

1981-07-24

119

The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

2010-01-01

120

Relative Potentials of Concentrating and Two-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central-Station Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information o...

C. S. Borden D. L. Schwartz

1984-01-01

121

Using NASA's Giovanni System to Simulate Time-Series Stations in the Outflow Region of California's Eel River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oceanographic time-series stations provide vital data for the monitoring of oceanic processes, particularly those associated with trends over time and interannual variability. There are likely numerous locations where the establishment of a time-series station would be desirable, but for reasons of funding or logistics, such establishment may not be feasible. An alternative to an operational time-series station is monitoring of sites via remote sensing. In this study, the NASA Giovanni data system is employed to simulate the establishment of two time-series stations near the outflow region of California s Eel River, which carries a high sediment load. Previous time-series analysis of this location (Acker et al. 2009) indicated that remotely-sensed chl a exhibits a statistically significant increasing trend during summer (low flow) months, but no apparent trend during winter (high flow) months. Examination of several newly-available ocean data parameters in Giovanni, including 8-day resolution data, demonstrates the differences in ocean parameter trends at the two locations compared to regionally-averaged time-series. The hypothesis that the increased summer chl a values are related to increasing SST is evaluated, and the signature of the Eel River plume is defined with ocean optical parameters.

Acker, James G.; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Lee, Zhongping

2012-01-01

122

NASA Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

2000-01-01

123

Acoustic emissions verification testing of International Space Station experiment racks at the NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) at the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH, provides acoustic emission testing and noise control engineering services for a variety of specialized customers, particularly developers of equipment and science experiments manifested for NASA's manned space missions. The ATL's primary customer has been the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), a multirack microgravity research facility being developed at GRC for the USA Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). Since opening in September 2000, ATL has conducted acoustic emission testing of components, subassemblies, and partially populated FCF engineering model racks. The culmination of this effort has been the acoustic emission verification tests on the FCF Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), employing a procedure that incorporates ISO 11201 (``Acoustics-Noise emitted by machinery and equipment-Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions-Engineering method in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane''). This paper will provide an overview of the test methodology, software, and hardware developed to perform the acoustic emission verification tests on the CIR and FIR flight racks and lessons learned from these tests.

Akers, James C.; Passe, Paul J.; Cooper, Beth A.

2005-09-01

124

A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research using the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in

R. Schlagheck

2002-01-01

125

NASA Education Activities on the International Space Station: A National Laboratory for Inspiring, Engaging, Educating and Employing the Next Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of students with clear educational metrics of accomplishments. This paper provides an overview of several recent ISS educational payloads and activities. The expected outcomes of the project, consistent with those of the NASA Office of Education, are also described. NASA performs numerous education activities as part of its ISS program. These cover the gamut from formal to informal educational opportunities in grades Kindergarten to grade 12, Higher Education (undergraduate and graduate University) and informal educational venues (museums, science centers, exhibits). Projects within the portfolio consist of experiments performed onboard the ISS using onboard resources which require no upmass, payloads flown to ISS or integrated into ISS cargo vehicles, and ground based activities that follow or complement onboard activities. Examples include ground based control group experiments, flight or experiment following lesson plans, ground based activities involving direct interaction with ISS or ground based activities considering ISS resources in their solution set. These projects range from totally NASA funded to projects which partner with external entities. These external agencies can be: other federal, state or local government agencies, commercial entities, universities, professional organizations or non-profit organizations. This paper will describe the recent ISS education activities and discuss the approach, outcomes and metrics associated with the projects.

Severance, Mark T.; Tate-Brown, Judy; McArthur, Cynthia L.

2010-01-01

126

Satellite-tracking and earth-dynamics research programs. [NASA Programs on satellite orbits and satellite ground tracks of geodetic satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and research progress of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are reported. Satellite tracking networks (ground stations) are discussed and equipment (Baker-Nunn cameras) used to observe the satellites is described. The improvement of the accuracy of a laser ranging system of the ground stations is discussed. Also, research efforts in satellite geodesy (tides, gravity anomalies, plate tectonics) is discussed. The use of data processing for geophysical data is examined, and a data base for the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program is proposed. Analytical models of the earth's motion (computerized simulation) are described and the computation (numerical integration and algorithms) of satellite orbits affected by the earth's albedo, using computer techniques, is also considered. Research efforts in the study of the atmosphere are examined (the effect of drag on satellite motion), and models of the atmosphere based on satellite data are described.

1974-01-01

127

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 1: Executive summary NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uses alignment plan was implemented. The existing data bank was used to define a large number of station requirements. Ten to 20 valid mission scenarios were developed. Architectural options as they are influenced by communications operations, subsystem evolvability, and required technology growth are defined. Costing of evolutionary concepts, alternative approaches, and options, was based on minimum design details.

1983-01-01

128

International Space Station Bus Regulation With NASA Glenn Research Center Flywheel Energy Storage System Development Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental flywheel energy storage system is described. This system is being used to develop a flywheel based replacement for the batteries on the International Space Station (ISS). Motor control algorithms which allow the flywheel to interface with a simplified model of the ISS power bus, and function similarly to the existing ISS battery system, are described. Results of controller experimental verification on a 300 W-hr flywheel are presented.

Kascak, Peter E.; Kenny, Barbara H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph H.

2001-01-01

129

Space Station: NASA's software development approach increases safety and cost risks. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology asked NASA to study software development issues for the space station. How well NASA has implemented key software engineering practices for the station was asked. Specifically, the objectives were to determine: (1) if independent verification and validation techniques are being used to ensure that critical software meets specified requirements and functions; (2) if NASA has incorporated software risk management techniques into program; (3) whether standards are in place that will prescribe a disciplined, uniform approach to software development; and (4) if software support tools will help, as intended, to maximize efficiency in developing and maintaining the software. To meet the objectives, NASA proceeded: (1) reviewing and analyzing software development objectives and strategies contained in NASA conference publications; (2) reviewing and analyzing NASA, other government, and industry guidelines for establishing good software development practices; (3) reviewing and analyzing technical proposals and contracts; (4) reviewing and analyzing software management plans, risk management plans, and program requirements; (4) reviewing and analyzing reports prepared by NASA and contractor officials that identified key issues and challenges facing the program; (5) obtaining expert opinions on what constitutes appropriate independent V-and-V and software risk management activities; (6) interviewing program officials at NASA headquarters in Washington, DC; at the Space Station Program Office in Reston, Virginia; and at the three work package centers; Johnson in Houston, Texas; Marshall in Huntsville, Alabama; and Lewis in Cleveland, Ohio; and (7) interviewing contractor officials doing work for NASA at Johnson and Marshall. The audit work was performed in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards, between April 1991 and May 1992.

1992-06-01

130

The NASA/JPL 64-meter-diameter antenna at Goldstone, California: Project report, technical staff, tracking and data acquisition organization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant management and technical aspects of the JPL Project to develop and implement a 64-meter-diameter antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California, which was the first of the Advanced Antenna Systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network are described. The original need foreseen for a large-diameter antenna to accomplish communication and tracking support of NASA's solar system exploration program is reviewed, and the translation of those needs into the technical specification of an appropriate ground station antenna is described. The antenna project is delineated by phases to show the key technical and managerial skills and the technical facility resources involved. There is a brief engineering description of the antenna and its closely related facilities. Some difficult and interesting engineering problems, then at the state-of-the-art level, which were met in the accomplishment of the Project, are described. The key performance characteristics of the antenna, in relation to the original specifications and the methods of their determination, are stated.

1974-01-01

131

Analysis and evaluation of the NASA\\/JPL TOPSAR across-track interferometric SAR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have evaluated the accuracy of digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by the JPL\\/NASA TOPSAR synthetic aperture radar interferometer instrument by acquiring topographic radar data in the summer of 1992 over the National Training Center, near Ft. Irwin, California, and comparing the measurements to a very accurate digital elevation model derived for this area by the U.S. Army Topographic

Soren Ngrvang Madsen; Jan M. Martin; Howard A. Zebker

1995-01-01

132

NASA's plans for life sciences research facilities on a Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Life Sciences Research Facility on a Space Station will contribute to the health and well-being of humans in space, as well as address many fundamental questions in gravitational and developmental biology. Scientific interests include bone and muscle attrition, fluid and electrolyte shifts, cardiovascular deconditioning, metabolism, neurophysiology, reproduction, behavior, drugs and immunology, radiation biology, and closed life-support system development. The life sciences module will include a laboratory and a vivarium. Trade-offs currently being evaluated include (1) the need for and size of a 1-g control centrifuge; (2) specimen quantities and species for research; (3) degree of on-board analysis versus sample return and ground analysis; (4) type and extent of equipment automation; (5) facility return versus on-orbit refurbishment; (6) facility modularity, isolation, and system independence; and (7) selection of experiments, design, autonomy, sharing, compatibility, and integration.

Arno, R.; Heinrich, M.; Mascy, A.

1984-01-01

133

NASA Virtual Glovebox (VBX): Emerging Simulation Technology for Space Station Experiment Design, Development, Training and Troubleshooting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station demonstrates the greatest capabilities of human ingenuity, international cooperation and technology development. The complexity of this space structure is unprecedented; and training astronaut crews to maintain all its systems, as well as perform a multitude of research experiments, requires the most advanced training tools and techniques. Computer simulation and virtual environments are currently used by astronauts to train for robotic arm manipulations and extravehicular activities; but now, with the latest computer technologies and recent successes in areas of medical simulation, the capability exists to train astronauts for more hands-on research tasks using immersive virtual environments. We have developed a new technology, the Virtual Glovebox (VGX), for simulation of experimental tasks that astronauts will perform aboard the Space Station. The VGX may also be used by crew support teams for design of experiments, testing equipment integration capability and optimizing the procedures astronauts will use. This is done through the 3D, desk-top sized, reach-in virtual environment that can simulate the microgravity environment in space. Additional features of the VGX allow for networking multiple users over the internet and operation of tele-robotic devices through an intuitive user interface. Although the system was developed for astronaut training and assisting support crews, Earth-bound applications, many emphasizing homeland security, have also been identified. Examples include training experts to handle hazardous biological and/or chemical agents in a safe simulation, operation of tele-robotic systems for assessing and diffusing threats such as bombs, and providing remote medical assistance to field personnel through a collaborative virtual environment. Thus, the emerging VGX simulation technology, while developed for space- based applications, can serve a dual use facilitating homeland security here on Earth.

Smith, Jeffrey D.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Maese, A. Christopher; Cagle, Yvonne; Boyle, Richard

2003-01-01

134

Modelling the performance of the monogroove with screen heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code to model the steady-state performance of a monogroove heat pipe for the NASA Space Station is presented, including the effects on heat pipe performance of a screen in the evaporator section which deals with transient surges in the heat input. Errors in a previous code have been corrected, and the new code adds additional loss terms in

Austin Lewis Evans

1987-01-01

135

An Array Feed Radial Basis Function Tracking System for NASA's Deep Space Network Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radial basis function networks for fine pointing NASA's 70-meter deep space network antennas is described and evaluated. We demonstrate that such a network, working in conjunction with the array feed compensation system, and trained using the computationally efficient orthogonal least-squares algorithm, can point a 70-meter deep space antenna with rms errors of less than 0.3 millidegree under

Ryan Mukai; Payman Arabshahi; Victor A. Vilnrotter

2000-01-01

136

Orthostatic Hypotension After Long-Duration Space Flight: NASA's Experiences from the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our laboratory previously reported that the incidence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) was greater after long- than short-duration spaceflight in astronauts who participated in Mir Space Station and Space Shuttle missions. To confirm and extend these findings, we retrospectively examined tilt test data from International Space Station (ISS) and Shuttle astronauts. We anticipated that the proportion of ISS astronauts experiencing OH would be high on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after long- than short-duration missions. Methods: Twenty ISS and 66 Shuttle astronauts participated in 10-min 80? head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch (L-10), on landing day (R+0) or 1 d after landing (R+1). Data from 5 ISS astronauts tested on R+0 or R+1 who used non-standard countermeasures were excluded. Many astronauts repeated the test 3 d (R+3) after landing. Fisher?s Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the tilt test on R+0. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters that were associated with test completion across all tests, and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between ISS and Shuttle astronauts. In these analyses, ISS data from R+0 and R+1 were pooled to provide sufficient statistical power. Results: The proportion of astronauts who completed the tilt test on R+0 without OH was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (p=0.03). On R+0, only 2 of 6 ISS astronauts completed the test compared to 53 of 66 (80%) Shuttle astronauts. However, 8 of 9 ISS astronauts completed the test on R+1. On R+3, 13 of 15 (87%) of the ISS and 19 of 19 (100%) of the Shuttle astronauts completed the 10-min test. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a very good prediction of overall tilt survival. This index was altered by spaceflight similarly for both groups soon after landing (pooled R+0 and R+ 1), but ISS astronauts did not recover at the same rate as Shuttle astronauts (p=0.007). Conclusions: The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the tilt test on R+0 due to OH (4 of 6) is similar to that reported in astronauts who flew on Mir (5 of 6). Further, cardiovascular parameters most closely associated with OH recover more slowly after long- compared to short-duration spaceflight.

Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

2011-01-01

137

A review of NASA international programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synoptic overview of NASA's international activities to January 1979 is presented. The cooperating countries and international organizations are identified. Topics covered include (1) cooperative arrangements for ground-based, spaceborne, airborne, rocket-borne, and balloon-borne ventures, joint development, and aeronautical R & D; (2) reimbursable launchings; (3) tracking and data acquisition; and (4) personnel exchanges. International participation in NASA's Earth resources investigations is summarized in the appendix. A list of automatic picture transmission stations is included.

1979-01-01

138

Tracks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students clues for finding animal tracks and explains how to preserve them with plaster casts. Also discussed are investigative uses of animal tracks, such as estimating populations of wildlife and determining habitat requirements. The extension activity involves using replicas of animal feet to develop a poster of tracks with habitat depiction and stories to accompany it.

139

Historics of the Space Tracking And Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical and technical aspects of the major networks which comprise the NASA tracking and data acquisition system are considered in a complete reference work which traces the origin and growth of STADAN, MSFN, and NASCOM up to mid-1971. The roles of these networks in both the Gemini and Apollo programs are discussed, and the separate developmental trends are identified

W. R. Corliss

1974-01-01

140

ISS Update: Keeping Track of Station Inventory â?? 03.14.13  

NASA Video Gallery

Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Rob Adams, Inventory and Stowage Officer, inside the Mission Control Center. Adams and his team keep track of the gear aboard the International Space Stat...

141

Establishing a communications-intensive network to resolve artificial intelligence issues within NASA's Space Station Freedom research centers community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MITRE Corporation's, A Review of Space Station Freedom Program Capabilities for the Development and Application of Advanced Automation, cites as a critical issue the following situation, extant at the NASA facilities visited in the course of preparing the review: The major issues noted with regard to design and research facilities deal with cooperative problem solving, technology transfer, and communication between these facilities. While the authors were visiting lab and test beds to collect information, personnel at many of these facilities were interested in any information they could collect on activities at other facilities. A formal means of gathering this information could not be identified by these personnel. While communication between some facilities was taking place or was planned, for technology transfer or coordination of schedules (e.g., for SADP demonstrations), poor communication between these facilities could lead to a lack of technical standards, duplication of effort, poorly defined interfaces, scheduling problems, and increased cost. Formal mechanisms by which effective communication and cooperative problem solving can take place, and information can be disseminated, must be defined. A solution is proposed for the communications aspects of the issues addressed above; and offered at the same time a solution which can prove effective in dealing with some of the problems being encountered with expertise being lost via retirement or defection to the private sector. The proffered recommendations are recognizably cost-effective and tap the rising sector of expert knowledge being produced by the American academic community.

Howard, E. Davis, III

1990-01-01

142

A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie and the DSN tracking station locations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides is uncertain by 30 mas (150 nrad). At this level of uncertainty this orientation offset, or 'frame tie', can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. Preliminary results are presented which indicate that accuracies of 5 mas or better may be achieved with this method. An important by-product of this method of frame tie determination is a set of Deep Space Network (DSN) station locations with 10 cm per component accuracy. This station set is in a geocentric coordinate system with known orientation relative to the radio and planetary frames.

Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

1990-01-01

143

GLGM-3: A Degree-ISO Lunar Gravity Model from the Historical Tracking Data of NASA Moon Orbiters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966 to Lunar Prospector in 1998, using the GEODYN II program developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We then created a set of normal equations and solved for the coefficients of a spherical harmonics expansion of the lunar gravity potential up to degree and order 150. The GLGM-3 solution obtained with a global Kaula constraint (2.5 x 10(exp -4)/sq l) shows good agreement with model LP150Q from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially over the nearside. The levels of data fit with both gravity models are very similar (Doppler RMS of approx.0.2 and approx. 1-2 mm/s in the nominal and extended phases, respectiVely). Orbit overlaps and uncertainties estimated from the covariance matrix also agree well. GLGM-3 shows better correlation with lunar topography and admittance over the nearside at high degrees of expansion (l > 100), particularly near the poles. We also present three companion solutions, obtained with the same data set but using alternate inversion strategies that modify the power law constraint and expectation of the individual spherical harmonics coefficients. We give a detailed discussion of the performance of this family of gravity field solutions in terms of observation fit, orbit quality, and geophysical consistency.

Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Han, Shin-Chan; Smith, D. E.

2010-01-01

144

Coping with data from Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume of data from future NASA space missions will be phenomenal. Here, we examine the expected data flow from the Space Station Freedom and describe techniques that are being developed to transport and process that data. Networking in space, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data systems (CCSDS), NASA institutional ground support, communications system architecture, and principal data types and formats are discussed.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1991-01-01

145

Traversing Microphone Track Installed in NASA Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory Dome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory is an acoustically treated, 65-ft-tall dome located at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Inside this laboratory is the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig (NATR), which is used in support of Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) and High Speed Research (HSR) to test engine exhaust nozzles for thrust and acoustic performance under simulated takeoff conditions. Acoustic measurements had been gathered by a far-field array of microphones located along the dome wall and 10-ft above the floor. Recently, it became desirable to collect acoustic data for engine certifications (as specified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)) that would simulate the noise of an aircraft taking off as heard from an offset ground location. Since nozzles for the High-Speed Civil Transport have straight sides that cause their noise signature to vary radially, an additional plane of acoustic measurement was required. Desired was an arched array of 24 microphones, equally spaced from the nozzle and each other, in a 25 off-vertical plane. The various research requirements made this a challenging task. The microphones needed to be aimed at the nozzle accurately and held firmly in place during testing, but it was also essential that they be easily and routinely lowered to the floor for calibration and servicing. Once serviced, the microphones would have to be returned to their previous location near the ceiling. In addition, there could be no structure could between the microphones and the nozzle, and any structure near the microphones would have to be designed to minimize noise reflections. After many concepts were considered, a single arched truss structure was selected that would be permanently affixed to the dome ceiling and to one end of the dome floor.

Bauman, Steven W.; Perusek, Gail P.

1999-01-01

146

Fast Track Lunar NTR Systems Assessment for NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Its Evolvability to Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated systems and missions studies are presented for an evolutionary lunar-to-Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. A 'standardized' set of engine and stage components are identified and used in a 'building block' fashion to configure a variety of piloted and cargo, lunar and Mars vehicles. The reference NTR characteristics include a thrust of 50 thousand pounds force (klbf), specific impulse (I(sub sp)) of 900 seconds, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of 4. 3. For the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission, and expendable NTR stage powered by two such engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tonnes (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical system. The stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a diameter, length, and capacity of 10 m, 14.5 m and 66 t, respectively. By extending the stage length and LH2 capacity to approximately 20 m and 96 t, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle could deliver to an elliptical Mars parking orbit a 63 t Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) with a 45 t surface payload. Three 50 klbf engines and the two standardized LH2 tanks developed for the lunar and Mars cargo vehicles are used to configure the vehicles supporting piloted Mars missions as early as 2010. The 'modular' NTR vehicle approach forms the basis for an efficient STS able to handle the needs of a wide spectrum of lunar and Mars missions.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Alexander, Stephen W.

1995-01-01

147

Fast Track NTR Systems Assessment for NASA's First Lunar Outpost Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated systems and mission study results are presented which quantify the rationale and benefits for developing and using nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology for returning humans to the moon in the early 2000's. At present, the Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for its 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The use of an NTR-based lunar transfer stage, capable of evolving to Mars mission applications, could result in an accelerated schedule, reduced cost approach to moon/Mars exploration. Lunar mission applications would also provide valuable operational experience and serve as a 'proving ground' for NTR engine and stage technologies. In terms of performance benefits, studies indicate that an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 199 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.8 m length, and 68 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a 'graphite' fuel form consisting of coated UC2 particles in a graphite substrate, and has a specific impulse capability of approximately 870 s, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.8. The NTR stage and its piloted FLO lander has a total length of approximately 38 m and can be launched by a single Saturn V-derived heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) in the 200 to 250 t-class range. The paper summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost scenario, describes characteristics for representative engine/stage configurations, and examines the impact on engine selection and vehicle design resulting from a consideration of alternative NTR fuel forms and lunar mission profiles.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Alexander, Stephen W.

1994-01-01

148

Satellite orbit determination by tracking data from ground station with statistical Kalman filter algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an advanced Kalman filter application to orbit determination from satellite tracking data. Modern control theory is used to set up an optimal Kalman gain for the estimation problem and to estimate its errors out of the system outputs. The classical orbit determination techniques have been used over the years for the evaluation of data analysis. A

Robert D. Culp; Don Mackison; Ho-Ling Fu

1991-01-01

149

Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

Evans, Austin Lewis

1988-01-01

150

NASA RFID Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some potential uses for Radio Frequency Identification in space missions. One of these is inventory management in space, including the methods used in Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and Space Station. The potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost are reviewed. The use of Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking are examined such as that used in Sapphire DART The advantages of RFID in passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications are shown such as: Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities The potential for E-textiles for wireless and RFID are also examined.

Fink, Patrick, Ph.D.; Kennedy, Timothy, Ph.D; Powers, Anne; Haridi, Yasser; Chu, Andrew; Lin, Greg; Yim, Hester; Byerly, Kent, Ph.D.; Barton, Richard, Ph.D.; Khayat, Michael, Ph.D.; Studor, George; Brocato, Robert; Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. D., Ph.D.; Gross, Julia; Phan, Chau; Ni, David, Ph.D.; Dusl, John; Dekome, Kent

2007-01-01

151

Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

2005-01-01

152

Three-Station Three-dimensional Bolus-Chase MR Angiography with Real-time Fluoroscopic Tracking.  

PubMed

Purpose To determine the feasibility of using real-time fluoroscopic tracking for bolus-chase magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of peripheral vasculature to image three stations from the aortoiliac bifurcation to the pedal arteries. Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Eight healthy volunteers (three men; mean age, 48 years; age range, 30-81 years) and 13 patients suspected of having peripheral arterial disease (five men; mean age, 67 years; age range, 47-81 years) were enrolled and provided informed consent. All subjects were imaged with the fluoroscopic tracking MR angiographic protocol. Ten patients also underwent a clinical computed tomographic (CT) angiographic runoff examination. Two readers scored the MR angiographic studies for vessel signal intensity and sharpness and presence of confounding artifacts and venous contamination at 35 arterial segments. Mean aggregate scores were assessed. The paired MR angiographic and CT angiographic studies also were scored for visualization of disease, reader confidence, and overall diagnostic quality and were compared by using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Real-time fluoroscopic tracking performed well technically in all studies. Vessel segments were scored good to excellent in all but the following categories: For vessel signal intensity and sharpness, the abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, distal plantar arteries, and plantar arch were scored as fair to good; and for presence of confounding artifacts, the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries were scored as fair. The MR angiograms and CT angiograms did not differ significantly in any scoring category (reader 1: P = .50, .39, and .39; reader 2: P = .41, .61, and .33, respectively). CT scores were substantially better in 20% (four of 20) and 25% (five of 20) of the pooled evaluations for the visualization of disease and overall image quality categories, respectively, versus 5% (one of 20) for MR scores in both categories. Conclusion Three-station bolus-chase MR angiography with real-time fluoroscopic tracking provided high-spatial-resolution arteriograms of the peripheral vasculature, enabled precise triggering of table motion, and compared well with CT angiograms. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24635676

Johnson, Casey P; Weavers, Paul T; Borisch, Eric A; Grimm, Roger C; Hulshizer, Thomas C; LaPlante, Christine C; Rossman, Phillip J; Glockner, James F; Young, Phillip M; Riederer, Stephen J

2014-07-01

153

NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

1999-01-01

154

Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

1984-01-01

155

Classical and modern control strategies for the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation flying consists of multiple spacecraft orbiting in a required configuration about a planet or through Space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation is one of the proposed constellations to be launched in the year 2009 and provides the motivation for this investigation. The problem that will be researched here consists of three stages. The first stage contains the deployment of the satellites; the second stage is the reconfiguration process to transfer the satellites through different specific sizes of the NASA benchmark problem; and, the third stage is the station-keeping procedure for the tetrahedron constellation. Every stage contains different control schemes and transfer procedures to obtain/maintain the proposed tetrahedron constellation. In the first stage, the deployment procedure will depend on a combination of two techniques in which impulsive maneuvers and a digital controller are used to deploy the satellites and to maintain the tetrahedron constellation at the following apogee point. The second stage that corresponds to the reconfiguration procedure shows a different control scheme in which the intelligent control systems are implemented to perform this procedure. In this research work, intelligent systems will eliminate the use of complex mathematical models and will reduce the computational time to perform different maneuvers. Finally, the station-keeping process, which is the third stage of this research problem, will be implemented with a two-level hierarchical control scheme to maintain the separation distance constraints of the NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation. For this station-keeping procedure, the system of equations defining the dynamics of a pair of satellites is transformed to take in account the perturbation due to the oblateness of the Earth and the disturbances due to solar pressure. The control procedures used in this research will be transformed from a continuous control system to a digital control system which will simplify the implementation into the computer onboard the satellite. In addition, this research will show an introductory chapter on attitude dynamics that can be used to maintain the orientation of the satellites, and an adaptive intelligent control scheme will be proposed to maintain the desired orientation of the spacecraft. In conclusion, a solution for the dynamics of the NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation will be presented in this research work. The main contribution of this work is the use of discrete control schemes, impulsive maneuvers, and intelligent control schemes that can be used to reduce the computational time in which these control schemes can be easily implemented in the computer onboard the satellite. These contributions are explained through the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping process of the proposed NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation.

Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.

156

Motion Tracking System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

1994-01-01

157

The ESA-NASA 'CHOICE' Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, as an Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregu1ation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assess innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivataion and stress factors during Concordia winter-over deployment. To date, not all samples have been analyzed. Here, only data will be preliminary presented for those parameters where sample/data analysis is completed (i.e., Leukocyte subsets, T cell function, and intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles.)

Crucian, Brian E,; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; Kaufmann, I.; Baatout, D. S.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.; Chouker, A.

2011-01-01

158

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA SLR Operational Center is responsible for: 1) NASA SLR network control, sustaining engineering, and logistics; 2) ILRS mission operations; and 3) ILRS and NASA SLR data operations. NASA SLR network control and sustaining engineering tasks include technical support, daily system performance monitoring, system scheduling, operator training, station status reporting, system relocation, logistics and support of the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group. These activities ensure the NASA SLR systems are meeting ILRS and NASA mission support requirements. ILRS mission operations tasks include mission planning, mission analysis, mission coordination, development of mission support plans, and support of the ILRS Missions Working Group. These activities ensure than new mission and campaign requirements are coordinated with the ILRS. Global Normal Points (NP) data, NASA SLR FullRate (FR) data, and satellite predictions are managed as part of data operations. Part of this operation includes supporting the ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group. Global NP data operations consist of receipt, format and data integrity verification, archiving and merging. This activity culminates in the daily electronic transmission of NP files to the CDDIS. Currently of all these functions are automated. However, to ensure the timely and accurate flow of data, regular monitoring and maintenance of the operational software systems, computer systems and computer networking are performed. Tracking statistics between the stations and the data centers are compared periodically to eliminate lost data. Future activities in this area include sub-daily (i.e., hourly) NP data management, more stringent data integrity tests, and automatic station notification of format and data integrity issues.

Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

2000-01-01

159

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and flashover on SiO(x)-coated polyimide insulated samples of flat flexible current carriers for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kapton polyimide wiring insulation was found to be vulnerable to pyrolization, arc tracking, and flashover when momentary short-circuit arcs have occurred on aircraft power systems. Short-circuit arcs between wire pairs can pyrolize the polyimide resulting in a conductive char between conductors that may sustain the arc (arc tracking). Furthermore, the arc tracking may spread (flashover) to other wire pairs within a wire bundle. Polyimide Kapton will also be used as the insulating material for the flexible current carrier (FCC) of Space Station Freedom (SSF). The FCC, with conductors in a planar type geometric layout as opposed to bundles, is known to sustain arc tracking at proposed SSF power levels. Tests were conducted in a vacuum bell jar that was designed to conduct polyimide pyrolysis, arc tracking, and flashover studies on samples of SSF's FCC. Test results will be reported concerning the minimal power level needed to sustain arc tracking and the FCC susceptibility to flashover. Results of the FCC arc tracking tests indicate that only 22 volt amps were necessary to sustain arc tracking (proposed SSF power level is 400 watts). FCC flashover studies indicate that the flashover event is highly unlikely.

Stueber, Thomas J.; Mundson, Chris

1993-01-01

160

Modifications to the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ames Space Station Proximity Operations (PROX OPS) Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the United States is approaching an operational space station era, flight simulators are required to investigate human design and performance aspects associated with orbital operations. Among these are proximity operations (PROX OPS), those activities ...

A. Brody

1988-01-01

161

NASA Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

2003-01-01

162

NASA Exploration Design Challenge  

NASA Video Gallery

From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

163

Applicability of 100kWe-class of space reactor power systems to NASA manned space station missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of a manned space station operating with sufficiently high power demands to require a multihundred kilowatt range electrical power system. The nuclear reactor is a competitor for supplying this power level. Load levels were selected at 150kWe and 300kWe. Interactions among the reactor electrical power system, the manned space station, the space transportation system, and the mission were evaluated. The reactor shield and the conversion equipment were assumed to be in different positions with respect to the station; on board, tethered, and on a free flyer platform. Mission analyses showed that the free flyer concept resulted in unacceptable costs and technical problems. The tethered reactor providing power to an electrolyzer for regenerative fuel cells on the space station, results in a minimum weight shield and can be designed to release the reactor power section so that it moves to a high altitude orbit where the decay period is at least 300 years. Placing the reactor on the station, on a structural boom is an attractive design, but heavier than the long tethered reactor design because of the shield weight for manned activity near the reactor.

Silverman, S. W.; Willenberg, H. J.; Robertson, C.

1985-01-01

164

NASA Education Activities on the International Space Station: A National Laboratory for Inspiring, Engaging, Educating and Employing the Next Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of stud...

C. L. McArthur J. Tate-Brown M. T. Severance

2010-01-01

165

Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

166

Advanced ground station architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

1994-01-01

167

The ESA-NASA CHOICE Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, A Potential Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of terrestrial analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a superior ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assesses innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivation and stress factors during Concordia winterover deployment. Initial data obtained from the first study deployment (2009 mission; 'n' of 6) will be presented, and logistical challenges regarding analog usage for biological studies will also be discussed. The total WBC increased, and alterations in some peripheral leukocyte populations were observed during winterover at Concordia Station. Percentages of lymphocytes and monocytes increased, and levels of senescent CD8+ T cells were increased during deployment. Transient increases in constitutively activated T cell subsets were observed, at mission time points associated with endemic disease outbreaks. T cell function (early blastogenesis response) was increased near the entry/exit deployment phases, and production of most measured cytokines increased during deployment. Salivary cortisol demonstrated high variability during winterover, but was generally increased. A 2-point circadian rhythm of cortisol measurement (morning/evening) was unaltered during winterover. Perceived stress was mildly elevated during winterover. Other measures, including in-vitro DTH assessment, viral specific T cell number/function and latent herpesvirus reactivation have not yet been completed for the 2009 winterover subjects. Based on the preliminary data, alterations in immune cell distribution and function appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Based on the initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune changes.

Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D L.; Sams, C. F.

2010-01-01

168

An operations management system for the Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is provided of an Operations Management System (OMS) for the planned NASA Space Station. The OMS would be distributed both in space and on the ground, and provide a transparent interface to the communications and data processing facilities of the Space Station Program. The allocation of OMS responsibilities has, in the most current Space Station design, been fragmented among the Communications and Tracking Subsystem (CTS), the Data Management System (DMS), and a redefined OMS. In this current view, OMS is less of a participant in the real-time processing, and more an overseer of the health and management of the Space Station operations.

Savage, Terry R.

169

Modelling the performance of the monogroove with screen heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code to model the steady-state performance of a monogroove heat pipe for the NASA Space Station is presented, including the effects on heat pipe performance of a screen in the evaporator section which deals with transient surges in the heat input. Errors in a previous code have been corrected, and the new code adds additional loss terms in order to model several different working fluids. Good agreement with existing performance curves is obtained. From a preliminary evaluation of several of the radiator design parameters it is found that an optimum fin width could be achieved but that structural considerations limit the thickness of the fin to a value above optimum.

Evans, Austin Lewis

1987-01-01

170

NASA - Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Educators website provides teachers and others with access to high-quality classroom materials such as podcasts, lesson plans, interactive web features, and photos. Visitors can dive right in via the For Educators area, which includes topical headings like Higher Education, Informal Education, and Current Opportunities. Clicking on the Higher Education tab will take visitors to the Have You Seen? area which features resources like the "What is a Planet?" lithograph and a special website about the 50th anniversary of solar system exploration. Moving on, visitors can click on NASA Television to watch excerpts from NASA's informational station. Another fun feature is the Do-It-Yourself Podcasts area. Here, interested parties can work with existing NASA audio and video clips to create their own unique media product. Finally, visitors can use the Read It section to learn about new grant opportunities, campus science activities, and so on.

2012-06-29

171

A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

1987-01-01

172

Space Station Live! Tour  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

173

The In-Space Soldering Investigation: Research Conducted on the International Space Station in Support of NASA's Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soldering is a well established joining and repair process that is of particular importance in the electronics industry. Still. internal solder joint defects such as porosity are prevalent and compromise desired properties such as electrical/thermal conductivity and fatigue strength. Soldering equipment resides aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will likely accompany Exploration Missions during transit to, as well as on, the moon and Mars. Unfortunately, detrimental porosity appears to be enhanced in lower gravity environments. To this end, the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Workbench Area (MWA) aboard the ISS as "Saturday Science" with the goal of promoting our understanding of joining techniques, shape equilibrium, wetting phenomena, and microstructural development in a microgravity environment. The work presented here will focus on direct observation of melting dynamics and shape determination in comparison to ground-based samples, with implications made to processing in other low-gravity environments. Unexpected convection effects, masked on Earth, will also be shown as well as the value of the ISS as a research platform in support of Exploration Missions.

Grugel, R. N.; Fincke, M.; Sergre, P. N.; Ogle, J. A.; Funkhouser, G.; Parris, F.; Murphy, L.; Gillies, D.; Hua, F.

2004-01-01

174

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and arc propagation on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar array flexible current carrier (FCC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies involving the use of polyimide Kapton coated wires indicate that if a momentary electrical short circuit occurs between two wires, sufficient heating of the Kapton can occur to themally chlar (pyrolyze) the Kapton. Such charred Kapton has sufficient electricxl conductivity to create an arc which tracks down the wires and possibly propagates to adjoining wires. These studies prompted an invetigation to ascertain the likelihood of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking and propagation phenomena, and the magnitude of destruction conceivably inflicted on Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Flexible Current Carrier (FCC) for the photovoltaic array. The geometric layout of the FCC, having a planar-type orientation as opposed to bundles, may reduce the probability of sustaining an arc. An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate conditions under which an arc can occur on the FCC of the SSF, and the consequences of arc initiation.

Stueber, Thomas J.

175

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and arc propagation on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar array Flexible Current Carrier (FCC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies involving the use of polyimide Kapton coated wires indicate that if a momentary electrical short circuit occurs between two wires, sufficient heating of the Kapton can occur to thermally char (pyrolyze) the Kapton. Such charred Kapton has sufficient electrical conductivity to create an arc which tracks down the wires and possibly propagates to adjoining wires. These studies prompted an investigation to ascertain the likelihood of the Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking and propagation phenomena, and the magnitude of destruction conceivably inflicted on Space Station Freedom's (SSF) Flexible Current Carrier (FCC) for the photovoltaic array. The geometric layout of the FCC, having a planar-type orientation as opposed to bundles, may reduce the probability of sustaining an arc. An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate conditions under which an arc can occur on the FCC of SSF, and the consequences of arc initiation.

Stueber, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

176

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and arc propagation on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar array flexible current carrier (FCC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies involving the use of polyimide Kapton coated wires indicate that if a momentary electrical short circuit occurs between two wires, sufficient heating of the Kapton can occur to themally chlar (pyrolyze) the Kapton. Such charred Kapton has sufficient electricxl conductivity to create an arc which tracks down the wires and possibly propagates to adjoining wires. These studies prompted an invetigation to ascertain the likelihood of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking and propagation phenomena, and the magnitude of destruction conceivably inflicted on Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Flexible Current Carrier (FCC) for the photovoltaic array. The geometric layout of the FCC, having a planar-type orientation as opposed to bundles, may reduce the probability of sustaining an arc. An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate conditions under which an arc can occur on the FCC of the SSF, and the consequences of arc initiation.

Stueber, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

177

Space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

1989-01-01

178

Aerospace crew station design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to spacecraft cockpits and work stations, commercial aircraft cockpits and crew stations, high performance aircraft cockpits and crew stations, and space stations and habitat crew stations. Particular attention is given to an historical review of NASA manned spacecraft crew stations, ESA spacelab crew stations, the evolution of commercial aircraft flight station design, Boeing 757/767 flight deck, a historical review of Concorde flight deck design, trends in the cockpit design of new European fighters, and state-of-the-art applications for Space Station crew interface design.

Carr, Gerald P. (editor); Montemerlo, Melvin D. (editor)

1984-01-01

179

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

180

Morphological analysis of Japanese quail embryos developed onboard orbital station "Mir" during NASA-"Mir" research program experiments (1990-1996)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1990 to 1996, 5 experiments onboard "MIR" space station which allowed to receive important data dynamics of embryonic development of birds in micro gravitational conditions was carried out by NASA-"MIR" research program, using fertilized eggs of Japanese quail, as convenient object for space experiments. Here we represent the comparative morphomethrical analysis of incubation modes influence on a morphogenesis of Japanese quail. The data allowed us to make the conclusion that the embryonic development of Japanese quail in weightlessness conditions results in authentic decrease of length and body mass parameters in comparison with the embryos, developed in the ground laboratory conditions. The development of a skeleton and extremities, in general developing in normal way, demonstrates decreasing of legs length (10-12%) and body mass (8-12%), but there are no differences in wings length. At the same time we didn't find any significant differences in extremities length in laboratory and synchronic experimental groups of embryos. Analysis didn't show any significant influence of location of eggs in the incubator on mortality of the embryos. The main results of experiments have shown presence of morphometrical changes connected first of all with presence of weightlessness in the surrounded environment. In general, the data a alysis oncen again confirms the assumption that the changed gravity is not an interrupt factor for development of Japanese quail nestlings from fertilized eggs, but further experiments are required for detailed understanding of weightless influence on birds development.

Gusev, O.; Gyrieva, T.; Dadasheva, O.; Pahomov, A.; Pirt, C.

181

NASA Langley Open House 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Fire Station (building 1248): Live demonstrations included Tower 8, a multipurpose aerial platform that functions as both a ladder truck and a pumper. Other demonstrations included the Medic 8 showing NASA LaRC's emergency medical treatment capabilities.

2001-01-01

182

Adapting a ground-based laser ranging system at NASA-GSFC for identification and tracking of orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mitigation of orbital debris was addressed in the most recent release of the National Space Policy directing space faring agencies to pursue technologies that will "mitigate and remove on-orbit debris." No matter what abatement technology is developed and deployed, still lacking is the remote sensing infrastructure to locate and track these objects with adequate precision. We propose using GSFC's ground-based laser ranging facility to provide meter-level or better ranging precision on optically passive 10-30 cm orbital debris targets with the goal of improving current predictions up to 85%. The improved location accuracy also has the immediate benefit of reducing costly false alarms in collision predictions for existing assets.

Coyle, D. B.; Stysley, Paul R.; McGarry, Jan F.; Hull, Scott M.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Young, Romae P.

2013-05-01

183

Remote measurement utilizing NASA's scanning laser Doppler systems. Volume 1. Laser Doppler wake vortex tracking at Kennedy Airport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test operations of the Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) at Kennedy International Airport (KIA) during August 1974 through June 1975 are reported. A total of 1,619 data runs was recorded with a totally operational system during normal landing operations at KIA. In addition, 53 data runs were made during cooperative flybys with the C880 for a grand total of 1672 recorded vortex tracks. Test crews were in attendance at KIA for 31 weeks, of which 25 weeks were considered operational and the other six were packing, unpacking, setup and check out. Although average activity equates to 67 recorded landing operations per week, two periods of complete runway inactivity spanned 20 days and 13 days, respectively. The operation frequency therefore averaged about 88 operations per week.

Krause, M. C.; Wilson, D. J.; Howle, R. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Craven, C. E.; Jetton, J. L.

1976-01-01

184

ISS Update: Preparing to Leave the Station  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews NASA astronaut Mike Fossum about his time as commander of the International Space Station's Expedition 29 crew, including his preparations for ...

185

Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station, Program 1 Program 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD)...

E. V. Benton A. L. Frank E. R. Benton

1998-01-01

186

UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John

2004-01-01

187

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

188

NASA Information Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of 11 "NASA Information Summaries" grouped together: (1) "Our Planets at a Glance" (PMS-010); (2) "Space Shuttle Mission Summary: 1985-1986" (PMS-005); (3) "Astronaut Selection and Training" (PMS-019); (4) "Space Station" (PMS-008); (5) "Materials Processing in Space" (PMS-026); (6) "Countdown!: NASA Launch Vehicles and…

Mar, May 1987, 1988

1988-01-01

189

SLR tracking of GPS-35  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was designed to launch a corner cube retroreflector array on one of the Global Positioning Satellites (GPS). The launch on Aug. 31, 1993 ushered in the era of SLR tracking of GPS spacecraft. Once the space operations group finished the check-out procedures for the new satellite, the agreed upon SLR sites were allowed to track it. The first site to acquire GPS-35 was the Russian system at Maidanak and closely after the MLRS system at McDonald Observatory, Texas. The laser tracking network is currently tracking the GPS spacecraft known as GPS-35 or PRN 5 with great success. From the NASA side there are five stations that contribute data regularly and nearly as many from the international partners. Upcoming modifications to the ground receivers will allow for a further increase in the tracking capabilities of several additional sites and add some desperately needed southern hemisphere tracking. We are analyzing the data and are comparing SLR-derived orbits to those determined on the basis of GPS radiometric data.

Pavlis, Erricos C.

1994-01-01

190

Orbital Debris Studies at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Any discussion of expanding the capabilities of Space Surveillance Networks to include tracking and cataloging smaller objects will require a good understanding of orbital debris. In the current U.S. catalog of over 11,000 objects, more than 50% are classified as "debris" to include fragmentation debris, operational debris, liquid metal coolant, and Westford needles. If the catalog is increased to 100,000 objects by lowering the tracked object size threshold, almost all of the additional objects will be orbital debris. The Orbital Debris Program Office has been characterizing the small orbital debris environment through measurements and modeling for many years. This presentation will specifically discuss two different studies conducted at NASA. The first study was done in 1992 and examined the requirements and produced a conceptual design for a Collision Avoidance Network to protect the Space Station Freedom from centimeter sized orbital debris while minimizing maneuvers. The second study was conducted last year and produced NASA s estimate of the orbital population for the years 2015 and 2030 for objects 2 cm and larger.

Stansbery, Gene; Krisko, Paula; Whitlock, Dave

2007-01-01

191

Ammonia Measurements by the NASA Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the NPP Suomi Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia is highly reactive, with concurrent high spatial and temporal variability; it can play a key role in determining air quality through its part in the formation of PM2.5 particles. Deposition of NH3 also impacts water quality. With increased fertilizer use and rising temperatures ammonia concentrations are expected to increase significantly over India and China. Nevertheless in situ measurements are sparse, especially in areas beyond North America and Europe. The air quality community has a pressing need for global information on the diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the distribution and strength of the ammonia sources. Measurements from satellites can provide this information. An advanced optimal estimation algorithm has been developed to retrieve NH3 from the TES instrument flying on the AURA satellite and ammonia is currently a standard TES operational product, available at http://avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.php?site=635564035&id=10&go=list&path=/NH3. A similar retrieval is at the prototyping stage for the CrIS instrument. We will first provide a short summary of the characteristics of TES retrieved ammonia, discuss the distinct characteristics of point and satellite measurements and illustrate how information from the latter is related to the former. We will then present results from comparisons with in situ measurements. Specifically, we will compare TES NH3 with surface measurements in North Carolina and China, and examine the trend in NH3 over China; we will also compare TES NH3 with surface and aircraft measurements in the San Joaquin Valley in California, during both the CalNex and DISCOVER-AQ campaigns. We will present results from the application of inverse methods using TES ammonia to constrain model emissions, an area of research that has showcased the value provided by satellite data. Finally, we will demonstrate the potential of a sensor with TES characteristics on a geostationary platform to provide data with quality sufficient to evaluate models of the ammonia bi-directional exchange at the surface and we will show some preliminary ammonia retrievals from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) currently flying on the NASA NPP Suomi satellite.

Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Henze, D. K.; Zhu, J.; Pinder, R. W.; Bash, J. O.; Walker, J. T.; Luo, M.

2013-12-01

192

Station Change of Command Ceremony  

NASA Video Gallery

The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

193

Solar physics within NASA's planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the new NASA headquarters science organization is provided. The track of a research concept is reviewed on its way to implementation by NASA. Six structural elements are available for use in establishing a concerted science program within the Agency. A list is given of the current active study areas of the NASA supported solar physics community.

Wagner, W. J.

1993-01-01

194

Compilation and Analysis of 20 and 30 GHz Rain Fade Events at the ACTS NASA Ground Station: Statistics and Model Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the propagation studies within the ACTS Project Office is to acquire 20 and 30 GHz rain fade statistics using the ACTS beacon links received at the NGS (NASA Ground Station) in Cleveland. Other than the raw, statistically unprocessed rain fade events that occur in real time, relevant rain fade statistics derived from such events are the cumulative rain fade statistics as well as fade duration statistics (beyond given fade thresholds) over monthly and yearly time intervals. Concurrent with the data logging exercise, monthly maximum rainfall levels recorded at the US Weather Service at Hopkins Airport are appended to the database to facilitate comparison of observed fade statistics with those predicted by the ACTS Rain Attenuation Model. Also, the raw fade data will be in a format, complete with documentation, for use by other investigators who require realistic fade event evolution in time for simulation purposes or further analysis for comparisons with other rain fade prediction models, etc. The raw time series data from the 20 and 30 GHz beacon signals is purged of non relevant data intervals where no rain fading has occurred. All other data intervals which contain rain fade events are archived with the accompanying time stamps. The definition of just what constitutes a rain fade event will be discussed later. The archived data serves two purposes. First, all rain fade event data is recombined into a contiguous data series every month and every year; this will represent an uninterrupted record of the actual (i.e., not statistically processed) temporal evolution of rain fade at 20 and 30 GHz at the location of the NGS. The second purpose of the data in such a format is to enable a statistical analysis of prevailing propagation parameters such as cumulative distributions of attenuation on a monthly and yearly basis as well as fade duration probabilities below given fade thresholds, also on a monthly and yearly basis. In addition, various subsidiary statistics such as attenuation rate probabilities are derived. The purged raw rain fade data as well as the results of the analyzed data will be made available for use by parties in the private sector upon their request. The process which will be followed in this dissemination is outlined in this paper.

Manning, Robert M.

1996-01-01

195

Space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that space station planning at NASA began when NASA was created in 1958. However, the initiation of the program for a lunar landing delayed the implementation of plans for a space station. The utility of a space station was finally demonstrated with Skylab, which was launched in 1972. In May 1982, the Space Station Task Force was established to provide focus and direction for space station planning activities. The present paper provides a description of the planning activities, giving particular attention to the power system. The initial space station will be required to supply 75 kW of continuous electrical power, 60 kW for the customer and 15 kW for space station needs. Possible alternative energy sources for the space station include solar planar or concentrator arrays of either silicon or gallium arsenide.

Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.

1984-01-01

196

Students Learn About Station Robotics  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

197

International Space Station: Testing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing astronauts for a journey to the red planet has become NASA's research priority for the International Space Station. But such experiments will need more than the skeleton crew now running the station. Tony Reichhardt reports.

Tony Reichhardt

2005-01-01

198

Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) tracking data certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN) complement of tracking stations consisting of the NASA White Sands 1 antenna (WS1), and the commercial provider Universal Space Network (USN) antennas at South Point, Hawaii; Dongara Australia; Weilheim, Germany; and Kiruna, Sweden. Certification assessment required the cooperation and coordination of parties not under the control of either the LRO project or ground stations as uplinks on cooperating spacecraft were necessary. The LRO range-tracking requirement of 10m 1 sigma could be satisfactorily demonstrated using any typical spacecraft capable of range tracking. Though typical Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) spacecraft may be adequate for range certification, their measurement dynamics and noise would be unacceptable for proper Doppler certification of 1-3mm/sec 1 sigma. As LRO will orbit the Moon, it was imperative that a suitable target spacecraft be utilized which can closely mimic the expected lunar orbital Doppler dynamics of +/-1.6km/sec and +/-1.5m/sq sec to +/-0.15m/sq sec, is in view of the ground stations, supports coherent S-Band Doppler tracking measurements, and can be modeled by the FDF. In order to meet the LRO metric tracking data specifications, the SCN ground stations employed previously uncertified numerically controlled tracking receivers. Initial certification testing revealed certain characteristics of the units that required resolution before being granted certification.

Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry, Steve; Campion, Richard

2010-01-01

199

Space Station Software Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

Voigt, S. (editor)

1985-01-01

200

Micro Weather Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

Hoenk, Michael E.

1999-01-01

201

UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

2006-01-01

202

NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum Talks With Students  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek STEM Academy in Ackw...

203

ISS Update: Becoming an International Space Station Program Scientist  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Tara Ruttley, Associate International Space Station Program Scientist, about her educational path and her career activities at NASA. She also discuss...

204

Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.

2012-01-01

205

NASA Microgravity Outreach Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA representatives prepare for another day's work answering questions and handing out posters at AirVenture 2000. Part of their demonstrations included a training model of the Middeck Glovebox used aboard the Space Shuttle and Russian Mir Space Station. This and several other devices were used to explain to the public the kinds of research that have been conducted aboard the Space Shuttle and that will continue aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

2000-01-01

206

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and flashover on SiO(x)-coated polyimide insulated samples of flat flexible current carriers for Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kapton polyimide wiring insulation was found to be vulnerable to pyrolization, arc tracking, and flashover when momentary short-circuit arcs have occurred on aircraft power systems. Short-circuit arcs between wire pairs can pyrolize the polyimide resulting in a conductive char between conductors that may sustain the arc (arc tracking). Furthermore, the arc tracking may spread (flashover) to other wire pairs within

Thomas J. Stueber; Chris Mundson

1993-01-01

207

NASA Quest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

Ashby, Susanne

2000-01-01

208

Space Campers Speak With Station Science Communication Coordinator  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, International Space Station Science Communication Coordinator Liz Warren participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with ...

209

NASA International Environmental Partnerships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

2010-01-01

210

NASA: Reaching for New Heights  

NASA Video Gallery

At NASA, we've been a little busy: landing on Mars, developing new human spacecraft, going to the space station, working with commercial partners, observing the Earth and the Sun, exploring our sol...

211

Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

1999-01-01

212

Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta: A CDC-NASA Joint Environmental Public Health Tracking Collaborative Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstration projects which could be part of the CDC EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeff; Crosson, Bill; Estes, Maury; Limaye, Ashutosh; Quattrochi, Dale; Rickman, Doug

2008-01-01

213

Space Station commercial user development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

1984-01-01

214

NASA highlights, 1986 - 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of NASA research from 1986 to 1988 are discussed. Topics covered include Space Shuttle flights, understanding the Universe and its origins, understanding the Earth and its environment, air and space transportation, using space to make America more competitive, using space technology an Earth, strengthening America's education in science and technology, the space station, and human exploration of the solar system.

1990-01-01

215

A Brief History of NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins with the agency's origins during the Cold War and recounts the early manned and unmanned missions (Mercury, Gemini, Pioneer, Voyager, and others), the landmark Apollo Moon missions, and NASA's later projects, such as the Space Shuttle, the Hubble telecope, and the International Space Station.

216

International Space Station: Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

217

Inflatable Station Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike many other early space station concepts, this design actually made it out of the concept phase and into production, though no models were ever flown. This particular station was 30-feet and expandable. It was designed to be taken to outer space in a small package and then inflate in orbit. The station could, in theory, have been big enough for 1 to 2 people to use for a long period of time. A similar 24 foot station was built by the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation for NASA test use. The concept of space inflatables was revived in the 1990s.

1961-01-01

218

Analysis and Quality Assurance of the SKYMAP 4.0 Guidance and Tracking Star Catalog: The NASA SKY2000 Spacecraft Attitude Determination Star Catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An updated and improved NASA spacecraft attitude determination catalog, now called SKY2000, Version 3, has been prepared and quality assured. The highest priority goals were to replace the astrometric (positions and motions) and photometric (brightnesses and colors) data with the most recent and accurate data available. Quality assurance has been performed in a fairly straightforward manner, i.e., without extensive data checking and analysis, and many errors and Inconsistencies were corrected. Additional work should eventually be done on the variability and multiple-star data In the catalog, while certain other data can be significantly Improved. The current version of the catalog can be found at the GSFC Flight Dynamics website: http://cheli.gsfc.nasa.gov/dist/attitude/skymap.html. Supporting information and reference materials (published papers, format and data descriptions, etc.) can also be found at the website.

Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

2001-01-01

219

Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

220

Station Crew Training Integrator Talks With Students  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Expedition 34/35 Training Integrator Alicia Simpson participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Christ ...

221

Station Commander Congratulates New Flight Directors  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum congratulates Judd Frieling, Tomas Gonzalez-Torres and Greg Whitney on being selected as NASA's newest flight directors. ...

222

Space Station Live: Fluids and Combustion Facility  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean speaks with Robert Corban, Fluids and Combustion Facility Manager, about the research being performed aboard the International Space Station using this state...

223

Earth Views From the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station ...

224

NASA and Mt. St. Helens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA technology played an important part in the Mt. St. Helen's aftermath, not only in scientific studies, but also in disaster assessment and relief operations. A particular problem was maintaining communications with rescue ground crews and evacuation helicopters operating in the smoke-obscured area. The key element came from NASA's ATS-3 satellite, which is capable of beaming to and receiving signals from small, simple antennas on the ground, and a communications jeep developed by the Air Force. NASA also helped to assess the environmental impact of the eruption. A specially-instrumented aircraft operated by several NASA Centers took samples of the volcanic material at various points over the U.S. and tracked the volcano's plume. A NASA instrumented balloon penetrated the plume and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Satellite tracked the global spread of the volcanic "veil."

1982-01-01

225

NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

Cook, Beth

1995-01-01

226

Verification of NASA's Next Generation SLR (NGSLR) System Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 2 years of intensive engineering development, NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) was collocated against the NASA Network standard, MOBLAS-7. Collocation, a method of direct comparison testing developed by NASA and Honeywell in the 1980's, is used to identify laser system ranging anomalies by utilizing geometry to isolate station dependent, systematic ranging errors from other external sources of systematic errors. The completed collocation was the final step for the NGSLR system performance and design validation. During collocation, the NGSLR and MOBLAS-7 systems operated in good weather simultaneously for 12 hours per day / 5 days a week, day and night, from May 29th through July 5th, 2013. The systems tracked a total of 64 simultaneous passes, including 28 simultaneous LAGEOS passes during the collocation. This comparison test was the first NASA Collocation conducted between a single photon system (NGSLR) and a multi-photon (MOBLAS-7) system, providing a direct comparison of two system configurations that analysts have been theorizing about (using purely theoretical or orbital data analysis methods) for many years. We will provide details of the NGSLR / MOBLAS-7 collocation analysis, how closely the results compare to theory, and the verification of NASA's Next Generation SLR performance.

Horvath, Julie; McGarry, Jan; Clarke, Christopher B.; Donovan, Howard; Degnan, John; Cheek, Jack; Nelson, Alice; Patterson, Donald; Mann, Anthony; Hall, Felipe; Zagwodzki, Thomas

2014-05-01

227

Station Commander Sends Holiday Greetings  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank of NASA sends season's greetings to the world and shares his thoughts about being in orbit aboard the space-based laborat...

228

Space Station Live: Microbiome Experiment  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Microbiome experiment Investigator Mark Ott to learn more about this research taking place aboard the International Space Station. The Microbiome e...

229

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

230

NASA program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major facts are given for NASA'S planned FY-1981 through FY-1985 programs in aeronautics, space science, space and terrestrial applications, energy technology, space technology, space transportation systems, space tracking and data systems, and construction of facilities. Competition and cooperation, reimbursable launchings, schedules and milestones, supporting research and technology, mission coverage, and required funding are considered. Tables and graphs summarize new initiatives, significant events, estimates of space shuttle flights, and major missions in astrophysics, planetary exploration, life sciences, environmental and resources observation, and solar terrestrial investigations. The growth in tracking and data systems capabilities is also depicted.

1980-01-01

231

Sub-nanosecond clock synchronization and precision deep space tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interferometric spacecraft tracking is accomplished at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) by comparing the arrival time of electromagnetic spacecraft signals to ground antennas separated by baselines on the order of 8000 km. Clock synchronization errors within and between DSN stations directly impact the attainable tracking accuracy, with a 0.3 ns error in clock synchronization resulting in an 11 nrad angular position error. This level of synchronization is currently achieved by observing a quasar which is angularly close to the spacecraft just after the spacecraft observations. By determining the differential arrival times of the random quasar signal at the stations, clock synchronization and propagation delays within the atmosphere and within the DSN stations are calibrated. Recent developments in time transfer techniques may allow medium accuracy (50-100 nrad) spacecraft observations without near-simultaneous quasar-based calibrations. Solutions are presented for a global network of GPS receivers in which the formal errors in clock offset parameters are less than 0.5 ns. Comparisons of clock rate offsets derived from GPS measurements and from very long baseline interferometry and the examination of clock closure suggest that these formal errors are a realistic measure of GPS-based clock offset precision and accuracy. Incorporating GPS-based clock synchronization measurements into a spacecraft differential ranging system would allow tracking without near-simultaneous quasar observations. The impact on individual spacecraft navigation error sources due to elimination of quasar-based calibrations is presented. System implementation, including calibration of station electronic delays, is discussed.

Dunn, Charles; Lichten, Stephen; Jefferson, David; Border, James S.

1992-01-01

232

Environmental Public Health Tracking: Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange-Atlanta (HEXIX-Atlanta: A cooperative Program Between CDC and NASA for Development of an Environmental Public Health Tracking Network in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is coordinating HELIX- Atlanta to provide information regarding the five-county Metropolitan Atlanta Area (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinett) via a network of integrated environmental monitoring and public health data systems so that all sectors can take action to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. The HELIX-Atlanta Network is a tool to access interoperable information systems with optional information technology linkage functionality driven by scientific rationale. HELIX-Atlanta is a collaborative effort with local, state, federal, and academic partners, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified the following HELIX-Atlanta initial focus areas: childhood lead poisoning, short-latency cancers, developmental disabilities, birth defects, vital records, respiratory health, age of housing, remote sensing data, and environmental monitoring, HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified and evaluated information systems containing information on the above focus areas. The information system evaluations resulted in recommendations for what resources would be needed to interoperate selected information systems in compliance with the CDC Public Health Information Network (PHIN). This presentation will discuss the collaborative process of building a network that links health and environment data for information exchange, including NASA remote sensing data, for use in HELIX-Atlanta.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Niskar, Amanda Sue

2005-01-01

233

NASA's Photon-Counting SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System: Progress and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new unmanned SLR2000 system is designed to track, with millimeter precision and using single photon returns, a constellation of roughly 24 retroreflector-equipped satellites, which range in altitude from about 300 km to 20,000 km. Totally autonomous operation and a common engineering configuration are expected to greatly reduce station operations costs relative to NASA's current manned systems. The system has also been designed with a goal of significantly lowering replication costs. All of the prototype components and subsystems have been completed and tested and have substantially met the original specifications. The prototype system is presently undergoing final integration and testing in a dedicated shelter with an azimuth tracking dome synchronized to the optical tracking mount. The facility also features a number of security features such as security cameras and sensors designed to detect power or thermal control problems or entry by unauthorized personnel. Field tests are in progress. The present paper provides an overview of the various subsystems and test results to date. The meteorological subsystem, which has operated successfully in the field for almost three years, consists of several sensors which measure: (1) pressure, temperature, and relative humidity; (2) wind speed and direction; (3) ground visibility and precipitation; and (4) local cloud cover as a function of station azimuth and elevation (day and night). A "pseudo-operator" software program interprets the sensor readings and modifies satellite tracking priorities based on local meteorological conditions.

Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan; Zagwodzki, Thomas; Donovan, Howard; Patterson, Don; Steggerda, Charles; Mallama, Anthony; Cheek, Jack

2002-01-01

234

The space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

Munoz, Abraham

1988-01-01

235

Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD). Radiation measurements inside the Mir station were carried out using six Area Passive Dosimeters (APD), four located inside the Mir Base Block and two located inside the Kvant 2 module, during the NASA-2/Mir-21, NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 missions. The radiation environment under low shielding was measured using an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) mounted on the outer surface of the Kvant 2 module. The external radiation environment and a location inside the Kvant 2 roughly corresponding to the location of the EDA were monitored for 130 days during the NASA- 4/Mir-23 and NASA-5/Mir-24 missions. Dose rates measured by APD TLDs ranged from 271 to 407 microGy/d during the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission, from 265 to 378 microGy/d during the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission, and from 287 to 421 microGy/d during the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission. APD PNTDs have been analyzed and LET spectra have been Cenerated for the five APDs exposed on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission and for two APD PNTDs exposed on the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission. Dose equivalent rates on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission ranged from 513 microSv/d in the Kvant 2 module to 710 microSv/d on the floor of the Base Block. Dose as a function of shielding depth in TLDs has been measured in the thin TLD stacks including in the EDA. EDA dose range from 72.5 Gy under 0.0146 g/sq cm to 0.093 Gy under 3.25 g/sq cm of shielding. Readout and analysis of the reaming PNTDs form the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission and PNTDs from the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission (including those from the EDA) is ongoing and will be completed during the final year of this experiment. Dose equivalent rates for the NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 APDs will then be determined and comparisons will be made with both model calculations and with results from similar measurements.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1998-01-01

236

GEOS-3 Doppler Difference Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the ca...

B. Rosenbaum

1977-01-01

237

Space Station Evolution Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logist...

D. B. Evans

1993-01-01

238

ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

2004-01-01

239

Application of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Differenced One-Way Doppler (DOWD) Tracking Data for Orbit Determination and Station Acquisition Support of User Spacecraft Without TDRS Compatible Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft are launched today with only an omni-directional (omni) antenna and do not have an onboard Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) transponder that is capable of coherently returning a carrier signal through TDRS. Therefore, other means of tracking need to be explored and used to adequately acquire the spacecraft. Differenced One-Way Doppler (DOWD) tracking data are very useful in eliminating the problems associated with the instability of the onboard oscillators when using strictly one-way Doppler data. This paper investigates the TDRS DOWD tracking data received by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) during the launch and early orbit phases for the the Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (WIND) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-J missions. In particular FDF personnel performed an investigation of the data residuals and made an assessment of the acquisition capabilities of DOWD-based solutions. Comparisons of DOWD solutions with existing data types were performed and analyzed in this study. The evaluation also includes atmospheric editing of the DOWD data and a study of the feasibility of solving for Doppler biases in an attempt to minimize error. Furthermore, by comparing the results from WIND and NOAA-J, an attempt is made to show the limitations involved in using DOWD data for the two different mission profiles. The techniques discussed in this paper benefit the launches of spacecraft that do not have TDRS transponders on board, particularly those launched into a low Earth orbit. The use of DOWD data is a valuable asset to missions which do not have a stable local oscillator to enable high-quality solutions from the one-way/return-link Doppler tracking data.

Olszewski, A. D., Jr.; Wilcox, T. P.; Beckman, Mark

1996-01-01

240

14 CFR 1221.105 - Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. A...commemoration of a major NASA program. Each approved identifier...its title such as âApollo,â âSkylab,â âViking...Station,â or a major NASA anniversary. NASA Program Identifiers shall...

2009-01-01

241

14 CFR 1221.105 - Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of NASA Program Identifiers. A...commemoration of a major NASA program. Each approved identifier...its title such as âApollo,â âSkylab,â âViking...Station,â or a major NASA anniversary. NASA Program Identifiers shall...

2010-01-01

242

Tracks 'Seam' Like Airbags  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing a striking resemblance to a cluster of paper lanterns, these inflated airbags show a pattern of seams exactly like those left in the martian soil by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during landing at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken during airbag testing at NASA's Plum Brook Station, located about 50 miles west of Cleveland in Sandusky, Ohio and operated by NASA's Glenn Research Center.

2004-01-01

243

Space Station - The next logical step  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is committed to the development of a permanently manned Space Station within a decade, in concert with European and Japanese space agencies. In addition to continuing scientific research, the Space Station will proceed with applied science and industrialization experiments. International cooperation opportunities arise within the Space Station program for users (in the definition of missions), for builders (in the development of station resources and capabilities), and operators (in the orbital maintenance of the Space Station).

Finn, T. T.; Hodge, J. D.

1984-01-01

244

NASA Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators and students can find a variety of materials designed for support in the areas of science, mathematics, and technology on the NASA Education website. Resources are available on NASA education programs including specific areas for kids, students and educators in the elementary, secondary, higher and informal education arenas.

Canright, Shelley

2011-06-30

245

The evolution of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System /TDRSS/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain limitations of a ground-based network of remote tracking stations for communications with spacecraft are to be overcome by making use of a space-based network. Studies related to the development of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) are discussed. The TDRSS is to function as an integral part of the post-1980 NASA Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN). The TDRSS will consist of two operational Tracking and Data Relay (TDR) spacecraft separated by at least 130 deg in longitude. According to current planning, the STDN will also include five ground-based sites, for support of users with orbital altitudes greater than approximately 2000 km, and two launch support sites.

Godfrey, R. D.

1975-01-01

246

GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

Rosenbaum, B.

1977-01-01

247

3. NORTH FRONT, BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOWS FACE SLED TRACK. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTH FRONT, BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOWS FACE SLED TRACK. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Instrumentation & Control Building, South of Sled Track, Station "50" area, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

248

NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

249

NASA Wavelength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Wavelength is your pathway into a digital collection of Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels - from elementary to college, to out-of-school programs. These resources, developed through funding of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD), have undergone a peer-review process through which educators and scientists ensure the content is accurate and useful in an educational setting. Use NASA Wavelength to quickly and easily locate resources, connect them to other websites using atom feeds, and even share the resources you discover with others through social media and email.

2014-04-07

250

Satellite Tracking Threatened Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have combined forces to produce this Website on the use of satellite tracking to monitor migration routes of endangered birds. Targeting the general public, the site introduces readers to satellite tracking (using Direct Readout technology), offers animations of bird flight paths (see the section entitled Birdtracks), and gives additional information on birds (in the Bird Data Archives, select a bird and watch its flight path through time). While bird information is limited to several larger species (due to the size/weight of attached transmitters), the resource serves as a useful information base for anyone wishing to learn more about satellite tracking.

251

JPL Non-NASA Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing JPL's non-NASA Programs is shown. The contents include: 1) JPL/Caltech: National Security Heritage; 2) Organization and Portfolio; 3) Synergistic Areas of Interest; 4) Business Environment; 5) National Space Community; 6) New Business Environment; 7) Technology Transfer Techniques; 8) Innovative Partnership Program (IPP); and 9) JPL's Track Record.

Cox, Robert S.

2006-01-01

252

Space station propulsion technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

Briley, G. L.

1986-01-01

253

Space Station Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

1986-01-01

254

Issues in NASA program and project management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new collection of papers on aerospace management issues contains a history of NASA program and project management, some lessons learned in the areas of management and budget from the Space Shuttle Program, an analysis of tools needed to keep large multilayer programs organized and on track, and an update of resources for NASA managers. A wide variety of opinions and techniques are presented.

Hoban, Francis T. (editor)

1989-01-01

255

Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

Fink, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

256

NASA reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, both ongoing and planned, are described by NASA administrative personnel from the offices of Space Science and Applications, Space Systems Development, Space Flight, Exploration, and from the Johnson Space Center. NASA's multi-year strategic plan, called Vision 21, is also discussed. It proposes to use the unique perspective of space to better understand Earth. Among the NASA programs mentioned are the Magellan to Venus and Galileo to Jupiter spacecraft, the Cosmic Background Explorer, Pegsat (the first Pegasus payload), Hubble, the Joint U.S./German ROSAT X-ray Mission, Ulysses to Jupiter and over the sun, the Astro-Spacelab Mission, and the Gamma Ray Observatory. Copies of viewgraphs that illustrate some of these missions, and others, are provided. Also discussed were life science research plans, economic factors as they relate to space missions, and the outlook for international cooperation.

Obrien, John E.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Aldrich, Arnold A.; Utsman, Thomas E.; Griffin, Michael D.; Cohen, Aaron

257

The NASA Fireball Network Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.

Moser, Danielle E.

2011-01-01

258

NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) recently completed a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network that is part of NASA's contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). This system is designed to produce the higher quality data required to establish and maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and future generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. The prototype core site is at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center and includes co-located, state of-the-art, systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). A system for monitoring of the "ties" between these four systems is an integral part of the core site development concept and this specific prototype. When fully implemented, this upgraded global network will benefit in addition to the ITRF, all other network products (e.g. Precision Orbit Determination, local & regional deformation, astrometry, etc.), which will also be improved by at least an order of magnitude, with concomitant benefits to the supported and tracked missions, science projects, and engineering applications. We present the results of the prototype site demonstration and describe the NASA plans for implementing its next generation network.

Merkowitz, S.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; Mcgarry, J.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F.

2013-12-01

259

Space Station Live: Veteran Astronaut Talks Crew Orientation  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with NASA astronaut Cady Coleman, who lived aboard the International Space Station as Expedition 27/27 crew member from December...

260

Second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ground Terminal: STGT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ground Terminal (STGT) designed to provide high availability command and control and improved services to users of NASA's space network in the 1990s and beyond is described. The space network, comprising the TDRSS, will be the primary communications gateway for Space Station Freedom and for connecting other user's spacecraft with their ground support elements. The STGT will contain a redundant, distributed computer system providing configuration and control of redundant RF to baseband equipment chains for thoughput of user data, for user tracking services, and for control and monitoring of the TDR satellites. The STGT will provide the following: (1) an interface with NASA's Network Control Center (NCC) for automated scheduling and control of the STGT; (2) a local TDRSS Operations Control Center (TOCC2) for local monitoring and backup control; and (3) an interface with the Domestic Satellite (DOMSAT) for data distribution will be provided by the STGT.

Berndt, Allen K.; Lowe, Dawn R.

1990-01-01

261

NASA's Microgravity Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program (MRP) as conducted by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) within NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity, Sciences and Applications. The program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. All snapshots of the program's status at the end of FY 1997 and a review of highlights and progress in grounds and flights based research are provided. Also described are major space missions that flew during FY 1997, plans for utilization of the research potential of the International Space Station, the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, and various educational/outreach activities. The MRP supports investigators from academia, industry, and government research communities needing a space environment to study phenomena directly or indirectly affected by gravity.

Woodard, Dan

1998-01-01

262

An automated deep space communications station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an architecture being implemented for an autonomous Deep Space Tracking Station(DS-T). The architecture targets fully automated routine operations encompassing scheduling and resource allocation, antenna and receiver predict generation, track procedure generation from service requests, and closed loop control and error recovery for the station subsystems. This architecture is being validated by construction of a prototype DS-T station

Forest Fisher; Steve Chien; Leslie Paal; E. Law; N. Golshan; Mike Stockett

1998-01-01

263

Space station data flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

1972-01-01

264

Environmental Radiation Measurements on MIR Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental radiation levels on the Russian space station Mir are being monitored under differing shielding conditions by a series of six area passive dosimeters (APDs) placed at individual locations inside the Core and Kvant 2 modules, and by an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) to be-deployed on the exterior surface of the Kvant 2 module. Each APD and the EDA contains CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for measurement of LET spectra and TLDs for absorbed dose measurements. Two of the missions, NASA-2/Mir-21 and NASA-3/Mir-22 have been completed and the six APDs from each mission returned to Earth from Mir. This report covers progress to date on the analysis of TLDs and PNTDs from these two missions. For NASA-2/Mir-21, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 271 to 407 micro-Gy/d at the APDS. For NASA-3/Mir-22, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 265 to 421 micro-Gy/d.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1997-01-01

265

Introduction to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station Freedom in FY 92 was appropriated. For FY 93, NASA is seeking $2.25 billion for the program; the planned budget for FY 94 is $2.5 billion. Further alterations to the hardware configuration for Freedom would be a serious setback; NASA intends 'to stick with the current baseline' and continue planning for utilization.

Kohrs, Richard

1992-01-01

266

NASA Enterprise Visual Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Enterprise Visual Analysis (NEVA) is a computer program undergoing development as a successor to Launch Services Analysis Tool (LSAT), formerly known as Payload Carrier Analysis Tool (PCAT). NEVA facilitates analyses of proposed configurations of payloads and packing fixtures (e.g. pallets) in a space shuttle payload bay for transport to the International Space Station. NEVA reduces the need to use physical models, mockups, and full-scale ground support equipment in performing such analyses. Using NEVA, one can take account of such diverse considerations as those of weight distribution, geometry, collision avoidance, power requirements, thermal loads, and mechanical loads.

Lopez-Tellado, Maria; DiSanto, Brenda; Humeniuk, Robert; Bard, Richard, Jr.; Little, Mia; Edwards, Robert; Ma, Tien-Chi; Hollifield, Kenneith; White, Chuck

2007-01-01

267

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

268

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

269

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

270

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

271

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

272

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

273

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

274

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

275

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

276

The role of tethers on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.

Vontiesenhausen, G. (editor)

1985-01-01

277

NASA Communications Augmentation network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

1990-01-01

278

Space Station evolution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

Evans, David B.

1993-09-01

279

Space Station evolution study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

Evans, David B.

1993-01-01

280

ISS Update: Station Command and Data Handling System  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews ODIN flight controller Amy Brezinski, who monitors and commands the Command and Data Handling System for the International Space Station. Brezinski...

281

ISS Update: ISTAR -- International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Sandra Fletcher, EVA Systems Flight Controller. They discuss the International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) activity that...

282

Space Station Crew Sends Greetings to President Obama  

NASA Video Gallery

International Space Station Commander Koichi Wakata from the Japanese space agency joins NASA astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Steve Swanson in a welcome message from orbit during President Obama's ...

283

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

284

NASA: Year in Review 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the use of Macromedia Flash Player, this NASA website revisits the key NASA space exploration events and missions of 2004. Users can view videos illustrating the Vision for Space Exploration and articles describing the advances to help make the vision a reality. The website discusses the redesigning of the Shuttle External Fuel Tank and its significance in flight missions. Visitors can find out about the newest NASA research, watch a photo essay of the Cassini mission to Saturn, drive a Mars rover to explore the geology of that planet, learn about the next generation of NASA astronauts, and much more. Individuals can view photos, hear accounts, and read articles about the three crews that lived on the International Space Station in 2004.

285

The NASA Spacecraft Transponding Modem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new deep space transponder is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA. The Spacecraft Transponding Modem (STM) implements the standard transponder functions and the channel service functions that have previously resided in spacecraft Command/Data Subsystems. The STM uses custom ASICs, MMICs, and MCMs to reduce the active device parts count to 70, mass to I kg, and volume to 524 cc. The first STMs will be flown on missions launching in the 2003 time frame. The STM tracks an X-band uplink signal and provides both X-band and Ka-band downlinks, either coherent or non-coherent with the uplink. A NASA standard Command Detector Unit is integrated into the STM, along with a codeblock processor and a hardware command decoder. The decoded command codeblocks are output to the spacecraft command/data subsystem. Virtual Channel 0 (VC-0) (hardware) commands are processed and output as critical controller (CRC) commands. Downlink telemetry is received from the spacecraft data subsystem as telemetry frames. The STM provides the following downlink coding options: the standard CCSDS (7-1/2) convolutional coding, ReedSolomon coding with interleave depths one and five, (15-1/6) convolutional coding, and Turbo coding with rates 1/3 and 1/6. The downlink symbol rates can be linearly ramped to match the G/T curve of the receiving station, providing up to a 1 dB increase in data return. Data rates range from 5 bits per second (bps) to 24 Mbps, with three modulation modes provided: modulated subcarrier (3 different frequencies provided), biphase-L modulated direct on carrier, and Offset QPSK. Also, the capability to generate one of four non-harmonically related telemetry beacon tones is provided, to allow for a simple spacecraft status monitoring scheme for cruise phases of missions. Three ranging modes are provided: standard turn around ranging, regenerative pseudo-noise (PN) ranging, and Differential One-way Ranging (DOR) tones. The regenerative ranging provides the capability of increasing the ground received ranging SNR by up to 30 dB. Two different avionics interfaces to the command/data subsystem's data bus are provided: a MIL STD 1553B bus or an industry standard PCI interface. Digital interfaces provide the capability to control antenna selection (e.g., switching between high gain and low gain antennas) and antenna pointing (for future steered Ka-band antennas).

Berner, Jeff B.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Perret, Jonathan D.

2000-01-01

286

NASA: Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this NASA website, kids will enjoy learning about astronomy through fun games, articles, and activities. Through online storybooks, users can learn about ancient sundials and our sun. The website offers matching games, a short video about Earth's daily cycle, and crossword puzzles. Students can learn how to make sundials, models of planets, solar oven, and many other space science-related tools and phenomena. The website furnishes links to kids' websites for many of NASA's missions, where users can find numerous additional activities, interesting stories, and fun facts.

287

NASA Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is dedicated to helping children learn about space and technology. Games, images, graphics, and simulations help to get tough science ideas across to children in a fun way. Topics covered include moon phases, waves, light, gravity, life and death of stars, quasars, rockets, seasons, weather, planets, the solar system, meteors, living in space, and plate tectonics. There is a coloring section, weight and age on other planets calculator, rocket locator, and many images to look at. The Teacher's Corner also offers links to other NASA resources, an explanation of site features, and a site glossary of terms.

Bray, Becky

2007-12-12

288

The organized Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

1988-01-01

289

The organized Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

290

NASA Tracks Global Spread of Wildfire Pollution  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation focuses on the Russian fires, highlighting the global transport of the pollution across the Northern Hemisphere, as seen from above the North Pole. The highest concentrations of carb...

291

Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program. If selected, GEMS will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars, filling a longstanding gap in the scientific exploration of the solar system. It will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution, providing unique and critical information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of the core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. The scientific goals of GEMS are to understand the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars and to determine its present level of tectonic activity and impact flux. A straightforward set of scientific objectives address these goals: 1) Determine the size, composition and physical state of the core; 2) Determine the thickness and structure of the crust; 3) Determine the composition and structure of the mantle; 4) Determine the thermal state of the interior; 5) Measure the rate and distribution of internal seismic activity; and 6) Measure the rate of impacts on the surface. To accomplish these objectives, GEMS carries a tightly-focused payload consisting of 3 investigations: 1) SEIS, a 6-component, very-broad-band seismometer, with careful thermal compensation/control and a sensitivity comparable to the best terrestrial instruments across a frequency range of 1 mHz to 50 Hz; 2) HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package), an instrumented self-penetrating mole system that trails a string of temperature sensors to measure the thermal gradient and conductivity of the upper several meters, and thus the planetary heat flux; and 3) RISE (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment), which would use the spacecraft X-band communication system to provide precision tracking for planetary dynamical studies. The two instruments are moved from the lander deck to the martian surface by an Instrument Deployment Arm, with an appropriate location identified using an Instrument Deployment Camera. In order to ensure low risk within the tight Discovery cost limits, GEMS reuses the successful Lockheed Martin Phoenix spacecraft design, with a cruise and EDL system that has demonstrated capability for safe landing on Mars with well-understood costs. To take full advantage of this approach, all science requirements (such as instrument mass and power, landing site, and downlinked data volume) strictly conform to existing, demonstrated capabilities of the spacecraft and mission system. It is widely believed that multiple landers making simultaneous measurements (a network) are required to address the objectives for understanding terrestrial planet interiors. Nonetheless, comprehensive measurements from a single geophysical station are extremely valuable, because observations constraining the structure and processes of the deep interior of Mars are virtually nonexistent. GEMS would utilize sophisticated analysis techniques specific to single-station measurements to determine crustal thickness, mantle structure, core state and size, and heat flow, providing our first real look deep beneath the surface of Mars.

Banerdt, B.; Dehant, V. M.; Lognonne, P.; Smrekar, S. E.; Spohn, T.; GEMS Mission Team

2011-12-01

292

The challenge of the US Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Space Station program is described. The objectives of the present national space policy are reviewed. International involvement and commercial use of space are the two strategies involved in the development of the Space Station. The Space Station is to be a multifunctional, modular, permanent facility with manned and unmanned platforms. The functions of the Space Station for space research projects, such as material processing and electrophoresis, are examined. The infrastructure required for commercialization of space is analyzed. NASA's space policy aimed at stimulating space commerce is discussed. NASA's plans to reduce the financial, institutional, and technical risks of space research are studied.

Beggs, J. M.

1985-01-01

293

The space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manned space station is the next major NASA program. It presents many challenges to the power system designers. The power system in turn is a major driver on the overall configuration. In this paper, the major requirements and guidelines that affect the station configuration and the power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts, both fanciful and feasible, are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed Phase B trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of the present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given for completeness.

Baraona, C. R.

1986-01-01

294

NASA Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators and students can find a variety of materials designed for support in the areas of science, mathematics, and technology. Resources are available on NASA education programs including specific areas for kids, students and educators at the elementary, secondary, higher and informal education arenas.

295

NASA Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Quest's primary goal is to connect the public to the people and science of NASA through live-encounter Events: stand alone or serial combinations of webcasts, chats, forums, and classroom collaborations. To accompany these live events, NASA Quest provides searchable profiles of the experts, journals of their day-to-day activities, and background information on the projects in which they are involved. Additionally, some of the Events include a variety of lesson plans by which students can learn to better research a given area of expertise. Of particular note on the site is a search area for lesson plans and student activities, images, video clips, facts, and background information. Also searchable are 3,000 archived questions in the Q and A files. Official NASA press releases in Aerospace technology and design, Astrobiology, Deep Space Science, Human Space Exploration, and the Solar System are listed in the news section. An Educators and Parents area provides standards lists, a discussion forum for teachers, and a search engine specific to lesson plans.

296

UWB Tracking Software Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

297

In Brief: NASA's Phoenix spacecraft lands on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a 9.5-month, 679-million-kilometer flight from Florida, NASA's Phoenix spacecraft made a soft landing in Vastitas Borealis in Mars's northern polar region on 25 May. The lander, whose camera already has returned some spectacular images, is on a 3-month mission to examine the area and dig into the soil of this site-chosen for its likelihood of having frozen water near the surface-and analyze samples. In addition to a robotic arm and robotic arm camera, the lander's instruments include a surface stereo imager; thermal and evolved-gas analyzer; microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer; and a meteorological station that is tracking daily weather and seasonal changes.

Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

2008-06-01

298

ISS Update: Station Crew Departure Preps  

NASA Video Gallery

As three Expedition 33 crew members spend their final week aboard the International Space Station preparing for their return to Earth, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank joined ISS Update commentator Pat R...

299

Transporting the International Space Station Truss Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A section of the International Space Station truss assembly arrived at the Marshall Space Flight Center on NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for structural and design testing as well as installation of critical flight hardware.

2000-01-01

300

Orbital Path of the International Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

301

Space Station Live: EarthKAM  

NASA Video Gallery

Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan interviews Brion Au, EarthKAM Payload Developer. The NASA education program enables middle school students to take pictures of the Earth from the Internation...

302

NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

Stahl, H. Philip

2012-01-01

303

NASA Exhibits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of NASA presentations for the Supercomputing 2001 conference are summarized. The topics include: (1) Mars Surveyor Landing Sites "Collaboratory"; (2) Parallel and Distributed CFD for Unsteady Flows with Moving Overset Grids; (3) IP Multicast for Seamless Support of Remote Science; (4) Consolidated Supercomputing Management Office; (5) Growler: A Component-Based Framework for Distributed/Collaborative Scientific Visualization and Computational Steering; (6) Data Mining on the Information Power Grid (IPG); (7) Debugging on the IPG; (8) Debakey Heart Assist Device: (9) Unsteady Turbopump for Reusable Launch Vehicle; (10) Exploratory Computing Environments Component Framework; (11) OVERSET Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools; (12) Control and Observation in Distributed Environments; (13) Multi-Level Parallelism Scaling on NASA's Origin 1024 CPU System; (14) Computing, Information, & Communications Technology; (15) NAS Grid Benchmarks; (16) IPG: A Large-Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management System; and (17) ILab: Parameter Study Creation and Submission on the IPG.

Deardorff, Glenn; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Freeman, Ken; Gambrel, Dave; Green, Bryan; Henze, Chris; Hinke, Thomas; Hood, Robert; Kiris, Cetin; Moran, Patrick; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

304

America in Space, the First Decade - Space Physics and Astronomy, Man in Space, Exploring the Moon and Planets, Putting Satellites to Work, NASA Spacecraft, Spacecraft Tracking, Linking Man and Spacecraft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are seven booklets, part of a series published on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The publications are intended as overviews of some important activities, programs, and events of NASA. They are written for the layman and cover several science disciplines. Each booklet…

Corliss, William R.; Anderton, David A.

305

FTS - NASA's first dexterous telerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA development and use of the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (SSFTS) is described. The SSFTS is a robotic device that combines the capability to be teleoperated (operates under the constant command of a human operator) and to be autonomous (performs mostly by itself but under the supervision of a human operator). Plans call for the SSFTS to assist the astronauts in the assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection of Space Station Freedom. The project forms the basis for combining teleoperational and robotics technologies and for rapidly applying the evolving technologies to government and commercial ventures in space and on earth.

Mccain, Harry G.

1990-01-01

306

Space station rotary joint mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism which will be used on the space station to position the solar arrays and radiator panels for Sun pointing and Sun avoidance is described. The unique design features will be demonstrated on advanced development models of two of the joints being fabricated under contract to NASA-MSFC.

Driskill, Glen W.

1986-01-01

307

Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

1983-01-01

308

ILRS Station Reporting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

2013-01-01

309

Spacecraft control research at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future missions is space will require controlling spacecraft which are both large and flexible. The limited inherent damping and the uncertain and changing dynamic characteristics of many of these vehicles, such as manned space stations and large antennas, will revolutionize spacecraft control requirements. In preparation for the time that such control systems are required, considerable research and technology development is necessary. A program is in place at NASA for the development of active control technology to support major initiatives for space station and advanced spacecraft. A number of key control technology program needs are cited in the paper as required for these and other future NASA missions together with an integrated controls/structures technology flight experiment to demonstrate and validate technology for large flexible structures.

Dahlgren, J. B.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.

1984-01-01

310

Space stations favored  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Presidential Science Advisor George A. Key worth II created a new wave of enthusiasm about the future of the U.S. space program by stating in Science magazine that the National Aeronautics and Space Administratoin (NASA) should consider a major new initiative (July 8, 1983). Key worth has previously used Science magazine to provide his views on policy to the science community; in the past the messages have not been so supportive of the space program, but apparently NASA has made the case for an ambitious plan of space technology and development. The new program may involve space stations to support a colony on the moon (see Eos, April 19, 1983, p. 145) and perhaps Mars.In the July 8 Science, Keyworth is quoted as saying, “I think the country would take a major thrust in space very seriously. We've shown that the shuttle works, and is realistic. We know we have the technolgy to build a space station—most advocates of a space station readily acknowledge that it is only an intermediate step in a more ambitious longrange goal of exploring the solar system.”

Bell, Peter M.

311

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

312

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

313

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

314

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

315

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

316

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

317

Orbital Debris Research at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States has one of the most active programs of research of the orbital debris environment in the world. Much of the research is conducted by NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. Past work by NASA has led to the development of national space policy which seeks to limit the growth of the debris population and limit the risk to spacecraft and humans in space and on the Earth from debris. NASA has also been instrumental in developing consistent international policies and standards. Much of NASA's efforts have been to measure and characterize the orbital debris population. The U.S. Department of Defense tracks and catalogs spacecraft and large debris with it's Space Surveillance Network while NASA concentrates on research on smaller debris. In low Earth orbit, NASA has utilized short wavelength radars such as Haystack, HAX, and Goldstone to statistically characterize the population in number, size, altitude, and inclination. For higher orbits, optical telescopes have been used. Much effort has gone into the understanding and removal of observational biases from both types of measurements. NASA is also striving to understand the material composition and shape characteristics of debris to assess these effects on the risk to operational spacecraft. All of these measurements along with data from ground tests provide the basis for near- and long-term modeling of the environment. NASA also develops tools used by spacecraft builders and operators to evaluate spacecraft and mission designs to assess compliance with debris standards and policies which limit the growth of the debris environment.

Stansbery, Eugene G.

2009-01-01

318

Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to the recently discovered asteroid 1997XF11. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) is an observatory in Maui, Hawaii. The site provides images and information about newly discovered asteroids, comets, and other unusual objects.

1998-01-01

319

Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

2012-01-01

320

A customer-friendly Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1984-01-01

321

Spirit Leaves Telling Tracks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists have found clues about the nature of martian soil through analyzing wheel marks from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in this image. The image was taken by Spirit's rear hazard-identification camera just after the rover drove approximately 1 meter (3 feet) northwest off the Columbia Memorial Station (lander platform) early Thursday morning. That the wheel tracks are shallow indicates the soil has plenty of strength to support the moving rover. The well-defined track characteristics suggest the presence of very fine particles in the martian soil (along with larger particles). Scientists also think the soil may have some cohesive properties.

2004-01-01

322

NASA Customer Data and Operations System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the currently provided NASA services such as Communications and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System services, the NASA's Customer Data and Operations System (CDOS) will provide the following services to the user: Data Delivery Service, Data Archive Service, and CDOS Operations Management Service. This paper describes these services in detail and presents respective block diagrams. The CDOS services will support a variety of multipurpose missions simultaneously with centralized and common hardware and software data-driven systems.

Butler, Madeline J.; Stallings, William H.

1991-01-01

323

International Space Station (ISS) Payload Information Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station Payload Information Source CD is a joint effort of NASA and United Space Alliance. It is an introduction to the Space Station's capabilities, payload accommodations and the payload integration process. The CD is designed for use in conjunction with the station payloads website. The outline for the website includes fields of research, getting on board, international partners, about the ISS, basic accommodations, specialized facilities, payload integration, payload processing, payload operations, and reference documents.

Griswold, Tom

2002-01-01

324

Panel on Space Station utilization benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of recent changes in the NASA Space Station, under the guidance of updated user community payload requirements. The user communities are those of astronomy, the life sciences, earth observation, and international applications. Attention is given to the resolutions that will be achievable by astronomical instruments aboard the Space Station, the testing of prototype earth observation instruments aboard the Station's manned module, and the microgravity research efforts planned in conjunction with ESA.

Rubenstein, Sy Z.; Drake, Frank; White, Stanley C.; Taranik, James V.; Jordan, Hermann; Arnold, Ray

1987-01-01

325

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

326

Configuration Management at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA programs are characterized by complexity, harsh environments and the fact that we usually have one chance to get it right. Programs last decades and need to accept new hardware and technology as it is developed. We have multiple suppliers and international partners Our challenges are many, our costs are high and our failures are highly visible. CM systems need to be scalable, adaptable to new technology and span the life cycle of the program (30+ years). Multiple Systems, Contractors and Countries added major levels of complexity to the ISS program and CM/DM and Requirements management systems center dot CM Systems need to be designed for long design life center dot Space Station Design started in 1984 center dot Assembly Complete in 2012 center dot Systems were developed on a task basis without an overall system perspective center dot Technology moves faster than a large project office, try to make sure you have a system that can adapt

Doreswamy, Rajiv

2013-01-01

327

NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

Trevino, Luis A.

2004-01-01

328

2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

329

Telescoping Space-Station Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

Witcofski, R. D.

1986-01-01

330

Hitchhiker On Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/GSFC Shuttle Small Payloads Projects Office (SSPPO) has been studying the feasibility of migrating Hitchhiker customers past present and future to the International Space Station via a "Hitchhiker like" carrier system. SSPPO has been tasked to make the most use of existing hardware and software systems and infrastructure in its study of an ISS based carrier system. This paper summarizes the results of the SSPPO Hitchhiker on International Space Station (ISS) study. Included are a number of "Hitchhiker like" carrier system concepts that take advantage of the various ISS attached payload accommodation sites. Emphasis will be given to a HH concept that attaches to the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF).

Daelemans, Gerard; Goldsmith, Theodore

1999-01-01

331

NASA Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Oceanography site contains remotely sensed satellite data and modeling techniques to enable the global mapping of seasonal changes in ocean surface topography, currents, waves, winds, phytoplankton content, sea-ice extent, rainfall, sunlight reaching the sea, and sea surface temperature. Studying these patterns at a global scale help forecast and mitigate the disastrous effects of floods and drought. Images generated by ocean observing satellite missions tell us volumes about the most fundamental climate changes. Many of the data resources provide data that tell us about: Ocean surface Topography or Wave Height, Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Surface Winds, Ocean Currents, Ocean Color, and Sea Surface Salinity. The missions profiled include the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM); the Salinity Sea Ice Working Group; and sea surface winds, ocean color, and ocean surface topography/wave height missions.

332

NASA's first dexterous space robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a robotic device that can be teleoperated under constant command of a human operator or run by itself under human supervision. Plans call for the FTS to assist the astronauts in the assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection of Space Station Freedom. The FTS project is driven by five major objectives: to reduce Space Station dependence on crew EVA, improve crew safety, enhance crew utilization, promote remote servicing capabilities for platforms, and accelerate technology transfer from research to U.S. industry. Another part of the FTS project is a ground system that will support operations and system evolution. Not only will the FTS provide a needed operational capability during the assembly and operation of Space Station Freedom, it will also provide an expanding foundation for proving more advanced robotic and telepresence concepts in space.

Mccain, Harry G.

1990-01-01

333

Science in space with the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of the Space Station as a versatile scientific laboratory is discussed, reviewing plans under consideration by the NASA Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. The special advantages offered by the Station for expanding the scope of 'space science' beyond astrophysics, geophysics, and terrestrial remote sensing are stressed. Topics examined include the advantages of a manned presence, the scientific value and cost effectiveness of smaller, more quickly performable experiments, improved communications for ground control of Station experiments, the international nature of the Station, the need for more scientist astronauts for the Station crew, Station on-orbit maintenance and repair services for coorbiting platforms, and the need for Shuttle testing of proposed Station laboratory equipment and procedures.

Banks, Peter M.

1987-01-01

334

Tracking and data system support for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission. Volume 3: Orbit insertion through end of primary mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data System (TDS) Support for the Mariner Mars 1971 Mission final report contains the deep space tracking and data acquisition activities in support of orbital operations. During this period a major NASA objective was accomplished: completion of the 180th revolution and 90th day of data gathering with the spacecraft about the planet Mars. Included are presentations of the TDS flight support pass chronology data for each of the Deep Space Stations used, and performance evaluation for the Deep Space Network Telemetry, Tracking, Command, and Monitor Systems. With the loss of Mariner 8 at launch, Mariner 9 assumed the mission plan of Mariner 8, which included the TV mapping cycles and a 12-hr orbital period. The mission plan was modified as a result of a severe dust storm on the surface of Mars, which delayed the start of the TV mapping cycles. Thus, the end of primary mission date was extended to complete the TV mapping cycles.

Barnum, P. W.; Renzetti, N. A.; Textor, G. P.; Kelly, L. B.

1973-01-01

335

Large transient fault current test of an electrical roll ring. [for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom uses precision rotary gimbals to provide for sun tracking of its photoelectric arrays. Electrical power, command signals, and data are transferred across the gimbals by roll rings. Roll rings have been shown to be capable of highly efficient electrical transmission and long life, through tests conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center and Honeywell's Satellite and Space Systems Division in Phoenix, AZ. Large potential fault currents inherent to the power system's DC distribution architecture have brought about the need to evaluate the effects of large transient fault currents on roll rings. A test recently conducted at Lewis subjected a roll ring to a simulated worst case space station electrical fault. The system model used to obtain the fault profile is described, along with details of the reduced order circuit that was used to simulate the fault. Test results comparing roll ring performance before and after the fault are also presented.

Yenni, Edward J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

1991-01-01

336

Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five phases of a mission: pre-launch, launch from T0 to T+6.5 min, launch from T+6.5 min to 12 min, in LEO for rendezvous and docking with ISS, and return to Earth. The network of networks that supports the mission during each of these phases and the concepts of operations during those phases are developed as a high level operational concepts graphic called OV-1, an architecture diagram type described in the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF). Additional operational views on organizational relationships (OV-4), operational activities (OV-5), and operational node connectivity (OV-2) are also discussed. The system interfaces view (SV-1) that provides the communication and navigation services to Orion is also included and described. The challenges of architecting integrated network architecture for the NASA Orion missions are highlighted.

Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.

2008-01-01

337

Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space station automation study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. The initial step taken by NASA in organizing the SSAS was to form and convene a panel of recognized expert technologists in automation, space sciences and aerospace engineering to produce a space station automation plan.

1984-01-01

338

The NASA Astrophysics Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

Zebulum, Ricardo S.

2011-01-01

339

The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

Vaughn, C. R.

1979-01-01

340

14 CFR 1215.112 - User/NASA contractual arrangement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...112 Section 1215.112 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Use and Reimbursement Policy for Non-U.S. Government Users § 1215.112 User/NASA...

2014-01-01

341

Issues in NASA Program and Project Management. Special Report: 1997 Conference. Project Management Now and in the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics Considered Include: NASA's Shared Experiences Program; Core Issues for the Future of the Agency; National Space Policy Strategic Management; ISO 9000 and NASA; New Acquisition Initiatives; Full Cost Initiative; PM Career Development; PM Project Database; NASA Fast Track Studies; Fast Track Projects; Earned Value Concept; Value-Added Metrics; Saturn Corporation Lessons Learned; Project Manager Credibility.

Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

1997-01-01

342

11. STATION "0" ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION SITE AT EAST END OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. STATION "0" ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION SITE AT EAST END OF TRACK. Looking north from top of berm to Fire Station No. 3 (Survival School, Building 0510). - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

343

Current and Future Parts Management at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides a high level view of current and future electronic parts management at NASA. It describes a current perspective of the new human space flight direction that NASA is beginning to take and how that could influence parts management in the future. It provides an overview of current NASA electronic parts policy and how that is implemented at the NASA flight Centers. It also describes some of the technical challenges that lie ahead and suggests approaches for their mitigation. These challenges include: advanced packaging, obsolescence and counterfeits, the global supply chain and Commercial Crew, a new direction by which NASA will utilize commercial launch vehicles to get astronauts to the International Space Station.

Sampson, Michael J.

2011-01-01

344

Ship Tracks South of Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from NASA's Earth Observatory shows images of visible tracks made in the Earth's atmosphere from clouds forming around ship exhaust particles. One of these images shows the relative sizes of the particles, and the text relates the relative sizes to the relative brightness of the clouds that are formed.

2009-05-27

345

NASA Resources for Educators and Public  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of NASA Classroom Activities, Educator Guides, Lithographs, Posters and more are available to Pre ]service and In ]service Educators through Professional Development Workshops. We are here for you to engage, demonstrate, and facilitate the use of educational technologies, the NASA Website, NASA Education Homepage and more! We are here for you to inspire you by providing in-service and pre- service training utilizing NASA curriculum support products. We are here for you to partner with your local, state, and regional educational organizations to better educate ALL! NASA AESP specialists are experienced professional educators, current on education issues and familiar with the curriculum frameworks, educational standards, and systemic architecture of the states they service. These specialists provide engaging and inspiring student presentations and teacher training right at YOUR school at no cost to you! Experience free out-of-this-world interactive learning with NASA's Digital Learning Network. Students of all ages can participate in LIVE events with NASA Experts and Education Specialists. The Exploration Station provides NASA educational programs that introduce the application of Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics, to students. Students participate in a variety of hands-on activities that compliment related topics taught by the classroom teacher. NASA KSC ERC can create Professional Development Workshops for teachers in groups of fifteen or more. Education/Information Specialists also assist educators in developing lessons to meet Sunshine State and national curriculum standards.

Morales, Lester

2012-01-01

346

Second tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) ground terminal - STGT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STGT will provide high availability command and control and improved services to users of NASA's Space Network in the 1990s and beyond. The Space Network, comprising the TDRSS, will be the primary communications gateway for Space Station Freedom and other user's spacecraft and their ground support elements. The STGT will contain a redundant, distributed computer system providing configuration and control of redundant RF to baseband equipment chains for throughput of user data, for user tracking services and for control and monitoring of the TDR Satellites. An interface with NASA's Network Control Center, located at the Goddard Space Flight Center, provides automated scheduling and control of the STGT. A local TDRSS Operations Control Center for local monitoring and back-up control and an interface with the Domestic Satellite for data distribution will be provided by the STGT. This paper describes the STGT, with emphasis on configuration, control and monitoring of those elements providing TDRSS services to user spacecraft.

Berndt, Allen K.; Lowe, Dawn R.

1992-01-01

347

Status of frequency and time support for NASA systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has frequency and timing systems at many facilities and centers. Timing systems with specifications tighter than several microseconds are covered. These ground based systems support scientific experiments and spacecraft tracking for the following programs; NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (NSLR); Network Mission Operations Support (NMOS); Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI); Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ground Terminal Network; and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Major equipment assemblies, specifications, performance, and requirements, both present and future, are presented.

Kuhnle, Paul F.; Kushmeider, Paul J.; Wardrip, S. Clark

1994-01-01

348

Articulated Space Station controllability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Reference Space Station design under consideration by NASA will contain several articular components, notably solar arrays and radiators. A technique to model articulation for use in determining Space Station controllability is described. The technique involves treating each articular component as a rigid free body, subject to the constraint of being attached to the Space Station proper. Because of the relatively large areas associated with some of the articular components, the resulting aerodynamics and solar radiation pressure induced forces and torques are shown to be significant. The effects of articulation on Space Station controllability as compared to the non-articulated rigid-body model are demonstrated. Plots of control forces and torques required to maintain orbital altitude and vehicle attitude are presented.

Heck, M. L.; Deryder, L. J.; Orr, L. H.

1985-01-01

349

Makin' Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make plaster casts of an animal track to learn more about animals and animal behavior. Learners can use real animal tracks found outdoors or rubber track molds if conducted indoors. This lesson guide includes discussion questions, extensions/simplifications, and helpful hints.

Huff, Paula R.

2005-01-01

350

Ship Tracks  

article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

2013-04-19

351

Space station: A step into the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station is an essential element of NASA's ongoing program to recover from the loss of the Challenger and to regain for the United States its position of leadership in space. The Space Station Program has made substantial progress and some of the major efforts undertaken are discussed briefly. A few of the Space Station policies which have shaped the program are reviewed. NASA is dedicated to building a Station that, in serving science, technology, and commerce assured the United States a future in space as exciting and rewarding as the past. In cooperation with partners in the industry and abroad, the intent is to develop a Space Station that is intellectually productive, technically demanding, and genuinely useful.

Stofan, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

352

Working at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the author's educational and work background prior to working at NASA. It then presents an overview of NASA Dryden, a brief review of the author's projects while working at NASA, and some closing thoughts.

Harding, Adam

2010-01-01

353

77 FR 38678 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADDRESSES: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC...W. Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Directorate...Center's Commercial Space Activities and Plans...Mission to International Space Station --Joint Session with the NAC Human Exploration and Operations...

2012-06-28

354

STRS Radio Service Software for NASA's SCaN Testbed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Space Communication and Navigation(SCaN) Testbed was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The objective is to promote new software defined radio technologies and associated software application reuse, enabled by this first flight of...

D. J. Mortensen D. T. Chelmins D. W. Bishop

2012-01-01

355

Students Speak With NASA Astronaut Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASAâ??s International Space Station Mission Control Center NASA astronaut Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Heritage Middle S...

356

NASA Strategic Roadmap Summary Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Vision, NASA commissioned strategic and capability roadmap teams to develop the pathways for turning the Vision into a reality. The strategic roadmaps were derived from the Vision for Space Exploration and the Aldrich Commission Report dated June 2004. NASA identified 12 strategic areas for roadmapping. The Agency added a thirteenth area on nuclear systems because the topic affects the entire program portfolio. To ensure long-term public visibility and engagement, NASA established a committee for each of the 13 areas. These committees - made up of prominent members of the scientific and aerospace industry communities and senior government personnel - worked under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. A committee was formed for each of the following program areas: 1) Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration; 2) Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; 3) Solar System Exploration; 4) Search for Earth-Like Planets; 5) Exploration Transportation System; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Universe Exploration; 9) Earth Science and Applications from Space; 10) Sun-Solar System Connection; 11) Aeronautical Technologies; 12) Education; 13) Nuclear Systems. This document contains roadmap summaries for 10 of these 13 program areas; The International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Education are excluded. The completed roadmaps for the following committees: Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; Solar System Exploration; Search for Earth-Like Planets; Universe Exploration; Earth Science and Applications from Space; Sun-Solar System Connection are collected in a separate Strategic Roadmaps volume. This document contains memebership rosters and charters for all 13 committees.

Wilson, Scott; Bauer, Frank; Stetson, Doug; Robey, Judee; Smith, Eric P.; Capps, Rich; Gould, Dana; Tanner, Mike; Guerra, Lisa; Johnston, Gordon

2005-01-01

357

Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

1996-01-01

358

NASA Metrication Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

P. N. Vlannes

1978-01-01

359

Space Images for NASA/JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

2010-01-01

360

NASA Oceanic Processes Program, fiscal year 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments, activities, and plans are highlighted for studies of ocean circulation, air sea interaction, ocean productivity, and sea ice. Flight projects discussed include TOPEX, the ocean color imager, the advanced RF tracking system, the NASA scatterometer, and the pilot ocean data system. Over 200 papers generated by the program are listed.

Nelson, R. M. (editor); Pieri, D. C. (editor)

1984-01-01

361

ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project invested heavily in prototype Ka-band satellite ground terminals to conduct an experiments program with the ACTS satellite. The ACTS experiment's program proposed to validate Ka-band satellite and ground station technology. demonstrate future telecommunication services. demonstrate commercial viability and market acceptability of these new services, evaluate system networking and processing technology, and characterize Ka-band propagation effects, including development of techniques to mitigate signal fading. This paper will present a summary of the fixed ground terminals developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners, emphasizing the technology and performance of the terminals (Part 1) and the lessons learned throughout their six year operation including the inclined orbit phase of operations (Full Report). An overview of the Ka-band technology and components developed for the ACTS ground stations is presented. Next. the performance of the ground station technology and its evolution during the ACTS campaign are discussed to illustrate the technical tradeoffs made during the program and highlight technical advances by industry to support the ACTS experiments program and terminal operations. Finally. lessons learned during development and operation of the user terminals are discussed for consideration of commercial adoption into future Ka-band systems. The fixed ground stations used for experiments by government, academic, and commercial entities used reflector based offset-fed antenna systems ranging in size from 0.35m to 3.4m antenna diameter. Gateway earth stations included two systems, referred to as the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). The NGS provides tracking, telemetry, and control (TT&C) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) network control functions. The LET supports technology verification and high data rate experiments. The ground stations successfully demonstrated many services and applications at Ka-band in three different modes of operation: circuit switched TDMA using the satellite on-board processor, satellite switched SS-TDMA applications using the on-board Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM), and conventional transponder (bent-pipe) operation. Data rates ranged from 4.8 kbps up to 622 Mbps. Experiments included: 1) low rate (4.8- 1 00's kbps) remote data acquisition and control using small earth stations, 2) moderate rate (1-45 Mbps) experiments included full duplex voice and video conferencing and both full duplex and asymmetric data rate protocol and network evaluation using mid-size ground stations, and 3) link characterization experiments and high data rate (155-622 Mbps) terrestrial and satellite interoperability application experiments conducted by a consortium of experimenters using the large transportable ground stations.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

2000-01-01

362

Quantifying and Improving International Space Station Survivability Following Orbital Debris Penetration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increase of the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit has prompted NASA to develop analytical tools for quantifying and lowering the likelihood of crew loss following orbital debris penetration of the International Space Station (ISS). NASA us...

J. Williamsen H. Evans B. Bohl S. Evans

2001-01-01

363

OSSA Space Station waste inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

1987-01-01

364

Concrete: Potential material for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

Lin, T. D.

1992-01-01

365

Payload Flight Assignments: NASA Mixed Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manifest summarizes the missions planned by NASA for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's) as of the date of publication. Space Shuttle and ELV missions are shown through calendar year 2003. Space Shuttle missions for calendar years 2002-2003 are under review pending the resolution of details in the assembly sequence of the International Space Station (ISS).

Parker, Robert A. R.

1997-01-01

366

NASA Data Acquisitions System (NDAS) Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NDAS Software Project is for the development of common low speed data acquisition system software to support NASA's rocket propulsion testing facilities at John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Plum Brook Station (PBS), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

Davis, Dawn; Duncan, Michael; Franzl, Richard; Holladay, Wendy; Marshall, Peggi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark

2012-01-01

367

NASA's Astronant Family Support Office  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the NASA-Mir program of the 1990s and due to the challenges inherent in the International Space Station training schedule and operations tempo, it was clear that a special focus on supporting families was a key to overall mission success for the ISS crewmembers pre-, in- and post-flight. To that end, in January 2001 the first Family Services Coordinator was hired by the Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA JSC and matrixed from Medical Operations into the Astronaut Office's organization. The initial roles and responsibilities were driven by critical needs, including facilitating family communication during training deployments, providing mission-specific and other relevant trainings for spouses, serving as liaison for families with NASA organizations such as Medical Operations, NASA management and the Astronaut Office, and providing assistance to ensure success of an Astronaut Spouses Group. The role of the Family Support Office (FSO) has modified as the ISS Program matured and the needs of families changed. The FSO is currently an integral part of the Astronaut Office's ISS Operations Branch. It still serves the critical function of providing information to families, as well as being the primary contact for US and international partner families with resources at JSC. Since crews launch and return on Russian vehicles, the FSO has the added responsibility for coordinating with Flight Crew Operations, the families, and their guests for Soyuz launches, landings, and Direct Return to Houston post-flight. This presentation will provide a summary of the family support services provided for astronauts, and how they have changed with the Program and families the FSO serves. Considerations for future FSO services will be discussed briefly as NASA proposes one year missions and beyond ISS missions. Learning Objective: 1) Obtain an understanding of the reasons a Family Support Office was important for NASA. 2) Become familiar with the services provided for astronauts and their families and how they changed with the Program and family needs.

Beven, Gary; Curtis, Kelly D.; Holland, Al W.; Sipes, Walter; VanderArk, Steve

2014-01-01

368

Continuous Risk Management at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

1999-01-01

369

Science@NASA: Direct to People!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science@NASA is a science communication effort sponsored by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. It is the result of a four year research project between Marshall, the University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications and the internet communications company, Bishop Web Works. The goals of Science@NASA are to inform, inspire, and involve people in the excitement of NASA science by bringing that science directly to them. We stress not only the reporting of the facts of a particular topic, but also the context and importance of the research. Science@NASA involves several levels of activity from academic communications research to production of content for 6 websites, in an integrated process involving all phases of production. A Science Communications Roundtable Process is in place that includes scientists, managers, writers, editors, and Web technical experts. The close connection between the scientists and the writers/editors assures a high level of scientific accuracy in the finished products. The websites each have unique characters and are aimed at different audience segments: 1. http://science.nasa.gov. (SNG) Carries stories featuring various aspects of NASA science activity. The site carries 2 or 3 new stories each week in written and audio formats for science-attentive adults. 2. http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov. Features stories from SNG that are recast for a high school level audience. J-Track and J-Pass applets for tracking satellites are our most popular product. 3. http://kids. msfc.nasa.gov. This is the Nursemaids site and is aimed at a middle school audience. The NASAKids Club is a new feature at the site. 4. http://www.thursdaysclassroom.com . This site features lesson plans and classroom activities for educators centered around one of the science stories carried on SNG. 5. http://www.spaceweather.com. This site gives the status of solar activity and its interactions with the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

Koczor, Ronald J.; Adams, Mitzi; Gallagher, Dennis; Whitaker, Ann (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

370

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

371

Space station ventilation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

1972-01-01

372

Lewis Investigates Frequency Sharing Between Future NASA Space Systems and Local Multipoint Distribution Systems in the 27-GHz Band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the NASA Lewis Research Center undertook an intensive study to examine the feasibility of frequency sharing between future NASA space services and proposed Local Multipoint Distribution Systems (LMDS) in the 25.25- to 27.5-GHz band. This follows NASA's earlier involvement in the FCC's 1994 Negotiated Rule Making Committee which studied frequency sharing between Ka-band Fixed Satellite Services and LMDS in the 27.5- to 29.5-GHz band. LMDS is a terrestrial, cellular, wireless communication service primarily intended to provide television distribution from hub stations located within relatively small cells to fixed subscriber receivers. Some proposed systems, however, also plan to offer interactive services via subscriber-to-hub transmissions. LMDS providers anticipate that their systems will be a cost-effective alternative to cable television systems, especially in urban areas. LMDS proponents have expressed an interest in using frequencies below 27.5 GHz. NASA, however, plans to operate three types of space systems below 27.5 GHz. The H, I, and J follow-on satellites for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which are planned for launch beginning in 1999, are designed to receive high-data-rate transmissions (up to 800 Mbps) from low-Earth orbiting "user" spacecraft in the 25.25- to 27.5-GHz band. In this case, the potential interference is the aggregate interference from LMDS transmitters (both hubs and subscribers) into the TDRSS tracking receive beams as they sweep over the Earth's surface while tracking lower altitude user spacecraft.

1997-01-01

373

9. VIEW OF CAMERA STATIONS UNDER CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING CAMERA CAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF CAMERA STATIONS UNDER CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING CAMERA CAR ON RAILROAD TRACK AND FIXED CAMERA STATION 1400 (BUILDING NO. 42021) ABOVE, ADJACENT TO STATE HIGHWAY 39, LOOKING WEST, March 23, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Stations, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

374

ISS Update: Science Aboard the Station â?? 10.26.12  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with Tara Ruttley, Associate Program Scientist for International Space Station, about some of the science experiments performed by the Expedition 33...

375

NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

Miller, Robert D.

2007-01-01

376

Space Station - Infrastructure for radiation measurements in low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general configuration, development schedule, and capabilities of the NASA International Space Station are reviewed, with an emphasis on the possibilities for long-term measurements of high-energy cosmic and secondary radiation from the main Station spacecraft, coorbiting or polar-orbit platforms, or Station-supported GEO satellites. Also outlined are the organizational structure and the application procedures to be followed by potential users of the Station facilities. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

Meredith, B. D.

1989-01-01

377

Design and Development of a Space Station Hazardous Material System for Assessing Chemical Compatibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Space Station nears reality in funding support from Congress, NASA plans to perform over a hundred different missions in the coming decade. Incrementally deployed, the Space Station will evolve into modules linked to an integral structure. Each mod...

R. T. Congo

1990-01-01

378

Fraction Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet provides a visual model to help students compare fractions and understand equivalent fractions. The applet displays eight fraction tracks (unit number lines) divided into fractional increments from halves to twelfths. The user turns over cards displaying fractions and moves sliders on the tracks a distance equal to or less than the target fractions. The goal is to move all the sliders to the end of each fraction track in the least number of moves.

2009-01-01

379

Analysis of SPOT2 DORIS tracking data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an analysis of two sets of SPOT-2 DORIS tracking data (two weeks in 1990 and twelve weeks in 1992) are presented. The analysis focuses on the assessment of the overall quality of the tracking data, optimization of the data processing models, and computation of precise SPOT-2 orbits and accurate coordinates of the ground stations. It is shown that

D. C. Kuijper; B. A. C. Ambrosius; R. Noomen; K. F. Wakker

1992-01-01

380

Tracking Mobile Users in Wireless Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking strategies for mobile wireless networks are studied. We assume a cellulararchitecture where base stations that are interconnected by a wired network communicatewith mobile units via wireless links. Previous works focused on the cost of utilizing thewired links for management of directories. In this paper, the issue considered is thecost of utilizing the wireless links for the actual tracking of

Amotz Bar-noy; Ilan Kessler

1993-01-01

381

NASA ISS EarthKam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ISS EarthKam (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students) "is a NASA sponsored program that provides stunning, high quality photographs of our planet taken" by middle-school students from the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. Visitors can view Macromedia Flash Player and PowerPoint slide shows displaying the highlights of the program and a collection of amazing images. The website offers summaries of the latest, past, and future station missions. Users can explore the thousands of images collected by EarthKam via an online database or by a sequence of image collections. Educators and students will discover many activities, tutorials, guides, and other instructional materials that use EarthKam images to address scientific concepts.

382

The NASA Fireball Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the summer of 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office (MEO) began to establish a video fireball network, based on the following objectives: (1) determine the speed distribution of cm size meteoroids, (2) determine the major sources of cm size meteoroids (showers/sporadic sources), (3) characterize meteor showers (numbers, magnitudes, trajectories, orbits), (4) determine the size at which showers dominate the meteor flux, (5) discriminate between re-entering space debris and meteors, and 6) locate meteorite falls. In order to achieve the above with the limited resources available to the MEO, it was necessary that the network function almost fully autonomously, with very little required from humans in the areas of upkeep or analysis. With this in mind, the camera design and, most importantly, the ASGARD meteor detection software were adopted from the University of Western Ontario's Southern Ontario Meteor Network (SOMN), as NASA has a cooperative agreement with Western's Meteor Physics Group. 15 cameras have been built, and the network now consists of 8 operational cameras, with at least 4 more slated for deployment in calendar year 2013. The goal is to have 15 systems, distributed in two or more groups east of automatic analysis; every morning, this server also automatically generates an email and a web page (http://fireballs.ndc.nasa.gov) containing an automated analysis of the previous night's events. This analysis provides the following for each meteor: UTC date and time, speed, start and end locations (longitude, latitude, altitude), radiant, shower identification, light curve (meteor absolute magnitude as a function of time), photometric mass, orbital elements, and Tisserand parameter. Radiant/orbital plots and various histograms (number versus speed, time, etc) are also produced. After more than four years of operation, over 5,000 multi-station fireballs have been observed, 3 of which potentially dropped meteorites. A database containing data on all these events, including the videos and calibration information, has been developed and is being modified to include data from the SOMN and other camera networks.

Cooke, William J.

2013-01-01

383

Proceedings of the 2nd NASA Ada User's Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several presentations, mostly in viewgraph form, on various topics relating to Ada applications are given. Topics covered include the use of Ada in NASA, Ada and the Space Station, the software support environment, Ada in the Software Engineering Laboratory, Ada at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Flight Telerobotic Servicer, and lessons learned in prototyping the Space Station Remote Manipulator System control.

1989-01-01

384

NASA: Compliance With Cost Limits Cannot Be Verified.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 202 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (P.L. 106-391) limits the agency's obligations, through substantial completion of the space station, to $25 billion for space station developm...

2002-01-01

385

High Speed A/D DSP Interface for Carrier Doppler Tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As on-board satellite systems continue to increase in ability to perform self diagnostic checks, it will become more important for satellites to initiate ground communications contact. Currently, the NASA Space Network requires users to pre-arranged times for satellite communications links through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). One of the challenges in implementing an on-demand access protocol into the Space Network, is the fact that a low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite's communications will be subject to a doppler shift which is outside the capability of the NASA ground station to lock onto. In a prearranged system, the satellite's doppler is known a priori, and the ground station is able to lock onto the satellite's signal. This paper describes the development of a high speed analog to digital interface into a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). This system will be used for identifying the doppler shift of a LEO satellite through the Space Network, and aiding the ground station equipment in locking onto the signal. Although this interface is specific to one application, it can be used as a basis for interfacing other devices with a DSP.

Baggett, Timothy

1998-01-01

386

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-01-01

387

Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

2003-01-01

388

Five major NASA health and safety issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal has been set to establish NASA as number one in safety in the nation. This includes Systems and Mission Safety as well as Occupational Safety for all NASA employees and contractors on and off the job. There are five major health and safety issues important in the pursuit of being number one and they are: (1) Radiation (2) Hearing (3) Habitability/Toxicology (4) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (5) Stress. The issues have features of accumulated injury since NASA's future missions involve long time human presence in space i.e., International Space Station operations and Mars missions. The objective of this paper is to discuss these five issues in terms of controlling risks and enhancing health and safety. Safety metrics are discussed in terms of the overall goal of NASA to be number one in safety. .

Gavert, Raymond B.

2000-01-01

389

NASA Report to Education, Volume 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an edition of 'NASA Report to Education' covering NASA's Educational Workshop, Lewis Research Center's T-34 and the Space Exploration Initiative. The first segment shows NASA Education Workshop program (NEWEST - NASA Educational Workshops for Elementary School Teachers). Highlights of the 14 days of intense training, lectures, fieldtrips and simple projects that the educators went through to teach the program are included. Participants are shown working on various projects such as the electromagnetic spectrum, living in Space Station Freedom, experience in T-34, tour of tower at the Federal Aviation Administrative Facilities, conducting an egg survival system and an interactive video conference with astronaut Story Musgrave. Participants share impressions of the workshop. The second segment tells how Lewis Research Center's T-34 aircraft is used to promote aerospace education in several Cleveland schools and excite students.

1991-01-01

390

GENERAL: Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of “pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track". The other is the scheme of “two tracks play the same role". We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.

Xun, Jing; Ning, Bin; Li, Ke-Ping

2009-04-01

391

Tracking Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust tracking and segmentation of faces is a prerequi- site for face analysis and recognition. In this paper, we de- scribe an approach to this problem which is well suited to surveillance applications with poorly constrained viewing conditions. It integrates motion-based tracking with model- based face detection to produce segmented face sequences from complex scenes containing several people. The motion

Stephen J. Mckenna; Shaogang Gong

1996-01-01

392

NASA EarthKAM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle schools) enables students, teachers, and the public to learn about Earth via photographs taken from space. This growing collection of Earth images come from middle school students around the world who used the Internet to target areas of Earth to be photographed with a digital camera onboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. These images are available to everyone through a user-friendly data system. Users can search for images of the earth by geographic area, feature, country, mission or school. The collection is wide reaching, and includes land features, water, atmospheric systems, and human impacts. Middle schools (grades 5-8) can apply to join the EarthKAM Community. Community schools use the EarthKAM images in inquiry-based investigations and can even become Flight Certified, which enables them to take their own images of Earth from space. Also included is a section for educators, which provides tips and guides on how to incorporate these images into daily lessons.

Edwards, Teon

2000-09-01

393

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

1995-01-01

394

Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport\\/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior

Gale R. Sundberg

1990-01-01

395

Boeing: International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

396

Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

1995-01-01

397

Using Computer Graphics to Design Space Station Freedom Viewing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirement...

B. S. Goldsberry B. O. Lippert S. D. Mckee J. L. Lewis F. E. Mount

1993-01-01

398

Administrator Bolden Talks to Station Crew on 10th Anniversary  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden talks with the Expedition 25 crew on board the International Space Station on November 2, marking the tenth anniversary of continuous human presence on the orbitin...

399

ISS Update: ISS Flight Director Royce Renfrew Talks Station "Stuff"  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Space Station Flight Director Royce Renfrew, who talks about ISS crew activities, Robonaut, ATV-3 cargo and other "stuff." Questions? Ask us on...

400

An active K/Ka-band antenna array for the NASA ACTS mobile terminal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active K/Ka-band antenna array is currently under development for NASA's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT). The AMT task will demonstrate voice, data, and video communications to and from the AMT vehicle in Los Angeles, California, and a base station in Cleveland, Ohio, via the ACTS satellite at 30 and 20 GHz. Satellite tracking for the land-mobile vehicular antenna system involves 'mechanical dithering' of the antenna, where the antenna radiates a fixed beam 46 deg. above the horizon. The antenna is to transmit horizontal polarization and receive vertical polarization at 29.634 plus or minus 0.15 GHz and 19.914 plus or minus 0.15 GHz, respectively. The active array will provide a minimum of 22 dBW EIRP transmit power density and a -8 dB/K deg. receive sensitivity.

Tulintseff, A.; Crist, R.; Densmore, Art; Sukamto, L.

1993-01-01

401

NASA's unique networking environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1988-01-01

402

An approach to design knowledge capture for the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of NASA's space station has begun. During the design cycle, and after activation of the space station, the reoccurring need will exist to access not only designs, but also deeper knowledge about the designs, which is only hinted in the design definition. Areas benefiting from this knowledge include training, fault management, and onboard automation. NASA's Artificial Intelligence Office at Johnson Space Center and The MITRE Corporation have conceptualized an approach for capture and storage of design knowledge.

Wechsler, D. B.; Crouse, K. R.

1986-01-01

403

Factor Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem helps learners improve their knowledge of factors, especially those in the usual multiplication tables, and encourages the problem solving strategy of trial and error. The goal of the game is to go around the track in as few moves as possible, keeping to the rules that a player can move any number of spaces which is a factor of the number the player is on, except 1. There is a "training" track to play on initially to see the rules in action and then a more complicated track for players to use. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2011-06-01

404

International Polar Year Observations From the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have several opportunities each day to observe and document high-latitude phenomena. Although lighting conditions, ground track and other viewing parameters change with orbital precessions and season, the 51.6 degree orbital inclination and 400 km altitude of the ISS provide the crew an excellent vantage point for collecting image-based data for IPY investigators. To date, the database of imagery acquired by the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) experiment aboard the ISS (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) contains more than 12,000 images of high latitude (above 50 degrees) events such as aurora, mesospheric clouds, sea-ice, high-latitude plankton blooms, volcanic eruptions, and snow cover. The ISS Program will formally participate in IPY through an activity coordinated through CEO entitled Synchronized Observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds, Aurora and Other Large-scale Polar Phenomena from the ISS and Ground Sites. The activity will augment the existing collection of Earth images taken from the ISS by focusing astronaut observations on polar phenomena. NASA s CEO experiment will solicit requests by IPY investigators for ISS observations that are coordinated with or complement ground-based polar studies. The CEO imagery website (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) will provide an on-line form for IPY investigators to interact with CEO scientists and define their imagery requests. This information will be integrated into daily communications with the ISS crews about their Earth Observations targets. All data collected will be cataloged and posted on the website for downloading and assimilation into IPY projects.

Pettit, Donald R.; Runco, Susan; Byrne, Gregory; Willis, Kim; Heydorn, James; Stefanov, William L.; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Trenchard, Michael

2006-01-01

405

International Polar Year Observations From the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have several opportunities each day to observe and document high-latitude phenomena. Although lighting conditions, ground track and other viewing parameters change with orbital precessions and season, the 51.6 degree orbital inclination and 400 km altitude of the ISS provide the crew an excellent vantage point for collecting image-based data for IPY investigators. To date, the database of imagery acquired by the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) experiment aboard the ISS (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) contains more than 12,000 images of high latitude (above 50 degrees) events such as aurora, mesospheric clouds, sea-ice, high-latitude plankton blooms, volcanic eruptions, and snow cover. The ISS Program will formally participate in IPY through an activity coordinated through CEO entitled "Synchronized Observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds, Aurora and Other Large-scale Polar Phenomena from the ISS and Ground Sites". The activity will augment the existing collection of Earth images taken from the ISS by focusing astronaut observations on polar phenomena. NASA's CEO experiment will solicit requests by IPY investigators for ISS observations that are coordinated with or complement ground-based polar studies. The CEO imagery website (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) will provide an on-line form for IPY investigators to interact with CEO scientists and define their imagery requests. This information will be integrated into daily communications with the ISS crews about their Earth Observations targets. All data collected will be cataloged and posted on the website for downloading and assimilation into IPY projects.

Evans, C. A.; Pettit, D. R.; Runco, S.; Byrne, G.; Willis, K.; Heydorn, J.; Stefanov, W. L.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Trenchard, M.

2006-12-01

406

Nasa Publications Manual 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various types of NASA publications are described, including formal series, contributions to external publications, informal papers, and supplementary report material. The physical appearance and reproduction procedures for the format of the NASA forma...

1974-01-01

407

NASA Aeronautics Research Onboard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from NASA, learn some of the ways in which NASA's research has improved the safety, efficiency, and performance of aviation aircraft—from cockpit designs to the grooves on the runway.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-11-01

408

Nasa Geodynamics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

1984-01-01

409

Building 1100--NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

1996-01-01

410

#NASATweetup @NASA_Langley  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

411

NASA strategic plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

1994-01-01

412

The NASA Organization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Handbook, effective 13 September 1994, documents the NASA organization, defines terms, and sets forth the policy and requirements for establishing, modifying, and documenting the NASA organizational structure and for assigning organizational responsibilities.

1994-01-01

413

Chemical Engineering at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

Collins, Jacob

2008-01-01

414

NASA Geodynamics Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

1984-01-01

415

NASA Television Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online television schedule provides listings of NASA's televised programming, including mission coverage, educational shows, and historical programs. A link is provided to a list of organizations that transmit NASA television to the World Wide Web.

416

Rover Tracks at Crater's Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracks left by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it traveled along the rim of Victoria Crater can be seen clearly in this image taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.

This is a subframe of a larger image that the camera acquired on June 26, 2007. The larger image will be released as HiRISE catalogue number PSP_004289_1780 after geometric processing.

Opportunity first approached Victoria Crater at an alcove informally named 'Duck Bay' (see tracks at left). It then drove along the crater's sinuous edge in a clockwise direction before heading back to Duck Bay, where it is expected to enter the crater in early July 2007.

2007-01-01

417

Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard

2012-01-01

418

NASA Propagation Studies Website  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA propagation studies objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite communication systems and services by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals through the intervening environment and to support NASA missions. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages unique NASA assets (currently Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through referred journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

Angkasa, Krisjani S.

1996-01-01

419

Satellite laser station Helwan status 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Satellite Laser Station Helwan has been operated jointly by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in Helwan, Egypt and the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czechslovakia. The station components have been carefully tuned to increase the systems overall stability and reliability critical for the remote location. The mount correction model based on the Gaussian smoothing has been implemented to simplify the blind satellite acquisition and tracking. The on-site normal points generation algorithm has been implemented, the station has been connected to the international information network. The ERS-1 satellite has been included into the tracking schedule. The station range capability has been verified by experimental Etalon 1 ranging by April 1992. The ranging precision of 2-3 centimeters is obtained when ranging to ERS-1, Starlette, and Lageos satellites.

Cech, M.; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Novotny, Antonin; Prochazka, Ivan; Baghos, B. B.; Helali, Y.; Tawadros, M. J.

1993-01-01

420

Sky Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While satellites are the current backbone of telecommunications and wireless infrastructure, the company that maintains this Web site envisions a completely new technology. The Stratospheric Telecommunications Service (STS) relies on "lighter-than-air platforms which are held in a geo-stationary position in the stratosphere (approximately 21Km) over a major metropolitan area." The Sky Station company documents much of the STS theory online, as well as maintaining news and information articles about the progress of the system's development. US and international organizations have already reserved some of the radio frequency spectrum for stratospheric platforms, and it seems to have considerable support from important agencies.

1997-01-01

421

Fraction Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This applet allows students to individually practice working with relationships among fractions and ways of combining fractions. For a two person version of this applet see the Fraction Track E-Example." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-05-12

422

NASA Programs and IYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) has embraced the opportunity presented by the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009, to take the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics to students, educators and the public worldwide. NASA is an Organizational Associate of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) IYA 2009 program, and as an integral component of

Hashima Hasan; D. Smith

2009-01-01

423

NASA IYA Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) launched a variety of programs to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009. A few examples will be presented to demonstrate how the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics has been given an IYA2009 flavor and made available to students, educators and the public worldwide. NASA participated in

Hashima Hasan; D. Smith

2009-01-01

424

History at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

1986-01-01

425

NASA's educational programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

Brown, Robert W.

1990-01-01

426

Flux at NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA sponsors a wide variety of astronomical missions and research programs. How have these missions and research programs come to be part of the NASA portfolio? We will discuss the NASA strategic planning process and the astronomical community's role in it.

Smith, E. P.

2005-12-01

427

The NASA Clinic System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA maintains on site occupational health clinics at all Centers and major facilities NASA maintains an on-site clinic that offers comprehensive health care to astronauts at the Johnson Space Center NASA deploys limited health care capability to space and extreme environments Focus is always on preventive health care

Scarpa, Philip J.; Williams, Richard

2009-01-01

428

NASA Home page  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has a new Internet World Wide Web home page designed to inform the public about NASA activities. Home page sections include Goddard missions, space sciences, Earth sciences, Goddard organizations, the newsroom, public services and information, and education. The home page is available at URL: http://pao.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc.html.

429

Predictive momentum management for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station control moment gyro momentum management is addressed by posing a deterministic optimization problem with a performance index that includes station external torque loading, gyro control torque demand, and excursions from desired reference attitudes. It is shown that a simple analytic desired attitude solution exists for all axes with pitch prescription decoupled, but roll and yaw coupled. Continuous gyro desaturation is shown to fit neatly into the scheme. Example results for pitch axis control of the NASA power tower Space Station are shown based on predictive attitude prescription. Control effector loading is shown to be reduced by this method when compared to more conventional momentum management techniques.

Hatis, P. D.

1986-01-01

430

Space program: Space debris a potential threat to Space Station and shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experts estimate that more than 3.5 million man-made objects are orbiting the earth. These objects - space debris - include whole and fragmentary parts of rocket bodies and other discarded equipment from space missions. About 24,500 of these objects are 1 centimeter across or larger. A 1-centimeter man-made object travels in orbit at roughly 22,000 miles per hour. If it hit a spacecraft, it would do about the same damage as would a 400-pound safe traveling at 60 miles per hour. The Government Accounting Office (GAO) reviews NASA's plans for protecting the space station from debris, the extent and precision of current NASA and Defense Department (DOD) debris-tracking capabilities, and the extent to which debris has already affected shuttle operations. GAO recommends that the space debris model be updated, and that the findings be incorporated into the plans for protecting the space station from such debris. GAO further recommends that the increased risk from debris to the space shuttle operations be analyzed.

Schwartz, Stephen A.; Beers, Ronald W.; Phillips, Colleen M.; Ramos, Yvette

1990-01-01

431

Integration of a tracking laser range camera with the photogrammetry-based space vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the most up-to-date experimental results obtained during the integration of a 3D Laser Scanner Tracking System and the current Space Vision System used by NASA. Half scale models of modules of the Space Station Freedom have been built for this demonstration and comparison between the current method using video cameras and the Laser Scanner System are presented. The variable resolution laser scanner can track, in real time, targets and geometrical features of an object. The Laser Scanner System uses two high-speed galvanometers and a collimated laser beam to address individual targets on the object. Very high-resolution images and excellent tracking accuracy are obtained using Lissajous figures that provide high pointing accuracy of a laser beam. The prototype automatically searches and tracks, in 3D, targets attached to the object. The locations of the centroid of the detected targets are fed directly into the existing photosolution and attitude control modules of the Space Vision System.

Blais, Francois; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Cournoyer, Luc; Christie, I.; Serafini, R.; Mason, K.; McCarthy, S.; Goodall, C.

2000-07-01

432

NASA Team Collaboration Pilot: Enabling NASA's Virtual Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most NASA projects and work activities are accomplished by teams of people. These teams are often geographically distributed - across NASA centers and NASA external partners, both domestic and international. NASA 'virtual' teams are stressed by the challe...

S. Prahst

2003-01-01

433

Trends in Space Station telemetry applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft telemetry systems have evolved from simple hardware devices to complex computer applications performing data acquisition and formatting tasks. This paper reviews the role of spacecraft computers in performing telemetry functions and examines computer-based telemetry systems being considered for use on the NASA Space Station.

Muratore, John F.

1987-01-01

434

Transporting the International Space Station Truss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 45-foot, port-side (P1) truss segment flight article for the International Space Station is being transported to the Redstone Airfield, Marshall Space Flight Center. The truss will be loaded aboard NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center.

2000-01-01

435

International Space Station Power System Model Validated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) is a computer model of the International Space Station's (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This uniquely integrated, detailed model can predict EPS capability, assess EPS performance during a given mission with a specified load demand, conduct what-if studies, and support on-orbit anomaly resolution.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Delleur, Ann M.

2002-01-01

436

A Space Based Internet Protocol System for Sub-Orbital Tracking and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia are responsible for the overall management of the NASA Sounding Rocket Program. Payloads are generally in support of NASA's Space Science Enterprise's missions and return a variety of scientific data as well as providing a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft. The fifteen types of sounding rockets used by NASA can carry payloads of various weights to altitudes from 50 km to more than 1,300 km. Launch activities are conducted not only from established missile ranges, but also from remote locations worldwide requiring mobile tracking and command equipment to be transported and set up at considerable expense. The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce tracking and control costs of launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating this ground infrastructure. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initiated from practically any location. A low cost Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) system is currently under development for sounding rockets which also has application to UAVs and scientific balloons. Due to relatively low data rate (9600 baud) currently available, the system will first be used to provide GPS data for tracking and vehicle recovery. Range safety requirements for launch vehicles usually stipulate at least two independent tracking sources. Most sounding rockets flown by NASA now carry GPS receivers that output position data via the payload telemetry system to the ground station. The Flight Modem can be configured as a completely separate link thereby eliminating requirement for tracking radar. The system architecture which integrates antennas, GPS receiver, commercial satellite packet data modem, and a single board computer with custom software is described along with the technical challenges and the plan for their resolution. These include antenna development, high Doppler rates, reliability, environmental ruggedness, hand over between satellites and data security. An aggressive test plan is included which in addition to environmental testing measures bit error rate, latency and antenna patterns. Actual flight tests are planned for the near future on aircraft, long duration balloons and sounding rockets and these results as well as the current status of the project are reported.

Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Morgan, Dwayne; Streich, Ron; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

437

An advanced power system component test bed module for testing advanced technology at the space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of a study undertaken for the NASA-LeRC on an advanced power system component testbed designed to be attached to the space station. The study was a continuation of NASA's efforts to identify and exploit the benefits of the space station to provide a platform for science and technology development. A candidate set of advanced technology experiments

J. E. Dixon; S. Lenhart; P. Waterman; W. Wallin

1989-01-01

438

Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station configuration concepts are defined to meet the NASA Headquarters Concept Development Group (CDG) requirements. Engineering and programmatic data are produced on these concepts suitable for NASA and industry dissemination. A data base is developed for input to the CDG's evaluation of generic Space Station configurations and for use in the critique of the CDG's generic configuration evaluation process.

1983-01-01

439

Sub-Nanosecond Clock Synchronization and Precision Deep Space Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interferometric spacecraft tracking is accomplished at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) by comparing the arrival time of electromagnetic spacecraft signals to ground antennas separated by baselines on the order of 8000 km. Clock synchronization errors wi...

C. Dunn S. Lichten D. Jefferson J. S. Border

1992-01-01

440

STEREO Tracks Solar Storms From Sun To Earth  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's STEREO spacecraft and new data processing techniques have succeeded in tracking space weather events from their origin in the sun's corona to impact with the Earth, resolving a 40-year myste...

441

Software Defined GPS Receiver for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL is providing a software defined radio (SDR) that will fly on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the CoNNeCT project under NASA's SCaN program. The SDR consists of several modules including a Baseband Processor Module (BPM) and a GPS Module (GPSM). The BPM executes applications (waveforms) consisting of software components for the embedded SPARC processor and logic for two Virtex II Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that operate on data received from the GPSM. GPS waveforms on the SDR are enabled by an L-Band antenna, low noise amplifier (LNA), and the GPSM that performs quadrature downconversion at L1, L2, and L5. The GPS waveform for the JPL SDR will acquire and track L1 C/A, L2C, and L5 GPS signals from a CoNNeCT platform on ISS, providing the best GPS-based positioning of ISS achieved to date, the first use of multiple frequency GPS on ISS, and potentially the first L5 signal tracking from space. The system will also enable various radiometric investigations on ISS such as local multipath or ISS dynamic behavior characterization. In following the software-defined model, this work will create a highly portable GPS software and firmware package that can be adapted to another platform with the necessary processor and FPGA capability. This paper also describes ISS applications for the JPL CoNNeCT SDR GPS waveform, possibilities for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) tracking development, and the applicability of the waveform components to other space navigation applications.

Duncan, Courtney B.; Robison, David E.; Koelewyn, Cynthia Lee

2011-01-01

442

NASA Thesaurus Data File  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

2012-01-01

443

Predictive controller and estimator for NASA Deep Space Network antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new design procedure is presented for a predictive controller that significantly improves antenna tracking performance. The predictive controller uses future values of the stored output command to generate the control signal. For antennas tracking stars or spacecraft, these values are known in advance, hence the predictive control scheme is easily implemented in this case. The predictive controller is designed for tracking control of the the NASA/JPL 70-m antenna. On-axis tracking is considered, where the output is taken on the encoder, or tachometer. Simulation results show a significant improvement in performance over the LQ controller.

Gawronski, W.

1992-01-01

444

VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

Ma, Chopo

2012-01-01

445

Technology's Role in NASA's Future  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...

446

NASA's Education Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current education programs, which will be examined under its Strategic Plan for Education are presented. It is NASA's first goal to maintain this base - revising, expanding, or eliminating programs as necessary. Through NASA's second goal, new education reform initiatives will be added which specifically address NASA mission requirements, national educational reform, and Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) priorities. The chapters in this publication are divided by educational levels, with additional sections on programs to improve the technological competence of students and on an array of NASA published materials to supplement programs. The resource section lists NASA's national and regional Teacher Resource Centers and introduces the reader to NASA's Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE), which distributes materials in audiovisual format.

1993-01-01

447

NASA Education Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Education homepage serves as the cyber-gateway to information regarding educational programs and services offered by NASA for educators and students across the United States. This high-level directory of information provides specific details and points of contact for all of NASA's educational efforts and Field Center Offices. Educators and students utilizing this site will have access to a comprehensive overview of NASA's educational programs and services, along with a searchable program inventory that has cataloged NASA's educational programs. NASA's on-line resources specifically designed for the educational community are highlighted, as well as home pages offered by NASA's four areas of research and development (including the Aerospace Technology, Earth Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space, and Space Science Enterprises).

448

Contamination assessment for OSSA space station IOC payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of NASA/OSSA space station IOC payloads. The report has two main objectives, i.e., to provide realistic contamination requirements for space station attached payloads, serviced payloads and platforms, and to determine unknowns or major impacts requiring further assessment.

Wu, S. T.

1987-01-01

449

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

2000-01-01

450

Engineering test beds on the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station is a unique multi-faceted orbiting laboratory supporting research, development, test and evaluation of new innovative space and Earth-based applications. While NASA sponsored investigations on the ISS are focused largely on enabling future long duration human space exploration missions, Congress designated the US portion of the space station as a National Laboratory making its facilities available to

Ron Ticker

2009-01-01

451

Orbit determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter using laser ranging and radiometric tracking data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched in 2009 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) still orbits the Moon in a polar orbit at an altitude of 50 kilometers and below. Its main objective is the detailed exploration of the Moon's surface by means of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and three high resolution cameras bundled in the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) unit. Referring these observations to a Moon-fixed reference frame requires the computation of highly accurate and consistent orbits. For this task only Earth-based observations are available, primarily radiometric tracking data from stations in the United States, Australia and Europe. In addition, LRO is prepared for one-way laser measurements from specially adapted sites. Currently, 10 laser stations participate more or less regularly in this experiment. For operational reasons, the official LRO orbits from NASA only include radiometric data so far. In this presentation, we investigate the benefit of the laser ranging data by feeding both types of observations in an integrated orbit determination process. All computations are performed by an in-house software development based on a dynamical approach improving orbit and force parameters in an iterative way. Special attention is paid to the determination of bias parameters, in particular of timing biases between radio and laser stations and the drift and aging of the LRO spacecraft clock. The solutions from the combined data set will be compared to radio- and laser-only orbits as well as to the NASA orbits. Further results will show how recent gravity field models from the GRAIL mission can improve the accuracy of the LRO orbits.

Löcher, Anno; Kusche, Jürgen

2014-05-01

452