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1

NASA: Satellite Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While NASA has offered a number of fine sites about their research for the general public over the years, this particular site may be one of their best. With a minimum of fuss, visitors can use several of the online tracking applications offered here to locate hundreds of satellites and other such large objects in space. A good way to start a visit to this site is by taking a look at the J-Track 2.5 section, as it offers a quick way to find out the current location of the Space Station and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Additionally, visitors can also locate weather satellites using this application. The Live 3D Java Tracking Display here allows visitors to monitor close to 700 satellites that are in motion around the earth. Finally, visitors can also use a handy application offered here that allows them to determine which satellites might be seen from their location in the night sky.

2005-01-01

2

The administration of the NASA space tracking system and the NASA space tracking system in Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international activities of the NASA space program were studied with emphasis on the development and maintenance of tracking stations in Australia. The history and administration of the tracking organization and the manning policies for the stations are discussed, and factors affecting station operation are appraised. A field study of the Australian tracking network is included.

Hollander, N.

1973-01-01

3

NASA Research at Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers information on past, present, and future projects at the International Space Station. Users can view the many experiments and facilities by time periods or topic. The research areas include bioastronautics, physical sciences, fundamental space biology, and space product development. For each experiment, students and researchers can find information on the significance of the project, descriptions of the operations, its results, and much more. The website provides flight schedules and information on facilities. Throughout the site, visitors can enjoy numerous images from space.

4

NASA directory of observation station locations, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geodetic information for NASA tracking stations and for observation stations cooperating in NASA geodetic satellite programs is presented. A Geodetic Data Sheet is provided for each station, giving the position of the station and describing briefly how it was established. Geodetic positions and geocentric coordinates of these stations are tabulated on local or major geodetic datums and on selected world geodetic systems. The principal tracking facilities used by NASA, including the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network, the Deep Space Network, and several large radio telescopes are discussed. Positions of these facilities are tabulated on their local or national datums, the Mercury Spheroid 1960, the Modified Mercury Datum 1968, and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network System. Observation stations in the NASA Geodetic Satellites Program are included along with stations participating in the National Geodetic Satellite Program. Positions of these facilities are given on local or preferred major datums, and on the Modified Mercury Datum 1968.

1973-01-01

5

NASA directory of observation station locations, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geodetic information is presented for NASA tracking stations and observation stations in the NASA geodetic satellites program. A geodetic data sheet is provided for each station, giving the position of the station and describing briefly how it was established. Geodetic positions and geocentric coordinates of these stations are tabulated on local or major geodetic datums, and on selected world geodetic systems when available information permits.

1971-01-01

6

NASA directory of observation station locations, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The directory documents geodetic information for NASA tracking stations and observation stations in the NASA Geodetic Satellites Program, including stations participating in the National Geodetic Satellite Program. Station positions of these facilities are given on local or preferred major datums, and on the Modified Mercury Datum 1968. A geodetic data sheet is provided for each station, giving the position of the station and describing briefly how it was established. Geodetic positions and geocentric coordinates of these stations are tabulated on local or major geodetic datums, and on selected world geodetic systems when available information permits.

1971-01-01

7

Techniques for analyzing and utilizing the rain gauges at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. [Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System ground station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ten tipping bucket rain gauges have been installed at the NASA WSTF for the purpose of determining rainfall characteristics in this area which may affect the performance of the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. A plan is presented for analyzing and utilizing the data which will be obtained during the course of this experiment. Also included is a description of a computer program which has been written to aid in the analysis.

Kalagher, R. J.

1973-01-01

8

International Space Station NASA Research  

E-print Network

Outreach Seminar on the ISS United Nations February 2011 #12;U.S. Research on ISS - Objectives · NASA is a technology demonstration for a dexterous robot ·Amine Swingbed tests a smaller more efficient vacuum regeneration system for removal of carbon dioxide from the ISS environment ·CCF studies a critical variety

9

The ACTS NASA Ground Station/Master Control Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two of the major components of the ACTS Ground Segment are the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Master Control Station (MCS), colocated at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Essentially, the NGS provides the communications links by which the MCS performs its various network control and monitoring functions. The NGS also provides telecommunications links capable of transmission/reception of up to approximately 70 Mbit/s of digital telephonic traffic. Operating as a system, the entire complex of equipment is referred to as the NGS/MCS. This paper provides an 'as-built' description of the NGS/MCS as a system.

Meadows, David N.

1992-01-01

10

Automated Generation of Antenna Tracking Plans for a Deep Space Communications Station  

E-print Network

Automated Generation of Antenna Tracking Plans for a Deep Space Communications Station Tara Estlin track plan generation for a NASA Deep Space Communications Station. The described system enables, Spain, and Goldstone, California. Each DSN complex operates four deep space stations ­­ one 70­ meter

Schaffer, Steven

11

Automated Generation of Antenna Tracking Plans for a Deep Space Communications Station  

E-print Network

Automated Generation of Antenna Tracking Plans for a Deep Space Communications Station Tara Estlin track plan generation for a NASA Deep Space Communications Station. The described system enables, Spain, and Goldstone, California. Each DSN complex operates four deep space stations -- one 70- meter

Schaffer, Steven

12

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2012-07-12

13

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2012-01-19

14

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2010-08-23

15

78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-091] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2013-08-13

16

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2012-11-01

17

78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-154)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2013-12-23

18

NASA/TP2009213146REVISION A International Space Station  

E-print Network

NASA/TP­2009­213146­REVISION A International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During of the International Space Station Program Scientist NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Judy Tate-Brown, Tracy and Jennifer Rhatigan NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas June 2009 #12;THE NASA STI PROGRAM OFFICE

19

76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-095...Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION:...

2011-10-17

20

NASA satellite to track North Pole expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed expedition of a lone explorer and the use of Nimbus 6 (NASA meteorological research satellite) to track his journey is reported. The journey is scheduled to start March 4, 1978, and will cover a distance of 6.000 Km (3,728 miles) from northern Canada to the North Pole and return, traveling the length of Greenland's isolated interior. The mode of transportation for the explorer will be by dog sled. Instrumentation and tracking techniques are discussed.

1978-01-01

21

NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

2006-01-01

22

MY NASA DATA: Scientist Tracking Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data activity, students explore the relationship between surface radiation and mean surface temperature in several geographic regions. By observing how these parameters change with latitude, students will understand the relationship between solar radiation and seasonal temperature variation. This activity is part of the MY NASA DATA Scientist Tracking Network unit, designed to provide practice in accessing and using authentic satellite data.

23

NASA tracking ship navigation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

Mckenna, J. J.

1976-01-01

24

DISTRIBUTION STATION IN FOREGROUND, TRACK FOOTINGS AT LEFT CENTER, WATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISTRIBUTION STATION IN FOREGROUND, TRACK FOOTINGS AT LEFT CENTER, WATER TOWER (BLDG. 0516) IN BACKGROUND. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

25

NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research - and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply with existing technologies, not only will a new category of autonomous vehicles deliver cargo, but a commercial business base will be incubated that will improve the likelihood of commercial convergence with the next generation of RLVs. Traditional paradigms in government management and acquisition philosophy are being challenged in order to bring about the objective of the AAS project. The phased procurement approach is proving to be the most questionable aspect to date. This work addresses the fresh approach AAS is adopting in management and procurement through a study of the AAS history, current solutions, key technologies, procurement complications, and an incremental forward plan leading to the purchase of a service to deliver goods to ISS. Included in this work is a discussion of the Commercial Space Act of 1998 and how it affects government purchase of space launch and space vehicle services. Industry should find these topics pertinent to their current state of business.

Bailey, Michelle D.; Crumbly, Chris

2001-01-01

26

NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply with existing technologies, not only will a new category of autonomous vehicles deliver cargo, but a commercial business base will be incubated that will improve the likelihood of commercial convergence with the next generation of RLVs. Traditional paradigms in government management and acquisition philosophy are being challenged in order to bring about the objective of the AAS project. The phased procurement approach is proving to be the most questionable aspect to date. This work addresses the fresh approach AAS is adopting in management and procurement through a study of the AAS history, current solutions, key technologies, procurement complications, and an incremental forward plan leading to the purchase of a service to deliver goods to ISS. Included in this work is a discussion of the Commercial Space Act of 1998 and how it affects government purchase of space launch and space vehicle services. Industry should find these topics pertinent to their current state of business.

Bailey, M. D.; Crumbly, C.

2002-01-01

27

Intercomparison of satellite laser ranging accuracy of three NASA stations through collocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of laser ranging has been evaluated through comparisons of simultaneous LAGEOS satellite-borne laser ranging data received at three NASA tracking stations in support of the Crustal Dynamics project. Single-shot satellite ranging precisions of 8, 14, and 30 mm have been demonstrated at the three ground stations, with a stability better than 3 mm. The data-processing software used were

T. Varghese; V. Husson; S. Wetzel; J. J. Degnan; T. Zagwodzki

1988-01-01

28

International Space Station Utilization: Tracking Investigations from Objectives to Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first module was assembled on the International Space Station (ISS), on-orbit investigations have been underway across all scientific disciplines. The facilities dedicated to research on ISS have supported over 1100 investigations from over 900 scientists representing over 60 countries. Relatively few of these investigations are tracked through the traditional NASA grants monitoring process and with ISS National Laboratory use growing, the ISS Program Scientist s Office has been tasked with tracking all ISS investigations from objectives to results. Detailed information regarding each investigation is now collected once, at the first point it is proposed for flight, and is kept in an online database that serves as a single source of information on the core objectives of each investigation. Different fields are used to provide the appropriate level of detail for research planning, astronaut training, and public communications. http://www.nasa.gov/iss-science/. With each successive year, publications of ISS scientific results, which are used to measure success of the research program, have shown steady increases in all scientific research areas on the ISS. Accurately identifying, collecting, and assessing the research results publications is a challenge and a priority for the ISS research program, and we will discuss the approaches that the ISS Program Science Office employs to meet this challenge. We will also address the online resources available to support outreach and communication of ISS research to the public. Keywords: International Space Station, Database, Tracking, Methods

Ruttley, T. M.; Mayo, Susan; Robinson, J. A.

2011-01-01

29

NASA: Atlas of Extratropical Storm Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies offers an online atlas of fundamental information on extratropical storm systems in the mid-latitude during the last half of the twentieth century. Users can find maps of storm frequency and intensity and monthly and seasonal means as well as graphs of individual storm paths and the most severe storms. Researchers can download the storm track data and a FORTRAN program used to extract time and geographic subsets of the database. The website adequately describes how the computations and plots were created.

30

NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity

M. D. Bailey; C. Crumbly

2002-01-01

31

Intercomparison of satellite laser ranging accuracy of three NASA stations through collocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of laser ranging has been evaluated through comparisons of simultaneous LAGEOS satellite-borne laser ranging data received at three NASA tracking stations in support of the Crustal Dynamics project. Single-shot satellite ranging precisions of 8, 14, and 30 mm have been demonstrated at the three ground stations, with a stability better than 3 mm. The data-processing software used were POLYQUICK and GEODYN; a consistent degree of agreement between the three stations of less than 1 cm is obtained.

Varghese, T.; Husson, V.; Wetzel, S.; Degnan, J. J.; Zagwodzki, T.

1988-01-01

32

NASA's robotic servicing role for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to evaluations of the relative impacts on and benefits to the Space Station Program of various levels of robotics devices for space servicing operations. The leading robotic candidate concept for the IOC Space Station, the Smart Front End, uses a small, stiff and highly dexterous work effector controlled by a human-in-the-loop from a remote control station. This configuration offers both a quality multifunctional performance capability at the work site as well as technology transparency through the ground teleoperation control mode.

Powell, L.; Goss, R.; Spencer, R.

1986-01-01

33

1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

34

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

35

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

36

76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-074)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION:...

2011-08-19

37

Simultaneous acquisition of tracking data from two stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is described for obtaining simultaneous tracking data from two ground stations relative to a spacecraft, and in particular for obtaining two-way range and Doppler measurements with respect to the spacecraft using only one transponder on the spacecraft. The technique employs simultaneous transmission from two stations to produce a return signal with upper and lower sidebands resulting from the interference of the two transmissions. A transponder transmits the upper and lower sidebands centered about a carrier received by both stations. One station tracks the carrier and the other tracks a sideband aided by the carrier.

Wood, G. E. (inventor)

1975-01-01

38

Surface refractivity measurements at NASA spacecraft tracking sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-accuracy spacecraft tracking requires tropospheric modeling which is generally scaled by either estimated or measured values of surface refractivity. This report summarizes the results of a worldwide surface-refractivity test conducted in 1968 in support of the Apollo program. The results are directly applicable to all NASA radio-tracking systems.

Schmid, P. E.

1972-01-01

39

COTS 2 Mission Press Kit SpaceX/NASA Launch and Mission to Space Station  

E-print Network

#12;#12;COTS 2 Mission Press Kit SpaceX/NASA Launch and Mission to Space Station CONTENTS 3 Mission Overview of the International Space Station 17 Overview of NASA's COTS Program 19 SpaceX Company Overview Officer International Space Station Program Lead NASA Johnson Space Center 281-483-5111 Michael Braukus

Waliser, Duane E.

40

NASA's International Microgravity Strategic Planning for the Space Station Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Microgravity Research Program has joined with other International Space Station Partners to form an International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG). The purpose of this international planning group is to develop and update an International Strategic Plan for Microgravity Science and Applications Research. The objective of the IMSPG is to coordinate hardware construction and utilization amongst all the planning group members for the science disciplines areas of Biotechnology, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Fundamental Physics and Materials Science. As Space Station schedules are changed and budgets tightened, international cooperation becomes a necessity to assure the complete accommodation of the breadth of the science disciplines requiring a microgravity environment to perform their research. The IMSPG is NASA's primary forum for discussions regarding international cooperation in microgravity science. This paper will relate the developments of this group since it's inception in 1995 and describe the plans currently defined and under development.

Robey, Judith L.

2000-07-01

41

A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

1989-01-01

42

Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches should be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JSC. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 2, containing Appendices K through U.

Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

1988-01-01

43

Space station tracking requirements feasibility study, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this feasibility study is to determine analytically the accuracies of various sensors being considered as candidates for Space Station use. Specifically, the studies were performed whether or not the candidate sensors are capable of providing the required accuracy, or if alternate sensor approaches be investigated. Other topics related to operation in the Space Station environment were considered as directed by NASA-JCS. The following topics are addressed: (1) Space Station GPS; (2) Space Station Radar; (3) Docking Sensors; (4) Space Station Link Analysis; (5) Antenna Switching, Power Control, and AGC Functions for Multiple Access; (6) Multichannel Modems; (7) FTS/EVA Emergency Shutdown; (8) Space Station Information Systems Coding; (9) Wanderer Study; and (10) Optical Communications System Analysis. Brief overviews of the abovementioned topics are given. Wherever applicable, the appropriate appendices provide detailed technical analysis. The report is presented in two volumes. This is Volume 1, containing the main body and Appendices A through J.

Udalov, Sergei; Dodds, James

1988-01-01

44

Supply support of NASA tracking networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent which supply support for Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network and Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Flight Tracking and Data Network should be consolidated is considered along with the Identification of opportunities for improvements in each of the supply systems without regard to consolidation. There is a considerable amount of commonality between the items in the stock catalogs at the two network depots, 58% for federal stock number items and 30% overall. The workload at the DSIF Supply Depot (DSD) is small (less than 20%) compared to the Network Logistics Depot (NLD). A number of important benefits in supply support would result from a consolidation of DSD into NLD. LMI found that a consolidation as is, without any changes in inventory management techniques, would reduce annual operating costs by from $208,000 to $358,000. However, if the consolidation were coupled with a change to use of economic order quantities, the annual operating cost reduction would range from $930,000 to $1,078,000.

1973-01-01

45

NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew - Duration: 4:52.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

46

73 FR 56999 - Network Affiliated Stations Alliance (NASA) Petition for Inquiry Into Network Practices and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [FCC 08-192] Network Affiliated Stations Alliance (NASA) Petition for Inquiry Into Network Practices and Motion for Declaratory...SUMMARY: NASA and the Networks request that the Commission affirm...

2008-10-01

47

Geoid undulation computations at laser tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoid undulation computations were performed at 29 laser stations distributed around the world using a combination of terrestrial gravity data within a cap of radius 2 deg and a potential coefficient set up to 180 deg. The traditional methods of Stokes' and Meissl's modification together with the Molodenskii method and the modified Sjoberg method were applied. Performing numerical tests based on global error assumptions regarding the terrestrial data and the geopotential set it was concluded that the modified Sjoberg method is the most accurate and promising technique for geoid undulation computations. The numerical computations for the geoid undulations using all the four methods resulted in agreement with the ellipsoidal minus orthometric value of the undulations on the order of 60 cm or better for most of the laser stations in the eastern United States, Australia, Japan, Bermuda, and Europe. A systematic discrepancy of about 2 meters for most of the western United States stations was detected and verified by using two relatively independent data sets. For oceanic laser stations in the western Atlantic and Pacific oceans that have no terrestrial data available, the adjusted GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data were used for the computation of the geoid undulation in a collocation method.

Despotakis, Vasilios K.

1987-01-01

48

Tracking People in a Railway Station During RushHour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for detecting and tracking the motion of a large number of moving objects in crowded environments, such\\u000a as concourses in railway stations or airports, shopping malls, or convention centers. Unlike many methods for motion detection\\u000a and tracking, our approach is not based on vision but uses 2D range images from a laser rangefinder. This facilitates the

Erwin Prassler; Jens Scholz; Antonio Elfes

1999-01-01

49

Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

1976-01-01

50

29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

51

NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program (BCG) on the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of two phases. The first phase is during assembly of the ISS and will accommodate generic payloads that currently fly in the orbiter middeck. The second phase is after assembly of the ISS is complete and BCG payloads will occupy part of the Biotechnology Facility aboard the ISS. During both phases of the program, there will be two types of BCG payloads. One type will emphasize the production of crystals for structure determination back on Earth and will have high capacity for screening crystallization conditions. The second type of payload will be designed to study the crystallization process with the primary aim of developing new methods to further optimize the use of the microgravity environment. Beginning immediately, access to the BCG program for Guest Investigators is simplified. Access to all BCG hardware for Guest Investigators will be coordinated through one office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Details of how to obtain access to microgravity, the hardware available, and the operational aspects of the program will be described.

Kundrot, Craig E.

1999-01-01

52

The OSU 275 system of satellite tracking station coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the methods and data used in the OSU 275 geodetic system is given along with the summary of the results. Survey information regarding the tracking stations in the system is given in tabular form along with the geodetic and geophysical parameters, origin and orientation, Cartisian coordinates, and systematic differences with global and nonglobal geodetic systems.

Mueller, I. I.; Kumar, M.

1975-01-01

53

Space Station communications and tracking systems modeling and RF link simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this final report, the effort spent on Space Station Communications and Tracking System Modeling and RF Link Simulation is described in detail. The effort is mainly divided into three parts: frequency division multiple access (FDMA) system simulation modeling and software implementation; a study on design and evaluation of a functional computerized RF link simulation/analysis system for Space Station; and a study on design and evaluation of simulation system architecture. This report documents the results of these studies. In addition, a separate User's Manual on Space Communications Simulation System (SCSS) (Version 1) documents the software developed for the Space Station FDMA communications system simulation. The final report, SCSS user's manual, and the software located in the NASA JSC system analysis division's VAX 750 computer together serve as the deliverables from LinCom for this project effort.

Tsang, Chit-Sang; Chie, Chak M.; Lindsey, William C.

1986-01-01

54

Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

Haines, R. F.

1975-01-01

55

Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

1982-01-01

56

Results of a Television Station Managers' Telephone Survey of NASA's Destination Tomorrow(Trademark)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We conducted a television station managers' telephone survey concerning NASA's Destination Tomorrow. On a 10-point scale, survey participants rated the overall technical quality of NASA's Destination Tomorrow highly (mean = 9.48), and the educational value of the series slightly more highly (mean = 9.56). Ninety one percent of the participants reported that the technical quality of NASA's Destination Tomorrow was higher compared to other educational programming that airs on their station. Most stations (81 percent) indicated that NASA's Destination Tomorrow was well received by their audiences, and 97 percent indicated that they had recommended or would recommend the series to a colleague. Lastly, using a 10-point scale, survey participants indicated that (1) the series successfully educates people about what NASA does (mean = 9.23), (2) the information contained in NASA's Destination Tomorrow is credible (mean = 9.53), and (3) the series is successful in educating the public about what NASA does (mean = 9.23).

Endo, Scott; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Caton, Randall H.

2005-01-01

57

International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 The Kinematic Potential of Modern Tracking Total Stations  

E-print Network

Tracking Total Stations - A State of the Art Report on the Leica TPS1200+ Holger KIRSCHNER* Leica measuring sensors are used for the most varied applications. Target tracking tachymeters (total stations millimetres to be measured. Keywords Tracking Total Stations, GNSS, Telescope, new Platform, ATR, EDM, Leica

58

Open solutions to distributed control in ground tracking stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of high speed local area networks has made it possible to interconnect small, powerful computers to function together as a single large computer. Today, distributed computer systems are the new paradigm for large scale computing systems. However, the communications provided by the local area network is only one part of the solution. The services and protocols used by the application programs to communicate across the network are as indispensable as the local area network. And the selection of services and protocols that do not match the system requirements will limit the capabilities, performance, and expansion of the system. Proprietary solutions are available but are usually limited to a select set of equipment. However, there are two solutions based on 'open' standards. The question that must be answered is 'which one is the best one for my job?' This paper examines a model for tracking stations and their requirements for interprocessor communications in the next century. The model and requirements are matched with the model and services provided by the five different software architectures and supporting protocol solutions. Several key services are examined in detail to determine which services and protocols most closely match the requirements for the tracking station environment. The study reveals that the protocols are tailored to the problem domains for which they were originally designed. Further, the study reveals that the process control model is the closest match to the tracking station model.

Heuser, William Randy

1994-01-01

59

NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

1985-01-01

60

NASA Now: Materials Science: International Space Station Testing - Duration: 5:57.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Materials International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE, provides NASA with a means to study the effects of long-term exposure to space on various materials, computer components and electron...

61

Recent developments in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space tracking facilities in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following NASA's announcement in 1979 of a plan to consolidate its deep space tracking and earth orbiting spacecraft tracking networks into three centers - Canberra, Madrid and Goldstone - substantial engineering changes have been made to the NASA facilities within Australia. The paper describes these engineering and organizational changes and recent developments which strengthen the capabilities of the Australian facilities

R. S. Coleby

1987-01-01

62

NASA/FAA North Texas Research Station Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NTX Research Staion: NASA research assets embedded in an interesting operational air transport environment. Seven personnel (2 civil servants, 5 contractors). ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, 3 air carrier AOCs(American, Eagle and Southwest), and 2 major airports all within 12 miles. Supports NASA Airspace Systems Program with research products at all levels (fundamental to system level). NTX Laboratory: 5000 sq ft purpose-built, dedicated, air traffic management research facility. Established data links to ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, air carriers, airport and NASA facilities. Re-configurable computer labs, dedicated radio tower, state-of-the-art equipment.

Borchers, Paul F.

2012-01-01

63

Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines-it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in

Anthony J. Butina

2001-01-01

64

NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station - Duration: 80 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

65

From 2001 to 1994: Political environment and the design of NASA's Space Station system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. civilian space station, a hope of numerous NASA engineers since before the agency was founded in 1958 and promoted by NASA as the country's 'next logical step' into space, provides an excellent case study of the way public-sector research and development agencies continuously redefine new technologies in the absence of the market discipline that governs private-sector technological development. The number of space station design studies conducted since 1959, both internally by NASA or contracted by the agency to the aerospace industry, easily exceeds a hundred. Because of this, three clearly distinguishable examples are selected from the almost thirty-year history of space station design in NASA. Together these examples illustrate the difficulty of defining a new technological system in the public sector as that system becomes increasingly subject, for its development, to the vagaries of federal research and development politics.

Fries, Sylvia Doughty

1988-01-01

66

Verification and Validation of the GNSS Stations at the Prototype Core Site for NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two operational GNSS stations, GODN and GODS, were established within 100 m of each other at the prototype core site of NASA's next generation Space Geodesy Network. The planned network will co-locate each of the four space geodetic techniques, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of meeting modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. This prototype site is located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two GNSS stations at the prototype site have been producing tracking data from the GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo constellations since January 17, 2012. We present results from the verification and validation of these two stations, focusing in particular on GPS-based positioning of these two sites to monitor their relative baseline vector. We compare baseline recovery from independent precise point positioning of each station to a network-based approach. We also show the impact on the baseline as well as station repeatability from various improvements to our processing approach, namely the application of empirical antenna calibrations, elevation-dependent weighting, and site-specific troposphere modeling. Together, these approaches have resulted in a factor of two improvement in the precision of the baseline length. The standard deviation of the baseline vector, when using independent precise positioning of each station, is 0.5, 0.4, 1.6, and 0.4 mm in the east, north, up, and length components. The difference between the GPS-based baseline length and that from an independent local tie survey is < 1 mm.

Desai, S. D.; Gross, J.; Haines, B. J.; Stowers, D. A.

2013-12-01

67

ERDA/NASA 100 kilowatt mod-o wind turbine operations and performance. [at the NASA Plum Brook Station, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ERDA/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 wind turbine is operating at the NASA Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio. The operation of the wind turbine has been fully demonstrated and includes start-up, synchronization to the utility network, blade pitch control for control of power and speed, and shut-down. Also, fully automatic operation has been demonstrated by use of a remote control panel, 50 miles from the site, similar to what a utility dispatcher might use. The operation systems and experience with the wind turbine loads, electrical power and aerodynamic performance obtained from testing are described.

Thomas, R. L.; Richards, T. R.

1977-01-01

68

Prototype space station automation system delivered and demonstrated at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of Space Station subsystems. The hierarchical and distributed real time controls system places the required controls authority at every level of the automation system architecture. As a demonstration of the automation technique, the ASCLSS system automated the Air Revitalization Group (ARG) of the Space Station regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) using real-time, high fidelity simulators of the ARG processess. This automation system represents an early flight prototype and an important test bed for evaluating Space Station controls technology including future application of ADA software in real-time control and the development and demonstration of embedded artificial intelligence and expert systems (AI/ES) in distributed automation and controls systems.

Block, Roger F.

1987-01-01

69

Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

1991-08-01

70

Evolution of NASA's Near-Earth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is now in its 23rd year of operations and its spacecraft fleet includes three second-generation spacecraft launched since the year 2000; a figure illustrates the first generation TDRSS spacecraft. During this time frame the TDRSS has provided communications relay support to a broad range of missions, with emphasis on low-earth-orbiting (LEO) spacecraft that include unmanned science spacecraft (e.g., Hubble Space Telescope), and human spaceflight (Space Shuttle and Space Station). Furthermore, the TDRSS has consistently demonstrated its uniqueness and adaptability in several ways. First, its S- and K-band services, combined with its multi-band/steerable single-access (SA) antennas and ground-based configuration flexibility, have permitted the mission set to expand to unique users such as scientific balloons and launch vehicles. Second, the bent-pipe nature of the system has enabled the introduction of new/improved services via technology insertion and upgrades at each of the ground terminals; a specific example here is the Demand Access Service (DAS), which, for example, is currently providing science-alert support to NASA science missions Third, the bent-pipe nature of the system, combined with the flexible ground-terminal signal processing architecture has permitted the demonstration/vaIidation of new techniques/services/technologies via a real satellite channel; over the past 10+ years these have, for example, included demonstrations/evaluations of emerging modulation/coding techniques. Given NASA's emerging Exploration plans, with missions beginning later this decade and expanding for decades to come, NASA is currently planning the development of a seamless, NASA-wide architecture that must accommodate missions from near-earth to deep space. Near-earth elements include Ground-Network (GN) and Near-Earth Relay (NER) components and both must efficiently and seamlessly support missions that encompass: earth orbit, including dedicated science missions and lunar support/cargo vehicles; earth/moon transit; lunar in-situ operations; and other missions within approximately 2 million km of earth (e.g., at the sun/earth libration points). Given that the NER is an evolution of TDRSS, one element of this NASA-wide architecture development activity is a trade study of future NER architecture candidates. The present paper focuses on trade study aspects associated with the NER, highlights study elements, and provides representative interim results.

Flaherty, Roger; Stocklin, Frank; Weinberg, Aaron

2006-01-01

71

Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

1988-01-01

72

NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

2010-01-01

73

Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

Gavert, Raymond B.

1990-01-01

74

The NASA tracking and data acquisition networks - Their history and their future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Tracking and Data Acquisition Networks were begun in the late 1950s as a part of the U.S. activities associated with the 1958-59 International Geophysical Year. The first network, the Minitrack Net, evolved into the Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN) for support of scientific satellites in earth orbit. The NASA Mercury and Apollo manned flight programs produced

Charles T. Force

1987-01-01

75

Managing NASA’s International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines—it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in

Anthony J. Butina

2001-01-01

76

Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

Butina, Anthony

2001-01-01

77

Could You Choose Just One? Top International Space Station Research Results In this A Lab Aloft NASA Blog series International Space Station Chief Scientist Julie  

E-print Network

Could You Choose Just One? Top International Space Station Research Results Countdown In this A Lab Aloft NASA Blog series International Space Station Chief Scientist Julie Robinson, Ph.D., counts down her top research results from the space station, which she presented at the International

Waliser, Duane E.

78

Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Concept document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station Payload of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The simulation will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

1990-01-01

79

NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake Measurement; 3) Nutrition; 4) CCISS; 5) Sleep; 6) Braslet; 7) Integrated Immune; 8) Epstein Barr; 9) Biophosphonates; 10) Integrated cardiovascular; and 11) VO2 max.

Sams, Clarence F.

2009-01-01

80

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

81

Applicability of NASA Polar Technologies to British Antarctic Survey Halley VI Research Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 1993 through 1997 NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed a variety of environmental infrastructure technologies for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The objective of this program was to reduce the cost of operating the South Pole Station, reduce the environmental impact of the Station, and to increase the quality of life for Station inhabitants. The result of this program was the development of a set of sustainability technologies designed specifically for Polar applications. In the intervening eight years many of the technologies developed through this program have been commercialized and tested in extreme environments and are now available for use throughout Antarctica and circumpolar north. The objective of this document is to provide information covering technologies that might also be applicable to the British Antarctic Survey s (BAS) proposed new Halley VI Research Station. All technologies described are commercially available.

Flynn, Michael

2005-01-01

82

Tracking and data relay satellite system - NASA's new spacecraft data acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes NASA's new spacecraft acquisition system provided by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Four satellites in geostationary orbit and a ground terminal will provide complete tracking, telemetry, and command service for all of NASA's orbital satellites below a 12,000 km altitude. Western Union will lease the system, operate the ground terminal and provide operational satellite control. NASA's network control center will be the focal point for scheduling user services and controlling the interface between TDRSS and the NASA communications network, project control centers, and data processing. TDRSS single access user spacecraft data systems will be designed for time shared data relay support, and reimbursement policy and rate structure for non-NASA users are being developed.

Schneider, W. C.; Garman, A. A.

1979-01-01

83

Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

Galarza, Laura

1999-01-01

84

NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

2010-01-01

85

Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Operations concept report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is made up of computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

1990-01-01

86

Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 2: Baseline architecture report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

1990-01-01

87

Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 1: Baseline architecture report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is made up of the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

1990-01-01

88

www.nasa.gov INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) INTERACTIVE REFERENCE GUIDE National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

Shuttle) Columbus Research Laboratory European Space Agency (ESA)/European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ www.nasa.gov INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) INTERACTIVE REFERENCE GUIDE National Aeronautics and Space Administration External Payload Facility Power Data

89

Pointing and tracking subsystem design for optical communications link between the International Space Station and ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a preliminary design for a tracking and pointing subsystem for the optical communication link between the International Space Station and a ground receiver at Table Mountain Facility. The link is intended to demonstrate high rate downlink capability of rates up to 2.5 Gbps. The design objective of tracking and pointing subsystem is to limit the pointing loss to

Shinhak Lee; James W. Alexander; Muthu Jeganathan

2000-01-01

90

Simultaneous observation solutions for NASA-MOTS and SPEOPT station positions on the North American datum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous observations of the GEOS-I and II flashing lamps by the NASA MOTS and SPEOPT cameras on the North American Datum (NAD) were analyzed using geometrical techniques to provide an adjustment of the station coordinates. Two separate adjustments were obtained. An optical data only solution was computed in which the solution scale was provided by the Rosman-Mojave distance obtained from a dynamic station solution. In a second adjustment, scaling was provided by processing simultaneous laser ranging data from Greenbelt and Wallops Island in a combined optical-laser solution. Comparisons of these results with previous GSFC dynamical solutions indicate an rms agreement on the order of 4 meters or better in each coordinate. Comparison with a detailed gravimetric geoid of North America yields agreement of 3 meters or better for mainland U.S. stations and 7 and 3 meters, respectively, for Bermuda and Puerto Rico.

Reece, J. S.; Marsh, J.

1973-01-01

91

Microgravity Research Results and Experiences from the NASA Mir Space Station Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity Research Program Office (MRPO) participated aggressively in Phase I of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges to long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both NASA and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about dealing with long duration on orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. Microgravity participation in the NASA Mir Program began with the first joint NASA Mir flight to the Mir Space Station. The earliest participation setup acceleration measurement capabilities that were used throughout the Program. Research, conducted by all Microgravity science disciplines, continued on each subsequent increment for the entire three-year duration of the Program. The Phase I Program included the Microgravity participation of over 30 Fluids, Combustion, Materials, and Biotechnology Sciences and numerous commercially sponsored research payloads. In addition to the research gained from Microgravity investigations, long duration operation of facility hardware was tested. Microgravity facilities operated on Mir included the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Microgravity Glovebox (MGBX), the Biotechnology System (BTS) and the Canadian Space Agency sponsored Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM). The Russian OPTIZONE Furnace was also incorporated into our material science research. All of these efforts yielded significant and useful scientific research data. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings. Most importantly this paper highlights the various disciplines of microgravity research conducted during the International Space Station, Phase 1 Program onboard the Mir Station. A capsulation of significant research and the applicability of our findings are provided. In addition, a brief discussion of how future microgravity science gathering capabilities, hardware development and payload operations techniques have enhanced our ability to conduct long duration microgravity research.

Schagheck, R. A.; Trach, B.

2000-01-01

92

Read You Loud and Clear! The Story of NASA's Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A historical account is provided of NASA's Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN), starting with its formation in the late 1950s to what it is today in the first decade of the 21st century. It traces the roots of the tracking network from its beginnings at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System space-based constellation of today. The story spans the early days of satellite tracking using the Minitrack Network, through the expansion of the Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network and the Manned Space Flight Network, and finally, to the Space and Ground networks of today. These accounts tell how international goodwill and foreign cooperation were crucial to the operation of the network and why the space agency chose to build the STDN as it did.

Tsiao, Sunny

2008-01-01

93

75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National Aeronautics...EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project located near Sandusky, Ohio...comments on construction and operation of the wind farm. The purpose of constructing...

2010-08-25

94

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of ISS. We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015 2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA's Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-06-01

95

Science in Flux: NASA's Nuclear Program at Plum Brook Station 1955-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science in Flux traces the history of one of the most powerful nuclear test reactors in the United States and the only nuclear facility ever built by NASA. In the late 1950's NASA constructed Plum Brook Station on a vast tract of undeveloped land near Sandusky, Ohio. Once fully operational in 1963, it supported basic research for NASA's nuclear rocket program (NERVA). Plum Brook represents a significant, if largely forgotten, story of nuclear research, political change, and the professional culture of the scientists and engineers who devoted their lives to construct and operate the facility. In 1973, after only a decade of research, the government shut Plum Brook down before many of its experiments could be completed. Even the valiant attempt to redefine the reactor as an environmental analysis tool failed, and the facility went silent. The reactors lay in costly, but quiet standby for nearly a quarter-century before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to decommission the reactors and clean up the site. The history of Plum Brook reveals the perils and potentials of that nuclear technology. As NASA, Congress, and space enthusiasts all begin looking once again at the nuclear option for sending humans to Mars, the echoes of Plum Brook's past will resonate with current policy and space initiatives.

Bowles, Mark D.

2006-01-01

96

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

97

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

98

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

99

The management approach to the NASA space station definition studies at the Manned Spacecraft Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall management approach to the NASA Phase B definition studies for space stations, which were initiated in September 1969 and completed in July 1972, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the management approach used by the Manned Spacecraft Center. The internal working organizations of the Manned Spacecraft Center and its prime contractor, North American Rockwell, are delineated along with the interfacing techniques used for the joint Government and industry study. Working interfaces with other NASA centers, industry, and Government agencies are briefly highlighted. The controlling documentation for the study (such as guidelines and constraints, bibliography, and key personnel) is reviewed. The historical background and content of the experiment program prepared for use in this Phase B study are outlined and management concepts that may be considered for future programs are proposed.

Heberlig, J. C.

1972-01-01

100

On LEO Debris Orbit Prediction Performance Using Tracking Data from a Single Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris laser ranging during terminator time periods has become routine practice for some tracking stations. Processing tracking data from Mt Stromlo has shown that an orbit prediction accuracy of 20 arc seconds in the along-track direction for the next 24 hours was achievable for low Earth orbiting (LEO) debris using 2 passes of debris laser ranging data from a single station, separated by about 24 hours. The radial prediction error was in the order of tens of meter, for the Mt Stromlo and Shanghai tracking stations, respectively. The accuracies were determined by comparing the predicted orbits with subsequent tracking data from the same station. This accuracy assessment might be over-optimistic for other parts of orbits far away from the station because the generated orbit is only constrained by the data above the tracking station. Therefore, a verification is needed to confirm the achievability of the debris orbit prediction accuracy using the accurate debris laser data from a single station. In this paper, the verification results using satellite laser ranging (SLR) data from a single tracking station are presented. Starlette and Larets are chosen for this study and they have perigee altitudes of 815km and 690km, respectively. The SLR data is downloaded from the website of International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) Network. The similar data scenario is assumed. That is, SLR data of only two passes separated by about 24 hours is used to determine the orbits and then the orbits are propagated forward for 7 days. The SLR data is corrupted with random errors of 1m standard deviation to reflect realistic debris laser ranging accuracy. The predicted orbits are then compared with the accurate Consolidated Prediction Format (CPF) orbits generated by the ILRS data centers. The study confirms that accuracy of 20 arc seconds in the along-track direction for 1-2 day orbit predictions, and tens of meter in the radial direction, are achievable. For the lower Larets satellite, 1000m accuracy for 7-day orbit predictions is obtained. This paper also presents a concept of prediction error assessment using the difference between backward propagated orbits and earlier tracking data. In principle, the forward orbit prediction error and the backward orbit propagation error would be similar if the times of forward prediction and backward propagation are about the same. Experiments show this concept is valid, and it could be used to estimate reliable orbit prediction errors, which are vital to make orbit conjunction warnings more accurate and robust.

Sang, J.

2014-09-01

101

NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration home page provides information on current events at NASA, general information about NASA, and links to a plethora of NASA web sites, educational resources, and NASA Centers.

102

NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013! The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group is doing 2 sets of experiments, both with astronauts using Eclipse RCP applications to remotely control robots. One experiment will control SPHERES with an Android Smartphone on the ISS the other experiment will control a K10 rover on Earth.

Cohen, Tamar

2013-01-01

103

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 1: Overview and summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs. This study was performed August 1988 to October 1989. Thus, the results are based on the SSFP August 1989 baseline, i.e., pre-Langley configuration/budget review (C/BR) baseline. Some terms, e.g., combined trainer, are being redefined. An overview of the study activities and a summary of study results are given here.

1989-01-01

104

Results of a Telephone Survey of Television Station Managers Concerning the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telephone survey of television station managers concerning 2 instructional television programs, the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM), offered by the NASA Langley Center for Distance Learning (CDL) was conducted. Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.1 percent) or satisfied (19.9 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of the NASA SCI Files(TM). Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.9 percent) or satisfied (19.1 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of NASA CONNECT(TM) .

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

2004-01-01

105

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 6: Study issues report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload specialists and mission specialists to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be on-board the Freedom Space Station. This simulation Computer System (SCS) study issues report summarizes the analysis and study done as task 1-identify and analyze the CSC study issues- of the SCS study contract.This work was performed over the first three months of the SCS study which began in August of 1988. First issues were identified from all sources. These included the NASA SOW, the TRW proposal, and working groups which focused the experience of NASA and the contractor team performing the study-TRW, Essex, and Grumman. The final list is organized into training related issues, and SCS associated development issues. To begin the analysis of the issues, a list of all the functions for which the SCS could be used was created, i.e., when the computer is turned on, what will it be doing. Analysis was continued by creating an operational functions matrix of SCS users vs. SCS functions to insure all the functions considered were valid, and to aid in identification of users as the analysis progressed. The functions will form the basis for the requirements, which are currently being developed under task 3 of the SCS study.

1989-01-01

106

New Directions in NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Biological Crystal Growth Program (BCG) on the International Space Station (ISS) is changing direction from the study of crystallization to an emphasis on producing crystals for structure determination in leading problems in structural biology. The program will consist of two phases. The first phase is during assembly of the ISS and will primarily utilize payloads that currently fly in the orbiter middeck but can be adapted for ISS. The second phase begins after assembly of the ISS is complete and BCG payloads will occupy part of the Biotechnology Facility aboard the ISS. Two types of BCG payloads will be flown. One will emphasize the production of crystals for structure determination back on Earth. These types of payloads will allow hundreds of crystallization conditions to be tested. The second type of payload will be designed to study the crystallization process with the primary aim of assisting the structural biology efforts. Access to these facilities will be through the NASA BCG Guest Investigators program, the NASA Research Announcement, and other opportunities currently being formulated. Details of the crystallization hardware, the application procedures, and the operational aspects of the program will be described.

Kundrot, Craig E.

2000-01-01

107

Reports on work in support of NASA's tracking and communication division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a report on the research conducted during the period October 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. The research is divided into two primary areas: (1) generalization of the Fault Isolation using Bit Strings (FIBS) technique to permit fuzzy information to be used to isolate faults in the tracking and communications system of the Space Station; and (2) a study of the activity that should occur in the on board systems in order to attempt to recover from failures that are external to the Space Station.

Feagin, Terry; Lekkos, Anthony

1991-01-01

108

Recent Successes and Future Plans for NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Testbed on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible and extensible space communications architectures and technology are essential to enable future space exploration and science activities. NASA has championed the development of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio (SDR) standard and the application of SDR technology to reduce the costs and risks of using SDRs for space missions, and has developed an on-orbit testbed to validate these capabilities. The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed (previously known as the Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT)) is advancing SDR, on-board networking, and navigation technologies by conducting space experiments aboard the International Space Station. During its first year(s) on-orbit, the SCaN Testbed has achieved considerable accomplishments to better understand SDRs and their applications. The SDR platforms and software waveforms on each SDR have over 1500 hours of operation and are performing as designed. The Ka-band SDR on the SCaN Testbed is NASAs first space Ka-band transceiver and is NASA's first Ka-band mission using the Space Network. This has provided exciting opportunities to operate at Ka-band and assist with on-orbit tests of NASA newest Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). During its first year, SCaN Testbed completed its first on-orbit SDR reconfigurations. SDR reconfigurations occur when implementing new waveforms on an SDR. SDR reconfigurations allow a radio to change minor parameters, such as data rate, or complete functionality. New waveforms which provide new capability and are reusable across different missions provide long term value for reconfigurable platforms such as SDRs. The STRS Standard provides guidelines for new waveform development by third parties. Waveform development by organizations other than the platform provider offers NASA the ability to develop waveforms itself and reduce its dependence and costs on the platform developer. Each of these new waveforms requires a waveform build environment for the particular SDR, helps assess the usefulness of the platform provider documentation, and exercises the objectives of STRS Standard and the SCaN Testbed. There is considerable interest in conducting experiments using the SCaN Testbed from NASA, academia, commercial companies, and other space agencies. There are approximately 25 experiments or activities supported by the project underway or in development, with more proposals ready, as time and funding allow, and new experiment solicitations available. NASA continues development of new waveforms and applications in communications, networking, and navigation, the first university experimenters are beginning waveform development, which will support the next generation of communications engineers, and international interest is beginning with space agency partners from European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This paper will provide an overview of the SCaN Testbed and discuss its recent accomplishments and experiment activities.Its recent successes in Ka-band operations, reception of the newest GPS signals, SDR reconfigurations, and STRS demonstration in space when combined with the future experiment portfolio have positioned the SCaN Testbed to enable future space communications and navigation capabilities for exploration and science.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Sankovic, John M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.; Chelmins, David T.

2014-01-01

109

Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether

Bonnie L. Peterson; Barbara E. Kus; Douglas H. Deutschman

2004-01-01

110

Structural dynamic interaction with solar tracking control for evolutionary Space Station concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sun tracking control system design of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and the interaction of the control system with the flexible structure of Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolutionary concepts are addressed. The significant components of the space station pertaining to the SARJ control are described and the tracking control system design is presented. Finite element models representing two evolutionary concepts, enhanced operations capability (EOC) and extended operations capability (XOC), are employed to evaluate the influence of low frequency flexible structure on the control system design and performance. The design variables of the control system are synthesized using a constrained optimization technique to meet design requirements, to provide a given level of control system stability margin, and to achieve the most responsive tracking performance. The resulting SARJ control system design and performance of the EOC and XOC configurations are presented and compared to those of the SSF configuration. Performance limitations caused by the low frequency of the dominant flexible mode are discussed.

Lim, Tae W.; Cooper, Paul A.; Ayers, J. Kirk

1992-01-01

111

The International Space Station: Improving Life On Earth and In Space: The NASA Research Plan, An Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report describes how the International Space Station (ISS) will be used to further NASA's mission of scientific research and exploration of space. The research plan is divided into five sections with the heart of the report contained in Putting Space to Work the World Over. This section is subdivided into categories dealing with the benefits offered by the ISS. The other four sections are: Excerpts From the Research Agenda for the International Space Station, Serving Our Customers, Research Capability Evolution, and an Appendix of Additional Reading. The document is filled with a wealth of information on how the ISS benefits society, from engineering to biotechnology.

1998-01-01

112

Restoration of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF), located at the Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is a non-vitiated, free-jet facility, capable of testing large-scale propulsion systems at Mach Numbers from 5 to 7. As a result of a component failure in September of 1996, a restoration project was initiated in mid- 1997 to repair the damage to the facility. Following the 2-1/2 year effort, the HTF has been returned to an operational condition. Significant repairs and operational improvements have been implemented in order to ensure facility reliability and personnel safety. As of January 2000, this unique, state-of-the-art facility was ready for integrated systems testing.

Woodling, Mark A.

2000-01-01

113

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) program Economic and programmatic, considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) represents the principal element of a new space-based tracking and communication network which will support NASA spaceflight missions in low earth orbit. In its complete configuration, the TDRSS network will include a space segment consisting of three highly specialized communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit, a ground segment consisting of an earth terminal,

R. O. Aller

1985-01-01

114

Integrated payload resource requirements for NASA's Gravitational Biology Research Laboratory on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary mission of International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a shirt-sleeve working environment within an orbiting laboratory to support a wide variety of research conducted in the micro-gravity (?-gravity) environment of space. The laboratory being developed by the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) at the Ames Research Center (ARC) will support NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) Research Program on the influence and affects of gravity on living systems. It will support research from the building blocks of biology (cells and tissues) through complete, fully grown systems (plants, rodents, aquatics and insects) and through all phases of growth as well as multiple generations. The results will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of gravity in living systems. It should provide the information necessary to support long-term manned missions for exploration of the solar system. In addition, it is expected to provide valuable insight into how Earth-bound biological systems work. .

Fletcher, Lauren E.; Sarver, George L., Dr.; Jahns, Gary, Dr.

2000-01-01

115

A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

1986-01-01

116

Second Shuttle Join NASA's STS Fleet: Challenger Launches First New Tracking Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA made a major stride in readying a second delivery vehicle for its Space Transportation System (STS) fleet with the perfect landing of Shuttle Orbiter Challenger at Edwards Air Force Base, California, April 9, 1983. Besides being the first flight test of Challenger's performance, the mission marked the orbiting of the first spacecraft in NASA's new Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The new family of orbiting space communications platforms is essential to serve future Shuttle missions. Although the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) second stage engine firing failed to place TDRS in its final 35,888 kilometer (22,300 mile) geosynchronous orbit, its release from the orbiter cargo bay went as planned. Launch officials were confident they can achieve its planned orbit in a matter of weeks.

1983-01-01

117

Analysis of a Four-Station Doppler Tracking Method Using a Simple CW Beacon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Doppler tracking method is presented in which a very small, simple CW beacon transmitter is used with four Doppler receiving stations to obtain the position and velocity of a space research vehicle. The exact transmitter frequency need not be known, but an initial position is required, and Doppler frequencies must be measured with extreme accuracy. The errors in the system are analyzed and general formulas are derived for position and velocity errors. The proper location of receiving stations is discussed, a rule for avoiding infinite errors is given, and error charts for ideal station configurations are presented. The effect of the index of refraction is also investigated. The system is capable of determining transmitter position within 1,000 feet at a range of 200 miles.

Fricke, Clifford L.; Watkins, Carl W. L.

1961-01-01

118

NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

2008-01-01

119

The Student Observation Network: Tracking a Solar Storm through NASA Data Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Student Observation Network (SON) is a NASA-supported program that encourages students to answer a central scientific question through hands-on study of real scientific data. The data are obtained by student instruments or by use of ground-based or space-based instruments through the internet. SON has several science modules based on questions designed for student inquiry in a number of different disciplines. This talk will describe the module called "Tracking a Solar Storm". This module has been in existence for several years and has received special emphasis for use by NASA Explorer Schools. We are now experiencing the results of incorporation of this module into the curriculum of schools usually at the middle school level. The types of analysis that can be done by the students will be described. We will show examples of NASA satellite data websites that are used by the students for putting together their research on the overall guiding question. The authenticity of the science they do would not be complete without communication of their results to their peers and recently we have enhanced the module to use new technologies such as TV broadcasting techniques and podcasting to inspire students in their communication approaches. Other science modules associated with SON will also be described.

Thieman, J. R.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.; Boonstra, D.

2006-05-01

120

A Technical, Financial, and Policy Analysis of the RAMSES RFID Inventory Management System for NASA's International Space Station: Prospects for SBIR/STTR Technology Infusion  

E-print Network

's International Space Station: Prospects for SBIR/STTR Technology Infusion by Abraham T. Grindle Honors B Analysis of the RAMSES RFID Inventory Management System for NASA's International Space Station: Prospects onboard the International Space Station (ISS). A Monte Carlo Net Present Value analysis found that RAMSES

121

Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

2014-01-01

122

Preliminary design, analysis, and costing of a dynamic scale model of the NASA space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difficulty of testing the next generation of large flexible space structures on the ground places an emphasis on other means for validating predicted on-orbit dynamic behavior. Scale model technology represents one way of verifying analytical predictions with ground test data. This study investigates the preliminary design, scaling and cost trades for a Space Station dynamic scale model. The scaling of nonlinear joint behavior is studied from theoretical and practical points of view. Suspension system interaction trades are conducted for the ISS Dual Keel Configuration and Build-Up Stages suspended in the proposed NASA/LaRC Large Spacecraft Laboratory. Key issues addressed are scaling laws, replication vs. simulation of components, manufacturing, suspension interactions, joint behavior, damping, articulation capability, and cost. These issues are the subject of parametric trades versus the scale model factor. The results of these detailed analyses are used to recommend scale factors for four different scale model options, each with varying degrees of replication. Potential problems in constructing and testing the scale model are identified, and recommendations for further study are outlined.

Gronet, M. J.; Pinson, E. D.; Voqui, H. L.; Crawley, E. F.; Everman, M. R.

1987-01-01

123

Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities At NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world?s largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center?s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

2012-01-01

124

Knowledge-based vision for space station object motion detection, recognition, and tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer vision, especially color image analysis and understanding, has much to offer in the area of the automation of Space Station tasks such as construction, satellite servicing, rendezvous and proximity operations, inspection, experiment monitoring, data management and training. Knowledge-based techniques improve the performance of vision algorithms for unstructured environments because of their ability to deal with imprecise a priori information or inaccurately estimated feature data and still produce useful results. Conventional techniques using statistical and purely model-based approaches lack flexibility in dealing with the variabilities anticipated in the unstructured viewing environment of space. Algorithms developed under NASA sponsorship for Space Station applications to demonstrate the value of a hypothesized architecture for a Video Image Processor (VIP) are presented. Approaches to the enhancement of the performance of these algorithms with knowledge-based techniques and the potential for deployment of highly-parallel multi-processor systems for these algorithms are discussed.

Symosek, P.; Panda, D.; Yalamanchili, S.; Wehner, W., III

1987-01-01

125

NASA philosophy concerning space stations as operations centers for construction and maintenance of large orbiting energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future United States plans for manned space-flight activities are summarized, emphasizing the long-term goals of achieving permanent occupancy and limited self-sufficiency in space. NASA-sponsored studies of earth-orbiting Space Station concepts are reviewed along with lessons learned from the Skylab missions. Descriptions are presented of the Space Transportation System, the Space Construction Base, and the concept of space industrialization (the processing and manufacturing of goods in space). Future plans for communications satellites, solar-power satellites, terrestrial observations from space stations, and manned orbital-transfer vehicles are discussed.

Freitag, R. F.

1976-01-01

126

Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 5: User impact and ground station design, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The configuration of the user transponder on the Tracking and Data Relay satellite is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) transponder concepts and trades, (2) ground station design, (3) antenna configurations for ground equipment, (4) telemetry facilities, (5) signal categories, and (6) satellite tracking.

Hill, T. E.

1972-01-01

127

Tracking the Relative Motion of Four Space Payloads Launched From a Sub-Orbital NASA Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One problem, which is comparatively new in the field of GPS applications, is the determination of the relative trajectories of space vehicles. Applications include the docking of spacecraft, collision avoidance in the area of space stations, and trajectory reconstruction of multiple payloads. The required precision in any of these applications will vary, according to the requirements of the task and abilities of GPS to cope with the environment and the dynamics. This paper describes the post-mission reconstruction of the relative trajectories of four GPS receivers attached to four payloads jettisoned from a rocket in a sub-orbital NASA science mission. It is shown that the sub-decimetre level were achieved with single frequency GPS receivers.

Martel, Hugh; Bull, Barton

1999-01-01

128

NASA Human Spaceflight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Human Spaceflight site provides information on all crewed NASA missions, especially the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. Materials include realtime data and tracking information, updates for ongoing missions, press releases, videos and photos, and daily news and events from the various NASA centers. There is also information on historic crewed missions, and fact sheets on astronauts, shuttle missions, first flights, and scientific research facilities. Users may also subscribe to an e-mail service to receive status reports, news releases, and other current information.

2002-01-01

129

Parametric analysis of RF communications and tracking systems for manned space stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System performance, system interface compatibility, and system management and operations are analyzed for external and internal communications provided by the modular space station. Mathematical models are utilized to evaluate performances of the various communication links between the MSS and the tracking and data relay satellites, the shuttle, and the ground stations. Communication control design requirements are determined from overall MSS control design and checkout requirements are developed in a related systems study. Parallel design efforts consider equipment configurations for the external communication assembly baseband and the internal communication assembly to accommodate signal transfer and control. The recommended baseline design considers also interfaces between equipment groups and the critical functional and signal characteristics of these interfaces. The data processing assembly has direct communication circuits to the external communication assembly and the control interface is provided via a digital data bus and a remote acquisition and control unit.

1972-01-01

130

SeaTrack: Ground station orbit prediction and planning software for sea-viewing satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbit prediction software package (Sea Track) was designed to assist High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations in the acquisition of direct broadcast data from sea-viewing spacecraft. Such spacecraft will be common in the near future, with the launch of the Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1994, along with the continued Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series on NOAA platforms. The Brouwer-Lyddane model was chosen for orbit prediction because it meets the needs of HRPT tracking accuracies, provided orbital elements can be obtained frequently (up to within 1 week). Sea Track requires elements from the U.S. Space Command (NORAD Two-Line Elements) for the satellite's initial position. Updated Two-Line Elements are routinely available from many electronic sources (some are listed in the Appendix). Sea Track is a menu-driven program that allows users to alter input and output formats. The propagation period is entered by a start date and end date with times in either Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or local time. Antenna pointing information is provided in tabular form and includes azimuth/elevation pointing angles, sub-satellite longitude/latitude, acquisition of signal (AOS), loss of signal (LOS), pass orbit number, and other pertinent pointing information. One version of Sea Track (non-graphical) allows operation under DOS (for IBM-compatible personal computers) and UNIX (for Sun and Silicon Graphics workstations). A second, graphical, version displays orbit tracks, and azimuth-elevation for IBM-compatible PC's, but requires a VGA card and Microsoft FORTRAN.

Lambert, Kenneth S.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Patt, Frederick S.

1993-01-01

131

A New Direction for NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA recently created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer scientific and technology results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. Accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on nanomaterials and biomaterials type research. Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for this research. Discussion will be included to explain the changing concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program. Finally, the paper will address the initial utilization schedule and strategy for the various materials science payloads including their corresponding hardware.

Schlagheck, Ronald; Trach, Brian; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

132

A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for the flight research environment. A summary will explain the concept for materials science research processing capabilities aboard the ISS along with the various ground facilities necessary to support the program.

Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

133

Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk calculation procedure.

Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

2011-01-01

134

Tracking during station keeping of OTS: Efficiency of Weilheim interferometer data and Madrid range data in addition to angular and range data of Fucino  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of tracking station data for the Orbital Test Satellite during the stationkeeping phase is considered for tracking network planning purposes. Results of an orbit determination accuracy study by Telesat for the Fucino and Madrid tracking stations are compared with the results of a study by DFVLR for Fucino, Weilheim, and Madrid. Results were obtained by an analysis program.

A. Leibold

1975-01-01

135

NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

Rumerman, Judy A.

2000-01-01

136

GLGM-3: A degree-150 lunar gravity model from the historical tracking data of NASA Moon orbiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966

E. Mazarico; F. G. Lemoine; Shin-Chan Han; D. E. Smith

2010-01-01

137

NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

1985-01-01

138

K- and Ka-band mobile-vehicular satellite-tracking reflector antenna system for the NASA ACTS mobile terminal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of the K- and Ka-band mobile-vehicular satellite-tracking reflector antenna system for NASA's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. ACTS is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellites. The AMT project will make the first experimental use of ACTS soon after the satellite is operational, to demonstrate mobile communications via the satellite from a van on the road. The AMT antenna system consists of a mechanically steered small reflector antenna, using a shared aperture for both frequency bands and fitting under a radome of 23 cm diameter and 10 cm height, and a microprocessor controlled antenna controller that tracks the satellite as the vehicle moves about. The RF and mechanical characteristics of the antenna and the antenna tracking control system are discussed. Measurements of the antenna performance are presented.

Densmore, Art; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Wu, T. K.; Woo, Ken

1993-01-01

139

Tracking the Relative Motion of Four Space Payloads Launched from a Sub-Orbital NASA Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One problem, which is comparatively new in the field of GPS applications, is the determination of the relative trajectories of space vehicles. Applications include the docking of spacecraft, collision avoidance in the area of space stations, and trajectory reconstruction of multiple payloads. The required precision in any of these applications will vary, according to the requirements of the task and abilities of GPS to cope with the environment and the dynamics. This paper describes the post-mission reconstruction of the relative trajectories of four GPS receivers attached to four payloads jettisoned from a Black Brant XII rocket. This vehicle was launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in January 1999 from the Poker Flats Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska. The Black Brant XII is a sub-orbital rocket designed to carry payloads of 100 to 500 kg into the upper atmosphere. Flight time is generally in the order of 10-20 minutes. In this experiment, a GPS receiver and antenna was attached to each of the four payloads. One of the GPS receivers was assigned as the "base station", while the other 3 receivers were designated as remotes. GPS time, code and phase measurements were telemetered to a ground station for real-time processing and storage. The object of the mission was to re-compute the position and velocity of the remote units with respect to the base station during the launch phase and after the payloads separated. During the launch segment the 3 baseling distances between the 4 antennas are known from plans and are constant values until each payload is released. On the fly ambiguity determination was used to establish local coordinates from the base antenna to each of the other 3 GPS units during flight. Distance computations were made from the GPS-derived coordinates and compared to plan distances. Using this methodology an error analysis of the relative GPS accuracies has been presented and in addition a description given of the respective payload behaviour following separation from the vehicle.

Martell, Hugh; Bull, Barton

1999-01-01

140

Modeling and analysis of selected space station communications and tracking subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Communications and Tracking System on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) provides space-to-ground, space-to-space, audio, and video communications, as well as tracking data reception and processing services. Each major category of service is provided by a communications subsystem which is controlled and monitored by software. Among these subsystems, the Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS) and the Space-to-Ground Subsystem (SGS) provide communications with the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System. The ACS is effectively SSF's command link, while the SGS is primarily intended as the data link for SSF payloads. The research activities of this project focused on the ACS and SGS antenna management algorithms identified in the Flight System Software Requirements (FSSR) documentation, including: (1) software modeling and evaluation of antenna management (positioning) algorithms; and (2) analysis and investigation of selected variables and parameters of these antenna management algorithms i.e., descriptions and definitions of ranges, scopes, and dimensions. In a related activity, to assist those responsible for monitoring the development of this flight system software, a brief summary of software metrics concepts, terms, measures, and uses was prepared.

Richmond, Elmer Raydean

1993-01-01

141

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

142

The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

2010-01-01

143

Orbital Debris Detection and Tracking Strategies for the NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MCAT (Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope) is a 1.3m f/4 Ritchey-Chr tien on a double horseshoe equatorial mount that will be deployed in early 2011 to the western pacific island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll to perform orbital debris observations. MCAT will be capable of tracking earth orbital objects at all inclinations and at altitudes from 200 km to geosynchronous. MCAT s primary objective is the detection of new orbital debris in both low-inclination low-earth orbits (LEO) and at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). MCAT was thus designed with a fast focal ratio and a large unvignetted image circle able to accommodate a detector sized to yield a large field of view. The selected primary detector is a close-cycle cooled 4Kx4K 15um pixel CCD camera that yields a 0.9 degree diagonal field. For orbital debris detection in widely spaced angular rate regimes, the camera must offer low read-noise performance over a wide range of framing rates. MCAT s 4-port camera operates from 100 kHz to 1.5 MHz per port at 2 e- and 10 e- read noise respectively. This enables low-noise multi-second exposures for GEO observations as well as rapid (several frames per second) exposures for LEO. GEO observations will be performed using a counter-sidereal time delay integration (TDI) technique which NASA has used successfully in the past. For MCAT the GEO survey, detection, and follow-up prediction algorithms will be automated. These algorithms will be detailed herein. For LEO observations two methods will be employed. The first, Orbit Survey Mode (OSM), will scan specific orbital inclination and altitude regimes, detect new orbital debris objects against trailed background stars, and adjust the telescope track to follow the detected object. The second, Stare and Chase Mode (SCM), will perform a stare, then detect and track objects that enter the field of view which satisfy specific rate and brightness criteria. As with GEO, the LEO operational modes will be fully automated and will be described herein. The automation of photometric and astrometric processing (thus streamlining data collection for environmental modeling) will also be discussed.

Mulrooney, M.; Hickson, P.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

2010-01-01

144

Using NASA's Giovanni System to Simulate Time-Series Stations in the Outflow Region of California's Eel River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oceanographic time-series stations provide vital data for the monitoring of oceanic processes, particularly those associated with trends over time and interannual variability. There are likely numerous locations where the establishment of a time-series station would be desirable, but for reasons of funding or logistics, such establishment may not be feasible. An alternative to an operational time-series station is monitoring of sites via remote sensing. In this study, the NASA Giovanni data system is employed to simulate the establishment of two time-series stations near the outflow region of California s Eel River, which carries a high sediment load. Previous time-series analysis of this location (Acker et al. 2009) indicated that remotely-sensed chl a exhibits a statistically significant increasing trend during summer (low flow) months, but no apparent trend during winter (high flow) months. Examination of several newly-available ocean data parameters in Giovanni, including 8-day resolution data, demonstrates the differences in ocean parameter trends at the two locations compared to regionally-averaged time-series. The hypothesis that the increased summer chl a values are related to increasing SST is evaluated, and the signature of the Eel River plume is defined with ocean optical parameters.

Acker, James G.; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Lee, Zhongping

2012-01-01

145

NASA Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

2000-01-01

146

GPS Sounding Rocket Development at NASA with Simultaneous Multi-Payload Tracking Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket use which includes the flight unit and a ground station capable of extracting GPS data from sounding rocket telemetry, performing a real time differential solution and graphically displaying the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. Accuracy has been proven to within less than 10 meters. Postprocessing has increased the precision to within 10 - 20 centimeters. The system has been successfully flown several times and delivered to the Sounding Program Office for routine field use. In addition to providing position, velocity and time GPS data has been used on sounding rockets for vehicle performance analysis, effecting a one hundred fold improvement in data time tagging, and steering an optical tracking device to intercept payloads launched from over the horizon. Precise velocity separation information and timing has been provided to multiple payload systems. Future plans include its use for Range Safety and enabling of interferometric techniques. The technology and software developed also has potential application to small satellite navigation and formation flying.

Bull, Barton; Martel, Hugh

2000-01-01

147

1February 8, 2011 Briefing to NASA Advisory Council INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION  

E-print Network

on January 21. · The second flight of the Japanese HII Transfer Vehicle (HTV2) began with its launch from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan, on January 22. The vehicle was captured with the station robotic arm

Waliser, Duane E.

148

ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile Observatory, stationed at Mitaka  

E-print Network

ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile-ARC) of the NAOJ Chile Observatory to enhance the system to support ALMA Science Operations. 1. Positions: ARC few positions in total) 2. (1) Division: NAOJ Chile Observatory, East Asian ARC (2) Duty station

Ito, Atsushi

149

ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile Observatory, stationed at Mitaka)  

E-print Network

ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile Center (EA-ARC) of the NAOJ Chile Observatory to enhance the system to support ALMA Science Operations. 1 Professor) (one position) 2. (1) Division: NAOJ Chile Observatory, East Asian ARC (2) Duty station: Mitaka

Ito, Atsushi

150

NASA Education Activities on the International Space Station: A National Laboratory for Inspiring, Engaging, Educating and Employing the Next Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of students with clear educational metrics of accomplishments. This paper provides an overview of several recent ISS educational payloads and activities. The expected outcomes of the project, consistent with those of the NASA Office of Education, are also described. NASA performs numerous education activities as part of its ISS program. These cover the gamut from formal to informal educational opportunities in grades Kindergarten to grade 12, Higher Education (undergraduate and graduate University) and informal educational venues (museums, science centers, exhibits). Projects within the portfolio consist of experiments performed onboard the ISS using onboard resources which require no upmass, payloads flown to ISS or integrated into ISS cargo vehicles, and ground based activities that follow or complement onboard activities. Examples include ground based control group experiments, flight or experiment following lesson plans, ground based activities involving direct interaction with ISS or ground based activities considering ISS resources in their solution set. These projects range from totally NASA funded to projects which partner with external entities. These external agencies can be: other federal, state or local government agencies, commercial entities, universities, professional organizations or non-profit organizations. This paper will describe the recent ISS education activities and discuss the approach, outcomes and metrics associated with the projects.

Severance, Mark T.; Tate-Brown, Judy; McArthur, Cynthia L.

2010-01-01

151

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 1: Executive summary NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uses alignment plan was implemented. The existing data bank was used to define a large number of station requirements. Ten to 20 valid mission scenarios were developed. Architectural options as they are influenced by communications operations, subsystem evolvability, and required technology growth are defined. Costing of evolutionary concepts, alternative approaches, and options, was based on minimum design details.

1983-01-01

152

NASA Shuttle-Mir Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shuttle/Mir site describes the cooperation, investigation, and operation components of the Shuttle/Mir project. Visitors can also find the latest space station news, information on the crew, videos, photos, and tracking information (through Hot Borsht). NASA related sites describe current happenings at NASA and also provide homepages of NASA missions including the Cassini space probe, the Mars Global Surveyor and, most recently, the launch of the Columbia space shuttle. Space exploration provides clues to how the solar system was formed, why life exists on earth and not on other known planets, and what the structures of the universe, matter, and energy are.

1998-01-01

153

Space Station: NASA's software development approach increases safety and cost risks. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology asked NASA to study software development issues for the space station. How well NASA has implemented key software engineering practices for the station was asked. Specifically, the objectives were to determine: (1) if independent verification and validation techniques are being used to ensure that critical software meets specified requirements and functions; (2) if NASA has incorporated software risk management techniques into program; (3) whether standards are in place that will prescribe a disciplined, uniform approach to software development; and (4) if software support tools will help, as intended, to maximize efficiency in developing and maintaining the software. To meet the objectives, NASA proceeded: (1) reviewing and analyzing software development objectives and strategies contained in NASA conference publications; (2) reviewing and analyzing NASA, other government, and industry guidelines for establishing good software development practices; (3) reviewing and analyzing technical proposals and contracts; (4) reviewing and analyzing software management plans, risk management plans, and program requirements; (4) reviewing and analyzing reports prepared by NASA and contractor officials that identified key issues and challenges facing the program; (5) obtaining expert opinions on what constitutes appropriate independent V-and-V and software risk management activities; (6) interviewing program officials at NASA headquarters in Washington, DC; at the Space Station Program Office in Reston, Virginia; and at the three work package centers; Johnson in Houston, Texas; Marshall in Huntsville, Alabama; and Lewis in Cleveland, Ohio; and (7) interviewing contractor officials doing work for NASA at Johnson and Marshall. The audit work was performed in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards, between April 1991 and May 1992.

1992-06-01

154

International Space Station Bus Regulation With NASA Glenn Research Center Flywheel Energy Storage System Development Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental flywheel energy storage system is described. This system is being used to develop a flywheel based replacement for the batteries on the International Space Station (ISS). Motor control algorithms which allow the flywheel to interface with a simplified model of the ISS power bus, and function similarly to the existing ISS battery system, are described. Results of controller experimental verification on a 300 W-hr flywheel are presented.

Kascak, Peter E.; Kenny, Barbara H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph H.

2001-01-01

155

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 5: Study analysis report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be on-board the Freedom Space Station. The further analysis performed on the SCS study as part of task 2-Perform Studies and Parametric Analysis-of the SCS study contract is summarized. These analyses were performed to resolve open issues remaining after the completion of task 1, and the publishing of the SCS study issues report. The results of these studies provide inputs into SCS task 3-Develop and present SCS requirements, and SCS task 4-develop SCS conceptual designs. The purpose of these studies is to resolve the issues into usable requirements given the best available information at the time of the study. A list of all the SCS study issues is given.

1989-01-01

156

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 4: Conceptual design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. In the first step of this task, a methodology was developed to ensure that all relevant design dimensions were addressed, and that all feasible designs could be considered. The development effort yielded the following method for generating and comparing designs in task 4: (1) Extract SCS system requirements (functions) from the system specification; (2) Develop design evaluation criteria; (3) Identify system architectural dimensions relevant to SCS system designs; (4) Develop conceptual designs based on the system requirements and architectural dimensions identified in step 1 and step 3 above; (5) Evaluate the designs with respect to the design evaluation criteria developed in step 2 above. The results of the method detailed in the above 5 steps are discussed. The results of the task 4 work provide the set of designs which two or three candidate designs are to be selected by MSFC as input to task 5-refine SCS conceptual designs. The designs selected for refinement will be developed to a lower level of detail, and further analyses will be done to begin to determine the size and speed of the components required to implement these designs.

1989-01-01

157

The feasibility of using TAE as the UIL for the space station and for other internal NASA tasks and projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This description of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is intended to serve to test the feasibility of its use as the Space Station User Interface Language (SSUIL). TAE was developed by the Space Data and Computing Division, Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of NASA/GSFC, and by Century Computing, Inc. in 1980. TAE is an executive program which ties a system of application programs into a single easily operated whole and supports users' operations of programs through a consistent friendly and flexible interactive user interface. TAE also supplies the interface between the user and the various application programs in a particular computer system. It appears to be an effective user interface for infrequent as well as for expert users.

Gill, Esther Naomi

1987-01-01

158

Design, fabrication and test of a prototype double gimbal control moment gyroscope for the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recognizing the need to develop future technologies in support of the Space Station, NASA's Advanced Development Program (ADP) placed as its goal the design and fabrication of a prototype 4750 Newton-meter-second (3500 ft-lb-sec) Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG). The CMG uses the principle of momentum exchange to impart control torques for counteracting vehicle disturbances. This paper addresses the selection of the double gimbal CMG over the single gimbal and describes the major subassemblies of the prototype design. Particular attention is given to the choice of the materials, fabrication and design details dictated by the man-rated mission requirement. Physical characteristics and the results of functional testing are presented to demonstrate the level of system performance obtained. Comparisons are made of the measured system responses against design goals and predictions generated by computer simulation.

Blondin, Joseph; Hahn, Eric; Kolvek, John; Cook, Lewis; Golley, Paul

1989-01-01

159

Satellite-tracking and earth-dynamics research programs. [NASA Programs on satellite orbits and satellite ground tracks of geodetic satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and research progress of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are reported. Satellite tracking networks (ground stations) are discussed and equipment (Baker-Nunn cameras) used to observe the satellites is described. The improvement of the accuracy of a laser ranging system of the ground stations is discussed. Also, research efforts in satellite geodesy (tides, gravity anomalies, plate tectonics) is discussed. The use of data processing for geophysical data is examined, and a data base for the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program is proposed. Analytical models of the earth's motion (computerized simulation) are described and the computation (numerical integration and algorithms) of satellite orbits affected by the earth's albedo, using computer techniques, is also considered. Research efforts in the study of the atmosphere are examined (the effect of drag on satellite motion), and models of the atmosphere based on satellite data are described.

1974-01-01

160

VON and Its Use in NASA's International Space Station Science Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will provide a brief overview of a International Space Station (ISS) remote user (scientist/experimenter) operation. Specifically, the presentation will show how Voice over IP (VoIP) is integrated into the ISS science payload operation and in the mission voice system. Included will be the details on how a scientist, using VON, will talk to the ISS onboard crew and ground based cadre from a scientist's home location (lab, office or garage) over tile public Internet and science nets. Benefit(s) to tile ISS Program (and taxpayer) and of VoIP versus other implementations also will be presented.

Bradford, Robert N.; Chamberlain, Jim

1999-01-01

161

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) program Economic and programmatic, considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) represents the principal element of a new space-based tracking and communication network which will support NASA spaceflight missions in low earth orbit. In its complete configuration, the TDRSS network will include a space segment consisting of three highly specialized communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit, a ground segment consisting of an earth terminal, and associated data handling and control facilities. The TDRSS network has the objective to provide communication and data relay services between the earth-orbiting spacecraft and their ground-based mission control and data handling centers. The first TDRSS spacecraft has been now in service for two years. The present paper is concerned with the TDRSS experience from the perspective of the various programmatic and economic considerations which relate to the program.

Aller, R. O.

1985-01-01

162

NASA's plans for life sciences research facilities on a Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Life Sciences Research Facility on a Space Station will contribute to the health and well-being of humans in space, as well as address many fundamental questions in gravitational and developmental biology. Scientific interests include bone and muscle attrition, fluid and electrolyte shifts, cardiovascular deconditioning, metabolism, neurophysiology, reproduction, behavior, drugs and immunology, radiation biology, and closed life-support system development. The life sciences module will include a laboratory and a vivarium. Trade-offs currently being evaluated include (1) the need for and size of a 1-g control centrifuge; (2) specimen quantities and species for research; (3) degree of on-board analysis versus sample return and ground analysis; (4) type and extent of equipment automation; (5) facility return versus on-orbit refurbishment; (6) facility modularity, isolation, and system independence; and (7) selection of experiments, design, autonomy, sharing, compatibility, and integration.

Arno, R.; Heinrich, M.; Mascy, A.

1984-01-01

163

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 2: Concept document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Computer System (SCS) concept document describes and establishes requirements for the functional performance of the SCS system, including interface, logistic, and qualification requirements. The SCS is the computational communications and display segment of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Payload Training Complex (PTC). The PTC is the MSFC facility that will train onboard and ground operations personnel to operate the payloads and experiments on board the international Space Station Freedom. The requirements to be satisfied by the system implementation are identified here. The SCS concept document defines the requirements to be satisfied through the implementation of the system capability. The information provides the operational basis for defining the requirements to be allocated to the system components and enables the system organization to assess whether or not the completed system complies with the requirements of the system.

1989-01-01

164

NASA Virtual Glovebox (VBX): Emerging Simulation Technology for Space Station Experiment Design, Development, Training and Troubleshooting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station demonstrates the greatest capabilities of human ingenuity, international cooperation and technology development. The complexity of this space structure is unprecedented; and training astronaut crews to maintain all its systems, as well as perform a multitude of research experiments, requires the most advanced training tools and techniques. Computer simulation and virtual environments are currently used by astronauts to train for robotic arm manipulations and extravehicular activities; but now, with the latest computer technologies and recent successes in areas of medical simulation, the capability exists to train astronauts for more hands-on research tasks using immersive virtual environments. We have developed a new technology, the Virtual Glovebox (VGX), for simulation of experimental tasks that astronauts will perform aboard the Space Station. The VGX may also be used by crew support teams for design of experiments, testing equipment integration capability and optimizing the procedures astronauts will use. This is done through the 3D, desk-top sized, reach-in virtual environment that can simulate the microgravity environment in space. Additional features of the VGX allow for networking multiple users over the internet and operation of tele-robotic devices through an intuitive user interface. Although the system was developed for astronaut training and assisting support crews, Earth-bound applications, many emphasizing homeland security, have also been identified. Examples include training experts to handle hazardous biological and/or chemical agents in a safe simulation, operation of tele-robotic systems for assessing and diffusing threats such as bombs, and providing remote medical assistance to field personnel through a collaborative virtual environment. Thus, the emerging VGX simulation technology, while developed for space- based applications, can serve a dual use facilitating homeland security here on Earth.

Smith, Jeffrey D.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Maese, A. Christopher; Cagle, Yvonne; Boyle, Richard

2003-01-01

165

A review of NASA international programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synoptic overview of NASA's international activities to January 1979 is presented. The cooperating countries and international organizations are identified. Topics covered include (1) cooperative arrangements for ground-based, spaceborne, airborne, rocket-borne, and balloon-borne ventures, joint development, and aeronautical R & D; (2) reimbursable launchings; (3) tracking and data acquisition; and (4) personnel exchanges. International participation in NASA's Earth resources investigations is summarized in the appendix. A list of automatic picture transmission stations is included.

1979-01-01

166

NASA Docking System (NDS) Users Guide: International Space Station Program. Type 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Docking System (NDS) Users Guide provides an overview of the basic information needed to integrate the NDS onto a Host Vehicle (HV). This Users Guide is intended to provide a vehicle developer with a fundamental understanding of the NDS technical and operations information to support their program and engineering integration planning. The Users Guide identifies the NDS Specification, Interface Definition or Requirement Documents that contain the complete technical details and requirements that a vehicle developer must use to design, develop and verify their systems will interface with NDS. This Guide is an initial reference and must not be used as a design document. In the event of conflict between this Users Guide and other applicable interface definition or requirements documents; the applicable document will take precedence. This Users Guide is organized in three main sections. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the NDS and CDA hardware and the operations concepts for the NDS. Chapter 2 provides information for Host Vehicle Program integration with the NDS Project Office. Chapter 2 describes the NDS Project organization, integration and verification processes, user responsibilities, and specification and interface requirement documents. Chapter 3 provides a summary of basic technical information for the NDS design. Chapter 3 includes NDS hardware component descriptions, physical size and weight characteristics, and summary of the capabilities and constraints for the various NDS sub-systems.

Tabakman, Alexander

2010-01-01

167

The NASA/JPL 64-meter-diameter antenna at Goldstone, California: Project report, technical staff, tracking and data acquisition organization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant management and technical aspects of the JPL Project to develop and implement a 64-meter-diameter antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California, which was the first of the Advanced Antenna Systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network are described. The original need foreseen for a large-diameter antenna to accomplish communication and tracking support of NASA's solar system exploration program is reviewed, and the translation of those needs into the technical specification of an appropriate ground station antenna is described. The antenna project is delineated by phases to show the key technical and managerial skills and the technical facility resources involved. There is a brief engineering description of the antenna and its closely related facilities. Some difficult and interesting engineering problems, then at the state-of-the-art level, which were met in the accomplishment of the Project, are described. The key performance characteristics of the antenna, in relation to the original specifications and the methods of their determination, are stated.

1974-01-01

168

Orthostatic Hypotension After Long-Duration Space Flight: NASA's Experiences from the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our laboratory previously reported that the incidence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) was greater after long- than short-duration spaceflight in astronauts who participated in Mir Space Station and Space Shuttle missions. To confirm and extend these findings, we retrospectively examined tilt test data from International Space Station (ISS) and Shuttle astronauts. We anticipated that the proportion of ISS astronauts experiencing OH would be high on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after long- than short-duration missions. Methods: Twenty ISS and 66 Shuttle astronauts participated in 10-min 80? head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch (L-10), on landing day (R+0) or 1 d after landing (R+1). Data from 5 ISS astronauts tested on R+0 or R+1 who used non-standard countermeasures were excluded. Many astronauts repeated the test 3 d (R+3) after landing. Fisher?s Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the tilt test on R+0. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters that were associated with test completion across all tests, and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between ISS and Shuttle astronauts. In these analyses, ISS data from R+0 and R+1 were pooled to provide sufficient statistical power. Results: The proportion of astronauts who completed the tilt test on R+0 without OH was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (p=0.03). On R+0, only 2 of 6 ISS astronauts completed the test compared to 53 of 66 (80%) Shuttle astronauts. However, 8 of 9 ISS astronauts completed the test on R+1. On R+3, 13 of 15 (87%) of the ISS and 19 of 19 (100%) of the Shuttle astronauts completed the 10-min test. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a very good prediction of overall tilt survival. This index was altered by spaceflight similarly for both groups soon after landing (pooled R+0 and R+ 1), but ISS astronauts did not recover at the same rate as Shuttle astronauts (p=0.007). Conclusions: The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the tilt test on R+0 due to OH (4 of 6) is similar to that reported in astronauts who flew on Mir (5 of 6). Further, cardiovascular parameters most closely associated with OH recover more slowly after long- compared to short-duration spaceflight.

Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

2011-01-01

169

The Santa Maria Ground Station Technical Parameters with Trainee Operation for CubeSat Tracking - Capacity Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to describe the technical parameters of the NANOSATC-BR1's Ground Station (GS) installed at the Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRS/INPE-MCTI, Santa Maria, RS, Southern of Brazil, (29.4245ºS, 53.4303ºW) which is being operated by two UFSM' trainee students financed by the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), from the INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP). The NANOSATC-BR - CubeSats development Project, consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected to operate in orbit for at least 12 months each. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 - CubeSats spaces stations communication subsystems will make the radio down and up data links with the NANOSATC-BR Ground Stations Network. The Ground Station is compatible with on board NANOSAC-BR 1 & 2 systems and also with the GENSO (Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations). It was projected to track LEO (Low Earth Orbit) nanosatellites operating in the IARU (International Amateur Radio Union) VHF and UHF bandwidths and also at S-band frequency. The Program with its NANOSATC-BR Brazilian Ground Stations Network are presented and it has support from The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB).

Manica, Thales Ramos; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Moro, Pietro Fernando; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Farias, Tiago Travi; Mozzaquatro Wendt, João Francisco

170

Analysis and evaluation of the NASA\\/JPL TOPSAR across-track interferometric SAR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have evaluated the accuracy of digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by the JPL\\/NASA TOPSAR synthetic aperture radar interferometer instrument by acquiring topographic radar data in the summer of 1992 over the National Training Center, near Ft. Irwin, California, and comparing the measurements to a very accurate digital elevation model derived for this area by the U.S. Army Topographic

Soren Ngrvang Madsen; Jan M. Martin; Howard A. Zebker

1995-01-01

171

Establishing a communications-intensive network to resolve artificial intelligence issues within NASA's Space Station Freedom research centers community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MITRE Corporation's, A Review of Space Station Freedom Program Capabilities for the Development and Application of Advanced Automation, cites as a critical issue the following situation, extant at the NASA facilities visited in the course of preparing the review: The major issues noted with regard to design and research facilities deal with cooperative problem solving, technology transfer, and communication between these facilities. While the authors were visiting lab and test beds to collect information, personnel at many of these facilities were interested in any information they could collect on activities at other facilities. A formal means of gathering this information could not be identified by these personnel. While communication between some facilities was taking place or was planned, for technology transfer or coordination of schedules (e.g., for SADP demonstrations), poor communication between these facilities could lead to a lack of technical standards, duplication of effort, poorly defined interfaces, scheduling problems, and increased cost. Formal mechanisms by which effective communication and cooperative problem solving can take place, and information can be disseminated, must be defined. A solution is proposed for the communications aspects of the issues addressed above; and offered at the same time a solution which can prove effective in dealing with some of the problems being encountered with expertise being lost via retirement or defection to the private sector. The proffered recommendations are recognizably cost-effective and tap the rising sector of expert knowledge being produced by the American academic community.

Howard, E. Davis, III

1990-01-01

172

Coping with data from Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume of data from future NASA space missions will be phenomenal. Here, we examine the expected data flow from the Space Station Freedom and describe techniques that are being developed to transport and process that data. Networking in space, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data systems (CCSDS), NASA institutional ground support, communications system architecture, and principal data types and formats are discussed.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1991-01-01

173

Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

Evans, Austin Lewis

1988-01-01

174

Remote sensing of ocean waves and currents using NASA (JPL) AIRSAR along-track interferometry (ATI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The along-track interferometry (ATI) SAR measures the Doppler shift of the backscattered signal and thus the line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers. This interferometric velocity is the sum of the orbital motion of water particles from the swell, phase velocities of the Bragg waves, and ocean surface currents. While the advent of ATI SAR provided us with a potentially powerful technique

Duk-jin Kim; Wooil M. Moon; David A. Imel; Delwyn Moller

2002-01-01

175

Historics of the Space Tracking And Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical and technical aspects of the major networks which comprise the NASA tracking and data acquisition system are considered in a complete reference work which traces the origin and growth of STADAN, MSFN, and NASCOM up to mid-1971. The roles of these networks in both the Gemini and Apollo programs are discussed, and the separate developmental trends are identified for each network.

Corliss, W. R.

1974-01-01

176

NASA RFID Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some potential uses for Radio Frequency Identification in space missions. One of these is inventory management in space, including the methods used in Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and Space Station. The potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost are reviewed. The use of Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking are examined such as that used in Sapphire DART The advantages of RFID in passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications are shown such as: Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities The potential for E-textiles for wireless and RFID are also examined.

Fink, Patrick, Ph.D.; Kennedy, Timothy, Ph.D; Powers, Anne; Haridi, Yasser; Chu, Andrew; Lin, Greg; Yim, Hester; Byerly, Kent, Ph.D.; Barton, Richard, Ph.D.; Khayat, Michael, Ph.D.; Studor, George; Brocato, Robert; Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. D., Ph.D.; Gross, Julia; Phan, Chau; Ni, David, Ph.D.; Dusl, John; Dekome, Kent

2007-01-01

177

Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

2005-01-01

178

NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

1999-01-01

179

Full Scale Validation of Tracking Total Stations Using a Long Stroke Electrodynamic Shaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In recent years, dynamic deformation monitoring equipment such as GPS, accelerometers and inclinometers was extensively used for the purpose of determining angular movements, displacements and vibrations of engineering structures. In contrast, the use of total stations in similar applications was limited for a number of reasons, including the low sampling rate, problems associated with operation in adverse weather conditions

Vassilis GIKAS; Stamatis DASKALAKIS

2006-01-01

180

A critical analysis of grounding practices for railroad tracks in electric utility stations  

SciTech Connect

A railroad spur is often routed into a large substation or generating plant to facilitate installation of large power transformers or other large pieces of equipment and to transport fuel to the plant. Because the metal rails may transfer hazardous potentials into or out of the switchyard area during ground faults, precautions must be taken to limit the hazardous voltages. This analysis looks for common trends of voltages along railroad tracks in a controlled model of a substation grounding system during a ground fault. Current practices to limit these transferred potentials are based on crude approximations and engineering judgment. Recently developed computer programs allow a much better model of the grounding system, track and the hazardous scenarios to which a person might be subject. Several cases were used to illustrate some of the most common techniques used to limit hazardous voltages, and some of these techniques were found to be quite ineffective. Except for the cases where the tracks near the substation were removed, the potential transferred along the tracks produced several scenarios with touch and/or step voltages exceeding the tolerable limits.

Garrett, D.L.; Wallace, K.A. (Southern Co. Services, Birmingham, AL (United States))

1993-01-01

181

GLGM-3: A degree-150 lunar gravity model from the historical tracking data of NASA Moon orbiters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966 to Lunar Prospector in 1998, using the GEODYN II program developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We then created a set of normal equations and solved for the coefficients of a spherical harmonics expansion of the lunar gravity potential up to degree and order 150. The GLGM-3 solution obtained with a global Kaula constraint (2.5 × 10-4l-2) shows good agreement with model LP150Q from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially over the nearside. The levels of data fit with both gravity models are very similar (Doppler RMS of ˜0.2 and ˜1-2 mm/s in the nominal and extended phases, respectively). Orbit overlaps and uncertainties estimated from the covariance matrix also agree well. GLGM-3 shows better correlation with lunar topography and admittance over the nearside at high degrees of expansion (l > 100), particularly near the poles. We also present three companion solutions, obtained with the same data set but using alternate inversion strategies that modify the power law constraint and expectation of the individual spherical harmonics coefficients. We give a detailed discussion of the performance of this family of gravity field solutions in terms of observation fit, orbit quality, and geophysical consistency.

Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Han, Shin-Chan; Smith, D. E.

2010-05-01

182

GLGM-3: A Degree-ISO Lunar Gravity Model from the Historical Tracking Data of NASA Moon Orbiters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966 to Lunar Prospector in 1998, using the GEODYN II program developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We then created a set of normal equations and solved for the coefficients of a spherical harmonics expansion of the lunar gravity potential up to degree and order 150. The GLGM-3 solution obtained with a global Kaula constraint (2.5 x 10(exp -4)/sq l) shows good agreement with model LP150Q from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially over the nearside. The levels of data fit with both gravity models are very similar (Doppler RMS of approx.0.2 and approx. 1-2 mm/s in the nominal and extended phases, respectiVely). Orbit overlaps and uncertainties estimated from the covariance matrix also agree well. GLGM-3 shows better correlation with lunar topography and admittance over the nearside at high degrees of expansion (l > 100), particularly near the poles. We also present three companion solutions, obtained with the same data set but using alternate inversion strategies that modify the power law constraint and expectation of the individual spherical harmonics coefficients. We give a detailed discussion of the performance of this family of gravity field solutions in terms of observation fit, orbit quality, and geophysical consistency.

Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Han, Shin-Chan; Smith, D. E.

2010-01-01

183

Classical and modern control strategies for the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation flying consists of multiple spacecraft orbiting in a required configuration about a planet or through Space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation is one of the proposed constellations to be launched in the year 2009 and provides the motivation for this investigation. The problem that will be researched here consists of three stages. The first stage contains the deployment of the satellites; the second stage is the reconfiguration process to transfer the satellites through different specific sizes of the NASA benchmark problem; and, the third stage is the station-keeping procedure for the tetrahedron constellation. Every stage contains different control schemes and transfer procedures to obtain/maintain the proposed tetrahedron constellation. In the first stage, the deployment procedure will depend on a combination of two techniques in which impulsive maneuvers and a digital controller are used to deploy the satellites and to maintain the tetrahedron constellation at the following apogee point. The second stage that corresponds to the reconfiguration procedure shows a different control scheme in which the intelligent control systems are implemented to perform this procedure. In this research work, intelligent systems will eliminate the use of complex mathematical models and will reduce the computational time to perform different maneuvers. Finally, the station-keeping process, which is the third stage of this research problem, will be implemented with a two-level hierarchical control scheme to maintain the separation distance constraints of the NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation. For this station-keeping procedure, the system of equations defining the dynamics of a pair of satellites is transformed to take in account the perturbation due to the oblateness of the Earth and the disturbances due to solar pressure. The control procedures used in this research will be transformed from a continuous control system to a digital control system which will simplify the implementation into the computer onboard the satellite. In addition, this research will show an introductory chapter on attitude dynamics that can be used to maintain the orientation of the satellites, and an adaptive intelligent control scheme will be proposed to maintain the desired orientation of the spacecraft. In conclusion, a solution for the dynamics of the NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation will be presented in this research work. The main contribution of this work is the use of discrete control schemes, impulsive maneuvers, and intelligent control schemes that can be used to reduce the computational time in which these control schemes can be easily implemented in the computer onboard the satellite. These contributions are explained through the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping process of the proposed NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation.

Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.

184

NASA Radiation Track Image GUI for Assessing Space Radiation Biological Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-charge high-energy (HZE) ion components of the galactic cosmic rays when compared to terrestrial forms of radiations present unique challenges to biological systems. In this paper we present a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) breakage model to visualize and analyze the impact of chromatin domains and DNA loops on clustering of DNA damage from X rays, protons, and HZE ions. Our model of DNA breakage is based on a stochastic process of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formulation that includes the amorphous model of the radiation track and a polymer model of DNA packed in the cell nucleus. Our model is a Monte-Carlo simulation based on a randomly located DSB cluster formulation that accomodates both high- and low-linear energy transfer radiations. We demonstrate that HZE ions have a strong impact on DSB clustering, both along the chromosome length and in the nucleus volume. The effects of chromosomal domains and DNA loops on the DSB fragment-size distribution and the spatial distribution of DSB in the nucleus were studied. We compare our model predictions with the spatial distribution of DSB obtained from experiments. The implications of our model predictions for radiation protection are discussed.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

185

Fast Track Lunar NTR Systems Assessment for NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Its Evolvability to Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated systems and missions studies are presented for an evolutionary lunar-to-Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. A 'standardized' set of engine and stage components are identified and used in a 'building block' fashion to configure a variety of piloted and cargo, lunar and Mars vehicles. The reference NTR characteristics include a thrust of 50 thousand pounds force (klbf), specific impulse (I(sub sp)) of 900 seconds, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of 4. 3. For the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission, and expendable NTR stage powered by two such engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tonnes (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical system. The stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a diameter, length, and capacity of 10 m, 14.5 m and 66 t, respectively. By extending the stage length and LH2 capacity to approximately 20 m and 96 t, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle could deliver to an elliptical Mars parking orbit a 63 t Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) with a 45 t surface payload. Three 50 klbf engines and the two standardized LH2 tanks developed for the lunar and Mars cargo vehicles are used to configure the vehicles supporting piloted Mars missions as early as 2010. The 'modular' NTR vehicle approach forms the basis for an efficient STS able to handle the needs of a wide spectrum of lunar and Mars missions.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Alexander, Stephen W.

1995-01-01

186

Traversing Microphone Track Installed in NASA Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory Dome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory is an acoustically treated, 65-ft-tall dome located at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Inside this laboratory is the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig (NATR), which is used in support of Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) and High Speed Research (HSR) to test engine exhaust nozzles for thrust and acoustic performance under simulated takeoff conditions. Acoustic measurements had been gathered by a far-field array of microphones located along the dome wall and 10-ft above the floor. Recently, it became desirable to collect acoustic data for engine certifications (as specified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)) that would simulate the noise of an aircraft taking off as heard from an offset ground location. Since nozzles for the High-Speed Civil Transport have straight sides that cause their noise signature to vary radially, an additional plane of acoustic measurement was required. Desired was an arched array of 24 microphones, equally spaced from the nozzle and each other, in a 25 off-vertical plane. The various research requirements made this a challenging task. The microphones needed to be aimed at the nozzle accurately and held firmly in place during testing, but it was also essential that they be easily and routinely lowered to the floor for calibration and servicing. Once serviced, the microphones would have to be returned to their previous location near the ceiling. In addition, there could be no structure could between the microphones and the nozzle, and any structure near the microphones would have to be designed to minimize noise reflections. After many concepts were considered, a single arched truss structure was selected that would be permanently affixed to the dome ceiling and to one end of the dome floor.

Bauman, Steven W.; Perusek, Gail P.

1999-01-01

187

Determination of station coordinates from Lageos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser tracking of Lageos by the NASA and SAO laser tracking systems from its launch in May 1976 until December 1976 has been used to derive the coordinates of the tracking stations. The NASA tracking data from four systems in the United States had a precision of 10 to 15 cm and the SAO stations in North America, South America and Australia had precisions between 0.8 meters and 1.3 meters. Nearly 90,000 observations of Lageos were used in this analysis. Thirty-one orbital arcs, each five days in length, were derived which had orbital fits of 25 cm for the NASA data and at about 1 meter level for the SAO data. The coordinates of all eight stations were derived from this data set and the preliminary estimate of the overall accuracy of 50 cm in each coordinate. These results are in general agreement at about the 30 cm level with other results obtained from laser tracking of Beacon Explorer C.

Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Dunn, P. J.; Torrence, M. H.

1979-01-01

188

Using ATCOM to enhance long-range imagery collected by NASA's flight test tracking cameras at Armstrong Flight Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at Edwards Air Force Base, Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) is NASA's premier site for aeronautical research and operates some of the most advanced aircraft in the world. As such, flight tests for advanced manned and unmanned aircraft are regularly performed there. All such tests are tracked through advanced electro-optic imaging systems to monitor the flight status in real-time and to archive the data for later analysis. This necessitates the collection of imagery from long-range camera systems of fast moving targets from a significant distance away. Such imagery is severely degraded due to the atmospheric turbulence between the camera and the object of interest. The result is imagery that becomes blurred and suffers a substantial reduction in contrast, causing significant detail in the video to be lost. In this paper, we discuss the image processing techniques located in the ATCOM software, which uses a multi-frame method to compensate for the distortions caused by the turbulence.

Paolini, Aaron; Tow, David; Kelmelis, Eric

2014-06-01

189

Compilation and Analysis of 20- and 30-GHz Rain Fade Events at the ACTS NASA Ground Station: Statistics and Model Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of the operational phase of the NASA Research Center's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS), signal-fade measurements have been recorded at the NASA Ground Station located in Cleveland, Ohio, with the use of the 20- and 30-GHz beacon signals. Compilations of the daily data have been statistically analyzed on a monthly and yearly basis. Such analyses have yielded relevant parameters as (1) cumulative monthly and yearly probability distributions of signal attenuation by rain, (2) attenuation duration versus attenuation threshold probabilities, and (3) rate-of-fade probabilities. Not only are such data needed for a realistic data base to support the design and performance analysis of future satellite systems, but they are necessary to assess predictions made with the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model.

Manning, Robert M.

1995-01-01

190

Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

1984-01-01

191

The ESA-NASA 'CHOICE' Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, as an Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregu1ation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assess innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivataion and stress factors during Concordia winter-over deployment. To date, not all samples have been analyzed. Here, only data will be preliminary presented for those parameters where sample/data analysis is completed (i.e., Leukocyte subsets, T cell function, and intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles.)

Crucian, Brian E,; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; Kaufmann, I.; Baatout, D. S.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.; Chouker, A.

2011-01-01

192

AUTOMATIC FISH TRACKING SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. E.P.A.'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) MONTICELLO ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An automatic tracking system controlled by an RCA 1802 microprocessor was developed to locate fish in a 400 m outdoor experimental stream channel at the U.S. EPA Monticello Ecological Research Station. The monitoring network consisted of 12 horizontally polarized antennas spaced ...

193

NASA Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

2003-01-01

194

NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1985. [Space Stations and Their Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1985 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Research Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and the Johnson Space Center. The ten week program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). The faculty fellows spent the time at JSC engaged in research projects commensurate with their interests and background and worked in collaboration with NASA/JSC colleagues. This document is a compilation of the final reports of their research during the summer of 1985.

Chilton, R. G. (editor); Williams, C. E. (editor)

1986-01-01

195

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and flashover on SiO(x)-coated polyimide insulated samples of flat flexible current carriers for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kapton polyimide wiring insulation was found to be vulnerable to pyrolization, arc tracking, and flashover when momentary short-circuit arcs have occurred on aircraft power systems. Short-circuit arcs between wire pairs can pyrolize the polyimide resulting in a conductive char between conductors that may sustain the arc (arc tracking). Furthermore, the arc tracking may spread (flashover) to other wire pairs within a wire bundle. Polyimide Kapton will also be used as the insulating material for the flexible current carrier (FCC) of Space Station Freedom (SSF). The FCC, with conductors in a planar type geometric layout as opposed to bundles, is known to sustain arc tracking at proposed SSF power levels. Tests were conducted in a vacuum bell jar that was designed to conduct polyimide pyrolysis, arc tracking, and flashover studies on samples of SSF's FCC. Test results will be reported concerning the minimal power level needed to sustain arc tracking and the FCC susceptibility to flashover. Results of the FCC arc tracking tests indicate that only 22 volt amps were necessary to sustain arc tracking (proposed SSF power level is 400 watts). FCC flashover studies indicate that the flashover event is highly unlikely.

Stueber, Thomas J.; Mundson, Chris

1993-01-01

196

Integration of communications and tracking data processing simulation for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified model of the communications network for the Communications and Tracking Data Processing System (CTDP) was developed. It was simulated by use of programs running on several on-site computers. These programs communicate with one another by means of both local area networks and direct serial connections. The domain of the model and its simulation is from Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface to Data Management Systems (DMS). The simulation was designed to allow status queries from remote entities across the DMS networks to be propagated through the model to several simulated ORU's. The ORU response is then propagated back to the remote entity which originated the request. Response times at the various levels were investigated in a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system environment. Results indicate that the effective bandwidth of the system may be too low to support expected data volume requirements under conventional operating systems. Instead, some form of embedded process control program may be required on the node computers.

Lacovara, Robert C.

1987-01-01

197

Integration of communications and tracking data processing simulation for space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified model of the communications network for the Communications and Tracking Data Processing System (CTDP) was developed. It was simulated by use of programs running on several on-site computers. These programs communicate with one another by means of both local area networks and direct serial connections. The domain of the model and its simulation is from Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface to Data Management Systems (DMS). The simulation was designed to allow status queries from remote entities across the DMS networks to be propagated through the model to several simulated ORU's. The ORU response is then propagated back to the remote entity which originated the request. Response times at the various levels were investigated in a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system environment. Results indicate that the effective bandwidth of the system may be too low to support expected data volume requirements under conventional operating systems. Instead, some form of embedded process control program may be required on the node computers.

Lacovara, Robert C.

1987-06-01

198

An AI Approach to Ground Station Autonomy for Deep Space Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an architecture for an autonomous deep space tracking station (DS-T). The architecture targets fully automated routine operations encompassing scheduling and resource allocation, antenna and receiver predict generation. track procedure generation from service requests, and closed loop control and error recovery for the station subsystems. This architecture has been validated by the construction of a prototype DS-T station, which has performed a series of demonstrations of autonomous ground station control for downlink services with NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS).

Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Mutz, Darren; Paal, Leslie; Law, Emily; Stockett, Mike; Golshan, Nasser; Chien, Steve

1998-01-01

199

Applicability of 100kWe-class of space reactor power systems to NASA manned space station missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of a manned space station operating with sufficiently high power demands to require a multihundred kilowatt range electrical power system. The nuclear reactor is a competitor for supplying this power level. Load levels were selected at 150kWe and 300kWe. Interactions among the reactor electrical power system, the manned space station, the space transportation system, and the mission were evaluated. The reactor shield and the conversion equipment were assumed to be in different positions with respect to the station; on board, tethered, and on a free flyer platform. Mission analyses showed that the free flyer concept resulted in unacceptable costs and technical problems. The tethered reactor providing power to an electrolyzer for regenerative fuel cells on the space station, results in a minimum weight shield and can be designed to release the reactor power section so that it moves to a high altitude orbit where the decay period is at least 300 years. Placing the reactor on the station, on a structural boom is an attractive design, but heavier than the long tethered reactor design because of the shield weight for manned activity near the reactor.

Silverman, S. W.; Willenberg, H. J.; Robertson, C.

1985-01-01

200

Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

201

The ESA-NASA CHOICE Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, A Potential Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of terrestrial analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a superior ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assesses innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivation and stress factors during Concordia winterover deployment. Initial data obtained from the first study deployment (2009 mission; 'n' of 6) will be presented, and logistical challenges regarding analog usage for biological studies will also be discussed. The total WBC increased, and alterations in some peripheral leukocyte populations were observed during winterover at Concordia Station. Percentages of lymphocytes and monocytes increased, and levels of senescent CD8+ T cells were increased during deployment. Transient increases in constitutively activated T cell subsets were observed, at mission time points associated with endemic disease outbreaks. T cell function (early blastogenesis response) was increased near the entry/exit deployment phases, and production of most measured cytokines increased during deployment. Salivary cortisol demonstrated high variability during winterover, but was generally increased. A 2-point circadian rhythm of cortisol measurement (morning/evening) was unaltered during winterover. Perceived stress was mildly elevated during winterover. Other measures, including in-vitro DTH assessment, viral specific T cell number/function and latent herpesvirus reactivation have not yet been completed for the 2009 winterover subjects. Based on the preliminary data, alterations in immune cell distribution and function appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Based on the initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune changes.

Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D L.; Sams, C. F.

2010-01-01

202

News and Views: NASA puts JWST back on track, but ExoMars collaboration looks unlikely; Marsquakes happening yesterday, geologically; UFOs from black holes control shape of galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's funding plans put the James Webb Space Telescope firmly on track for a launch in 2018, to widespread relief, but the essentially flat funding settlement for 2013 overall means something has to go. Planetary science seems hardest hit, with the especial blow for European planetary scientists of NASA pulling out of ExoMars, the ESA-led mission to look for signs of life on Mars. Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have shown boulders displaced by seismic activity on Mars in the past few million years, and possibly much more recently than that. The bigger the supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy, the faster the stars in the galactic bulge rotate. Why this should be so has been something of a puzzle, but now a mechanism that is both powerful and common enough to do the job has been identified.

2012-04-01

203

Space Station: Delays in dealing with space debris may reduce safety and increase costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of NASA's current designs for protecting the space station and crew from debris are outdated and its overall debris protection strategy is insufficient. NASA's contractors have designed the station using a 1984 model of the space environment that is obsolete, significantly underestimating the increasing amount of debris that the station will encounter during its 30-year lifetime. In February 1992, NASA directed its space centers to incorporate an updated 1991 model into their designs. However, the agency has not yet made critical decisions on how to implement this change. Preliminary evaluations show that incorporating the 1991 model using currently established safety criteria could entail a major redesign of some components, with significant cost impact and schedule delays. NASA's overall protection strategy for space debris is insufficient. While NASA has concentrated its protection on shielding the space station from small debris and plans to augment this initial shielding in orbit, it has not yet developed designs or studied the cost and operational impact of augmenting its protection with additional shielding. Further, current designs do not provide the capability of warning or protecting the crew from imminent collision with mid-size debris. Finally, although some capabilities exist for maneuvering the station away from large debris, the agency lacks collision-avoidance plans and debris-tracking equipment. In developing a comprehensive strategy to protect the station from the more severe debris environment, NASA cannot avoid some difficult decisions. These decisions involve tradeoffs between how much the agency is willing to pay to protect the station, the schedule delays it may incur, and the risk to station safety it is willing to accept. It is important that these decisions be made before NASA completes its critical design reviews in early 1993. At that time key designs will be made final and manufacturing will begin. Without a comprehensive strategy, NASA will have decided to build the station, knowing the consequences of this decision on station and crew safety, and on life-cycle station cost.

1992-06-01

204

A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

1987-01-01

205

Interferometric tracking system for the tracking and data relay satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents construction and testing of the Interferometric Tracking System project developed under the NASA SBIR contract NAS5-30313. Manuals describing the software and hardware, respectively entitled: 'Field Station Guide to Operations' and 'Field Station Hardware Manual' are included as part of this final report. The objective of this contract was to design, build, and operate a system of three ground stations using Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques to measure the TDRS orbit. The ground stations receive signals from normal satellite traffic, store these signals in co-located computers, and transmit the information via phone lines to a central processing site which correlates the signals to determine relative time delays. Measurements from another satellite besides TDRS are used to determine clock offsets. A series of such measurements will ultimately be employed to derive the orbital parameters, yielding positions accurate to within 50 meters or possibly better.

Effland, John E.; Knight, Curtis A.; Webber, John C.

1993-01-01

206

Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 3: Refined conceptual design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the refined conceptual design phase (task 5) of the Simulation Computer System (SCS) study are reported. The SCS is the computational portion of the Payload Training Complex (PTC) providing simulation based training on payload operations of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). In task 4 of the SCS study, the range of architectures suitable for the SCS was explored. Identified system architectures, along with their relative advantages and disadvantages for SCS, were presented in the Conceptual Design Report. Six integrated designs-combining the most promising features from the architectural formulations-were additionally identified in the report. The six integrated designs were evaluated further to distinguish the more viable designs to be refined as conceptual designs. The three designs that were selected represent distinct approaches to achieving a capable and cost effective SCS configuration for the PTC. Here, the results of task 4 (input to this task) are briefly reviewed. Then, prior to describing individual conceptual designs, the PTC facility configuration and the SSF systems architecture that must be supported by the SCS are reviewed. Next, basic features of SCS implementation that have been incorporated into all selected SCS designs are considered. The details of the individual SCS designs are then presented before making a final comparison of the three designs.

1989-01-01

207

NASA: Data on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of selected NASA Web sites for K-12 math and science teachers: the NASA Lewis Research Center Learning Technologies K-12 Home Page, Spacelink, NASA Quest, Basic Aircraft Design Page, International Space Station, NASA Shuttle Web Site, LIFTOFF to Space Education, Telescopes in Education, and Space Educator's…

Galica, Carol

1997-01-01

208

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and arc propagation on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar array Flexible Current Carrier (FCC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies involving the use of polyimide Kapton coated wires indicate that if a momentary electrical short circuit occurs between two wires, sufficient heating of the Kapton can occur to thermally char (pyrolyze) the Kapton. Such charred Kapton has sufficient electrical conductivity to create an arc which tracks down the wires and possibly propagates to adjoining wires. These studies prompted an investigation to ascertain the likelihood of the Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking and propagation phenomena, and the magnitude of destruction conceivably inflicted on Space Station Freedom's (SSF) Flexible Current Carrier (FCC) for the photovoltaic array. The geometric layout of the FCC, having a planar-type orientation as opposed to bundles, may reduce the probability of sustaining an arc. An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate conditions under which an arc can occur on the FCC of SSF, and the consequences of arc initiation.

Stueber, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

209

Evaluation of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking, and arc propagation on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar array flexible current carrier (FCC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies involving the use of polyimide Kapton coated wires indicate that if a momentary electrical short circuit occurs between two wires, sufficient heating of the Kapton can occur to themally chlar (pyrolyze) the Kapton. Such charred Kapton has sufficient electricxl conductivity to create an arc which tracks down the wires and possibly propagates to adjoining wires. These studies prompted an invetigation to ascertain the likelihood of Kapton pyrolysis, arc tracking and propagation phenomena, and the magnitude of destruction conceivably inflicted on Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Flexible Current Carrier (FCC) for the photovoltaic array. The geometric layout of the FCC, having a planar-type orientation as opposed to bundles, may reduce the probability of sustaining an arc. An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate conditions under which an arc can occur on the FCC of the SSF, and the consequences of arc initiation.

Stueber, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

210

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

211

Morphological analysis of Japanese quail embryos developed onboard orbital station "Mir" during NASA-"Mir" research program experiments (1990-1996)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1990 to 1996, 5 experiments onboard "MIR" space station which allowed to receive important data dynamics of embryonic development of birds in micro gravitational conditions was carried out by NASA-"MIR" research program, using fertilized eggs of Japanese quail, as convenient object for space experiments. Here we represent the comparative morphomethrical analysis of incubation modes influence on a morphogenesis of Japanese quail. The data allowed us to make the conclusion that the embryonic development of Japanese quail in weightlessness conditions results in authentic decrease of length and body mass parameters in comparison with the embryos, developed in the ground laboratory conditions. The development of a skeleton and extremities, in general developing in normal way, demonstrates decreasing of legs length (10-12%) and body mass (8-12%), but there are no differences in wings length. At the same time we didn't find any significant differences in extremities length in laboratory and synchronic experimental groups of embryos. Analysis didn't show any significant influence of location of eggs in the incubator on mortality of the embryos. The main results of experiments have shown presence of morphometrical changes connected first of all with presence of weightlessness in the surrounded environment. In general, the data a alysis oncen again confirms the assumption that the changed gravity is not an interrupt factor for development of Japanese quail nestlings from fertilized eggs, but further experiments are required for detailed understanding of weightless influence on birds development.

Gusev, O.; Gyrieva, T.; Dadasheva, O.; Pahomov, A.; Pirt, C.

212

ISS Update: Keeping Track of Station Inventory â?? 03.14.13 - Duration: 5 minutes, 8 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Rob Adams, Inventory and Stowage Officer, inside the Mission Control Center. Adams and his team keep track of the gear aboard the International Space Stat...

213

Application of motion sensors for beam-tracking of mobile stations in mmWave communication systems.  

PubMed

In a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication system with transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) beamforming antennas, small variation in device behavior or an environmental change can destroy beam alignment, resulting in power loss in the received signal. In this situation, the beam-tracking technique purely based on the received signal is not effective because both behavioral changes (rotation, displacement) and environmental changes (blockage) result in power loss in the received signal. In this paper, a motion sensor based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as well as an electrical signal is used for beam tracking to identify the cause of beam error, and an efficient beam-tracking technique is proposed. The motion sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and geo-magnetic sensor are composed of an attitude heading reference system (AHRS) and a zero-velocity detector (ZVD). The AHRS estimates the rotation angle and the ZVD detects whether the device moves. The proposed technique tracks a beam by handling the specific situation depending on the cause of beam error, minimizing the tracking overhead. The performance of the proposed beam-tracking technique is evaluated by simulations in three typical scenarios. PMID:25333293

Shim, Duk-Sun; Yang, Cheol-Kwan; Kim, Jae Hwan; Han, Joo Pyo; Cho, Yong Soo

2014-01-01

214

Application of Motion Sensors for Beam-Tracking of Mobile Stations in mmWave Communication Systems  

PubMed Central

In a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication system with transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) beamforming antennas, small variation in device behavior or an environmental change can destroy beam alignment, resulting in power loss in the received signal. In this situation, the beam-tracking technique purely based on the received signal is not effective because both behavioral changes (rotation, displacement) and environmental changes (blockage) result in power loss in the received signal. In this paper, a motion sensor based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as well as an electrical signal is used for beam tracking to identify the cause of beam error, and an efficient beam-tracking technique is proposed. The motion sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and geo-magnetic sensor are composed of an attitude heading reference system (AHRS) and a zero-velocity detector (ZVD). The AHRS estimates the rotation angle and the ZVD detects whether the device moves. The proposed technique tracks a beam by handling the specific situation depending on the cause of beam error, minimizing the tracking overhead. The performance of the proposed beam-tracking technique is evaluated by simulations in three typical scenarios. PMID:25333293

Shim, Duk-Sun; Yang, Cheol-Kwan; Kim, Jae Hwan; Han, Joo Pyo; Cho, Yong Soo

2014-01-01

215

FTIR reflectance of selected minerals and their mixtures: implications for ground temperature-sensor monitoring on Mars surface environment (NASA/MSL-Rover Environmental Monitoring Station).  

PubMed

The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) is one of NASA/MSL's instruments, which has been designed for measuring ambient pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, UV radiation, and air and ground temperature (GT). The GT-sensor is dedicated to measure the real temperature of the Martian surface, integrating the IR energy coming from the ground. The existing IR spectral data of Martian dust, rocks and sediments allow for comparing the Martian spectra with the spectra of different terrestrial minerals and lithologies, and those of their alteration and weathering products. The FTIR reflectance of a set of selected astrobiologically significant minerals (including oxides, oxi/hydroxides, sulfates, chlorides, opal and clays) and basalt (as the main and most widespread volcanic Martian rock) was measured, considering different mixing amounts, and covering the specific working wavelength range of the REMS' GT-sensor. The results obtained show important percentage increases or decreases of reflectance in the entire wavelength range (e.g. basalt-hematite vs. basalt-magnetite) and specific variations limited to some spectral bands (e.g. basalt-smectite vs. basalt-jasper). The basalt reflectance percentage increases or decreases, even up to 100%, depending on the mixing of the different minerals. This unequivocally confirms the need for considering the chemical-mineralogical assemblages (and their textures) for any investigation and interpretation of Mars surface environment. Some complementary applications of this research on our planet, either in relation to the specific performances and characteristics of the GT-sensor autonomous recalibration system, or those oriented to carrying out similar studies on different types of terrestrial environmental settings, are also described. PMID:20449234

Martín-Redondo, M Paz; Martínez, Eduardo Sebastian; Sampedro, M Teresa Fernández; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Martinez-Frias, Jesus

2009-07-01

216

NASA Information Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of 11 "NASA Information Summaries" grouped together: (1) "Our Planets at a Glance" (PMS-010); (2) "Space Shuttle Mission Summary: 1985-1986" (PMS-005); (3) "Astronaut Selection and Training" (PMS-019); (4) "Space Station" (PMS-008); (5) "Materials Processing in Space" (PMS-026); (6) "Countdown!: NASA Launch Vehicles and…

Mar, May 1987, 1988

1988-01-01

217

DETERMINATION OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER SOIL LEVELS AT A FIRE FIGHTER TRAINING STATION AND ALONG RAILROAD TRACKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of the PBDE content of soils from remote rural areas along railroad tracks and from a fire fighter training site demonstrated contamination of the soil, particularly at the latter site where BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154, were found at considerable levels. The remote sites, along old r...

218

Adapting a ground-based laser ranging system at NASA-GSFC for identification and tracking of orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mitigation of orbital debris was addressed in the most recent release of the National Space Policy directing space faring agencies to pursue technologies that will "mitigate and remove on-orbit debris." No matter what abatement technology is developed and deployed, still lacking is the remote sensing infrastructure to locate and track these objects with adequate precision. We propose using GSFC's ground-based laser ranging facility to provide meter-level or better ranging precision on optically passive 10-30 cm orbital debris targets with the goal of improving current predictions up to 85%. The improved location accuracy also has the immediate benefit of reducing costly false alarms in collision predictions for existing assets.

Coyle, D. B.; Stysley, Paul R.; McGarry, Jan F.; Hull, Scott M.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Young, Romae P.

2013-05-01

219

Remote measurement utilizing NASA's scanning laser Doppler systems. Volume 1. Laser Doppler wake vortex tracking at Kennedy Airport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test operations of the Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) at Kennedy International Airport (KIA) during August 1974 through June 1975 are reported. A total of 1,619 data runs was recorded with a totally operational system during normal landing operations at KIA. In addition, 53 data runs were made during cooperative flybys with the C880 for a grand total of 1672 recorded vortex tracks. Test crews were in attendance at KIA for 31 weeks, of which 25 weeks were considered operational and the other six were packing, unpacking, setup and check out. Although average activity equates to 67 recorded landing operations per week, two periods of complete runway inactivity spanned 20 days and 13 days, respectively. The operation frequency therefore averaged about 88 operations per week.

Krause, M. C.; Wilson, D. J.; Howle, R. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Craven, C. E.; Jetton, J. L.

1976-01-01

220

Volume 1 Issue 12 www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis December 2006 STS-116 hard-wiring the International Space Station  

E-print Network

Space Station Discovery lights up the night sky Space Shuttle Discovery lifted off at 7:47 p.m. CST to the holi- day season. This is one of the most ambitious Interna- tional Space Station missions to date and prepared for docking with the International Space Station. Docking preparations included checkout

221

Volume 4 Issue 12 www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis December 2009 Space shuttle Atlantis crewmembers began their STS-129 mission to the International Space Station  

E-print Network

began their STS-129 mission to the International Space Station with a perfect, on-time launch Nov. 16, other equipment and supplies to the International Space Station. The STS-129 mission featured three. Space Shuttle Main Engines tested here lifted four shuttle missions to the space station, plus the final

222

International Space Station: Testing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing astronauts for a journey to the red planet has become NASA's research priority for the International Space Station. But such experiments will need more than the skeleton crew now running the station. Tony Reichhardt reports.

Tony Reichhardt

2005-01-01

223

High-Efficiency Envelope-Tracking W-CDMA Base-Station Amplifier Using GaN HFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-efficiency wideband code-division multiple-access (W-CDMA) base-station amplifier is presented using high-performance GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors to achieve high gain and efficiency with good linearity. For high efficiency, class J\\/E operation was employed, which can attain up to 80% efficiency over a wide range of input powers and power supply voltages. For nonconstant envelope input, the average efficiency is further

Donald F. Kimball; Jinho Jeong; Chin Hsia; Paul Draxler; Sandro Lanfranco; W. Nagy; K. Linthicum; L. E. Larson; P. M. Asbeck

2006-01-01

224

UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John

2004-01-01

225

Compilation and Analysis of 20 and 30 GHz Rain Fade Events at the ACTS NASA Ground Station: Statistics and Model Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the propagation studies within the ACTS Project Office is to acquire 20 and 30 GHz rain fade statistics using the ACTS beacon links received at the NGS (NASA Ground Station) in Cleveland. Other than the raw, statistically unprocessed rain fade events that occur in real time, relevant rain fade statistics derived from such events are the cumulative rain fade statistics as well as fade duration statistics (beyond given fade thresholds) over monthly and yearly time intervals. Concurrent with the data logging exercise, monthly maximum rainfall levels recorded at the US Weather Service at Hopkins Airport are appended to the database to facilitate comparison of observed fade statistics with those predicted by the ACTS Rain Attenuation Model. Also, the raw fade data will be in a format, complete with documentation, for use by other investigators who require realistic fade event evolution in time for simulation purposes or further analysis for comparisons with other rain fade prediction models, etc. The raw time series data from the 20 and 30 GHz beacon signals is purged of non relevant data intervals where no rain fading has occurred. All other data intervals which contain rain fade events are archived with the accompanying time stamps. The definition of just what constitutes a rain fade event will be discussed later. The archived data serves two purposes. First, all rain fade event data is recombined into a contiguous data series every month and every year; this will represent an uninterrupted record of the actual (i.e., not statistically processed) temporal evolution of rain fade at 20 and 30 GHz at the location of the NGS. The second purpose of the data in such a format is to enable a statistical analysis of prevailing propagation parameters such as cumulative distributions of attenuation on a monthly and yearly basis as well as fade duration probabilities below given fade thresholds, also on a monthly and yearly basis. In addition, various subsidiary statistics such as attenuation rate probabilities are derived. The purged raw rain fade data as well as the results of the analyzed data will be made available for use by parties in the private sector upon their request. The process which will be followed in this dissemination is outlined in this paper.

Manning, Robert M.

1996-01-01

226

Automated Planning for a Deep Space Communications Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of Artificial Intelligence planning techniques to the problem of antenna track plan generation for a NASA Deep Space Communications Station. Me described system enables an antenna communications station to automatically respond to a set of tracking goals by correctly configuring the appropriate hardware and software to provide the requested communication services. To perform this task, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) has been applied to automatically produce antenna trucking plans that are tailored to support a set of input goals. In this paper, we describe the antenna automation problem, the ASPEN planning and scheduling system, how ASPEN is used to generate antenna track plans, the results of several technology demonstrations, and future work utilizing dynamic planning technology.

Estlin, Tara; Fisher, Forest; Mutz, Darren; Chien, Steve

1999-01-01

227

Space Station Software Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

Voigt, S. (editor)

1985-01-01

228

SLR tracking of GPS-35  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was designed to launch a corner cube retroreflector array on one of the Global Positioning Satellites (GPS). The launch on Aug. 31, 1993 ushered in the era of SLR tracking of GPS spacecraft. Once the space operations group finished the check-out procedures for the new satellite, the agreed upon SLR sites were allowed to track it. The first site to acquire GPS-35 was the Russian system at Maidanak and closely after the MLRS system at McDonald Observatory, Texas. The laser tracking network is currently tracking the GPS spacecraft known as GPS-35 or PRN 5 with great success. From the NASA side there are five stations that contribute data regularly and nearly as many from the international partners. Upcoming modifications to the ground receivers will allow for a further increase in the tracking capabilities of several additional sites and add some desperately needed southern hemisphere tracking. We are analyzing the data and are comparing SLR-derived orbits to those determined on the basis of GPS radiometric data.

Pavlis, Erricos C.

1994-01-01

229

Space station proposed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

230

STDN in the TDRSS and Shuttle Era. [Spaceflight Tracking and Data Networks and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA presently maintains a worldwide system of ground tracking stations to provide communication support (tracking, telemetry and command) to all authorized user spacecraft missions. The set of ground stations supporting earth orbiting missions, and their supporting communication links (called NASCOM) to various NASA centers, is designated as the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN). Major users of the STDN in the 1980's include LANDSAT-D, SEASAT-B and the Shuttle, all of which are capable of generating data at rates that cannot be handled by the present STDN ground stations. The expanded capabilities of the STDN in the 1980's to provide support to these missions and other users is addressed. The newest asset of the STDN, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is described, as are the remaining STDN ground stations (called the GSTDN). The Shuttle communications support is not only for the Shuttle itself, but also for the Spacelab, attached payloads (within the Shuttle bay), and detached payloads being either deployed or retrieved by Shuttle. The specific communications support being provided by STDN (both by TDRSS and by the GSTDN) to the Shuttle is also described.

Schwartz, J. J.; Feinberg, E. J.

1978-01-01

231

Ammonia Measurements by the NASA Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the NPP Suomi Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia is highly reactive, with concurrent high spatial and temporal variability; it can play a key role in determining air quality through its part in the formation of PM2.5 particles. Deposition of NH3 also impacts water quality. With increased fertilizer use and rising temperatures ammonia concentrations are expected to increase significantly over India and China. Nevertheless in situ measurements are sparse, especially in areas beyond North America and Europe. The air quality community has a pressing need for global information on the diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the distribution and strength of the ammonia sources. Measurements from satellites can provide this information. An advanced optimal estimation algorithm has been developed to retrieve NH3 from the TES instrument flying on the AURA satellite and ammonia is currently a standard TES operational product, available at http://avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.php?site=635564035&id=10&go=list&path=/NH3. A similar retrieval is at the prototyping stage for the CrIS instrument. We will first provide a short summary of the characteristics of TES retrieved ammonia, discuss the distinct characteristics of point and satellite measurements and illustrate how information from the latter is related to the former. We will then present results from comparisons with in situ measurements. Specifically, we will compare TES NH3 with surface measurements in North Carolina and China, and examine the trend in NH3 over China; we will also compare TES NH3 with surface and aircraft measurements in the San Joaquin Valley in California, during both the CalNex and DISCOVER-AQ campaigns. We will present results from the application of inverse methods using TES ammonia to constrain model emissions, an area of research that has showcased the value provided by satellite data. Finally, we will demonstrate the potential of a sensor with TES characteristics on a geostationary platform to provide data with quality sufficient to evaluate models of the ammonia bi-directional exchange at the surface and we will show some preliminary ammonia retrievals from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) currently flying on the NASA NPP Suomi satellite.

Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Henze, D. K.; Zhu, J.; Pinder, R. W.; Bash, J. O.; Walker, J. T.; Luo, M.

2013-12-01

232

ISS Update: Earth Observations From Space Station - Duration: 14 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Cynthia Evans, Space Station Associate Program Scientist for Earth Observations, as NASA prepares to celebrate Earth Day. Evans discusses the t...

233

Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.

2012-01-01

234

Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) tracking data certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN) complement of tracking stations consisting of the NASA White Sands 1 antenna (WS1), and the commercial provider Universal Space Network (USN) antennas at South Point, Hawaii; Dongara Australia; Weilheim, Germany; and Kiruna, Sweden. Certification assessment required the cooperation and coordination of parties not under the control of either the LRO project or ground stations as uplinks on cooperating spacecraft were necessary. The LRO range-tracking requirement of 10m 1 sigma could be satisfactorily demonstrated using any typical spacecraft capable of range tracking. Though typical Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) spacecraft may be adequate for range certification, their measurement dynamics and noise would be unacceptable for proper Doppler certification of 1-3mm/sec 1 sigma. As LRO will orbit the Moon, it was imperative that a suitable target spacecraft be utilized which can closely mimic the expected lunar orbital Doppler dynamics of +/-1.6km/sec and +/-1.5m/sq sec to +/-0.15m/sq sec, is in view of the ground stations, supports coherent S-Band Doppler tracking measurements, and can be modeled by the FDF. In order to meet the LRO metric tracking data specifications, the SCN ground stations employed previously uncertified numerically controlled tracking receivers. Initial certification testing revealed certain characteristics of the units that required resolution before being granted certification.

Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry, Steve; Campion, Richard

2010-01-01

235

A NASA initiative: Software engineering for reliable complex systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is the development of methods, technology, and skills that will enable NASA to cost-effectively specify, build, and manage reliable software which can evolve and be maintained over an extended period. The need for such software is rooted in the increasing integration of software and computing components into NASA systems. Current NASA Software Engineering expertise was applied toward some of the largest reliable systems including: shuttle launch; ground support; shuttle simulation; minor control; satellite tracking; and scientific data systems. Unfortunately, no theory exists for reliable complex software systems. NASA is seeking to fill this theoretical gap through a number of approaches. One such approach is to conduct research on theoretical foundations for managing complex software systems. It includes: communication models, new and modified paradigms, and life-cycle models. Another approach is research in the theoretical foundations for reliable software development and validation. It focuses upon formal specifications, programming languages, software engineering systems, software reuse, formal verification, and software safety. Further approaches involve benchmarking a NASA software environment, experimentation within the NASA context, evolution of present NASA methodology, and transfer of technology to the space station software support environment.

Holcomb, Lee B.

1987-01-01

236

47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...prior to commencing operation with U.S. earth stations. (1) The information required...any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station(s) communicating with the space...any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station that communicates with the...

2014-10-01

237

A technical, financial, and policy analysis of the RAMSES RFID inventory management system for NASA's International Space Station: prospects for SBIR/STTR technology infusion  

E-print Network

Engineering, management, and social science methodologies have been employed to analyze a new asset tracking and management system for human spaceflight applications. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Aurora ...

Grindle, Abraham T

2010-01-01

238

Space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

Baraona, Cosmo R.

1987-01-01

239

Technology for space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most significant advances made in the space station discipline technology program are examined. Technological tasks and advances in the areas of systems/operations, environmental control and life support systems, data management, power, thermal considerations, attitude control and stabilization, auxiliary propulsion, human capabilities, communications, and structures, materials, and mechanisms are discussed. An overview of NASA technology planning to support the initial space station and the evolutionary growth of the space station is given.

Colladay, R. S.; Carlisle, R. F.

1984-10-01

240

Tracking of the ATS-3 synchronous satellite by the Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1971, a series of very long baseline interferometer observations were made of the C-band (6 cm) radio signals from the ATS-3 communications satellite which is in a synchronous, near-equatorial orbit. The first series of observations were conducted during May-June 1971 from Rosman, North Carolina (NASA/ATS Station 85' dish) and Mojave, California (NASA/ATS Station, 40' dish). The second series of observations were conducted during August-September, 1971 from Rosman, North Carolina (NASA/ATS Station, 85' dish), Owens Valley, California (Cal Tech, 130' dish) and Agassiz, Massachusetts (SAO Agassiz Radio Observatory, 84' dish). The ATS-3 Spacecraft position was determined with a precision of 70-100 meters and its velocity with a precision of less than a mm/sec. The ATS-3 orbital elements were computed using the GEODYN program and the derived values are consistent with those derived from conventional tracking data.

Ramasastry, J.; Rosenbaum, B.; Michelini, R. D.; Frost, D.; Ross, S.; Boornazian, A.

1972-01-01

241

Classical and modern control strategies for the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation flying consists of multiple spacecraft orbiting in a required configuration about a planet or through Space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation is one of the proposed constellations to be launched in the year 2009 and provides the motivation for this investigation. The problem that will be researched here consists of three stages. The first

Pedro A. Capo-Lugo

2008-01-01

242

Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

1984-01-01

243

Space Station commercial user development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

1984-01-01

244

The results of a limited study of approaches to the design, fabrication, and testing of a dynamic model of the NASA IOC space station. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The options for the design, construction, and testing of a dynamic model of the space station were evaluated. Since the definition of the space station structure is still evolving, the Initial Operating Capacity (IOC) reference configuration was used as the general guideline. The results of the studies treat: general considerations of the need for and use of a dynamic model; factors which deal with the model design and construction; and a proposed system for supporting the dynamic model in the planned Large Spacecraft Laboratory.

Brooks, George W.

1985-01-01

245

UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

2006-01-01

246

Station 13 revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article I wrote on the somewhat mysterious tracking station at Babsfontein in Gauteng (MNASSA Vol. 11 nos 3&4, April 2012) resulted in some correspondence, enabling me to get into contact with people who had worked at the station. This made it necessary to update the original article.

Roberts, G.

2012-10-01

247

What's next for NASA?  

E-print Network

“I’m here to tell you that American leadership in space will continue for at least the next half-century because we have laid the foundation for success— and failure is not an option.”—Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator Amid the retirement of the space shuttle fleet and fights for funding, many ask: What’s next for NASA? NASA has been telling anyone who will listen that the end of the space shuttle is not “the end of NASA, or even of NASA sending humans into space.” From studying earth sciences to developing new rockets, NASA has a plan. Earth Science Research How is the global earth system changing? How will the earth system change in the future? These are the big questions about the planet that NASA aims to answer and around which future NASA missions are centered. Upcoming NASA missions will enable scientists to make more accurate estimates of rain and snowfall, and better predict extreme weather events like hurricanes, floods, landslides, and droughts. NASA launched the Near Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) in late October 2011 to help meet these goals. NPP is collecting data that will assist in making more accurate weather forecasts, as well as contribute data to research in climate change. NASA recognizes that the earth is 26 Radiations Fall 2011 currently warming and at a faster rate than ever measured before. [1] It plans to study the way this system is changing so that we can better understand the impact humans are having on the earth. NASA will assist with research on the climate, carbon cycle, ecosystems, water cycle, biogeochemistry, and the earth’s surface and interior. As the earth’s climate changes, it is vital for NASA to keep track of the consequences, from changes in the ice sheets to topography to the atmosphere, and anticipate what they mean for the future of the planet. [2

Elizabeth Hook; Sps Communications Specialist

248

Utilization of satellite-satellite tracking data for determination of the geocentric gravitational constant (GM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range rate tracking of GEOS 3 through the ATS 6 satellite was used, along with ground tracking of GEOS 3, to estimate the geocentric gravitational constant (GM). Using multiple half day arcs, a GM of 398600.52 + or - 0.12 cu km/sq sec was estimated using the GEM 10 gravity model, based on speed of light of 299792.458 km/sec. Tracking station coordinates were simultaneously adjusted, leaving geopotential model error as the dominant error source. Baselines between the adjusted NASA laser sites show better than 15 cm agreement with multiple short arc GEOS 3 solutions.

Martin, C. F.; Oh, I. H.

1979-01-01

249

NASA International Environmental Partnerships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

2010-01-01

250

NASA Quest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

Ashby, Susanne

2000-01-01

251

NASA Robotics for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

Fischer, RIchard T.

2007-01-01

252

Space Station overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Space Station, including program guidelines, international involvement, current baseline configuration, and utilization for science and application missions. Space Station configuration and capabilities, plus methods of utilizing the Space Station for scientific and engineering investigations, are described. The Space Station is being designed as a multipurpose facility to support a number of functions, such as a laboratory in space, a transportation node, an assembly facility, a staging base, etc. The description includes the baseline configuration, location of the pressurized modules, servicing and assembly facilities, and the work package structure for Space Station management. The Space Station will accommodate a wide variety of user requirements in laboratory modules and as attached payloads. To show the utility of the Space Station, a variety of science and application missions currently being studied for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed.

De Sanctis, Carmine E.; Priest, C. C.; Wood, W. V.

1987-01-01

253

Madrid space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

1975-01-01

254

International Space Station: Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

255

An error analysis of the recovery capability of the relative sea-surface profile over the Puerto Rican trench from multi-station and ship tracking of GEOS-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Error analyses were performed to examine the height error in a relative sea-surface profile as determined by a combination of land-based multistation C-band radars and optical lasers and one ship-based radar tracking the GEOS 2 satellite. It was shown that two relative profiles can be obtained: one using available south-to-north passes of the satellite and one using available north-to-south type passes. An analysis of multi-station tracking capability determined that only Antigua and Grand Turk radars are required to provide satisfactory orbits for south-to-north type satellite passes, while a combination of Merritt Island, Bermuda, and Wallops radars provide secondary orbits for north-to-south passes. Analysis of ship tracking capabilities shows that high elevation single pass range-only solutions are necessary to give only moderate sensitivity to systematic error effects.

Stanley, H. R.; Martin, C. F.; Roy, N. A.; Vetter, J. R.

1971-01-01

256

NASA highlights, 1986 - 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of NASA research from 1986 to 1988 are discussed. Topics covered include Space Shuttle flights, understanding the Universe and its origins, understanding the Earth and its environment, air and space transportation, using space to make America more competitive, using space technology an Earth, strengthening America's education in science and technology, the space station, and human exploration of the solar system.

1990-01-01

257

DETAIL OF CONSOLE, SHOWING TRACK CONTROL FOR TRACKS BEHIND NEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF CONSOLE, SHOWING TRACK CONTROL FOR TRACKS BEHIND NEW HAVEN STATION, CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Interlocking Control Building, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

258

SPACE STATION RESEARCH Issue Date Title Link  

E-print Network

International Space Station Benefits For Humanity View PDF (11 Mb) 2011 Fall 2011 International Space Station Utilization Statistics View PDF (10.5 Mb) Feb. 2011 International Space Station Overview: Research and On-Orbit Facilities Non-Partner Participation View PDF (4.6 Mb) Feb. 2011 International Space Station NASA Research

259

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade - Duration: 8:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

260

NASA's commercial space program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

Ott, Richard H.

1992-01-01

261

A comparison of scent-station surveys and track counts for surveying furbearer populations in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas  

E-print Network

, Apr, and Sep 1988). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 INTRODUCTION Scent-station surveys have been used for many years to monitor selected furbearer populations. These surveys have provided indices of abundance which have been used... Furbearer populations of BITH were monitored using scent-station surveys (Linhart and Knowlton 1975), as modified by Conner et al. (1983), A scent station consisted of a I-m diameter circle of sifted soil with an odor attractant placed in a plastic...

Stapper, Reginald John

1989-01-01

262

Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta: A CDC-NASA Joint Environmental Public Health Tracking Collaborative Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstration projects which could be part of the CDC EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeff; Crosson, Bill; Estes, Maury; Limaye, Ashutosh; Quattrochi, Dale; Rickman, Doug

2008-01-01

263

Space Station Information System - Concepts and international issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Information System (SSIS) is outlined in terms of its functions and probable physical facilities. The SSIS includes flight element systems as well as existing and planned institutional systems such as the NASA Communications System, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, and the data and communications networks of the international partners. The SSIS strives to provide both a 'user friendly' environment and a software environment which will allow for software transportability and interoperability across the SSIS. International considerations are discussed as well as project management, software commonality, data communications standards, data security, documentation commonality, transaction management, data flow cross support, and key technologies.

Williams, R. B.; Pruett, David; Hall, Dana L.

1987-01-01

264

Verification of NASA's Next Generation SLR (NGSLR) System Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 2 years of intensive engineering development, NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) was collocated against the NASA Network standard, MOBLAS-7. Collocation, a method of direct comparison testing developed by NASA and Honeywell in the 1980's, is used to identify laser system ranging anomalies by utilizing geometry to isolate station dependent, systematic ranging errors from other external sources of systematic errors. The completed collocation was the final step for the NGSLR system performance and design validation. During collocation, the NGSLR and MOBLAS-7 systems operated in good weather simultaneously for 12 hours per day / 5 days a week, day and night, from May 29th through July 5th, 2013. The systems tracked a total of 64 simultaneous passes, including 28 simultaneous LAGEOS passes during the collocation. This comparison test was the first NASA Collocation conducted between a single photon system (NGSLR) and a multi-photon (MOBLAS-7) system, providing a direct comparison of two system configurations that analysts have been theorizing about (using purely theoretical or orbital data analysis methods) for many years. We will provide details of the NGSLR / MOBLAS-7 collocation analysis, how closely the results compare to theory, and the verification of NASA's Next Generation SLR performance.

Horvath, Julie; McGarry, Jan; Clarke, Christopher B.; Donovan, Howard; Degnan, John; Cheek, Jack; Nelson, Alice; Patterson, Donald; Mann, Anthony; Hall, Felipe; Zagwodzki, Thomas

2014-05-01

265

NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

Cook, Beth

1995-01-01

266

The space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

Munoz, Abraham

1988-01-01

267

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee February 2011  

E-print Network

Holloway Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager Dr. John Grunsfeld Former Station Commander Mr. Jacob Keaton, Executive Secretary, NASA 2 #12;NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Administrator for Space Shuttle · International Space Station and ISS Non-Profit Organization · Mark Uhran

Waliser, Duane E.

268

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee July 2010  

E-print Network

. Leroy Chiao Former NASA Astronaut and International Space Station Commander Mr. Tommy Holloway Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager Mr. Glynn Lunney Former NASA Flight) International Space Station Logistics Plan KSC Site Visit · · · · · · Space Life Sciences Lab, Launch Complexes

Waliser, Duane E.

269

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

the country is headed to the International Space Station aboard Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Cygnus spacecraft during reentry in Earth's atmosphere. The International Space Station is a convergence of sci- ence to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Brea Reeves GoddardView The Weekly ­ 2 NASA Cargo Launches

Christian, Eric

270

ISS Update: Becoming an International Space Station Program Scientist - Duration: 13 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Tara Ruttley, Associate International Space Station Program Scientist, about her educational path and her career activities at NASA. She also discuss...

271

Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD). Radiation measurements inside the Mir station were carried out using six Area Passive Dosimeters (APD), four located inside the Mir Base Block and two located inside the Kvant 2 module, during the NASA-2/Mir-21, NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 missions. The radiation environment under low shielding was measured using an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) mounted on the outer surface of the Kvant 2 module. The external radiation environment and a location inside the Kvant 2 roughly corresponding to the location of the EDA were monitored for 130 days during the NASA- 4/Mir-23 and NASA-5/Mir-24 missions. Dose rates measured by APD TLDs ranged from 271 to 407 microGy/d during the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission, from 265 to 378 microGy/d during the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission, and from 287 to 421 microGy/d during the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission. APD PNTDs have been analyzed and LET spectra have been Cenerated for the five APDs exposed on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission and for two APD PNTDs exposed on the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission. Dose equivalent rates on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission ranged from 513 microSv/d in the Kvant 2 module to 710 microSv/d on the floor of the Base Block. Dose as a function of shielding depth in TLDs has been measured in the thin TLD stacks including in the EDA. EDA dose range from 72.5 Gy under 0.0146 g/sq cm to 0.093 Gy under 3.25 g/sq cm of shielding. Readout and analysis of the reaming PNTDs form the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission and PNTDs from the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission (including those from the EDA) is ongoing and will be completed during the final year of this experiment. Dose equivalent rates for the NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 APDs will then be determined and comparisons will be made with both model calculations and with results from similar measurements.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1998-01-01

272

Large Meteor Tracked over Northeast Alabama - Duration: 0:07.  

NASA Video Gallery

On the evening of May 18, NASA all-sky meteor cameras located at NASA?s Marshall Space Flight Center and at the Walker County Science Center near Chickamauga, Ga. tracked the entry of a large meteo...

273

Analysis and Quality Assurance of the SKYMAP 4.0 Guidance and Tracking Star Catalog: The NASA SKY2000 Spacecraft Attitude Determination Star Catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An updated and improved NASA spacecraft attitude determination catalog, now called SKY2000, Version 3, has been prepared and quality assured. The highest priority goals were to replace the astrometric (positions and motions) and photometric (brightnesses and colors) data with the most recent and accurate data available. Quality assurance has been performed in a fairly straightforward manner, i.e., without extensive data checking and analysis, and many errors and Inconsistencies were corrected. Additional work should eventually be done on the variability and multiple-star data In the catalog, while certain other data can be significantly Improved. The current version of the catalog can be found at the GSFC Flight Dynamics website: http://cheli.gsfc.nasa.gov/dist/attitude/skymap.html. Supporting information and reference materials (published papers, format and data descriptions, etc.) can also be found at the website.

Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

2001-01-01

274

NASA's Photon-Counting SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System: Progress and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new unmanned SLR2000 system is designed to track, with millimeter precision and using single photon returns, a constellation of roughly 24 retroreflector-equipped satellites, which range in altitude from about 300 km to 20,000 km. Totally autonomous operation and a common engineering configuration are expected to greatly reduce station operations costs relative to NASA's current manned systems. The system has also been designed with a goal of significantly lowering replication costs. All of the prototype components and subsystems have been completed and tested and have substantially met the original specifications. The prototype system is presently undergoing final integration and testing in a dedicated shelter with an azimuth tracking dome synchronized to the optical tracking mount. The facility also features a number of security features such as security cameras and sensors designed to detect power or thermal control problems or entry by unauthorized personnel. Field tests are in progress. The present paper provides an overview of the various subsystems and test results to date. The meteorological subsystem, which has operated successfully in the field for almost three years, consists of several sensors which measure: (1) pressure, temperature, and relative humidity; (2) wind speed and direction; (3) ground visibility and precipitation; and (4) local cloud cover as a function of station azimuth and elevation (day and night). A "pseudo-operator" software program interprets the sensor readings and modifies satellite tracking priorities based on local meteorological conditions.

Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan; Zagwodzki, Thomas; Donovan, Howard; Patterson, Don; Steggerda, Charles; Mallama, Anthony; Cheek, Jack

2002-01-01

275

NASA program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major facts are given for NASA'S planned FY-1981 through FY-1985 programs in aeronautics, space science, space and terrestrial applications, energy technology, space technology, space transportation systems, space tracking and data systems, and construction of facilities. Competition and cooperation, reimbursable launchings, schedules and milestones, supporting research and technology, mission coverage, and required funding are considered. Tables and graphs summarize new initiatives, significant events, estimates of space shuttle flights, and major missions in astrophysics, planetary exploration, life sciences, environmental and resources observation, and solar terrestrial investigations. The growth in tracking and data systems capabilities is also depicted.

1980-01-01

276

Space Campers Speak With Station Science Communication Coordinator - Duration: 24:41.  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, International Space Station Science Communication Coordinator Liz Warren participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with ...

277

NASA Now: Propulsion - Duration: 8 minutes, 33 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, youâ??ll visit NASAâ??s Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, called B-2, at NASA Plum Brook Station. Youâ??ll meet Dr. Louis Povinelli and Brian Jones who explain w...

278

Space Station Freedom media handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook explains in lay terms, the work that is going on at the NASA Centers and contractors' plants in designing and developing the Space Station Freedom. It discusses the roles, responsibilities, and tasks required to build the Space Station Freedom's elements, systems, and components. New, required ground facilities are described, organized by NASA Center in order to provide a local angle for the media. Included are information on the historical perspective, international aspects, the utilization of the Space Station Freedom, a look at future possibilities, a description of the program, its management, program phases and milestones, and considerable information on the role of various NASA Centers, contractors and international partners. A list of abbreviations, a four-page glossary, and a list of NASA contacts are contained in the appendices.

1989-01-01

279

GPS Tracks Ground Deformation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Field Engineer Ben Pauk records site and equipment information for the Global Positioning System (GPS) installed at the North Rim station in the Newberry National Volcanic Monument. The GPS records the precise position of the station, including latitude, longitude and elevation. Tracking subtle...

280

NASA Exploration Design Challenge - Duration: 2:15.  

NASA Video Gallery

From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

281

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 13 & 14, 2010  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................................................... 3 INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION UPDATES (FACA)--MIKE SUFFREDINI ........................ 3 SPACE with the allotted resources, this committee's emphasis being space operations. International Space Station UpdatesNASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee September 13 & 14, 2010 Johnson Space Center

Waliser, Duane E.

282

SPACE STATION RESEARCH Issue Date Title Link  

E-print Network

View PDF (5.1 Mb) Mar. 2012 International Space Station Benefits For Humanity View PDF (11 Mb) 2011 Fall 2011 International Space Station Utilization Statistics View PDF (10.5 Mb) Feb. 2011 International. 2011 International Space Station NASA Research: Outreach Seminar on the ISS, United Nations View PDF (1

283

Tracking mobile users in wireless communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking strategies for mobile wireless networks are studied. A cellular architecture in which base stations that are interconnected by a wired network communicate with mobile units via wireless links is assumed. The cost of utilizing the wireless links for the actual tracking of mobile users is considered. A tracking strategy in which a subset of all base stations is selected

Amotz Bar-Noy; Ilan Kessler

1993-01-01

284

Fast Track Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

1996-01-01

285

Environmental Public Health Tracking: Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange-Atlanta (HEXIX-Atlanta: A cooperative Program Between CDC and NASA for Development of an Environmental Public Health Tracking Network in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is coordinating HELIX- Atlanta to provide information regarding the five-county Metropolitan Atlanta Area (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinett) via a network of integrated environmental monitoring and public health data systems so that all sectors can take action to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. The HELIX-Atlanta Network is a tool to access interoperable information systems with optional information technology linkage functionality driven by scientific rationale. HELIX-Atlanta is a collaborative effort with local, state, federal, and academic partners, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified the following HELIX-Atlanta initial focus areas: childhood lead poisoning, short-latency cancers, developmental disabilities, birth defects, vital records, respiratory health, age of housing, remote sensing data, and environmental monitoring, HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified and evaluated information systems containing information on the above focus areas. The information system evaluations resulted in recommendations for what resources would be needed to interoperate selected information systems in compliance with the CDC Public Health Information Network (PHIN). This presentation will discuss the collaborative process of building a network that links health and environment data for information exchange, including NASA remote sensing data, for use in HELIX-Atlanta.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Niskar, Amanda Sue

2005-01-01

286

ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

2004-01-01

287

NASA Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Images was created through a partnership between NASA and the Internet Archive, a non-profit digital library based in San Francisco, to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The site contains everything from classic photos to educational programming and HD video, and is growing all the time as its creators continue to gain both new and archived media from all of NASA's centers. This effort aimes to promote education and facilitate scholarship in math and the sciences at all levels, and to build general interest and excitement around space exploration, aeronautics, and astronomy.

2009-01-01

288

Innovation @ NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

Roman, Juan A.

2014-01-01

289

Space Station Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

1986-01-01

290

www.nasa.gov Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

's progress toward achieving the challenging mission of space exploration, scientific discovery four successful Space Shuttle launches to the International Space Station (ISS) since last Novemberwww.nasa.gov Fiscal Year PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT 2010 National Aeronautics and Space

291

Application of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Differenced One-Way Doppler (DOWD) Tracking Data for Orbit Determination and Station Acquisition Support of User Spacecraft Without TDRS Compatible Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft are launched today with only an omni-directional (omni) antenna and do not have an onboard Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) transponder that is capable of coherently returning a carrier signal through TDRS. Therefore, other means of tracking need to be explored and used to adequately acquire the spacecraft. Differenced One-Way Doppler (DOWD) tracking data are very useful in eliminating the problems associated with the instability of the onboard oscillators when using strictly one-way Doppler data. This paper investigates the TDRS DOWD tracking data received by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) during the launch and early orbit phases for the the Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (WIND) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-J missions. In particular FDF personnel performed an investigation of the data residuals and made an assessment of the acquisition capabilities of DOWD-based solutions. Comparisons of DOWD solutions with existing data types were performed and analyzed in this study. The evaluation also includes atmospheric editing of the DOWD data and a study of the feasibility of solving for Doppler biases in an attempt to minimize error. Furthermore, by comparing the results from WIND and NOAA-J, an attempt is made to show the limitations involved in using DOWD data for the two different mission profiles. The techniques discussed in this paper benefit the launches of spacecraft that do not have TDRS transponders on board, particularly those launched into a low Earth orbit. The use of DOWD data is a valuable asset to missions which do not have a stable local oscillator to enable high-quality solutions from the one-way/return-link Doppler tracking data.

Olszewski, A. D., Jr.; Wilcox, T. P.; Beckman, Mark

1996-01-01

292

Station Change of Command Ceremony - Duration: 6 minutes, 56 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

293

Space Station Live! Tour - Duration: 2:07.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

294

Tracking spatial distribution of human-derived wastewater from Davis Station, East Antarctica, using ?15N and ?13C stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Stable isotope ratios, ?15N and ?13C were effectively used to determine the geographical dispersion of human derived sewage from Davis Station, East Antarctica, using Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii). Fish within 0-4 km downstream of the outfall exhibited higher ?15N and ?13C values relative to reference sites. Nitrogen in particular showed a stepped decrease in ?15N with increasing distance from the discharge point by 1-2‰. Stable isotopes were better able to detect the extent of wastewater contamination than other techniques including faecal coliform and sterol measures. Uptake and assimilation of ?15N and ?13C up to 4 km from the outfall adds to growing evidence indicating the current level of wastewater treatment at Davis Station is not sufficient to avoid impact to the surrounding environment. Isotopic assimilation in T. bernacchii is a viable biomarker for investigation of initial sewage exposure and longer term monitoring in the future. PMID:25487089

Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Mondon, Julie A

2015-01-15

295

Introduction to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station Freedom in FY 92 was appropriated. For FY 93, NASA is seeking $2.25 billion for the program; the planned budget for FY 94 is $2.5 billion. Further alterations to the hardware configuration for Freedom would be a serious setback; NASA intends 'to stick with the current baseline' and continue planning for utilization.

Kohrs, Richard

296

Introduction to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station Freedom in FY 92 was appropriated. For FY 93, NASA is seeking $2.25 billion for the program; the planned budget for FY 94 is $2.5 billion. Further alterations to the hardware configuration for Freedom would be a serious setback; NASA intends 'to stick with the current baseline' and continue planning for utilization.

Kohrs, Richard

1992-01-01

297

Space Station Live: ISS Communications Unit Upgrade - Duration: 11 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters interviews International Space Station Flight Director Mike Lammers about the recent Ku communications unit upgrade work taking place aboard th...

298

Station Commander Congratulates New Flight Directors - Duration: 2:34.  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum congratulates Judd Frieling, Tomas Gonzalez-Torres and Greg Whitney on being selected as NASA's newest flight directors. ...

299

Expedition 27 Undocks from the Station - Duration: 4:31.  

NASA Video Gallery

After spending 157 days aboard the International Space Station, Dmitry Kondratyev, NASA Flight Engineer Cady Coleman and European Space Agency Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli undocked from the statio...

300

78 FR 66964 - International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (13-128)] International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of...

2013-11-07

301

Astronaut 'Checks In' From Space Station - Duration: 1:07.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA astronaut and International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock became the first person to "check in" from space Friday using the mobile social networking application Foursquare. Wheelock's ...

302

Station Crew Celebrates Christmas - Duration: 14:51.  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

303

Station Crew Training Integrator Talks With Students - Duration: 24 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Expedition 34/35 Training Integrator Alicia Simpson participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Christ ...

304

Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission - Duration: 5:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

305

The role of tethers on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.

Vontiesenhausen, G. (editor)

1985-01-01

306

An automated deep space communications station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an architecture being implemented for an autonomous Deep Space Tracking Station(DS-T). The architecture targets fully automated routine operations encompassing scheduling and resource allocation, antenna and receiver predict generation, track procedure generation from service requests, and closed loop control and error recovery for the station subsystems. This architecture is being validated by construction of a prototype DS-T station

Forest Fisher; Steve Chien; Leslie Paal; E. Law; N. Golshan; Mike Stockett

1998-01-01

307

Space station data flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

1972-01-01

308

Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch - Duration: 2 minutes, 3 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

309

Environmental Radiation Measurements on MIR Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental radiation levels on the Russian space station Mir are being monitored under differing shielding conditions by a series of six area passive dosimeters (APDs) placed at individual locations inside the Core and Kvant 2 modules, and by an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) to be-deployed on the exterior surface of the Kvant 2 module. Each APD and the EDA contains CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for measurement of LET spectra and TLDs for absorbed dose measurements. Two of the missions, NASA-2/Mir-21 and NASA-3/Mir-22 have been completed and the six APDs from each mission returned to Earth from Mir. This report covers progress to date on the analysis of TLDs and PNTDs from these two missions. For NASA-2/Mir-21, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 271 to 407 micro-Gy/d at the APDS. For NASA-3/Mir-22, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 265 to 421 micro-Gy/d.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1997-01-01

310

The NASA Fireball Network Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.

Moser, Danielle E.

2011-01-01

311

Life Sciences in NASA's Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics of agency and enterprise goals, OLMSA organization, life sciences relationship to NASA/HEDS strategic plans, budget allocated by the HEDS strategic plan goals, 1998 successes, exploration and the International Space Station, congressional budgets, OLMSA grants, biomedical research and countermeasures, medical care, biologically inspired technologies, and publication, education and outreach are all presented in viewgraph form.

Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

1999-01-01

312

NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

313

Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

Fink, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

314

Issues in NASA program and project management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new collection of papers on aerospace management issues contains a history of NASA program and project management, some lessons learned in the areas of management and budget from the Space Shuttle Program, an analysis of tools needed to keep large multilayer programs organized and on track, and an update of resources for NASA managers. A wide variety of opinions and techniques are presented.

Hoban, Francis T. (editor)

1989-01-01

315

NASA reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, both ongoing and planned, are described by NASA administrative personnel from the offices of Space Science and Applications, Space Systems Development, Space Flight, Exploration, and from the Johnson Space Center. NASA's multi-year strategic plan, called Vision 21, is also discussed. It proposes to use the unique perspective of space to better understand Earth. Among the NASA programs mentioned are the Magellan to Venus and Galileo to Jupiter spacecraft, the Cosmic Background Explorer, Pegsat (the first Pegasus payload), Hubble, the Joint U.S./German ROSAT X-ray Mission, Ulysses to Jupiter and over the sun, the Astro-Spacelab Mission, and the Gamma Ray Observatory. Copies of viewgraphs that illustrate some of these missions, and others, are provided. Also discussed were life science research plans, economic factors as they relate to space missions, and the outlook for international cooperation.

Obrien, John E.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Aldrich, Arnold A.; Utsman, Thomas E.; Griffin, Michael D.; Cohen, Aaron

316

NASA's Microgravity Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program (MRP) as conducted by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) within NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity, Sciences and Applications. The program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. All snapshots of the program's status at the end of FY 1997 and a review of highlights and progress in grounds and flights based research are provided. Also described are major space missions that flew during FY 1997, plans for utilization of the research potential of the International Space Station, the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, and various educational/outreach activities. The MRP supports investigators from academia, industry, and government research communities needing a space environment to study phenomena directly or indirectly affected by gravity.

Woodard, Dan

1998-01-01

317

GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

Rosenbaum, B.

1977-01-01

318

The organized Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

1988-01-01

319

Resources: NASA for entrepreneurs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The services of NASA's Technology Utilization Program are detailed and highlights of spinoff products in various stages of completion are described. Areas discussed include: Stirling engines for automotive applications, klystron tubes used to reduce power costs at UHF television stations, sports applications of riblet film (e.g., boat racing), reinforced plastic for high-temperature applications, coating technology appropriate for such applications similar to the renovation of the Statue of Liberty, and medical uses of fuel pump technology (e.g., heart pumps).

Jannazo, Mary Ann

1988-01-01

320

NASA Enterprise Visual Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Enterprise Visual Analysis (NEVA) is a computer program undergoing development as a successor to Launch Services Analysis Tool (LSAT), formerly known as Payload Carrier Analysis Tool (PCAT). NEVA facilitates analyses of proposed configurations of payloads and packing fixtures (e.g. pallets) in a space shuttle payload bay for transport to the International Space Station. NEVA reduces the need to use physical models, mockups, and full-scale ground support equipment in performing such analyses. Using NEVA, one can take account of such diverse considerations as those of weight distribution, geometry, collision avoidance, power requirements, thermal loads, and mechanical loads.

Lopez-Tellado, Maria; DiSanto, Brenda; Humeniuk, Robert; Bard, Richard, Jr.; Little, Mia; Edwards, Robert; Ma, Tien-Chi; Hollifield, Kenneith; White, Chuck

2007-01-01

321

NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) NASA ASRS (Pub. 35)  

E-print Network

NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 35) #12;NASA ASRS

322

NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) NASA ASRS (Pub. 34)  

E-print Network

NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 34) #12;NASA ASRS

323

NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) NASA ASRS (Pub. 33)  

E-print Network

NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS

324

The NASA data systems standardization program - Radio frequency and modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modifications being considered by the NASA-ESA Working Group (NEWG) for space-data-systems standardization to maximize the commonality of the NASA and ESA RF and modulation systems linking spaceborne scientific experiments with ground stations are summarized. The first phase of the NEWG project shows that the NASA MK-IVA Deep Space Network and Shuttle Interrogator (SI) systems in place or planned for 1985 are generally compatible with the ESA Network, but that communications involving the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) are incompatible due to its use of spread-spectrum modulation, pseudonoise ranging, multiple-access channels, and Mbit/s data rates. Topics under study for the post-1985 period include low-bit-rate capability for the ESA Network, an optional 8-kHz command subcarrier for the SI, fixing the spacecraft-transponder frequency-multiplication ratios for possible X-band uplinks or X-band nondeep-space downlinks, review of incompatible TDRS features, and development of the 32-GHz band.

Martin, W. L.

1983-01-01

325

NASA: Year in Review 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the use of Macromedia Flash Player, this NASA website revisits the key NASA space exploration events and missions of 2004. Users can view videos illustrating the Vision for Space Exploration and articles describing the advances to help make the vision a reality. The website discusses the redesigning of the Shuttle External Fuel Tank and its significance in flight missions. Visitors can find out about the newest NASA research, watch a photo essay of the Cassini mission to Saturn, drive a Mars rover to explore the geology of that planet, learn about the next generation of NASA astronauts, and much more. Individuals can view photos, hear accounts, and read articles about the three crews that lived on the International Space Station in 2004.

326

Satellite Tracking Threatened Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have combined forces to produce this Website on the use of satellite tracking to monitor migration routes of endangered birds. Targeting the general public, the site introduces readers to satellite tracking (using Direct Readout technology), offers animations of bird flight paths (see the section entitled Birdtracks), and gives additional information on birds (in the Bird Data Archives, select a bird and watch its flight path through time). While bird information is limited to several larger species (due to the size/weight of attached transmitters), the resource serves as a useful information base for anyone wishing to learn more about satellite tracking.

327

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

328

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

329

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

330

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

331

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

332

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

333

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

334

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

335

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

336

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

337

NASA: Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this NASA website, kids will enjoy learning about astronomy through fun games, articles, and activities. Through online storybooks, users can learn about ancient sundials and our sun. The website offers matching games, a short video about Earth's daily cycle, and crossword puzzles. Students can learn how to make sundials, models of planets, solar oven, and many other space science-related tools and phenomena. The website furnishes links to kids' websites for many of NASA's missions, where users can find numerous additional activities, interesting stories, and fun facts.

338

Station Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow users to become acquainted with station models that are found on weather maps. Students will study the various atmospheric variables that are depicted on a station model and then practice on an interactive station model program. Part 1 - Being able to read and interpret weather maps is a very important skill in meteorology. One of the most basic skills of predicting the weather is being able to interpret a station model of a given location. A station model is a bundle of information that ...

Mr. Ertl

2007-11-03

339

Error studies for ground tracking of synchronous satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of various sets of tracking error analysis studies of the ability of ground stations to determine the position and velocity of synchronous satellites are summarized. The effects of varying: (1) the ground station configuration from 1 to 6 tracking stations in differing locations; (2) the ground station measurement type such as S-Band, C-Band, VHF, and lasers and (3) the uncertainties in ground station location are investigated. The linear error analysis computer program used includes the effects of ground tracking station location uncertainties, measurement noise and biases, and station timing bias. Results show that two ground trackers are needed if at least 2000 meters position accuracy is desired, with a favorable two-station solution giving less than 500 meters position accuracy. Under favorable circumstances, a multi-station laser solution gives a synchronous satellite position accuracy of less than 100 meters. The various cases illustrate features of synchronous satellite tracking from ground stations.

Cooley, J. L.

1972-01-01

340

ILRS Station Reporting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

2013-01-01

341

NASA Academy Program Descriptions  

E-print Network

NASA Academy Program Descriptions October 2010 #12;NASA Academy Program Descriptions 2011 October 11, 2010 1/5 NASA Academy at ARC, GRC, GSFC, and MSFC Websites: Ames: http://academy.arc.nasa.gov Glenn: http://academy.grc.nasa.gov Goddard: http://academy.gsfc.nasa.gov Marshall: http://academy.msfc.nasa

Wang, Z. Jane

342

NASA Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Quest's primary goal is to connect the public to the people and science of NASA through live-encounter Events: stand alone or serial combinations of webcasts, chats, forums, and classroom collaborations. To accompany these live events, NASA Quest provides searchable profiles of the experts, journals of their day-to-day activities, and background information on the projects in which they are involved. Additionally, some of the Events include a variety of lesson plans by which students can learn to better research a given area of expertise. Of particular note on the site is a search area for lesson plans and student activities, images, video clips, facts, and background information. Also searchable are 3,000 archived questions in the Q and A files. Official NASA press releases in Aerospace technology and design, Astrobiology, Deep Space Science, Human Space Exploration, and the Solar System are listed in the news section. An Educators and Parents area provides standards lists, a discussion forum for teachers, and a search engine specific to lesson plans.

343

NASA Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators and students can find a variety of materials designed for support in the areas of science, mathematics, and technology. Resources are available on NASA education programs including specific areas for kids, students and educators at the elementary, secondary, higher and informal education arenas.

344

NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee May 2011  

E-print Network

Not attending: Dr. Leroy Chiao Former NASA Astronaut and International Space Station Commander Mr. Tommy Holloway Former Space Shuttle and International Space Station Program Manager Dr. John Grunsfeld Former safety and viability of astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), which has been extended

Waliser, Duane E.

345

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The International Space Station is made the Space Station involved more than 100,000 people located in 37 U.S. states and around the world. In about one day, the Space Station travels a distance equivalent to going to the moon and back. It circles

Waliser, Duane E.

346

NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

Stahl, H. Philip

2012-01-01

347

A customer-friendly Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1984-01-01

348

Space tracking in the Army  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tracking, Command, Control, and Communications (TRACC3) system, which is developed to evaluate the tracking approach to managing the flow of logistics on a global scale, is described. TRACC3 is an autonomous system that transmits its location periodically through INMARSAT. The TRACC3 system consists of three interrelated segments: the space and ground segments, and the monitor station.

Chin, Johnson

1992-03-01

349

The Capabilities of Space Stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

1995-01-01

350

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

351

Panel on Space Station utilization benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of recent changes in the NASA Space Station, under the guidance of updated user community payload requirements. The user communities are those of astronomy, the life sciences, earth observation, and international applications. Attention is given to the resolutions that will be achievable by astronomical instruments aboard the Space Station, the testing of prototype earth observation instruments aboard the Station's manned module, and the microgravity research efforts planned in conjunction with ESA.

Rubenstein, Sy Z.; Drake, Frank; White, Stanley C.; Taranik, James V.; Jordan, Hermann; Arnold, Ray

1987-01-01

352

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

1993-01-01

353

Marshall's George Hopson Recieves NASA's Highest Honors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After four decades of contribution to America's space program, George Hopson, manager of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Project at Marshall Space Flight Center, accepted NASA's Distinguished Service Medal. Awarded to those who, by distinguished ability or courage, have made a personal contribution to the NASA mission, NASA's Distinguished Service Medal is the highest honor NASA confers. Hopson's contributions to America's space program include work on the country's first space station, Skylab; the world's first reusable space vehicle, the Space Shuttle; and the International Space Station. Hopson joined NASA's Marshall team as chief of the Fluid and Thermal Systems Branch in the Propulsion Division in 1962, and later served as chief of the Engineering Analysis Division of the Structures and Propulsion Laboratory. In 1979, he was named director of Marshall's Systems Dynamics Laboratory. In 1981, he was chosen to head the Center's Systems Analysis and Integration. Seven years later, in 1988, Hopson was appointed associate director for Space Transportation Systems and one year later became the manager of the Space Station Projects Office at Marshall. In 1994, Hopson was selected as deputy director for Space Systems in the Science and Engineering Directorate at Marshall where he supervised the Chief Engineering Offices of both marned and unmanned space systems. He was named manager of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Project in 1997. In addition to the Distinguished Service Medal, Hopson has also been recognized with the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal and NASA's Exceptional Service Medal.

2003-01-01

354

Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

1983-01-01

355

NASA Earth science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans and current status will be presented.

Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

2013-10-01

356

Identifying Communities of Vulnerability: Using NASA's Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer to Enhance Public Health Tracking of Particle Exposure in Los Angeles - An Empirical Approach to Examining L1 MISR Radiance Measurements and PM2.5 Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los Angeles is consistently ranked as one of the most polluted cities in the United States, exhibiting high levels of both ozone and particulate matter. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less, or PM2.5, is of special concern for health professionals, since it is fine enough to be inhaled into the lungs. Additionally, studies show that it is associated with respiratory disease risks such as asthma. Remote sensing technologies have the potential to be useful in air pollution health studies, but have so far been sparsely implemented. Satellite-derived measurements would be especially useful in air pollution studies, since the concentrations of interest can change by orders of magnitude over small distances. However, with current remote sensing technologies, it is difficult to predict pollution levels within small areas. This study utilizes remote sensing information in combination with a ground-based network of data to create a more comprehensive approach to tracking public health concerns. According to the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, there is a continued need for research that establishes the relationship between remotely sensed data and predicting public health risks related to environmental factors. For this study, we conducted linear regression models using Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) L1 radiance data and ground-based PM2.5 measurements from 13 EPA stations within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area. MISR senses in 4 bands (visible blue, green, red and near infrared) and 9 separate angles, producing a total of 36 bands. Using all 36 bands, we generated models for each station individually and for all stations combined. Two time periods were assessed: June, July and August from 2000 - 2009, and all months from 2009. Summer months were looked at specifically, since pollution levels tend to be higher than other parts of the year due to strong inversion layers and low rainfall levels. Generally, the models performed well, suggesting that MISR radiances are able to accurately predict levels of PM2.5. For 2009 data, all models had R-squared values over 0.93. For summer month data, the model R-square values were markedly lower and more varied than for the 2009 data, ranging from 0.33 - 0.92. When looking at the 2009 data, non-summer month models performed better than did summer-month models. A brief analysis of temperature data indicates that temperature and deviation from the norm are not associated with model predictability. All 36 MISR channels were plotted against their weights for each model, but no band combination obviously weighed more than other bands. Further research needs to be conducted to understand why models were able to predict 2009 PM2.5 levels, but were unable to accurately fit summer data from 2000 - 2009.

Laygo, K.; Kontgis, C.; Hollins, A.

2011-12-01

357

Stokes examines NASA program management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As NASA gears up for another attempt at redesigning Space Station Freedom, some in Congress are wondering whether the space agency has learned any lessons from a number of costly past mistakes. Louis Stokes (D-Ohio), the new chairman of the House Appropriations Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Subcommittee, held a hearing on March 17 to examine unanticipated cost growth in a variety of projects, including the space toilet, the advanced turbo pump for the shuttle, and the Mars Observer, as well as the space station. Stokes seemed well-suited to this oversight role, asking well-informed and probing questions rather than accusatory ones. The witnesses, NASA head Daniel Goldin and many of his top managers (most of whom were not in their present positions when the projects were initiated), analyzed past errors and offered useful measures for avoiding similar problems in the future.

Leath, Audrey T.

358

Lightning from a storm system extending from Argentina to southern Brazil on the evening of April 23, 2003. (Photograph from the International Space Station, NASA Image Exchange, image number ISS006-E-48196.)  

E-print Network

·Volcanoes ·Forest Fires #12;6 · Predict the onset of tornadoes, hail, microbursts, flash floods; · Track to improve air quality / chemistry forecasts. GLM Applications and Benefits #12;7 · Heritage » Lightning

Kuligowski, Bob

359

Preliminary Results of the NASA Beacon Receiver for Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 GHz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 GHz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 GHz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP#5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 GHz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-m K-band and a 0.6-m Qband Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 Hz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-Hz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 dB. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

360

NASA's space energy technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Energy Systems program is concerned with the development of technology for space missions requiring high performance, such as geostationary orbit communication satellites and planetary spacecraft, and high capacity, such as the planned Space Station and lunar bases; these two requirements often lead to great differences in system design. The program accordingly addresses a wide range of candidate technologies, which encompasses photovoltaics, chemical energy conversion and storage, thermoelectric conversion, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

Mullin, J. P.; Byers, D. C.; Ambrus, J. H.; Loria, J. C.

1984-01-01

361

NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum Talks With Students - Duration: 23:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek STEM Academy in Ackw...

362

NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Radiation  

E-print Network

International Space Station, Near Earth Asteroid, and Mars Missions Francis A. Cucinotta NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Francis A. Cucinotta NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas Myung-Hee Y. Kim and Lori J

Rathbun, Julie A.

363

UWB Tracking Software Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

364

Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space station automation study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. The initial step taken by NASA in organizing the SSAS was to form and convene a panel of recognized expert technologists in automation, space sciences and aerospace engineering to produce a space station automation plan.

1984-01-01

365

The International Space Station Program's Response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's Report February 15, 2005  

E-print Network

#12;#12;The International Space Station Program's Response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's Report February 15, 2005 NASA's Implementation Plan for International Space Station Continuing at http://www.nasa.gov/news/highlights/returntoflight.html #12;The International Space Station Program

366

127Shipping Cargo to the International Space Station It takes a lot of supplies to  

E-print Network

127Shipping Cargo to the International Space Station It takes a lot of supplies to keep the International Space Station going! On February 21, 2014, NASA asked commercial launch services, such as Space;127Answer Key NASA Seeks U.S. Industry Feedback on Options for Future Space Station Cargo Services February

Christian, Eric

367

Space Station Water Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

Willis, Charles E. (editor)

1987-01-01

368

Orbital Debris Research at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States has one of the most active programs of research of the orbital debris environment in the world. Much of the research is conducted by NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. Past work by NASA has led to the development of national space policy which seeks to limit the growth of the debris population and limit the risk to spacecraft and humans in space and on the Earth from debris. NASA has also been instrumental in developing consistent international policies and standards. Much of NASA's efforts have been to measure and characterize the orbital debris population. The U.S. Department of Defense tracks and catalogs spacecraft and large debris with it's Space Surveillance Network while NASA concentrates on research on smaller debris. In low Earth orbit, NASA has utilized short wavelength radars such as Haystack, HAX, and Goldstone to statistically characterize the population in number, size, altitude, and inclination. For higher orbits, optical telescopes have been used. Much effort has gone into the understanding and removal of observational biases from both types of measurements. NASA is also striving to understand the material composition and shape characteristics of debris to assess these effects on the risk to operational spacecraft. All of these measurements along with data from ground tests provide the basis for near- and long-term modeling of the environment. NASA also develops tools used by spacecraft builders and operators to evaluate spacecraft and mission designs to assess compliance with debris standards and policies which limit the growth of the debris environment.

Stansbery, Eugene G.

2009-01-01

369

ISS Update: Bruce Manners, NASA COTS Project Executive for Orbital Sciences - Duration: 6 minutes, 31 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews Bruce Manners, NASA COTS Project Executive, about Orbital Sciences and the Cygnus rocket. Cygnus will deliver cargo to the International Space Station ...

370

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

371

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

372

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

373

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

374

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

375

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

376

Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

1985-01-01

377

Configuration Management at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA programs are characterized by complexity, harsh environments and the fact that we usually have one chance to get it right. Programs last decades and need to accept new hardware and technology as it is developed. We have multiple suppliers and international partners Our challenges are many, our costs are high and our failures are highly visible. CM systems need to be scalable, adaptable to new technology and span the life cycle of the program (30+ years). Multiple Systems, Contractors and Countries added major levels of complexity to the ISS program and CM/DM and Requirements management systems center dot CM Systems need to be designed for long design life center dot Space Station Design started in 1984 center dot Assembly Complete in 2012 center dot Systems were developed on a task basis without an overall system perspective center dot Technology moves faster than a large project office, try to make sure you have a system that can adapt

Doreswamy, Rajiv

2013-01-01

378

NASA priority technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant research areas deserving of attention within the NASA Space Research and Technology program are discussed, noting that the program is pursed to strengthen the U.S. technology base, improve low-cost access to space, and to aid in the expanded use of space, including a space station. Study areas being pursued include new Orbiter thermal protection system materials, developing longer-life reusable engines, and providing the technology for orbital transfer vehicle propulsion and aeroassisted braking. Attention is also being given to CFD techniques for entry body and rocket engine design, verifying the feasibility of advanced sensor concepts, defining the technology for large deployable RF antennas, and improving on-board data management systems. Of particular concern is to establish technologies which will enhance and extend a permanent manned presence in space.

Sadin, S. R.; Slone, H. O.

1983-01-01

379

Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS) and verified that we received the same result using the internal version of LLIS for our logistics lesson searches. In conducting the research, information from multiple databases was consolidated into a single spreadsheet of 300 lessons learned. Keywords were applied for the purpose of sorting and evaluation. Once the lessons had been compiled, an analysis of the resulting data was performed, first sorting it by keyword, then finding duplication and root cause, and finally sorting by root cause. The data was then distilled into the top 7 lessons learned across programs, centers, and activities.

Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah

2006-01-01

380

NASA Technical Management Report (533Q)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this task is analytical support of the NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) program in the areas of SLR data analysis, software development, assessment of SLR station performance, development of improved models for atmospheric propagation and interpretation of station calibration techniques, and science coordination and analysis functions for the NASA led Central Bureau of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). The contractor shall in each year of the five year contract: (1) Provide software development and analysis support to the NASA SLR program and the ILRS. Attend and make analysis reports at the monthly meetings of the Central Bureau of the ILRS covering data received during the previous period. Provide support to the Analysis Working Group of the ILRS including special tiger teams that are established to handle unique analysis problems. Support the updating of the SLR Bibliography contained on the ILRS web site; (2) Perform special assessments of SLR station performance from available data to determine unique biases and technical problems at the station; (3) Develop improvements to models of atmospheric propagation and for handling pre- and post-pass calibration data provided by global network stations; (4) Provide review presentation of overall ILRS network data results at one major scientific meeting per year; (5) Contribute to and support the publication of NASA SLR and ILRS reports highlighting the results of SLR analysis activity.

Klosko, S. M.; Sanchez, B. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

381

Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

2012-01-01

382

NASA: Rocket Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many things in this world that are described as not being as difficult as rocket science. Then, of course, there is the actual science behind rockets. Understandably, this can be difficult for budding space scientists to grasp. Fortunately, NASA has created these fun and interactive activities which relate both to the science and math of rocketry. These particular activities are taken from the "Rocket Educators Guide", and they include activities related to altitude tracking, the world of pinwheels, balloon staging, and of course the construction of an actual paper rocket. Each activity comes complete with instructions, diagrams, and information on the necessary materials. Taken as a whole, these activities could be equally fun whether outside on a brisk fall day as in a classroom setting.

383

Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

1996-01-01

384

Space Station Live: Veteran Astronaut Talks Crew Orientation - Duration: 12:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with NASA astronaut Cady Coleman, who lived aboard the International Space Station as Expedition 27/27 crew member from December...

385

Space Station Crew Welcomes World's First Commercial Cargo Craft - Duration: 14 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA, Flight Engineer Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency and Flight Engineer Joe Acaba of NASA grappled a...

386

NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microgravity Research Division of NASA funds materials science research through biannual research programs known as NASA Research Announcements (NRA). Selection is via external peer review with proposals being categorized for ground based research or flight definition status. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the NRAs and guidelines for successful proposals are outlined. The procedure for progressing from selection to a manifested flight experiment will involve further reviews of the science and also of the engineering needed to complete the experiment successfully. The topics of interest to NASA within the NRAs cover a comprehensive range of subjects, but with the common denominator that the proposed work must necessitate access to the microgravity environment for successful completion. Understanding of the fundamental nature of microstructure and its effects on properties is a major part of the program because it applies to almost all fields of materials science. Other important aspects of the program include non-linear optical materials, glasses and ceramics, metal and alloys and the need to develop materials science specifically to support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The transition to the International Space Station (ISS) represents the next stage of the Materials Science program.

Gillies, Donald C.

1997-07-01

387

ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project invested heavily in prototype Ka-band satellite ground terminals to conduct an experiments program with the ACTS satellite. The ACTS experiment's program proposed to validate Ka-band satellite and ground station technology. demonstrate future telecommunication services. demonstrate commercial viability and market acceptability of these new services, evaluate system networking and processing technology, and characterize Ka-band propagation effects, including development of techniques to mitigate signal fading. This paper will present a summary of the fixed ground terminals developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners, emphasizing the technology and performance of the terminals (Part 1) and the lessons learned throughout their six year operation including the inclined orbit phase of operations (Full Report). An overview of the Ka-band technology and components developed for the ACTS ground stations is presented. Next. the performance of the ground station technology and its evolution during the ACTS campaign are discussed to illustrate the technical tradeoffs made during the program and highlight technical advances by industry to support the ACTS experiments program and terminal operations. Finally. lessons learned during development and operation of the user terminals are discussed for consideration of commercial adoption into future Ka-band systems. The fixed ground stations used for experiments by government, academic, and commercial entities used reflector based offset-fed antenna systems ranging in size from 0.35m to 3.4m antenna diameter. Gateway earth stations included two systems, referred to as the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). The NGS provides tracking, telemetry, and control (TT&C) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) network control functions. The LET supports technology verification and high data rate experiments. The ground stations successfully demonstrated many services and applications at Ka-band in three different modes of operation: circuit switched TDMA using the satellite on-board processor, satellite switched SS-TDMA applications using the on-board Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM), and conventional transponder (bent-pipe) operation. Data rates ranged from 4.8 kbps up to 622 Mbps. Experiments included: 1) low rate (4.8- 1 00's kbps) remote data acquisition and control using small earth stations, 2) moderate rate (1-45 Mbps) experiments included full duplex voice and video conferencing and both full duplex and asymmetric data rate protocol and network evaluation using mid-size ground stations, and 3) link characterization experiments and high data rate (155-622 Mbps) terrestrial and satellite interoperability application experiments conducted by a consortium of experimenters using the large transportable ground stations.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

2000-01-01

388

Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five phases of a mission: pre-launch, launch from T0 to T+6.5 min, launch from T+6.5 min to 12 min, in LEO for rendezvous and docking with ISS, and return to Earth. The network of networks that supports the mission during each of these phases and the concepts of operations during those phases are developed as a high level operational concepts graphic called OV-1, an architecture diagram type described in the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF). Additional operational views on organizational relationships (OV-4), operational activities (OV-5), and operational node connectivity (OV-2) are also discussed. The system interfaces view (SV-1) that provides the communication and navigation services to Orion is also included and described. The challenges of architecting integrated network architecture for the NASA Orion missions are highlighted.

Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.

2008-01-01

389

Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to the recently discovered asteroid 1997XF11. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) is an observatory in Maui, Hawaii. The site provides images and information about newly discovered asteroids, comets, and other unusual objects.

1998-01-01

390

Concrete: Potential material for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

Lin, T. D.

1992-01-01

391

Tracking and data system support for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission. Volume 3: Orbit insertion through end of primary mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data System (TDS) Support for the Mariner Mars 1971 Mission final report contains the deep space tracking and data acquisition activities in support of orbital operations. During this period a major NASA objective was accomplished: completion of the 180th revolution and 90th day of data gathering with the spacecraft about the planet Mars. Included are presentations of the TDS flight support pass chronology data for each of the Deep Space Stations used, and performance evaluation for the Deep Space Network Telemetry, Tracking, Command, and Monitor Systems. With the loss of Mariner 8 at launch, Mariner 9 assumed the mission plan of Mariner 8, which included the TV mapping cycles and a 12-hr orbital period. The mission plan was modified as a result of a severe dust storm on the surface of Mars, which delayed the start of the TV mapping cycles. Thus, the end of primary mission date was extended to complete the TV mapping cycles.

Barnum, P. W.; Renzetti, N. A.; Textor, G. P.; Kelly, L. B.

1973-01-01

392

NASA: Reaching for New Heights - Duration: 4:08.  

NASA Video Gallery

At NASA, we've been a little busy: landing on Mars, developing new human spacecraft, going to the space station, working with commercial partners, observing the Earth and the Sun, exploring our sol...

393

Current and Future Parts Management at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides a high level view of current and future electronic parts management at NASA. It describes a current perspective of the new human space flight direction that NASA is beginning to take and how that could influence parts management in the future. It provides an overview of current NASA electronic parts policy and how that is implemented at the NASA flight Centers. It also describes some of the technical challenges that lie ahead and suggests approaches for their mitigation. These challenges include: advanced packaging, obsolescence and counterfeits, the global supply chain and Commercial Crew, a new direction by which NASA will utilize commercial launch vehicles to get astronauts to the International Space Station.

Sampson, Michael J.

2011-01-01

394

OSSA Space Station waste inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

1987-01-01

395

Space Station ECLSS Integration Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) contract with NASA MSFC covered the time frame from 9 May 1985 to 31 Dec. 1992. The contract roughly covered the period of Space Station Freedom (SSF) development from early Phase B through Phase C/D Critical Design Review (CDR). During this time, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-Huntsville (formerly McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company) performed an analytical support role to MSFC for the development of analytical math models and engineering trade studies related to the design of the ECLSS for the SSF.

1993-01-01

396

NASA Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Oceanography site contains remotely sensed satellite data and modeling techniques to enable the global mapping of seasonal changes in ocean surface topography, currents, waves, winds, phytoplankton content, sea-ice extent, rainfall, sunlight reaching the sea, and sea surface temperature. Studying these patterns at a global scale help forecast and mitigate the disastrous effects of floods and drought. Images generated by ocean observing satellite missions tell us volumes about the most fundamental climate changes. Many of the data resources provide data that tell us about: Ocean surface Topography or Wave Height, Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Surface Winds, Ocean Currents, Ocean Color, and Sea Surface Salinity. The missions profiled include the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM); the Salinity Sea Ice Working Group; and sea surface winds, ocean color, and ocean surface topography/wave height missions.

397

2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

398

NASA Resources for Educators and Public  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of NASA Classroom Activities, Educator Guides, Lithographs, Posters and more are available to Pre ]service and In ]service Educators through Professional Development Workshops. We are here for you to engage, demonstrate, and facilitate the use of educational technologies, the NASA Website, NASA Education Homepage and more! We are here for you to inspire you by providing in-service and pre- service training utilizing NASA curriculum support products. We are here for you to partner with your local, state, and regional educational organizations to better educate ALL! NASA AESP specialists are experienced professional educators, current on education issues and familiar with the curriculum frameworks, educational standards, and systemic architecture of the states they service. These specialists provide engaging and inspiring student presentations and teacher training right at YOUR school at no cost to you! Experience free out-of-this-world interactive learning with NASA's Digital Learning Network. Students of all ages can participate in LIVE events with NASA Experts and Education Specialists. The Exploration Station provides NASA educational programs that introduce the application of Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics, to students. Students participate in a variety of hands-on activities that compliment related topics taught by the classroom teacher. NASA KSC ERC can create Professional Development Workshops for teachers in groups of fifteen or more. Education/Information Specialists also assist educators in developing lessons to meet Sunshine State and national curriculum standards.

Morales, Lester

2012-01-01

399

NASA Mission: The Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

1990-01-01

400

ISS Update: Science Aboard the Station â?? 10.26.12 - Duration: 19 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with Tara Ruttley, Associate Program Scientist for International Space Station, about some of the science experiments performed by the Expedition 33...

401

ISS Update: ISTAR -- International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research - Duration: 9:17.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Sandra Fletcher, EVA Systems Flight Controller. They discuss the International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) activity that...

402

78 FR 66964 - International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (13-129)] International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory Committee...Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION:...

2013-11-07

403

76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-104)] International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory...Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION:...

2011-10-24

404

Space Station Crew Sends Greetings to President Obama - Duration: 2:49.  

NASA Video Gallery

International Space Station Commander Koichi Wakata from the Japanese space agency joins NASA astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Steve Swanson in a welcome message from orbit during President Obama's ...

405

Space Station Live: Fluids and Combustion Facility - Duration: 10:16.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean speaks with Robert Corban, Fluids and Combustion Facility Manager, about the research being performed aboard the International Space Station using this state...

406

NASA, Building Tomorrow's Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We, as NASA, continue to Dare Mighty Things. Here we are in October. In my country, the United States of America, we celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492. His story, although happening over 500 years ago, is still very valid today. It is a part of the American spirit; part of the international human spirit. Columbus is famous for discovering the new world we now call America, but he probably never envisioned what great discoveries would be revealed many generations later. But in order for Columbus to begin his great adventure, he needed a business plan. Ho would he go about obtaining the funds and support necessary to build, supply, and man the ships required for his travels? He had a lot of obstacles and distractions. He needed a strong, internal drive to achieve his plans and recruit a willing crew of explorers also ready to risk their all for the unknown journey ahead. As Columbus set sail, he said "By prevailing over all obstacles and distractions, one may unfailingly arrive at his chosen goal or destination." Columbus may not have known he was on a journey for all human exploration. Recently, Charlie Bolden, the NASA Administrator, said, "Human exploration is and has always been about making life better for humans on Earth." Today, NASA and the U.S. human spaceflight program hold many of the same attributes as did Columbus and his contemporaries - a willing, can-do spirit. We are on the threshold of exciting new times in space exploration. Like Columbus, we need a business plan to take us into the future. We need to design the best ships and utilize the best designers, with their past knowledge and experience, to build those ships. We need funding and support from governments to achieve these goals of space exploration into the unknown. NASA does have that business plan, and it is an ambitious plan for human spaceflight and exploration. Today, we have a magnificent spaceflight laboratory, built over many years by the United States and other nations. Last month, the last man to step off the moon, Gene Cernan, told the U.S. Congress, "Today the International Space Station, the assembly of which may well go down in history as man's greatest engineering accomplishment of all time, circles the globe sixteen times every day - all in keeping with JFK's challenge to do the other things." The International Space Station (ISS) is a ship which provides an outstanding platform 'for performing spaceborne scientific, engineering, and Earth studies. Numerous nations utilize this unique cooperative partnership by sending scientists, engineers, astronauts, and cosmonauts to the ISS to spend time aboard the station in order to further scientific research, truly an asset for the entire planet.

Mango, Edward

2011-01-01

407

Earth Views From the International Space Station - Duration: 5 minutes, 2 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station ...

408

Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions.

1984-01-01

409

California Natural Disasters - Using NASA Earth Observations to Assess Smoke Emissions, Fuel Loading, Moisture Content, and Vegetation Loss due to the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires are a normal occurrence in the state of California. Evidence of this can be seen in the Station Fire of 2009 (26 August - 16 October), a fire which destroyed over 154,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest and the combined summer fires of 2008 (22 May-29 August), which burned over 1,500,000 acres. In order to understand these fires

M. L. Jones; J. Reedy; S. Moustafa; D. Brundage; K. Anderson; R. A. Ferrare; A. J. Swanson; M. M. Yang

2010-01-01

410

Space station ventilation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

1972-01-01

411

NASA Strategic Roadmap Summary Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Vision, NASA commissioned strategic and capability roadmap teams to develop the pathways for turning the Vision into a reality. The strategic roadmaps were derived from the Vision for Space Exploration and the Aldrich Commission Report dated June 2004. NASA identified 12 strategic areas for roadmapping. The Agency added a thirteenth area on nuclear systems because the topic affects the entire program portfolio. To ensure long-term public visibility and engagement, NASA established a committee for each of the 13 areas. These committees - made up of prominent members of the scientific and aerospace industry communities and senior government personnel - worked under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. A committee was formed for each of the following program areas: 1) Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration; 2) Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; 3) Solar System Exploration; 4) Search for Earth-Like Planets; 5) Exploration Transportation System; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Universe Exploration; 9) Earth Science and Applications from Space; 10) Sun-Solar System Connection; 11) Aeronautical Technologies; 12) Education; 13) Nuclear Systems. This document contains roadmap summaries for 10 of these 13 program areas; The International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Education are excluded. The completed roadmaps for the following committees: Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; Solar System Exploration; Search for Earth-Like Planets; Universe Exploration; Earth Science and Applications from Space; Sun-Solar System Connection are collected in a separate Strategic Roadmaps volume. This document contains memebership rosters and charters for all 13 committees.

Wilson, Scott; Bauer, Frank; Stetson, Doug; Robey, Judee; Smith, Eric P.; Capps, Rich; Gould, Dana; Tanner, Mike; Guerra, Lisa; Johnston, Gordon

2005-01-01

412

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 68-K-L-11213, NASA KSC, November, 1968. CHAMBER ?L? ELEVATION. Sheet 3 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

413

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 68-K-L-11213, NASA KSC, November, 1968. WORK PLATFORM DETAIL. Sheet 6 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

414

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 68-K-L-11213, NASA KSC, March, 1971. DOOR LATCH MECHANISM & DOOR LATCHING RATCHET. Sheet 14 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

415

Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING. NASA John F. Kennedy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K06740, NASA, November 1975. SPACE & WEIGHT ALLOCATION, ORBITER PATH IN TRANSFER AISLE. Sheet 6 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

416

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. ALTITUDE CHAMBERS ?L? & ?R? STRUCTURES. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 68-K-L-11213, NASA KSC, November, 1968. CHAMBER ?R? ELEVATION. Sheet 4 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

417

NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths was its software assurance practices, which seemed to rate well in comparison to the other organizational groups and also seemed to include a larger scope of activities. An unexpected benefit of the software benchmarking study was the identification of many opportunities for collaboration in areas including metrics, training, sharing of CMMI experiences and resources such as instructors and CMMI Lead Appraisers, and even sharing of assets such as documented processes. A further unexpected benefit of the study was the feedback on NASA practices that was received from some of the organizations interviewed. From that feedback, other potential areas where NASA could improve were highlighted, such as accuracy of software cost estimation and budgetary practices. The detailed report contains discussion of the practices noted in each of the topic areas, as well as a summary of observations and recommendations from each of the topic areas. The resulting 24 recommendations from the topic areas were then consolidated to eliminate duplication and culled into a set of 14 suggested actionable recommendations. This final set of actionable recommendations, listed below, are items that can be implemented to improve NASA's software engineering practices and to help address many of the items that were listed in the NASA top software engineering issues. 1. Develop and implement standard contract language for software procurements. 2. Advance accurate and trusted software cost estimates for both procured and in-house software and improve the capture of actual cost data to facilitate further improvements. 3. Establish a consistent set of objectives and expectations, specifically types of metrics at the Agency level, so key trends and models can be identified and used to continuously improve software processes and each software development effort. 4. Maintain the CMMI Maturity Level requirement for critical NASA projects and use CMMI to measure organizations developing software for NASA. 5.onsolidate, collect and, if needed, develop common processes principles and other assets across t

Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

2013-01-01

418

www.nasa.gov Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

toward achieving the challenging mission of space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics Space Shuttle launches to the International Space Station (ISS) since last November, to complete itswww.nasa.gov Fiscal Year PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT 2010 National Aeronautics and Space

419

NASA Data Acquisitions System (NDAS) Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NDAS Software Project is for the development of common low speed data acquisition system software to support NASA's rocket propulsion testing facilities at John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Plum Brook Station (PBS), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

Davis, Dawn; Duncan, Michael; Franzl, Richard; Holladay, Wendy; Marshall, Peggi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark

2012-01-01

420

NASA funding outlook bleak, says Traxler  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Given our future budget outlook, if we are going to fund the space station NASA proposes to build as directed by [Congress], we are not going to fund a great deal else in some other programs,'' said Bob Traxler (D-Mich.), House appropriations subcommittee chairman, as he addressed the House recently on some of the difficult funding questions Congress will be

Stephen Cole

1991-01-01

421

Payload Flight Assignments: NASA Mixed Fleet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manifest summarizes the missions planned by NASA for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's) as of the date of publication. Space Shuttle and ELV missions are shown through calendar year 2003. Space Shuttle missions for calendar years 2002-2003 are under review pending the resolution of details in the assembly sequence of the International Space Station (ISS).

Parker, Robert A. R.

1997-01-01

422

The Status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, the NASA All Sky Fireball Network consists of 6 meteor video cameras in the southern United States, with plans to expand to 15 cameras by 2013. As of mid-2011, the network had detected 1796 multi-station meteors, including meteors from 43 different meteor showers. The current status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network is described, alongside preliminary results.

Cooke, William J.; Moser, Danielle E.

2011-01-01

423

Engineering Research and Technology Development on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report identifies and assesses the kinds of engineering research and technology development applicable to national, NASA, and commercial needs that can appropriately be performed on the space station. It also identifies the types of instrumentation that should be included in the space station design to support engineering research. The report contains a preliminary assessment of the potential benefits to U.S. competitiveness of engineering research that might be conducted on a space station, reviews NASA's current approach to jointly funded or cooperative experiments, and suggests modifications that might facilitate university and industry participation in engineering research and technology development activities on the space station.

1996-01-01

424

NASA metrication activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

Vlannes, P. N.

1978-01-01

425

Space Images for NASA/JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

2010-01-01

426

NASA Oceanic Processes Program, fiscal year 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments, activities, and plans are highlighted for studies of ocean circulation, air sea interaction, ocean productivity, and sea ice. Flight projects discussed include TOPEX, the ocean color imager, the advanced RF tracking system, the NASA scatterometer, and the pilot ocean data system. Over 200 papers generated by the program are listed.

Nelson, R. M. (editor); Pieri, D. C. (editor)

1984-01-01

427

Lewis Investigates Frequency Sharing Between Future NASA Space Systems and Local Multipoint Distribution Systems in the 27-GHz Band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the NASA Lewis Research Center undertook an intensive study to examine the feasibility of frequency sharing between future NASA space services and proposed Local Multipoint Distribution Systems (LMDS) in the 25.25- to 27.5-GHz band. This follows NASA's earlier involvement in the FCC's 1994 Negotiated Rule Making Committee which studied frequency sharing between Ka-band Fixed Satellite Services and LMDS in the 27.5- to 29.5-GHz band. LMDS is a terrestrial, cellular, wireless communication service primarily intended to provide television distribution from hub stations located within relatively small cells to fixed subscriber receivers. Some proposed systems, however, also plan to offer interactive services via subscriber-to-hub transmissions. LMDS providers anticipate that their systems will be a cost-effective alternative to cable television systems, especially in urban areas. LMDS proponents have expressed an interest in using frequencies below 27.5 GHz. NASA, however, plans to operate three types of space systems below 27.5 GHz. The H, I, and J follow-on satellites for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which are planned for launch beginning in 1999, are designed to receive high-data-rate transmissions (up to 800 Mbps) from low-Earth orbiting "user" spacecraft in the 25.25- to 27.5-GHz band. In this case, the potential interference is the aggregate interference from LMDS transmitters (both hubs and subscribers) into the TDRSS tracking receive beams as they sweep over the Earth's surface while tracking lower altitude user spacecraft.

1997-01-01

428

Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

2010-01-01

429

NASA's Astronant Family Support Office  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the NASA-Mir program of the 1990s and due to the challenges inherent in the International Space Station training schedule and operations tempo, it was clear that a special focus on supporting families was a key to overall mission success for the ISS crewmembers pre-, in- and post-flight. To that end, in January 2001 the first Family Services Coordinator was hired by the Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA JSC and matrixed from Medical Operations into the Astronaut Office's organization. The initial roles and responsibilities were driven by critical needs, including facilitating family communication during training deployments, providing mission-specific and other relevant trainings for spouses, serving as liaison for families with NASA organizations such as Medical Operations, NASA management and the Astronaut Office, and providing assistance to ensure success of an Astronaut Spouses Group. The role of the Family Support Office (FSO) has modified as the ISS Program matured and the needs of families changed. The FSO is currently an integral part of the Astronaut Office's ISS Operations Branch. It still serves the critical function of providing information to families, as well as being the primary contact for US and international partner families with resources at JSC. Since crews launch and return on Russian vehicles, the FSO has the added responsibility for coordinating with Flight Crew Operations, the families, and their guests for Soyuz launches, landings, and Direct Return to Houston post-flight. This presentation will provide a summary of the family support services provided for astronauts, and how they have changed with the Program and families the FSO serves. Considerations for future FSO services will be discussed briefly as NASA proposes one year missions and beyond ISS missions. Learning Objective: 1) Obtain an understanding of the reasons a Family Support Office was important for NASA. 2) Become familiar with the services provided for astronauts and their families and how they changed with the Program and family needs.

Beven, Gary; Curtis, Kelly D.; Holland, Al W.; Sipes, Walter; VanderArk, Steve

2014-01-01

430

Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

2003-01-01

431

Science@NASA: Direct to People!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science@NASA is a science communication effort sponsored by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. It is the result of a four year research project between Marshall, the University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications and the internet communications company, Bishop Web Works. The goals of Science@NASA are to inform, inspire, and involve people in the excitement of NASA science by bringing that science directly to them. We stress not only the reporting of the facts of a particular topic, but also the context and importance of the research. Science@NASA involves several levels of activity from academic communications research to production of content for 6 websites, in an integrated process involving all phases of production. A Science Communications Roundtable Process is in place that includes scientists, managers, writers, editors, and Web technical experts. The close connection between the scientists and the writers/editors assures a high level of scientific accuracy in the finished products. The websites each have unique characters and are aimed at different audience segments: 1. http://science.nasa.gov. (SNG) Carries stories featuring various aspects of NASA science activity. The site carries 2 or 3 new stories each week in written and audio formats for science-attentive adults. 2. http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov. Features stories from SNG that are recast for a high school level audience. J-Track and J-Pass applets for tracking satellites are our most popular product. 3. http://kids. msfc.nasa.gov. This is the Nursemaids site and is aimed at a middle school audience. The NASAKids Club is a new feature at the site. 4. http://www.thursdaysclassroom.com . This site features lesson plans and classroom activities for educators centered around one of the science stories carried on SNG. 5. http://www.spaceweather.com. This site gives the status of solar activity and its interactions with the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

Koczor, Ronald J.; Adams, Mitzi; Gallagher, Dennis; Whitaker, Ann (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

432

Proceedings of the 2nd NASA Ada User's Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several presentations, mostly in viewgraph form, on various topics relating to Ada applications are given. Topics covered include the use of Ada in NASA, Ada and the Space Station, the software support environment, Ada in the Software Engineering Laboratory, Ada at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Flight Telerobotic Servicer, and lessons learned in prototyping the Space Station Remote Manipulator System control.

1989-01-01

433

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council  

E-print Network

capabilities for the delivery of cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) is moving forward the International Space Station. The use of Space Act Agreements is appropriate because the program is envisionedReport of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL

Waliser, Duane E.

434

NASA's New Orbital Space Plane: A Bridge to the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing a new spacecraft system called the Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The OSP will be launched on an expendable launch vehicle and serve to augment the shuttle in support of the International Space Station by transporting astronauts to and from the International Space Station and by providing a crew rescue system.

Davis, Stephan R.; Engler, Leah M.; Fisher, Mark F.; Dumbacher, Dan L.; Boswell, Barry E.

2003-01-01

435

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The International Space Station is huge! Its living space is larger than a five-bedroom house, and it weighs almost one million pounds - more than 330 cars put together! The International Space Station is a home in space to astronauts

Waliser, Duane E.

436

Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator COMSTAC Advisory Committee Public Meeting  

E-print Network

. It gave us the ability to build the International Space Station; it launched satellites like Hubble's commercial space industry to take over transport to the International Space Station so that NASA can do what to include the first rendezvous and berthing of a private industry-owned capsule to the International Space

Waliser, Duane E.

437

NASA evolution of exploration architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of charts and diagrams is used to provide a detailed overview of the evolution of NASA space exploration architectures. The pre-Apollo programs including the Werner von Braun feasibility study are discussed and the evolution of the Apollo program itself is treated in detail. The post-Apollo era is reviewed and attention is given to the resurgence of strategic planning exemplified by both ad hoc and formal efforts at planning. Results of NASA's study of the main elements of the Space Exploration Initiative which examined technical scenarios, science opportunities, required technologies, international considerations, institutional strengths and needs, and resource estimates are presented. The 90-day study concludes that, among other things, major investments in challenging technologies are required, the scientific opportunities provided by the program are considerable, current launch capabilities are inadequate, and Space Station Freedom is essential.

Roberts, Barney B.

1991-01-01

438

Continuous Risk Management at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

1999-01-01

439

Space Station Live: EarthKAM - Duration: 11:30.  

NASA Video Gallery

Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan interviews Brion Au, EarthKAM Payload Developer. The NASA education program enables middle school students to take pictures of the Earth from the Internation...

440

Station Commander Sends Holiday Greetings - Duration: 3 minutes, 21 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank of NASA sends season's greetings to the world and shares his thoughts about being in orbit aboard the space-based laborat...

441

Space Station Live: Microbiome Experiment - Duration: 3:52.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Microbiome experiment Investigator Mark Ott to learn more about this research taking place aboard the International Space Station. The Microbiome e...

442

Ohio's First Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Fueling Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation to the earth day coalition describing efforts with NASA GRC and Cleveland RTA on Ohio's hydrogen fueling station and bus demonstration. Project background and goals, challenges and successes, and current status.

Demattia, Brianne

2014-01-01

443

Students Speak With Station Capcom - Duration: 24:45.  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, ISS capcom Hal Getzelman participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Colvin Run Elementary School in Vien...

444

Station Astronauts Do Experiment for 'Cosmos' - Duration: 118 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 38 Commander Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA help 'Cosmos' host Neil deGrasse...

445

Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

1995-01-01

446

Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

2014-01-01

447

NASA's Current Earth Science Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Earth science program is a scientific endeavor whose goal is to provide long-term understanding of the Earth as an integrated system of land, water, air and life. A highly developed scientific knowledge of the Earth system is necessary to understand how the environment affects humanity, and how humanity may be affecting the environment. The remote sensing technologies used to gather the global environmental data used in such research also have numerous practical applications. Current applications of remote sensing data demonstrate their practical benefits in areas such as the monitoring of crop conditions and yields, natural disasters and forest fires; hazardous waste clean up; and tracking of vector-borne diseases. The long-term availability of environmental data is essential for the continuity of important research and applications efforts. NASA's Earth observation program has undergone many changes in the recent past.

Charles, Leslie Bermann

1998-01-01

448

NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

Miller, Robert D.

2007-01-01

449

Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

2005-01-01

450

Space Station: Impact of the expanded Russian role on funding and research. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Committee on Governmental Affairs, US Senate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An examination is made on the impact of Russian participation in NASA's space station program. This interim report deals with whether expanded Russian participation will (1) reduce space station funding requirements by $2 billion, as estimated by NASA, and (2) improve the station's capabilities for conducting research. Results at this time are that (1) NASA's estimated savings in the space station program would be largely offset by an estimated $1.4 billion in increased funding requirements accounted for in other parts of NASA's budget and (2) some of NASA's $2 billion savings may not be attributable to Russian participation. Russian participation in the space station would substantially increase overall station research resources.

Warren, David; Degnan, Frank; Edwards, Lee; Eiserman, Richard; Zadjura, Mona; Barnabas, Vijay; Coleman, Elaine; Gilchrist, John; Smythe, Wendy; Jones, Mae

1994-06-01

451

Boeing: International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

452

GENERAL: Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of “pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track". The other is the scheme of “two tracks play the same role". We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.

Xun, Jing; Ning, Bin; Li, Ke-Ping

2009-04-01

453

NASA ISS EarthKam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ISS EarthKam (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students) "is a NASA sponsored program that provides stunning, high quality photographs of our planet taken" by middle-school students from the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. Visitors can view Macromedia Flash Player and PowerPoint slide shows displaying the highlights of the program and a collection of amazing images. The website offers summaries of the latest, past, and future station missions. Users can explore the thousands of images collected by EarthKam via an online database or by a sequence of image collections. Educators and students will discover many activities, tutorials, guides, and other instructional materials that use EarthKam images to address scientific concepts.

454

21-cm Observations with the NASA ADAS 18-meter Antenna System: Baseline Astronomical Observations and Measurements of Performance Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report astronomical observations made with the NASA Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS). The NASA ADAS antenna, located at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, is an 18-meter X-band antenna system that has been primarily used for satellite tracking and served as the telecommunication station for the NASA IUE satellite until ca. 1997. A joint NASA-Morehead State University (MSU)-Kentucky NSF EPSCoR venture has been initiated to upgrade and relocate the antenna system to MSU's Astrophysics Laboratory where it will provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate students as well as be engaged in satellite tracking missions. As part of the relocation efforts, many systems will be upgraded including replacement of a hydrostatic azimuth bearing with a high-precision electromechanical bearing, a new servo system, and Ku-capable reflector surface. It is widely believed that there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make utilizing three primary observing strategies: 1.) longitudinal studies of RF variations in cosmic phenomena, 2.) surveys of large areas of sky, and 3.) fast reactions to transient phenomena. MSU faculty and staff along with NASA engineers re-outfitted the ADAS system with RF systems and upgraded servo controllers during the spring and summer of 2001. Empirical measurements of primary system performance characteristics were made including G/T (at S- and L bands), noise figures, pointing and tracking accuracies, and drive speeds and accelerations. Baseline astronomical observations were made with the MSU L-band receiver using a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm) and observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz, tunable over the 6 MHz window) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. Baseline observations of radio sources herein reported include Cygnus A, 3C 157, 3C 48 and the Andromeda Galaxy. After its transition to Morehead State University (which is expected to be completed in 2004), the 18-meter will be available for use by students and faculty from all U.S. institutions for astronomical observations. Transitioning of the 18-meter antenna is made possible by NASA, and the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program and by grants from the U.S. Small Business Administration.

Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

2001-12-01

455

High Speed A/D DSP Interface for Carrier Doppler Tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As on-board satellite systems continue to increase in ability to perform self diagnostic checks, it will become more important for satellites to initiate ground communications contact. Currently, the NASA Space Network requires users to pre-arranged times for satellite communications links through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). One of the challenges in implementing an on-demand access protocol into the Space Network, is the fact that a low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite's communications will be subject to a doppler shift which is outside the capability of the NASA ground station to lock onto. In a prearranged system, the satellite's doppler is known a priori, and the ground station is able to lock onto the satellite's signal. This paper describes the development of a high speed analog to digital interface into a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). This system will be used for identifying the doppler shift of a LEO satellite through the Space Network, and aiding the ground station equipment in locking onto the signal. Although this interface is specific to one application, it can be used as a basis for interfacing other devices with a DSP.

Baggett, Timothy

1998-01-01

456

The NASA Fireball Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the summer of 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office (MEO) began to establish a video fireball network, based on the following objectives: (1) determine the speed distribution of cm size meteoroids, (2) determine the major sources of cm size meteoroids (showers/sporadic sources), (3) characterize meteor showers (numbers, magnitudes, trajectories, orbits), (4) determine the size at which showers dominate the meteor flux, (5) discriminate between re-entering space debris and meteors, and 6) locate meteorite falls. In order to achieve the above with the limited resources available to the MEO, it was necessary that the network function almost fully autonomously, with very little required from humans in the areas of upkeep or analysis. With this in mind, the camera design and, most importantly, the ASGARD meteor detection software were adopted from the University of Western Ontario's Southern Ontario Meteor Network (SOMN), as NASA has a cooperative agreement with Western's Meteor Physics Group. 15 cameras have been built, and the network now consists of 8 operational cameras, with at least 4 more slated for deployment in calendar year 2013. The goal is to have 15 systems, distributed in two or more groups east of automatic analysis; every morning, this server also automatically generates an email and a web page (http://fireballs.ndc.nasa.gov) containing an automated analysis of the previous night's events. This analysis provides the following for each meteor: UTC date and time, speed, start and end locations (longitude, latitude, altitude), radiant, shower identification, light curve (meteor absolute magnitude as a function of time), photometric mass, orbital elements, and Tisserand parameter. Radiant/orbital plots and various histograms (number versus speed, time, etc) are also produced. After more than four years of operation, over 5,000 multi-station fireballs have been observed, 3 of which potentially dropped meteorites. A database containing data on all these events, including the videos and calibration information, has been developed and is being modified to include data from the SOMN and other camera networks.

Cooke, William J.

2013-01-01

457

Language Learning Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of learning stations at elementary and secondary levels. Explains vocabulary, grammar, conversation, listening, reading and culture stations; materials and equipment for stations; management concerns. (BK)

Strauber, Sandra K.

1981-01-01

458

The NASA History Series  

E-print Network

(Revised for vol. 8) NASA historical data book. (NASA SP- 2012-4012) Vol. 1 is a republication of NASA historical data book, 1958–1968 / Jane Van Nimmen and Leonard C. Bruno. Vol. 8 in series: The NASA historical data book series. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Contents: v. 1 NASA resources, 1958–1968 / Jane Van Nimmen and Leonard C. Bruno — v. 2. Programs and projects,

Judy A. Rumerman

459

House to vote on EOS, Station on April 29  

Microsoft Academic Search

The House has scheduled the first vote of the year on funding for Space Station Freedom, the Earth Observ