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Sample records for nasal cavity tumors

  1. [Hemangiopericytoma in nasal cavity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghai; Shi, Qifeng; Chen, Jidong

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 46 year old female patient with nasal hemangiopericytoma. She complained of left nasal congestion, pus snot for 10 years, sometimes with left nasal bleeding. Physical examination: in the left nasal tract saw red soft neoplasm, roughness surface, easy bleeding when touched. Sinus CT shows: bilateral maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus and the left posterior nasal cavity lesions, considering inflammation with the formation of polyps, tumor not excluded. The left nasal cavity neoplasm biopsy shows: hemangioma of left nasal cavity. After admission in general anesthesia, we do transnasal endoscopic sinus openning operation and the left nasal cavity neoplasm resection. Postoperative pathological examination shows: the left nasal cavity hemangiopericytoma. Immunohistochemical showed: Vimentin(+), Smooth muscle actin(+), Desmin(-), endothelial cells CD31(-) and CD34(-). No postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy, no tumor recurrence. After one year of follow-up, the contact was lost. PMID:26281069

  2. Computed tomography of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, M.; Horiuchi, M.; Shiga, H.

    1982-07-15

    Staging of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses by computed tomography (CT) was studied in a total of 49 patients, 33 with squamous cell carcinoma and 16 with tumors of other histologic types. Involved sites by the tumor were studied, and clinical staging was made using CT findings alone according to AJC classification for maxillary sinus tumors. Surgical findings for comparison were available for most cases. Of 33 squamous cell carcinomas and of 16 tumors with other histologic types, the maxillary sinus was the site of origin in 29 and eight, respectively. Of these 37 maxillary sinus tumors, 11 were staged T3, 26 T4, and none was staged T1 or T2. None of these tumors were down staged, and one T3 was upstaged after surgical procedures, although all sinuses were not explored in some cases. Sinusitis due to obstruction was indistinguishable from the tumor without bone destruction. And the determination of the site of origin was difficult in some cases. Despite these, CT should be used for pretreatment evaluation of the tumors of these sites.

  3. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Clinical Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegner, Ellen A.; Daly, Megan E.; Murphy, James D.; Abelson, Jonathan; Chapman, Chris H.; Chung, Melody; Yu, Yao; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Chang, Daniel T.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity (PNS/NC). Methods/Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2009, 52 patients with tumors of the PNS/NC underwent postoperative or definitive radiation with IMRT. Twenty-eight (54%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-nine patients (56%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 26.6 months (range, 2.9-118.4) for all patients and 30.9 months for living patients. Results: Eighteen patients (35%) developed local-regional failure (LRF) at median time of 7.2 months. Thirteen local failures (25%) were observed, 12 in-field and 1 marginal. Six regional failures were observed, two in-field and four out-of-field. No patients treated with elective nodal radiation had nodal regional failure. Two-year local-regional control (LRC), in-field LRC, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) were 64%, 74%, 71%, and 66% among all patients, respectively, and 43%, 61%, 61%, and 53% among patients with SCC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, SCC and >1 subsite involved had worse LRC (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.046, respectively) and OS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.046, respectively). Cribriform plate invasion (p = 0.005) and residual disease (p = 0.047) also had worse LRC. Acute toxicities included Grade {>=}3 mucositis in 19 patients (37%), and Grade 3 dermatitis in 8 patients (15%). Six patients had Grade {>=}3 late toxicity including one optic toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT for patients with PNS/NC tumors has good outcomes compared with historical series and is well tolerated. Patients with SCC have worse LRC and OS. LRF is the predominant pattern of failure.

  5. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and deposited these data in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject: PRJNA248297). In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects. The nasal cavity bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and were statistically distinct from those on the tongue and buccal mucosa. For example, the same Staphylococcaceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was present in all of the nasal cavity samples, comprising up to 55% of the community, but Staphylococcaceae was comparatively uncommon in the oral cavity. Conclusions There are clear differences between nasal cavity microbiota and oral cavity microbiota in healthy adults. This study expands our knowledge of the nasal cavity microbiota and the relationship between the microbiota of the nasal and oral cavities. PMID:25143824

  6. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  7. Pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Cengiz; Apa, Duygu Düşmez; Görür, Kemal

    2004-09-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH), also called pyogenic granuloma, is a benign vascular tumor that is pedunculated on the skin and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. This disease occurs in all ages, but more often in the 3rd decade, and is seen in females more than males. LCH commonly appears in early childhood and affects males more than females in the pediatric age group. The gingiva, lips, tongue and buccal mucosa are the most common sites of mucosal LCH, but the nasal cavity is rare. Micro-trauma and hormonal factors are the most common etiologic factors. Epistaxis and nasal obstruction are the most marked symptoms. We describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with intra-nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presented with epistaxis and nasal obstruction. This should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood endonasal masses with bleeding. Total excision using endoscopic technique is the treatment of choice. PMID:14652770

  8. An acquired tufted angioma of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ha; Lee, Guen-Ho; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Jin Hee

    2013-12-01

    Tufted angiomas are benign vascular tumors that occur mainly in children younger than 5 years, involving the skin with subcutaneous plaques or in a nodular form. We experienced a rare tufted angioma in the nasal cavity. A 35-year-old woman visited our clinic because of frequent epistaxis. A mass was found in the left posterior nasal cavity, adjacent to the middle turbinate, and attached to the nasal septum. The mass was excised using endoscopy, under local anesthesia. The histopathological examination showed a cannon-ball distribution of the vasculature, compatible with a tufted angioma. This is the first tufted angioma in the English literature found in the nasal mucosa, so we report this case with a literature review. PMID:23518006

  9. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  10. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Chen, D; Wang, P H; Chen, J; Deng, J

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  11. Nasal Cavity Masses Resembling Chondro-osseous Respiratory Epithelial Adenomatoid Hamartomas in 3 Dogs.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Michel, A O; Lindl Bylicki, B J; Cifuentes, F F; Affolter, V K; Murphy, B G

    2016-05-01

    Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas (COREAHs) are rare tumors in the nasal cavity of people, which have not been described in other species. COREAHs in people are minimally invasive and rarely recur following excision. Histologically, these tumors are composed of disorganized, mature, nasal turbinate tissue that is organized into polypoid growths. These growths are lined by respiratory epithelium, contain glandular elements, and are organized around central cores of chondro-osseous matrix. This report describes 3 cases of dogs with nasal tumors that have histomorphology similar to that of COREAH in people. The tumors were all identified within the nasal cavity and were associated with regional bony lysis of the turbinates and surrounding skull bones, a feature that has not been reported in COREAH in people. There was no evidence of metastasis or extension beyond the nasal cavity in any of the 3 cases. PMID:26253881

  12. [Pituitary neoplasms extending into the nasal cavity and their needle biopsy cytodiagnosis].

    PubMed

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Burgman, G P

    1978-01-01

    In 5.5% of 126 patients treated for hypophyseal tumors at the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, AMS USSR for 12 months, spread of the new growth to the nasal cavity was revealed. The tumor was usually located in the posterosuperior parts of the nose and was discovered on anterior rhinoscopy only after the nasal mucosa had been carefully anemized, particularly with the use of a nasal dilator with a lamp on its end specially designed by us. Spread of a hypophyseal tumor to the nasal cavity was encountered when the tumor was very large and grew regularly in all directions or when it was marked by selective infrasellarg growth in the direction of the sphenoidal sinus. Cytologic examination of the punctate made it possible to determine the presence of the hypophyseal tumor and its character (benign, malignant) and differentiate it from other new growths and from c.s.p. cysts. PMID:654183

  13. [Orbitozygomatic approaches to skull base tumors spreading into the orbit, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, and pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae].

    PubMed

    Cherekaev, V A; Gol'bin, D A; Belov, A I; Radchenkov, N S; Vinokurov, A G; Bekyashev, A Kh; Spallone, A

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes application of orbitozygomatic approaches at the Department of Skull Base and Craniofacial Surgery of the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute for a 14-year period. During this time, 723 patients were operated on using the orbitozygomatic approach, which has become the workhorse of surgery for skull base tumors spreading into the orbit, paranasal sinuses, and pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae. The authors describe seven major modifications of the orbitozygomatic approach that they have used in their practice. PMID:26528608

  14. [Compression of a nasotracheal tube in the nasal cavity of a patient with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Tatsushige; Uehara, Keiji; Shiba, Mayuka; Koga, Yoshihisa

    2008-06-01

    A 42-year-old woman with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia underwent osteoplasty of maxillary and mandibular bone. Preoperative CT images showed osteosclerosis and ground glass appearance of the right side of the skull including the orbit, temporal bone, paranasal sinus, and maxillary and mandibular bones, as well as hypertrophy of the nasal septum. Inhalation anesthesia was induced and 8.0-mmID polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube was inserted via the left nostril with slight resistance. At emergence, a 10-Fr suction catheter could not be passed throgh the tube but an 8-Fr nasogastric tube could be passed. A part of the tube positioned in the nasal cavity was apparently compressed. Preoperative examination of the nasal cavity and nasal septum using CT or MRI may be desirable for nasotracheal intubation in the patients with craniofacial tumor, and the application of a spiral reinforced endotracheal tube may contribute to prevent such cases of airway obstruction in the nasal cavity. PMID:18546906

  15. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers What’s new in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer research ... Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research? ...

  16. Molecular Changes in the Nasal Cavity after N, N-dimethyl-p-toluidine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, June K; Merrick, B Alex; Brix, Amy; Morgan, Daniel L; Gerrish, Kevin; Wang, Yu; Flake, Gordon; Foley, Julie; Shockley, Keith R

    2016-08-01

    N, N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT; Cas No. 99-97-8), an accelerant for methyl methacrylate monomers in medical devices, is a nasal cavity carcinogen according to a 2-yr cancer study of male and female F344/N rats, with the nasal tumors arising from the transitional cell epithelium. In this study, we exposed male F344/N rats for 5 days to DMPT (0, 1, 6, 20, 60, or 120 mg/kg [oral gavage]) to explore the early changes in the nasal cavity after short-term exposure. Lesions occurred in the nasal cavity including hyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium (60 and 120 mg/kg). Nasal tissue was rapidly removed and preserved for subsequent laser capture microdissection and isolation of the transitional cell epithelium (0 and 120 mg/kg) for transcriptomic studies. DMPT transitional cell epithelium gene transcript patterns were characteristic of an antioxidative damage response (e.g., Akr7a3, Maff, and Mgst3), cell proliferation, and decrease in signals for apoptosis. The transcripts of amino acid transporters were upregulated (e.g., Slc7a11). The DMPT nasal transcript expression pattern was similar to that found in the rat nasal cavity after formaldehyde exposure, with over 1,000 transcripts in common. Molecular changes in the nasal cavity after DMPT exposure suggest that oxidative damage is a mechanism of the DMPT toxic and/or carcinogenic effects. PMID:27099258

  17. Nasal cavity epithelioid hemangioendothelioma invading the anterior skull base

    PubMed Central

    Ogita, Shogo; Endo, Toshiki; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Watanabe, Mika; Higashi, Kenjiro; Katori, Yukio; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular tumor that frequently occurs in soft tissues. Patients suffer from local recurrence and remote metastasis because of its malignant potential. Here, we present a rare case of EHE that originated from nasal cavity and invaded intracranially through the anterior skull base. Case Description: This is a 27-year-old woman who presented a local physician with intermittent epistaxis and a facial pain around her nose. Preoperative studies demonstrated that the tumor invaded into anterior skull base and the dura matter. Therefore, we performed combined skull base and transnasal surgery, which achieved complete resection of the tumor. Postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed in the patient for 2 years following the radical resection. Conclusions: To date, four cases of EHE in the nasal cavity were reported. This is the first case in which EHE demonstrated invasive potentials with intracranial extension. Radical surgical resection plays an important role for better management of invasive paranasal EHE. PMID:27213107

  18. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  19. Surgical Approaches to the Nasal Cavity and Sinuses.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Alyssa Marie; Degner, Daniel Alvin

    2016-07-01

    The nasal cavity and sinuses may be exposed primarily via a dorsal or ventral surgical approach. Surgical planning involves the use of advanced imaging, such as computed tomography or MRI. Surgical treatment of lesions of the nasal cavity usually is limited to benign lesions or can also be used in combination with adjunctive therapy, such as radiation therapy. Extreme caution must be exercised with a dorsal approach to the nasal cavity to avoid complications of inadvertent penetration into the brain case. Gentle tissue handling and careful closure of the mucoperiosteum must be exercised following a ventral approach to minimize the risk of oronasal fistula formation. PMID:27217006

  20. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  1. How Are Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses Cancer + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ... other structures such as the skin of the cheek, the front part of the eye socket, the ...

  2. Extramedullary plasmacytoma associated with an ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yong; Xu, Yu; Tao, Zezhang

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma and tooth eruption into the nasal cavity are both rare events. We report a case of plasmacytoma associated with an ectopic tooth. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman presented for evaluation of an 8-month history of a bloody nasal discharge from the posterior naris. Nasal endoscopy detected a slight eminence approximately 0.5 cm in diameter in the right nasal floor. Computed tomography demonstrated a tooth-like, high-attenuation shadow. A biopsy identified chronic inflammation of the mucosa and tissue. A diagnosis of an ectopic tooth in the right nasal cavity was initially considered. The mass and the tooth-like neoplasm were removed via nasal endoscopy. Immunohistochemistry of the excised mucosa showed strong positivity for kappa light chains, positivity for leukocyte common antigen and CD138, and negativity for lambda light chains, epithelial membrane antigen, CD1, and HMB-45. The final diagnosis was an extramedullary plasmacytoma in the right nasal cavity associated with an ectopic tooth. No bone metastasis was observed. Definitive radiotherapy was performed after the operation. During 40 months of follow-up, the patient exhibited no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis. The diagnosis in this case was made difficult by the nonspecific clinical manifestations, the presence of the ectopic tooth, and incorrect interpretation of preoperative histopathology. Physicians should maintain a clinical suspicion for the possibility that an ectopic tooth might be associated with a tumor. PMID:26535832

  3. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in angioleiomyoma of the nasal cavity of six patients

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, GUOCHEN; XIAO, DAJIANG; SUN, PING

    2016-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma of the nasal cavity is extremely rare. There are only a small number of studies in the literature that demonstrate that the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are expressed in angioleiomyoma, and the results from these studies are inconsistent. The present study identified 6 patients with nasal angioleiomyoma that were treated between 2004 and 2013. All patients underwent endoscopic surgery and were followed-up for 1–10 years. Resected tumors were investigated for the presence of ER and PR using immunoperoxidase staining. Of the 6 patients, 4 were men and 2 were woman. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years. The tumors of the 6 patients were identified in the nasal septum, middle turbinate, inferior turbinate, lateral wall of the nasal cavity and nasal vestibule. The clinical manifestations reported by the patients consisted of a painless mass, recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. There were no specific features observed in any of the patients using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. All the patients underwent tumor dissection visualized with a nasal endoscope and recovered without recurrence or malignancy of the tumor post-surgery. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunoperoxidase staining confirmed the diagnosis of angioleiomyoma in all patients. In 5 patients the nuclei of the smooth muscle tumor cells markedly expressed ER and PR. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that ER and PR are clearly expressed in nasal angioleiomyoma. The present study suggests that the sex hormones are possibly associated with the growth of angioleiomyoma. PMID:27073480

  4. The morphological interaction between the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses in living humans.

    PubMed

    Holton, Nathan; Yokley, Todd; Butaric, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    To understand how variation in nasal architecture accommodates the need for effective conditioning of respired air, it is necessary to assess the morphological interaction between the nasal cavity and other aspects of the nasofacial skeleton. Previous studies indicate that the maxillary sinuses may play a key role in accommodating climatically induced nasal variation such that a decrease in nasal cavity volume is associated with a concomitant increase in maxillary sinus volume. However, due to conflicting results in previous studies, the precise interaction of the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses, in humans, is unclear. This is likely due to the prior emphasis on nasal cavity size, whereas arguably, nasal cavity shape is more important with regard to the interaction with the maxillary sinuses. Using computed tomography scans of living human subjects (N=40), the goal of this study is to assess the interaction between nasal cavity form and maxillary sinus volume in European- and African-derived individuals with differences in nasal cavity morphology. First, we assessed whether there is an inverse relationship between nasal cavity and maxillary sinus volumes. Next, we examined the relationship between maxillary sinus volume and nasal cavity shape using multivariate regression. Our results show that there is a positive relationship between nasal cavity and maxillary sinus volume, indicating that the maxillary sinuses do not accommodate variation in nasal cavity size. However, maxillary sinus volume is significantly correlated with variation in relative internal nasal breadth. Thus, the maxillary sinuses appear to be important for accommodating nasal cavity shape rather than size. PMID:23382025

  5. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities. PMID:26370235

  6. Shape of the human nasal cavity promotes retronasal smell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.

  7. Morphogenesis of nasal tumors in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.P.; Trochimowicz, H.J.

    1984-02-01

    Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) is used as a solvent, polymerization catalyst and, to some extent, as a deicing additive for jet fuels. Nasal tumors have been induced in rats by inhalation exposure to the compound for 6 to 24 months at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb), but not in rats exposed at 10 ppb for 24 months. Most nasal tumors were epidermoid carcinomas and developed from the respiratory epithelium or subepithelial nasal gland, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. The glandular cells appear to play an important role in developing epidermoid carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant features of glandular differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The morphological expression of glandular cell metamorphosis in the epidermoid carcinoma included intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation, inter- or intracellular lumina, secretory vesicles, and mucus droplets in squamous cells and keratin plates.

  8. The effect of xylometazoline spray for expansion of nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun-Sung; Park, Sang-Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Kwon, Eunjung; Shim, Woo Sub

    2013-01-01

    Background During nasotracheal intubation it is important to have proper pretreatment for nasal mucosa constriction and nasal cavity expanding. Nasal packing of epinephrine gauze is widely used as well as xylometazoline. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic intranasal spray of xylometazoline against epinephrine gauze packing in expanding the nasal cavity. Methods Volunteers (n = 32) in their twenties without nasal disease such as septal deviation or rhinitis were enrolled in the study. The more patent nostril in each subject was measured by acoustic rhinometry as the base value. After intranasal spray of xylometazoline, the same nostril was remeasured by same method. Twenty four hours later, intranasal packing of epinephrine gauze was done and the same treatment was done. Subject preferences about the procedures were asked. Results There were significant difference among treatments (base value: 0.582 ± 0.164 cm2, xylometazoline spray: 0.793 ± 0.165 cm2, epinephrine gauze packing: 0.990 ± 0.290 cm2) in acoustic rhinometry. While the epinephrine gauze packing showed more efficient mucosa constriction, subjects preferred xylometazoline spray. Conclusions Even though xylometazoline spray was less effective than epinephrine gauze packing, the simplicity and convenience compensated. In patients undergoing nasotracheal intubation, xylometazoline spray can be an alternative to epinephrine gauze packing. PMID:24023995

  9. Proton Beam Therapy for Unresectable Malignancies of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Nishio, Teiji; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Seiji; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The cure rate for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is low. Because irradiation with proton beams, which are characterized by their rapid fall-off at the distal end of the Bragg peak and sharp lateral penumbra, depending on energy, depth, and delivery, provide better dose distribution than X-ray irradiation, proton beam therapy (PBT) might improve treatment outcomes for conditions located in proximity to risk organs. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 39 patients in our database fulfilling the following criteria: unresectable malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or skull base; N0M0 disease; and treatment with PBT (>60 GyE) from January 1999 to December 2006. Results: Median patient age was 57 years (range, 22-84 years); 22 of the patients were men and 17 were women. The most frequent primary site was the nasal cavity (n = 26, 67%). The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 84.6% and 77.0%, respectively. With a median active follow-up of 45.4 months, 3-year progression-free and overall survival were 49.1% and 59.3%, respectively. The most common acute toxicities were mild dermatitis (Grade 2, 33.3%), but no severe toxicity was observed (Grade 3 or greater, 0%). Five patients (12.8%) experienced Grade 3 to 5 late toxicities, and one treatment-related death was reported, caused by cerebrospinal fluid leakage Grade 5 (2.6%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses make it is a promising treatment option.

  10. [Arteriovenous anastomosis in nasal cavities using microcorrosion technique].

    PubMed

    Passàli, D; Buccella, M G; Vetuschi, A; Bellussi, L

    1990-01-01

    In the present study the morphology of arteriovenous anastomoses in the nasal area are analyzed using the microcorrosion technique. This technique calls for perfusion of the vascular system, passing through the left ventricle, with Batson's of the vessels. For the first time in the microcorrosion study of the nasal vascular network human fetuses (from the 12th to 24th week of intrauterine life) obtained from spontaneous abortions were used as well as rats weighing from 250 to 300 gr. The animals were anesthetized with sodium thiopental prior to administration of the resin. A specimen containing the facial muscles, the nasal pyramid, the maxillary bone and the palatine bones was excised. Then, from this specimen the nasal septum and the two lateral portions of the nose were obtained. The bony and soft perivascular tissues were removed by placing the casts in an aqueous 20% KOH solution. Finally the corrosion cases were observed under a scanning electron microscope (EM). Within the nasal cavities the microcorrosion technique makes it possible to identify three different vascular layers: superficial, intermediate and deep. In the latter it proved possible to visualize the two types of arteriovenous anastomoses: i.e. simple and complex. On the basis of both vascular course and the impressions left by the endothelial cell nuclei it proved possible to differentiate between the arterial and venous portions of the anastomoses. PMID:2095105

  11. Primary Intestinal-type Adenocarcinoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Belli, S; Taskin, U; Caglar, A; Tetikkurt, US

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report a rare case of sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in the nasal cavity. A 31-year old man presented with headache and epistaxis. We identified a malignant tumour, which is a rare pathology, with detailed physical examination, anterior rhinoscopy, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic examination. Endoscopic excision of the tumour was performed. After three years of follow-up of the patient in our clinic, there was no sign of any recurrence. PMID:25803391

  12. Nasal Cavity or Alveolar Paranasal Sinus Rhabdomyosarcoma with Orbital Extension in Adults: 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Castrillo, Ana I.; Mencía-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Díaz, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Peralto, José L.; Bengoa-González, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has a predilection for the deep soft tissues of the extremities and mainly occurs in children. Although the tumor may originate in other sites, such as the nasal cavity or paranasal sinus, invasion of the orbit is unusual. We describe the clinicopathological features of 2 cases of alveolar RMS of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinus in adult patients with orbital extension. These cases of alveolar RMS of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses are described in 2 men, both in the third decade of life. These patients were evaluated with radiological studies. The histological diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical methods. Treatment consisted in a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy following excisional biopsy. Alveolar subtype RMS is an extremely aggressive neoplasm that rarely presents in the orbit or paranasal sinuses of adults but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors with this localization. Myoglobin, Myo D1, and myogenin seem to be the most specific markers for RMS. PMID:26180715

  13. Primary myelolipoma presenting as a nasal cavity polyp: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Myelolipomas are rare, benign tumors comprising mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. The vast majority occur within the adrenal glands, but extra-adrenal myelolipomas have also been reported in the presacral region, retroperitoneum, mesentery, stomach, spleen, liver, mediastinum and lungs. Here, we present a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in an unusual site: the nasal cavity. To the best of our knowledge, we believe that this location for extra-adrenal myelolipoma has not been previously described in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in the nasal cavity of a 48-year-old Asian woman. We describe the etiology, pathology and differential diagnosis of extra-adrenal myelolipomas, and review the literature. Conclusions We chose to present this case because of its unusual location. Although myelolipomas are rare, we conclude that they it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in this site. PMID:22584001

  14. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.; Moore, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the airflow characteristics within the nasal cavity with nasal high flow (NHF) therapy and during unassisted breathing is essential to understand the treatment's efficacy. The distribution and velocity of the airflow in the nasal cavity with and without NHF cannula flow has been investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at steady peak expiration and inspiration. In vivo breathing flows were measured and dimensionally scaled to reproduce physiological conditions in vitro. A scaled model of the complete nasal cavity was constructed in transparent silicone and airflow simulated with an aqueous glycerine solution. NHF modifies nasal cavity flow patterns significantly, altering the proportion of inspiration and expiration through each passageway and producing jets with in vivo velocities up to 17.0 ms-1 for 30 l/min cannula flow. Velocity magnitudes differed appreciably between the left and right sides of the nasal cavity. The importance of using a three-component measurement technique when investigating nasal flows has been highlighted.

  15. An investigation on airflow in disordered nasal cavity and its corrected models by tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. K.; Chung, S. K.

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in nasal cavities is essential to understand the physiology and pathology aspects of nasal breathing. Several studies have utilized physical models of the healthy nasal cavity to investigate the relationship between nasal anatomy and airflow. Since the final goal of these works is their contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of nasal diseases, therefore, the next step in this topic must be followed by the studies for disordered nasal cavities. In this paper, airflows in normal and abnormal nasal cavities and surgically created models, which simulate surgical treatment, are investigated experimentally by PIV. High-resolution computerized tomogram data and careful manipulation of the model surface by the ear, nose and throat doctor provide more sophisticated nasal cavity models. The correlation based correction PIV algorithm with window offset is used for PIV flow analysis. Average and RMS distributions in sagittal and coronal sections are obtained for inspiratory and expiratory nasal airflows. Comparisons in nasal airflows for both normal and abnormal cases are also examined. Airflow characteristics that are related to the abnormalities in the nasal cavity are proposed. In the case of simulations of surgical operations, velocity and RMS distributions in coronal section change locally, this may cause some difficulties in physiologic functions of noses and may hurt mucosal surface.

  16. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  17. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  18. Numerical modeling of odorant uptake in the rat nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Geoffrey C; Scherer, Peter W; Zhao, Kai; Mozell, Maxwell M

    2007-03-01

    An anatomically accurate 3-dimensional numerical model of the right rat nasal cavity was developed and used to compute low, medium, and high flow rate inspiratory and expiratory mucosal odorant uptake (imposed patterning) for 3 odorants with different mucus solubilities. The computed surface mass flux distributions were compared with anatomic receptor gene expression zones identified in the literature. In general, simulations predicted that odorants that were highly soluble in mucus were absorbed dorsally and medially, corresponding roughly to receptors from one of the gene expression zones. Insoluble odorants tended to be absorbed more peripherally in the rat olfactory region corresponding to the other 2 zones. These findings also agreed in general with the electroolfactogram measurements and the voltage-sensitive dye measurements reported in the literature. This numerical approach is the first to predict detailed odorant flux information across the olfactory mucosa in the rat nasal cavity during inspiratory and expiratory flow and to relate it to anatomic olfactory receptor location, physiological function, and biochemical experiment. This numerical technique can allow us to separate the contributions of imposed and inherent patterning mechanisms on the rat olfactory mucosa. PMID:17220517

  19. A Comparative Study of Airflow and Odorant Deposition in the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Joseph; Rumple, Christopher; Ranslow, Allison; Quigley, Andrew; Pang, Benison; Neuberger, Thomas; Krane, Michael; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The complex structure of the mammalian nasal cavity provides a tortuous airflow path and a large surface area for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. Due to the small and contorted structure of the nasal turbinals, nasal anatomy and function remains poorly understood in most mammals. Here, we utilize high-resolution MRI scans to reconstruct anatomically-accurate models of the mammalian nasal cavity. These data are used to compare the form and function of the mammalian nose. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition are presented and used to compare olfactory function across species (primate, rodent, canine, feline, ungulate).

  20. [Cylindrical epithelioma of nasal cavities and accessory sinuses. Anatomoclinical study of 26 cases].

    PubMed

    Walter, P; Stebler, S; Schaffer, P; Vetter, J M; Guerbaoui, M

    1976-01-01

    Report of a series of 26 cases of cylindrical epithelioma of the nasal cavities and accessory nasal sinuses. These neoplasms constitute a remarkably homogenous group the main characteristics of which are following: -- uniform histological pattern, similar to that of the epitheliomas of the colon, -- ethmoidal location in almost all cases, -- preferential occurrence in wood-workers, for instance in the Bas-Rhin. The prognosis depends on the extension of the epithelioma verified in 16 patients during the intervention. Recurrences caused death in 13 patients of this series. Ganglionic or distant metastases are rare. Six patients, i.e. 24 p. 100 had a favourable evolution of at least 3 years. Discussion about the therapeutics of the primary tumor and of its recurrences. PMID:1023787

  1. Pure sarcomatoid carcinoma of maxillary sinus and nasal cavity simulating malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although a few cases of sinonasal carcinoma with focal sarcomatous differentiation have been reported, pure sarcomatoid carcinoma has not been reported in the English literature. Imaging studies and gross inspection in a 60-year-old man with left-sided face pain revealed a mass in the left maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. A large incisional biopsy specimen from the nasal cavity revealed proliferation of malignant spindle and round cells with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) pattern. Tumor giant cells were scattered, and there were areas of a vague storiform pattern. Mitotic figures were numerous. Carcinomatous component was not recognized. The histologic diagnosis was storiform-pleomorphic MFH. Tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins AE1/3, KL-1, and CAM5.2 and cytokeratin (CK) 18, vimentin, CD68, p53, Ki-67 (labeling, 90%), α₁-antitrypsin, and α₁-antichymotrypsin and negative for pancytokeratin WSS, CK 34βE14, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK19, CK20, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin, CD34, HMB45, chromogranin, synaptophysin, myoglobin, CD45, CD30, and CD15. Because keratins were positive in tumor cells, a diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma simulating MFH was made. The patient was treated with chemoradiation without significant effect and died 9 months after initial examination. PMID:21173134

  2. Pediatric aggressive giant cell granuloma of nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sung Tae; Kwon, Ki Ryun; Rha, Ki-Sang; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a non-neoplastic osseous proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. Although a benign disease process, GCG can be locally destructive. It is extremely rare to have a pediatric case of GCG occurring in the nasal cavity with intracranial invasion. Presentation of case We report a case of an aggressive and recurrent giant cell granuloma with intracranial invasion in a 10 years old female patient which was completely excised with endoscopic craniofacial resection. Discussion A literature review on pathogenesis, diagnosis and management is also performed. Conclusion The most common treatment for giant cell granuloma is surgery, ranging from simple curettage to resection. However, it must be completely excised in cases of aggressive and extensive lesion because of the high recurrence rate after incomplete removal. PMID:26433924

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E.; Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Bucci, M. Kara; El-Sayed, Ivan; Xia Ping; Kaplan, Michael J.; Eisele, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 36 patients with malignancies of the sinonasal region were treated with IMRT. Thirty-two patients (89%) were treated in the postoperative setting after gross total resection. Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 70 Gy to 95% or more of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 60 Gy to 95% or more of the clinical tumor volume (CTV) while sparing neighboring critical structures including the optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes, and brainstem. The primary sites were: 13 ethmoid sinus, 10 maxillary sinus, 7 nasal cavity, and 6 other. Histology was: 12 squamous cell, 7 esthesioneuroblastoma, 5 adenoid cystic, 5 undifferentiated, 5 adenocarcinoma, and 2 other. Median follow-up was 51 months among surviving patients (range, 9-82 months). Results: The 2-year and 5-year estimates of local control were 62% and 58%, respectively. One patient developed isolated distant metastasis, and none developed isolated regional failure. The 5-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 55% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of ocular toxicity was minimal with no patients reporting decreased vision. Late complications included xerophthalmia (1 patient), lacrimal stenosis (1 patient), and cataract (1 patient). Conclusion: Although IMRT for malignancies of the sinonasal region does not appear to lead to significant improvements in disease control, the low incidence of complications is encouraging.

  4. Absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the rat nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A A; Iseki, K; Kagoshima, M; Dittert, L W

    1992-04-01

    The fate of salicylate in the plasma of rats was followed after nasal, intravenous, and oral administration of 2.0-mg doses of aspirin. Aspirin was well absorbed following nasal administration of a neutralized, nonirritating solution containing triethanolamine. The rate of absorption was slower than that of other nasally administered drugs, such as propranolol or progesterone. The bioavailability of aspirin following nasal administration was 100%, whereas the oral bioavailability was only 58.8% at the dose studied. PMID:1501071

  5. EVALUATION OF THE CHANGES IN THE NASAL CAVITY DURING THE MIGRAINE ATTACK

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, H. Hüseyin; Tokgöz, Erkan; Yıldızoğlu, Üzeyir; Durmaz, Abdullah; Bek, Semai; Gerek, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There are some subjective symptoms involving the nasal cavity such as nasal congestion during a migraine attack. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the possible changes occuring in the nasal cavity, during headache in migraine patients. Material and Methods Subjects with migraine were studied. The control group was consisted with tension-type headache patients. The severity of the headache and accompanying complaints were assessed by visual analog scale, and nasal mucosa was assessed by anterior rhinoscopy and endoscopy. Resistance of the nasal cavity was evaluated with anterior rhinomanometry. The data obtained during the attack periods and attack free periods were compared. Results 25 migraine patients and 15 tension-type headache patients were enrolled. It was found that 19 subjects (%76) of migraine group and 5 of tension-type headache group were suffering from nasal congestion during the attack, and that the differences between the groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). The average of total nasal resistance in migraine patients was 0,57±0,60 kPa/L/sn during migraine attacks and 0,28±0,14 kPa/L/sn during attack free periods. The average of total nasal resistance in tension-type headache patients was 0,32±0,14 kPa/L/sn during attack periods and 0,31±0,20 kPa/L/sn during attack free periods. In the migraine group, the change of nasal resistance between during the attack and attack free periods was found statistically significant, while there was no statistically significant difference in the tension-type headache group. Conclusion According to the results of this study, complaining of nasal obstruction and nasal airway resistance increases during migraine attacks. Cause and effect relationship between nasal obstruction and pain is not clear and clinical trials are needed to determine the effect of nasal obstruction treatment (mucosal decongestion etc.) on the complaint of pain. PMID:25072974

  6. What Are the Key Statistics about Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and paranasal sinus cancers? What are the key statistics about nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers? Cancers ... rare in the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Survival statistics for these cancers are discussed in the section “ ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment For Nasal Cavity or Paranasal Sinus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Comes Back: Cancer Recurrence . Help for trouble swallowing and nutrition problems Cancers of the nasal cavity ... treatments can sometimes cause problems such as trouble swallowing, dry mouth, or even loss of teeth. This ...

  8. Unsteady flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy measured by stereoscopic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) cannulae are used to deliver heated and humidified air to patients at steady flows ranging from 5 to 50 l/min. In this study, the flow velocities in the nasal cavity across the complete respiratory cycle during natural breathing and with NHF has been mapped in vitro using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). An anatomically accurate silicone resin model of a complete human nasal cavity was constructed using CT scan data and rapid prototyping. Physiological breathing waveforms were reproduced in vitro using Reynolds and Womersley number matching and a piston pump driven by a ball screw and stepper motor. The flow pattern in the nasal cavity with NHF was found to differ significantly from natural breathing. Velocities of 2.4 and 3.3 ms-1 occurred in the nasal valve during natural breathing at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively; however, on expiration, the maximum velocity of 3.8 ms-1 occurred in the nasopharynx. At a cannula flow rate of 30 l/min, maximal velocities of 13.6 and 16.5 ms-1 at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively, were both located in the cannula jet within the nasal valve. Results are presented that suggest the quasi-steady flow assumption is invalid in the nasal cavity during natural breathing; however, it was valid with NHF. Cannula flow has been found to continuously flush the nasopharyngeal dead space, which may enhance carbon dioxide removal and increase oxygen fraction.

  9. Variation in the nasal cavity of baboon hybrids with implications for late Pleistocene hominins.

    PubMed

    Eichel, Kaleigh Anne; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

    2016-05-01

    Hybridization is increasingly proving to be an important force shaping human evolution. Comparisons of both ancient and modern genomes have provided support for a complex evolutionary scenario over the past million years, with evidence for multiple incidents of gene exchange. However, to date, genetic evidence is still limited in its ability to pinpoint the precise time and place of ancient admixture. For that we must rely on evidence of admixture from the skeleton. The research presented here builds on previous work on the crania of baboon hybrids, focusing on the nasal cavity of olive baboons, yellow baboons, and first generation (F1) hybrids. The nasal cavity is a particularly important anatomical region for study, given the clear differentiation of this feature in Neanderthals relative to their contemporaries, and therefore it is a feature that will likely differ in a distinctive manner in hybrids of these taxa. Metric data consist of 45 linear, area, and volume measurements taken from CT scans of known-pedigree baboon crania. Results indicate that there is clear evidence for differences among the nasal cavities of the parental taxa and their F1 hybrids, including a greater degree of sexual dimorphism in the hybrids. There is also some evidence for transgressive phenotypes in individual F1 animals. The greatest amount of shape variation occurs in the anterior bony cavity, the choana, and the mid-nasopharynx. Extrapolating our results to the fossil record, we would expect F1 hybrid fossils to have larger nasal cavities, on average, than either parental taxon, with overall nasal cavity shape showing the most profound changes in regions that are distinct between the parental taxa (e.g., anterior nasal cavity). We also expect size and shape differences to be more pronounced in male F1 hybrids than in females. Because of pronounced anterior nasal cavity differences between Neanderthals and their contemporaries, we suggest that this model might be effective for

  10. A new nasal cavity nursing methods application in patients with mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liuqing; Qin, Gang; Yang, Xining; Hu, Meichun; Jiang, Fufu; Lai, Tianwei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare different nasal cavity nursing methods on mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: According to acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHEII), 615 cases of mechanically ventilated patients were divided into group A, group B and group C by stratified random method. Traditional oral nursing plus aspirating secretions from oral cavity and nasal cavity q6h were done in group A. Based on methods in group A, normal saline was used for cleaning nasal cavity in group B. Besides the methods in group A, atomizing nasal cleansing a6h was also used in group C. Incidence rate of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) and APACHE II scores after administrating were compared. The correlation between APACHE II score and outcomes was analyzed by Spearman-rank correlation. Results: In group A, incidence of VAP was 36.76%, group B was 30.24%, group C was 20.38%, and the difference was statistically significant. APACHE II scores in group C were significantly lower compared with group A and B. APACHE II score was negatively correlated with clinical outcomes. Conclusions: For mechanically ventilated patients, nasal nursing can’t be ignored and the new atomizing nasal cleaning is an effective method for VAP prevention. PMID:24353671

  11. Air-conditioning in the human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Wolf, Michael; Keck, Tilman

    2008-11-30

    Healthy humans normally breathe through their nose even though its complex geometry imposes a significantly higher resistance in comparison with mouth breathing. The major functional roles of nasal breathing are defense against infiltrating particles and conditioning of the inspired air to nearly alveolar conditions in order to maintain the internal milieu of the lung. The state-of-the-art of the existing knowledge on nasal air-conditioning will be discussed in this review, including in vivo measurements in humans and computational studies on nasal air-conditioning capacity. Areas where further studies will improve our understanding and may help medical diagnosis and intervention in pathological states will be introduced. PMID:18565805

  12. Lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity: observation of three specific cases.

    PubMed

    Kapella, M; Panosetti, E; Rombaux, P; Delos, M; Weynand, B

    2001-01-01

    Lobular Capillary Haemangioma of the nasal cavity: Observation of three specific cases. Lobular Capillary Haemangioma, unproperly called "Pyogenic granuloma", is a benign vascular tumour pedunculated on the skin and on mucous membranes of the oral and nasal cavities. Microtrauma and pregnancy are the most often evocated aetiologic factors. Epistaxis and nasal obstruction are the most marked symptoms of this irregular and friable mass. We report three cases (two adult and one paediatric) of this pathology. Two have as trigger factor a nasal microtrauma, the third an oestro-progestative impregnation. A clinical, radiological and histological description allows us to expose the characteristics of this lesion that remains obscure to many rhinologists. Lobular Capillary Haemangioma has to be evocated in the differential diagnosis of each haemorrhagic endonasal mass. PMID:11685962

  13. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  14. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  15. [Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the nasal cavity manifested as massive epistaxis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung Jae; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Sang Won; Jung, Yoo Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun; Park, Joong-Won; Hong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Chang-Min

    2004-09-01

    Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not infrequently found during the later stage, regarding that the autopsy report described its prevalence to be up to 50%. The most frequent sites are known to be the abdominal lymph nodes, lung and bone. However, metastasis to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses has been seldom reported, and to out knowledge, there is no Korean report describing extrahepatic metastasis of HCC to these sites. Recently we experienced a case of extrahepatic metastasis of HCC to the nasal cavity in a 50 year-old man with massive epistaxis refractory to conservative treatment. He was found to have a mass of soft tissue attenuation occupying the right nasal cavity at CT, which was biopsy-proven as metastatic HCC. Epistaxis was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. PMID:15385718

  16. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

  17. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in an Anatomically-Accurate Scaled Model of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumple, Christopher; Krane, Michael; Richter, Joseph; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian nose is a multi-purpose organ that houses a convoluted airway labyrinth responsible for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of environmental contaminants, and chemical sensing. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of respiratory airflow and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture an anatomically-accurate transparent model for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Challenges in the design and manufacture of an index-matched anatomical model are addressed. PIV measurements are presented, which are used to validate concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian nasal airflow. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  18. Giant Primary Schwannoma of the Left Nasal Cavity and Ethmoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Justin; Oh, Lawrence; Cox, Daniel; Forer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A unilateral tumour in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses is commonly caused by polyps, cysts, and mucoceles, as well as invasive tumours such as papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Schwannomas, in contrast, are rare lesions in this area (Minhas et al., 2013). We present a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 4-year progressive history of mucous hypersecretion, nasal obstruction, pain, and fullness. Imaging of the paranasal sinuses showed complete opacification of the entire left nasal cavity and sinuses by a tumour causing subsequent obstruction of the frontal and maxillary sinuses. The tumour was completely excised endoscopically. Histopathology was consistent with that of a schwannoma. PMID:27379190

  19. Tomographic PIV measurements of flow patterns in a nasal cavity with geometry acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Heo, Go Eun; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The flow patterns inside a scaled transparent model of a nasal cavity were measured by tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) with three-dimensional (3D) geometry acquisition. The model was constructed using transparent silicone. The refractive index of the working fluid was matched to the index of silicone by mixing water and glycerol. Four cameras and a double-pulse laser system were used for tomographic PIV. Red fluorescent particles and long-pass filters were used to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. The complex geometry of the 3D nasal model was acquired by accumulating triangulated 3D particle positions, obtained through a least square-based triangulation method. Certain morphological operations, such as the opening and closing of the nasal cavity, were used to improve the quality of acquired nasal geometry data. The geometry information was used to distinguish the fluid from the solid regions during the tomographic reconstruction procedure. The quality of the model geometry acquisition and tomographic reconstruction algorithms was evaluated using a synthetic image test. Synthetic images were generated by fitting a computational model (stereolithography file) to the virtual 3D coordinates and by randomly seeding particles inside the nasal region. A perspective transformation matrix of each camera was used to generate the synthetic images based on the experimental configuration of the camera. The synthetic image test showed that the voxel reconstruction quality could be improved by applying acquired model geometry in the tomographic reconstruction step. The nasal geometry was acquired and a flow velocity field was determined by cross-correlating the reconstructed 3D voxel intensities.

  20. From the Cover: Comparative Numerical Modeling of Inhaled Nanoparticle Deposition in Human and Rat Nasal Cavities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Wang, Dongliang; Chen, Chunying

    2016-08-01

    To gain a better understanding of nanoparticle exposure in human nasal cavities, laboratory animals (e.g. rat) are used for in vivo studies. However, due to anatomical differences between human and rodent nasal cavities, direct particle deposition comparisons between species are difficult. This paper presents a comparative nanoparticle (1 nm, 10 nm, and 100 nm) deposition study using anatomically realistic models of a human and rat nasal cavity. The particle deposition fraction was highest consistently in the main nasal passage, for all nanoparticles tested, in the human model; whereas this was only the case for 10 nm, and 100 nm particles for the rodent model, where greater deposition was found in the anterior nose for 1 nm particles. A deposition intensity (DI) term was introduced to represent the accumulated deposition fraction on cross-sectional slices. A common and preferential deposition site in the human model was found for all nanoparticles occurring at a distance of 3.5 cm inside the nasal passage. For the rodent model maximum DI occurred in the vestibule region at a distance of 0.3 cm, indicating that the rodent vestibule produces exceptionally high particle filtration capability. We also introduced a deposition flux which was a ratio of the regional deposition fraction relative to the region's surface area fraction. This value allowed direct comparison of deposition flux between species, and a regional extrapolation scaling factor was found (e.g. 1/10 scale for vestibule region for rat to human comparison). This study bridges the in vitro exposure experiments and in vivo nanomaterials toxicity studies, and can contribute towards improving inter-species exposure extrapolation studies in the future. PMID:27208081

  1. Extraction of an incisor embedded within the nasal cavity in two guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; ONO, Kaori; OMIYA, Tomoko; OGUCHI, Yukio; SETOGAWA, Moemi; MACHIDA, Yuuki

    2015-01-01

    Oral examination of two guinea pigs revealed that the unilateral incisor was absent. On radiographic examination, the incisor was identified within the nasal cavity in both patients. Under anesthesia in both patients, the skin was incised from the nostril to 1.5 cm proximal, and the premaxilla and part of the maxilla were exposed. The bone was removed using a surgical drill, and the incisor was exposed in the nasal cavity. The root was grasped with forceps and carefully extracted as it was degraded and very fragile. Diagnosis was easy using oral and radiographic examination. In guinea pig patients where an incisor is absent on oral examination, this condition should be considered. PMID:26118492

  2. Implantation of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Kiryukhina, Nataliya

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-documented risk factor of infection and inflammation of the skin, soft tissues and bacteremia. It is also known that most often etiology of these disorders is associated with autoinfection. The present-day methods of opportunistic pathogens eradication from the nasal cavity are based principally on the use of antiseptic and antibacterial agents. For instance, a local antibiotic mupirocin in the form of nasal ointment is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment of S. aureus carriage. The literature describes investigations showing how mupirocin can strengthen antibiotic resistance in S. aureus strains, including those with methicillin resistance (MRSA). It is also common knowledge that recolonization of the nasal mucous membrane takes place within several months after mupirocin treatment. This circumstance dictates the necessity to look for alternative ways of preventing the S. aureus carriage and methods of elimination. One of the methods of nasal S. aureus elimination is implantation of nonpathogenic microorganisms which will extrude opportunistic pathogens without impinging the symbiotic microbiota. Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a several chamber experiments with simulation of some spaceflight factors (dry immersion, isolation). Various schemes of application of preparations were applied. In all cases of corynebacteria application the strong inhibiting effect against S. aureus was detected. This fact opens a prospect of using nonpathogenic corynebacteria as a nasal probiotic. Administration of the nasal corynebacteria spray possibly prevented cross-infection by MRSA and appearance of staphylococcal infection. Further pre-clinical and clinical study of this bacterial therapy method is under development.

  3. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory) or the Vth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents) or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish). In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory) epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17683564

  4. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. PMID:26940715

  5. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  7. Rhinometric evaluation of nasal cavity geometry and its relation to the upper arch transverse distance.

    PubMed

    Paiva, João Batista; Alves, Adriana Silva; Ribeiro, Annelise Nazareth Cunha; Rino Neto, José; Fantini, Solange Mongeli de

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate children's respiratory patterns in the mixed dentition, by means of acoustic rhinometry, and its relation to the upper arch width development. Fifty patients were examined, 25 females and 25 males with mean age of eight years and seven months. All of them were submitted to acoustic rhinometry and upper and lower arch impressions to obtain plaster models. The upper arch analysis was accomplished by measuring the interdental transverse distance of the upper teeth, deciduous canines (measurement 1), deciduous first molars (measurement 2), deciduous second molars (measurement 3) and the first molars (measurement 4). The results showed that an increased left nasal cavity area in females means an increased interdental distance of the deciduous first molars and deciduous second molars and an increased interdental distance of the deciduous canines, deciduous first and second molars in males. It was concluded that there is a correlation between the nasal cavity area and the upper arch transverse distance in the anterior and mid maxillary regions for both genders. PMID:20027450

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Appearances of Primary Amelanotic Malign Melanoma in the Nasal Cavity: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Gunbey, Emre; Sayit, Asli Tanrivermis; Aslan, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    Malign melanoma of the nasal cavity that arises at such an unusual location is an exceptional case only occasionally mentioned in the literature. An amelanotic form, which is an uncommon type for this malignancy, also has an unusual radiological appearence from the classic melanotic form. We report here the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 46-year-old man who had a nasal cavity mass diagnosed as an amelanotic malign melanoma and discuss the importance of differential diagnosis with such an unusual radiological manifestation in this location. PMID:25859499

  9. The nasal cavity of the sheep and its olfactory sensory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Arthur William; Sanchez Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

    2014-12-01

    Macro and microdissection methods, conventional histology and immunohistochemical procedures were used to investigate the nasal cavity and turbinate complex in fetal and adult sheep, with special attention to the ethmoturbinates, the vestibular mucosa, and the septal mucosa posterior to the vomeronasal organ. The ectoturbinates, which are variable in number and size, emerge and develop later than the endoturbinates. The olfactory sensory epithelium is composed of basal cells, neurons, and sustentacular cells organized in strata, but numerous different types are distinguishable on the basis of their thickness and other properties; all variants are present on the more developed turbinates, endoturbinates II and III. Mature neurons and olfactory nerve bundles express olfactory marker protein. We found no structure with the characteristics that in mouse define the septal organ or the ganglion of Grüneberg. Our results thus suggest that in sheep olfactory sensory neurons are exclusively concentrated in the main olfactory epithelium and (to a lesser extent) in the vomeronasal organ. PMID:25213000

  10. How much does nasal cavity morphology matter? Patterns and rates of olfactory airflow in phyllostomid bats.

    PubMed

    Eiting, Thomas P; Perot, J Blair; Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of the nasal cavity in mammals with a good sense of smell includes features that are thought to improve olfactory airflow, such as a dorsal conduit that delivers odours quickly to the olfactory mucosa, an enlarged olfactory recess at the back of the airway, and a clear separation of the olfactory and respiratory regions of the nose. The link between these features and having a good sense of smell has been established by functional examinations of a handful of distantly related mammalian species. In this paper, we provide the first detailed examination of olfactory airflow in a group of closely related species that nevertheless vary in their sense of smell. We study six species of phyllostomid bats that have different airway morphologies and foraging ecologies, which have been linked to differences in olfactory ability or reliance. We hypothesize that differences in morphology correlate with differences in the patterns and rates of airflow, which in turn are consistent with dietary differences. To compare species, we make qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the patterns and rates of airflow through the olfactory region during both inhalation and exhalation across the six species. Contrary to our expectations, we find no clear differences among species in either the patterns of airflow through the airway or in rates of flow through the olfactory region. By and large, olfactory airflow seems to be conserved across species, suggesting that morphological differences appear to be driven by other mechanical demands on the snout, such as breathing and feeding. Olfactory ability may depend on other aspects of the system, such as the neurobiological processing of odours that work within the existing morphology imposed by other functional demands on the nasal cavity. PMID:25520358

  11. How much does nasal cavity morphology matter? Patterns and rates of olfactory airflow in phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Eiting, Thomas P.; Perot, J. Blair; Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the nasal cavity in mammals with a good sense of smell includes features that are thought to improve olfactory airflow, such as a dorsal conduit that delivers odours quickly to the olfactory mucosa, an enlarged olfactory recess at the back of the airway, and a clear separation of the olfactory and respiratory regions of the nose. The link between these features and having a good sense of smell has been established by functional examinations of a handful of distantly related mammalian species. In this paper, we provide the first detailed examination of olfactory airflow in a group of closely related species that nevertheless vary in their sense of smell. We study six species of phyllostomid bats that have different airway morphologies and foraging ecologies, which have been linked to differences in olfactory ability or reliance. We hypothesize that differences in morphology correlate with differences in the patterns and rates of airflow, which in turn are consistent with dietary differences. To compare species, we make qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the patterns and rates of airflow through the olfactory region during both inhalation and exhalation across the six species. Contrary to our expectations, we find no clear differences among species in either the patterns of airflow through the airway or in rates of flow through the olfactory region. By and large, olfactory airflow seems to be conserved across species, suggesting that morphological differences appear to be driven by other mechanical demands on the snout, such as breathing and feeding. Olfactory ability may depend on other aspects of the system, such as the neurobiological processing of odours that work within the existing morphology imposed by other functional demands on the nasal cavity. PMID:25520358

  12. Pindborg Tumor Presenting as a Nasal Polyp: Immunohistology and Ultrastructural Features of a Rare Case, With Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Kaur, Gurwinder; Nada, Ritambhra; Mohindra, Satyawati

    2016-09-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare benign odontogenic tumor. This tumor predominantly involves the mandible, though the maxilla can also be involved in some cases. The involvement of maxillary sinuses, however, has been previously reported in only 8 case reports English literature. These patients chiefly presented with nasal obstruction along with epistaxis or proptosis in rare cases. However, a primary presentation as nasal polyp is unheard of. We present a rare case of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor presenting as a nasal polyp, posing a diagnostic difficulty. PMID:27098590

  13. Nasal epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma: An unusual cause of epiphora, a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Flam, Juliette O.; Sobel, Rachel; Lee, John C.; Platt, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the nasal cavity is a rare tumor, and here we describe the first case of EMC of the nasal cavity presenting with epiphora. A case presentation and review of the literature is provided. Methods: A case report is described of a 63-year-old man who presented with unilateral epiphora and was found via a thorough history and physical examination to have a nasal tumor. The physical examination consisted of an ocular examination, including probing and irrigation, and a detailed nasal examination (anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy). The nasal examination was prompted by the patient's report of concurrent nasal symptoms during history taking. Immunohistochemistry subsequently identified the nasal tumor as EMC. A literature search was performed to gain insights into similar malignancies of the nasal cavity. Results: Eight cases of EMC of the nasal cavity were identified in the literature, none of the patients presented with epiphora. The case presented here resulted in resolution of the patient's symptoms and no evidence of disease after surgical excision. Conclusion: Epithelial myoepithelial is a rare salivary gland malignancy that can arise in the nasal cavity. Unilateral epiphora with concurrent nasal symptoms should prompt nasal cavity examination for the possibility of an obstructive tumor. PMID:26302736

  14. Development of brachytherapy technique for nasal tumors in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.; Walker, M.; Legendre, A.M.; Hoopes, J.; Smith, J.; Horton, S.B. )

    1990-08-01

    Two groups of 4 dogs underwent nasal and ethmoidal turbinectomies followed by irradiation (mean minimal) doses of 5,390 and 6,550 cGy of radiation, respectively from implanted intracavitary sources of iridium 192. Two dogs from each group were euthanatized for histologic evaluation at 3 months after irradiation. The remaining 2 dogs from each group were euthanatized for similar evaluation at 6 months after irradiation. During the course of the study, few clinical complications were encountered. Histologic evaluation of the tissues forming the nasal passages revealed loss of epithelial lining and fibrous tissue replacement of surrounding bone. A direct correlation of pathologic changes could not be associated with the amount of radiation received, but there seemed to be a tendency for greater change in those dogs given higher doses and those kept alive for 6 months.

  15. Treatment of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with modern radiotherapy techniques in the postoperative setting-the MSKCC experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Stegman, Lauren D.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Patel, Snehal G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Lee, Nancy Y. . E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with paranasal sinus (PNS) cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between January 1987 and July 2005, 85 patients with PNS and nasal cavity cancer underwent postoperative RT. Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (49%; n = 42), T4 tumors (52%; n = 36), and the maxillary sinus (53%; n = 45) as the primary disease site. The median radiation dose was 63 Gy. Of the 85 patients, 76 underwent CT simulation and 53 were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT (27%; n = 23) or intensity-modulated RT (35%; n = 30). Acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results: With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 60 months, the 5-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates were 62%, 87%, 82%, 55%, and 67%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, squamous cell histology and cribriform plate involvement predicted for an increased likelihood of local recurrence, and squamous cell histologic features predicted for worse overall survival. None of the patients who underwent CT simulation and were treated with modern techniques developed a Grade 3-4 late complication of the eye. Conclusion: Complete surgical resection followed by adjuvant RT is an effective and safe approach in the treatment of PNS cancer. Emerging tools, such as three-dimensional conformal treatment and, in particular, intensity-modulated RT for PNS tumors, may minimize the occurrence of late complications associated with conventional RT techniques. Local recurrence remains a significant problem.

  16. Malignant melanoma of the nasal septum, a rare tumor, occurring in a 54-year-old patient after hereditary retinoblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Djiguimdé, Windinmanégdé Pierre; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Bonnin, Nicolas; Saroul, Nicolas; Touré, Abdoulaye; Sanou, Jérôme; Sankara, Paté; Russier, Marc; Gilain, Laurent; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Meda, Nonfounikoun; Bacin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of a malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity that is a rare tumor and very aggressive, constituting 1% of all melanomas. It appeared in a patient 54 years after he was treated for a hereditary retinoblastoma. Its symptoms are nonspecific, and often marked by epistaxis. Its diagnosis is histological, supported by immunohistochemistry. Its prognosis is often unfavorable, and characterized by the occurrence of metastases and recurrences. Because of the risk of secondary cancer that exists in any survivor of hereditary retinoblastoma, we must think of possible mucosal melanoma of the nasal sinus in these patients in cases of chronic epistaxis. The prognosis of this tumor depends on its early diagnosis and surgical treatment. PMID:26929670

  17. Malignant melanoma of the nasal septum, a rare tumor, occurring in a 54-year-old patient after hereditary retinoblastoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Windinmanégdé Pierre; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Bonnin, Nicolas; Saroul, Nicolas; Touré, Abdoulaye; Sanou, Jérôme; Sankara, Paté; Russier, Marc; Gilain, Laurent; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Meda, Nonfounikoun; Bacin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of a malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity that is a rare tumor and very aggressive, constituting 1% of all melanomas. It appeared in a patient 54 years after he was treated for a hereditary retinoblastoma. Its symptoms are nonspecific, and often marked by epistaxis. Its diagnosis is histological, supported by immunohistochemistry. Its prognosis is often unfavorable, and characterized by the occurrence of metastases and recurrences. Because of the risk of secondary cancer that exists in any survivor of hereditary retinoblastoma, we must think of possible mucosal melanoma of the nasal sinus in these patients in cases of chronic epistaxis. The prognosis of this tumor depends on its early diagnosis and surgical treatment. PMID:26929670

  18. A dosimetric comparative study: Volumetric modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kham; Cummings, David; Lanza, Vincent C.; Morris, Kathleen; Wang, Congjun; Sutton, Jordan; Garcia, John

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas. The treatment of 10 patients, who had completed IMRT treatment for resected tumors of the nasal cavity, was replanned with the Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Version 9 treatment-planning system. The IMRT plans used a 9-beam technique whereas the VMAT (known as SmartArc) plans used a 3-arc technique. Both types of plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. IMRT and VMAT plans' quality was compared by evaluating the maximum, minimum, and mean doses to the target volumes and organs at risk, monitor units (MUs), and the treatment delivery time. Our results indicate that VMAT is capable of greatly reducing treatment delivery time and MUs compared with IMRT. The reduction of treatment delivery time and MUs can decrease the effects of intrafractional uncertainties that can occur because of patient movement during treatment delivery. VMAT's plans further reduce doses to critical structures that are in close proximity to the target volume.

  19. Computed tomography or rhinoscopy as the first-line procedure for suspected nasal tumor: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Finck, Marlène; Ponce, Frédérique; Guilbaud, Laurent; Chervier, Cindy; Floch, Franck; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Thomas; Hugonnard, Marine

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines as to whether computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy should be selected as the first-line procedure when a nasal tumor is suspected in a dog or a cat and only one examination can be performed. Computed tomography and rhinoscopic features of 17 dogs and 5 cats with a histopathologically or cytologically confirmed nasal tumor were retrospectively reviewed. The level of suspicion for nasal neoplasia after CT and/or rhinoscopy was compared to the definitive diagnosis. Twelve animals underwent CT, 14 underwent rhinoscopy, and 4 both examinations. Of the 12 CT examinations performed, 11 (92%) resulted in the conclusion that a nasal tumor was the most likely diagnosis compared with 9/14 (64%) for rhinoscopies. Computed tomography appeared to be more reliable than rhinoscopy for detecting nasal tumors and should therefore be considered as the first-line procedure. PMID:25694669

  20. Isolated case of mucosal histoid Hansen's disease of the nasal cavity in a post-global elimination era.

    PubMed

    Swain, Santosh K; Jena, Ajay K; Panda, Maitreyee; Mohapatra, Debahuti; Patro, Nibedita; Sahu, Mahesh C

    2015-01-01

    Histoid Hansen's disease is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. This type of leprosy is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacterial reserve. Of alarming concern is the discovery of an isolated mucosal histoid leprotic lesion inside the nasal cavity of a patient in the post-global leprosy elimination era. Our case had no history of leprosy or exposure to dapsone/multidrug therapy but had a heavy bacillary index. We are reporting this case to highlight the rarity of mucosal lesions due to histoid leprosy and involvement of the nasal cavity, as well as to create awareness and avoid misdiagnosis. This will help facilitate prompt treatment to minimize the complications and deformities of the patient and prevent its spread throughout the community. PMID:26096583

  1. A population-based case-control study of cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Blot, W J; Shu, X O; Diamond, E L; Gao, Y T; Ji, B T; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-10-21

    A population-based case-control study of cancer of the nasal cavity and sinuses, involving interviews of 60 incident cases and 414 controls, was conducted in Shanghai. Cigarette smoking was associated with a mild elevation in risk of squamous-cell carcinoma but not cancers of other cell types. Occupational exposures to wood and silica dusts and to petroleum products, and the use of wood and straw as cooking fuel, were linked to moderate increases in risk, while 4-fold or greater increases were associated with a history of chronic nasal diseases, including those occurring 10 or more years prior to cancer diagnosis. Dietary analyses revealed a significant protective effect of consumption of allium vegetables, oranges and tangerines, with a 50% reduced risk of nasal cancer among individuals in the highest intake group of these foods. Consumption of salt-preserved vegetables, meat and fish was associated with a significantly increased risk of nasal cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a 5-fold excess observed for the heaviest intake of these salted foods. These findings suggest that dietary factors may contribute to the development of nasal cancer. PMID:1399136

  2. Accessory Meningeal Arterial Supply to the Posterior Nasal Cavity: Another Reason for Failed Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, I.C. Santos, C. Dos

    2003-09-15

    A patient with intractable posterior epistaxis was treated with embolization of the ipsilateral sphenopalatine and facial arteries and contralateral sphenopalatine artery. She continued to bleed despite a seemingly adequate embolization procedure. A second angiogram revealed a significant collateral blood supply to the posterior nasal cavity from the accessory meningeal artery not identified during the first procedure. This was then embolized with no further epistaxis encountered. This case demonstrates yet another collateral arterial pathway that might account for a failed embolization.

  3. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  4. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30-83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22-82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4-89.6 GyE over 30-64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  5. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Your paranasal sinuses are small hollow spaces around the nose. They are lined with cells that make mucus, which keeps your nose from drying out. The nasal cavity is the passageway just behind your ...

  6. Identification and methicillin resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from nasal cavity of healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Karakulska, Jolanta; Fijałkowski, Karol; Nawrotek, Paweł; Pobucewicz, Anna; Poszumski, Filip; Czernomysy-Furowicz, Danuta

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the staphylococcal flora of the nasal cavity of 42 healthy horses from 4 farms, along with species identification of CoNS isolates and determination of resistance to 18 antimicrobial agents, particularly phenotypic and genotypic methicillin resistance. From the 81 swabs, 87 staphylococci were isolated. All isolates possessed the gap gene but the coa gene was not detected in any of these isolates. Using PCR-RFLP of the gap gene, 82.8% of CoNS were identified: S. equorum (14.9%), S. warneri (14.9%), S. sciuri (12.6%), S. vitulinus (12.6%), S. xylosus (11.5%), S. felis (5.7%), S. haemolyticus (3.4%), S. simulans (3.4%), S. capitis (1.1%), S. chromogenes (1.1%), and S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus (1.1%). To our knowledge, this was the first isolation of S. felis from a horse. The species identity of the remaining Staphylococcus spp. isolates (17.2%) could not be determined from the gap gene PCR-RFLP analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing data. Based on 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR, 11 different ITS-PCR profiles were identified for the 87 analyzed isolates. Results of API Staph were consistent with molecular identification of 17 (19.5%) isolates. Resistance was detected to only 1 or 2 of the 18 antimicrobial agents tested in the 17.2% CoNS isolates, including 6.9% MRCoNS. The mecA gene was detected in each of the 5 (5.7%) phenotypically cefoxitin-resistant isolates and in 12 (13.8%) isolates susceptible to cefoxitin. In total, from 12 horses (28.6%), 17 (19.5%) MRCoNS were isolated. The highest percentage of MRCoNS was noted among S. sciuri isolates (100%). PMID:22752908

  7. Customized individual applicators for endocavitary brachytherapy in patients with cancers of the nasal cavity, sinonasal region and nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Kadah, Basel Al; Niewald, Marcus; Papaspyrou, George; Dzierma, Yvonne; Schneider, Mathias; Schick, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Brachytherapy has become an established therapeutic regimen for primary, persistent, recurrent and metastatic tumour disease in the head and neck region. This study presents the authors' preliminary experience with intracavitary brachytherapy by means of an individual silicone applicator in the treatment of patients with nasal, sinonasal, orbital and nasopharyngeal cancer. Between January 2001 and January 2013, twenty patients with cancer of the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx underwent surgery and intracavitary brachytherapy with the aid of an individually manufactured silicone applicator in the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and in the Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology at the Saarland University Medical Center of Homburg, Germany. The tumour was localized in the nasal cavity/paranasal sinuses (15) affecting the orbit twice and the nasopharynx (5). There were 14 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 patients with mixed tumours and one patient with adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucosal melanoma or plasmocytoma. The majority of the patients presented with advanced disease (T3 or T4 tumours). In 18/20 patients, brachytherapy was performed as a boost technique, in the remaining two solely because of a previous radiation series. All surgical interventions were performed endonasally. Three to six weeks after surgery, a cast of the nasal cavity was created under general anaesthesia. Subsequently, an individual brachytherapy silicon applicator with two to four plastic tubes was manufactured. The radiation therapy was applied using the Ir-192 high-dose-rate-afterloading method (total dose 10-20 Gy) in two to five sessions, additionally in 18/20 patients a percutaneous radiotherapy with a total dose of 30-60 Gy was applied. After a mean duration of follow-up of 2 years, 7/20 patients experienced a local progression, 5/19 a regional recurrence in the neck nodes and 4/19 distant metastases. The 2-year

  8. Induction chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity: a role in organ preservation

    PubMed Central

    Ock, Chan-Young; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Han, Doo Hee; Won, Tae-Bin; Lee, Se-Hoon; Hah, J. Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Sung, Myung-Whun; Heo, Dae Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The role of induction chemotherapy (IC) for eyeball preservation has not been established in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity (PNSNC). Periorbital involvement frequently leads to eyeball exenteration with a margin of safety. We evaluated the treatment outcomes, including survival and eyeball preservation, of patients who received IC for HNSCC of the PNSNC. Methods: We reviewed 21 patients diagnosed with HNSCC of the PNSNC who were treated with IC. We analyzed response, eyeball preservation rate, and overall survival. Results: Tumors were located in the paranasal sinus (n = 14) or nasal cavity (n = 7). Most patients had stage T4a (n = 10) or T4b (n = 7) disease. More than half of the patients received a chemotherapy regimen of docetaxel, fluorouracil, and cisplatin (n = 11). Thirteen patients (61.9%) achieved a partial response after IC and 15 patients (71.4%) achieved T down-staging. Among 17 patients with stage T4 disease, which confers a high risk of orbital exenteration, 14 (82.4%) achieved preservation of the involved eye. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients who achieved a partial response to IC was 84.6%. The 3-year OS rate of patients with stable disease or disease progression after IC was 25.0% (p = 0.038). Conclusions: IC could be considered for down-staging patients with advanced T-stage disease. It could also be a reasonable option for eyeball preservation in locally advanced HNSCC of the PNSNC. PMID:26976150

  9. Carcinomas of the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity Treated With Radiotherapy at a Single Institution Over Five Decades: Are We Making Improvement?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. Daly, Megan E.; Bucci, M. Kara; Xia Ping; Akazawa, Clayton C.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Weinberg, Vivian; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.; Kaplan, Michael J.; El-Sayed, Ivan; Eisele, David W.; Fu, Karen K.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare clinical outcomes of patients with carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity according to decade of radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2005, 127 patients with sinonasal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy with planning and delivery techniques available at the time of treatment. Fifty-nine patients were treated by conventional radiotherapy; 45 patients by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; and 23 patients by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Eighty-two patients (65%) were treated with radiotherapy after gross total tumor resection. Nineteen patients (15%) received chemotherapy. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (83 patients). Results: The 5-year estimates of overall survival, local control, and disease-free survival for the entire patient population were 52%, 62%, and 54%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to decade of treatment or radiotherapy technique (p > 0.05, for all). The 5-year overall survival rate for patients treated in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s was 46%, 56%, 51%, 53%, and 49%, respectively (p = 0.23). The observed incidence of severe (Grade 3 or 4) late toxicity was 53%, 45%, 39%, 28%, and 16% among patients treated in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, respectively (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Although we did not detect improvements in disease control or overall survival for patients treated over time, the incidence of complications has significantly declined, thereby resulting in an improved therapeutic ratio for patients with carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity.

  10. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas. One clinically normal koala was anesthetized twice for the separate acquisition of dorsal CT scan images and transverse, dorsal, and sagittal MR images of its nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Sagittal and transverse CT planes were reformatted. Three fresh koala skulls were also transected in one of each transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes and photographed. The CT and MR images obtained were matched with corresponding gross anatomic images and the normal bone, tissues and airway passages were identified. All anatomic structures were readily identifiable on CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and gross images. CT and MRI are both valuable diagnostic tools for imaging the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses of koalas. Images obtained from this project can be used as baseline references for future comparison with diseased koalas to help with diagnosis, surgical intervention, and response to therapy. PMID:25632661

  11. Metastatic tumors of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Sanketh, Ds; Amrutha, N

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal reason for morbidity and mortality of any type of cancer is due to metastasis that occurs as a result of adaptation of genetically unstable cancer cells, in an ectopic conducive environment. Oral metastasis in spite of being unusual or rare represents around 25% of the first signs of metastatic spread. Literature says there are more number of cases of jaw bone metastasis reported than in the oral soft tissues. The most common primary organs metastasizing to the jaw bones and the oral soft tissues are the breast and the lungs respectively. The issue in diagnosing a metastatic tumor arises either when the patient does not reveal the history of the primary illness he or she may be suffering from or when he or she is unaware of it. Diagnosis in such situations is a challenge to the clinician or pathologist. Diagnosing any lymph node or distant metastasis from oral cancer is very important for the prognosis of the patient. In this review we have made an attempt, to explain some recent concepts of pathophysiology of the metastatic process, the clinical manifestations of metastatic tumors to the oral region and to discuss their diagnostic workup. PMID:25095855

  12. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  13. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity treated with proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mostly seen in the upper aerodigestive tract and has a propensity for lymph node spread and systemic metastases. Various treatment modalities have been reported, including surgical excision supplemented with radiotherapy/adjuvant chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, treatment of nasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma with proton beam therapy and cisplatin has not been described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 56-year-old Japanese man with locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in his right nasal cavity with invasion of the orbit, paranasal sinus, and buccal subcutaneous tissue. He underwent proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin. Acute and late side effects did not exceed grade 3. At 24-month follow up, he remains in complete remission. Conclusion Proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin may be one choice for locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24716457

  14. [Local anesthesia in the children undergoing the fibroendoscopic study of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx: are topical anesthetics needed?].

    PubMed

    Soldatsky, Yu L; Denisova, O A; Mazur, E M

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized study with double blind control was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various anesthetic techniques employed prior to fibroendoscopy of the nose, nasopharynx, and larynx of the children. The study included 160 children at the age varying from 3 to 14 (mean 7.4±2.96) years randomly allocated to four statistically comparable groups matched for age and sex. The following preparations were used to treat the children prior to fibroendoscopy: physiological solution (group 1), a 0.05% xylometazoline solution (group 2), a 10% lidocaine solution (group 3), and a mixture of 0.05% xylometazoline and 10% lidocaine solutions (group 4). The evaluation of the tolerance to the pretreatment of the nasal cavity with lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylometazoline (groups 3 and 4) showed that it was significantly (p<0.05) worse than in groups 1 and 2. The subjective tolerance to fibroendoscopy as reported by the patients was on the average similar in the children of all four groups (p>0.05). The doctors found the tolerance of fibroendoscopy to be the worst following pretreatment with the physiological solution (group 1) and the best after pretreatment with a mixture of lidocaine and xylometazoline (group 4) (p=0.03). The children comprising groups 2 and 3 were not significantly different in terms of the tolerance to fibroendoscopy (p>0.05). It is concluded that the pretreatment of the nasal cavity of the children with a 10% lidocaine solution before fibroendoscopy has no advantage over the pretreatment with a 0.05% xylometazoline solution; at the same time, insuflation of lidocaine as an anesthetic induces more pronounced negative emotions compared with the application of 0.05% xylometazoline. PMID:26525473

  15. Resting-state fMRI study of acute migraine treatment with kinetic oscillation stimulation in nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie-Qiang; Wang, Yanlu; Hallin, Rolf; Juto, Jan-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic oscillatory stimulation (KOS) in the nasal cavity is a non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation method with promising efficacy for acute migraine and other inflammatory disorders. For a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of KOS treatment, we conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 10 acute migraine patients and 10 normal control subjects during KOS treatment in a 3 T clinical MRI scanner. The fMRI data were first processed using a group independent component analysis (ICA) method and then further analyzed with a voxel-wise 3-way ANOVA modeling and region of interest (ROI) of functional connectivity metrics. All migraine participants were relieved from their acute migraine symptoms after 10-20 min KOS treatment and remained migraine free for 3-6 months. The resting-state fMRI result indicates that migraine patients have altered intrinsic functional activity in the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and middle/superior temporal gyrus. KOS treatment gave rise to up-regulated intrinsic functional activity for migraine patients in a number of brain regions involving the limbic and primary sensory systems, while down regulating temporally the activity for normal controls in a few brain areas, such as the right dorsal posterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus. The result of this study confirms the efficacy of KOS treatment for relieving acute migraine symptoms and reducing attack frequency. Resting-state fMRI measurements demonstrate that migraine is associated with aberrant intrinsic functional activity in the limbic and primary sensory systems. KOS in the nasal cavity gives rise to the adjustment of the intrinsic functional activity in the limbic and primary sensory networks and restores the physiological homeostasis in the autonomic nervous system. PMID:27622142

  16. Effects of nasal CPAP on exhaled SIRT1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chi; Liaw, Shwu-Fang; Chiu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ji; Lin, Mei-Wei; Chang, Feng-Ting

    2016-07-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been used to examine airway inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate if there were abnormal Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in EBC and to determine if these levels could be improved after nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Thirty-five patients with moderately severe to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) who wanted nasal CPAP treatment and 20 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. The EBC SIRT1 protein levels and EBC TNF-α protein levels were assessed by ELISA. All patients underwent sleep studies that were repeated 3 months after nasal CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS. Results showed that in OSAS before nasal CPAP treatment, the EBC SIRT1 protein levels were lower than that in normal subjects, whereas the EBC TNF-α protein levels were higher. After nasal CPAP treatment, the EBC SIRT1 levels increased and EBC TNF-α levels decreased. In conclusion, successful treatment of OSAS by nasal CPAP can normalize the levels of EBC SIRT1 and EBC TNF-α. PMID:26976689

  17. COLONY FORMATION ENHANCEMENT OF RAT TRACHEAL AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS BY POLYACETATE, INDOLE ALKALOID, AND PHORBOL ESTER TUMOR PROMOTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), teleocidin, and two polyacetate tumor promoters (aplysiatoxin and debromoaplysiatoxin) have been tested for their effect on colony forming efficiency (CFE) of rat tracheal and nasal turbinate epithelial cells. In rat t...

  18. Metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gs; Manjunatha, Bs

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a disease involving complex multiple sequential irreversible dysregulated processes showing metastasis that results in morbidity and mortality. Metastasis is a complex biological course that begins with detachment of tumor cells from the primary tumor, spreading into the distant tissues and/or organs, invading through the lymphovascular structures followed by their survival in the circulation. Metastatic tumors to the oro-facial region are uncommon and may occur in the oral soft tissues or jawbones. The clinical presentation of metastatic tumors can be variable, which may lead to erroneous diagnosis or may create diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory and reactive lesions that are common to the oral region. Most of the literature on oral metastases involves either single case reports or reviews of these reported cases from scattered geographical areas. Hence this present article is an attempt to provide a detailed review of pathogenesis, epidemiological details including clinical and radiographic presentations, microscopic features and treatment of metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity. PMID:23798834

  19. Retro-Nasal Aroma Release Is Correlated with Variations in the In-Mouth Air Cavity Volume after Empty Deglutition

    PubMed Central

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition. PMID:22815986

  20. Nasal disease in relation to fitness of a pilot.

    PubMed

    Pickard, B H

    1984-05-01

    The nasal cavity and sinus system is extensive but its examination is limited. Listening to breathing and respiration can afford useful clues to underlying abnormality. Examination of the nasal cavity may reveal the pale swollen mucosa of allergic rhinitis or the overdeveloped lining seen in perennial rhinorrhoea and hypertropic rhinitis. Localised hypertrophy gives rise to the nasal polyp which usually forms in the region of the ethmoid sinus. Atrophic rhinitis is a destructive condition of the nasal lining. Sinusitis may be open or closed, presenting with localised pain and displacement of the eye in the case of frontal or ethmoidal abscess or mucocoele. Deformities of the external nose or nasal septum are often encountered during examination. Epistaxis may be caused by bleeding simply from Kiesselbach's vessels, or may be an early feature of telangiectasia or cardiovascular diseases. Tumors are rarely found but include papillomata and the mucous membrane melanoma. PMID:6732702

  1. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    PubMed

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device. PMID:26171983

  2. Potential of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein-Derived Protein Transduction Domains as Antigen Carriers for Nasal Vaccine Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hae-Duck; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Xing-Hai; Lee, Kyunglim

    2016-09-01

    Nasal vaccination offers a promising alternative to intramuscular (i.m.) vaccination because it can induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, its major drawback is poor absorption of large antigens in the nasal epithelium. Protein transduction domains (PTDs), also called cell-penetrating peptides, have been proposed as vehicles for nasal delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. Here, we evaluated the potential of a mutant PTD derived from translationally controlled tumor protein (designated TCTP-PTD 13) as an antigen carrier for nasal vaccines. We first compared the l- and d-forms of TCTP-PTD 13 isomers (l- or d-TCTP-PTD 13) as antigen carriers. Studies in mice demonstrated that nasally administered mixtures of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and d-TCTP-PTD 13 induced higher plasma IgG titers and secretory IgA levels in nasal washes than nasally administered OVA alone, OVA/l-TCTP-PTD 13, or i.m.-injected OVA. Plasma IgG subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG2a) of mice nasally administered OVA/d-TCTP-PTD 13 showed that the predominant IgG subclass was IgG1, indicating a Th2-biased immune response. We also used synthetic CpG oligonucleotides (CpG) as a Th1 immune response-inducing adjuvant. Nasally administered CpG plus OVA/d-TCTP-PTD 13 was superior in eliciting systemic and mucosal immune responses compared to those induced by nasally administered OVA/d-TCTP-PTD 13. Furthermore, the OVA/CpG/d-TCTP-PTD 13 combination skewed IgG1 and IgG2a profiles of humoral immune responses toward a Th1 profile. These findings suggest that TCTP-derived PTD is a suitable vehicle to efficiently carry antigens and to induce more powerful antigen-specific immune responses and a more balanced Th1/Th2 response when combined with a DNA adjuvant. PMID:27454469

  3. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. PMID:26460093

  4. Clinical Efficacy of a Spray Containing Hyaluronic Acid and Dexpanthenol after Surgery in the Nasal Cavity (Septoplasty, Simple Ethmoid Sinus Surgery, and Turbinate Surgery)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25104962

  5. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  6. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Ding, Xinxin

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  7. The acoustic role of tracheal chambers and nasal cavities in the production of sonar pulses by the horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hildebrandti.

    PubMed

    Suthers, R A; Hartley, D J; Wenstrup, J J

    1988-04-01

    The acoustic role of the enlarged, bony, nasal cavities and rigid tracheal chambers in the horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hildebrandti (Fig. 2) was investigated by determining the effect of their selective filling on the nasally emitted sonar pulse and on the sound traveling backwards down the trachea. Normal sonar signals of this bat contain a long constant frequency component with most energy in the second harmonic at about 48 kHz. The fundamental is typically suppressed 20 to 30 dB below the level of the second harmonic (Fig. 1). None of the experimental manipulations described affected the frequency of the sonar signal fundamental. Filling the dorsal and both lateral tracheal chambers had little effect on the emitted vocalization, but caused the level of the fundamental component in the trachea to increase 15 to 19 dB in most bats (Table 2). When only the dorsal chamber or only the two lateral chambers were filled, the effect was less striking and more variable (Tables 3 and 4), suggesting that the tracheal fundamental is normally suppressed by acoustic interaction between these three cavities. Filling the enlarged dorsal nasal cavities had no effect on the tracheal sound. The effect of this treatment on the nasally emitted sonar pulse was inconsistent. Sometimes the fundamental increased 10 to 12 dB, other times the intensity of all harmonics decreased; in still other cases the second, third or fourth harmonic increased, but the fundamental remained unchanged (Tables 5, 6, and 7). When bats were forced to vocalize through the mouth, by sealing the nostrils, there was a prominent increase in the level of the emitted fundamental (10 to 21 dB) and in the fourth harmonic (6 to 17 dB). In one instance there was also a significant increase in the level of the third harmonic (Tables 8 and 9). The supraglottal tract thus filters the fundamental from the nasally emitted sonar signal, although the role of the inflated nasal cavities in this process is unclear. We conclude

  8. Intranasal Volume Changes Caused by the Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach and Their Effects on Nasal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Hong, Yong-Kil; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Whan; Cho, Jin Hee; Kim, Boo Young; Han, Sungwoo; Lee, Yong Joo; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Kim, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated postoperative changes in nasal cavity volume and their effects on nasal function and symptoms after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for antero-central skull base surgery. Study Design Retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center. Methods We studied 92 patients who underwent binostril, four-hand, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach surgery using the bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flap technique. Pre- and postoperative paranasal computed tomography and the Mimics® program were used to assess nasal cavity volume changes at three sections. We also performed several pre- and postoperative tests, including the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test, Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test, Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation, and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. In addition, a visual analog scale was used to record subjective symptoms. We compared these data with the pre- and postoperative nasal cavity volumes. Results Three-dimensional, objective increases in nasal passage volumes were evident between the inferior and middle turbinates (p<0.001) and between the superior turbinate and choana (p = 0.006) postoperatively. However, these did not correlate with subjectively assessed symptoms (NOSE, SNOT-20 and VAS; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05) or olfactory dysfunction (CCCRC and CCSIT test; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05). Conclusion Skull base tumor surgery via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach altered the patients’ nasal anatomy, but the changes in nasal cavity volumes did not affect nasal function or symptoms. These results will help surgeons to appropriately expose the surgical field during an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. PMID:27010730

  9. Combination of CO2 laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and nasal cavity expansion enhances treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huai, De; Dai, Jun; Xu, Min; Cao, Ying; Song, Hongmao; Wang, Shoufeng; Wang, Haixu; Yin, Min; Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Yalong; Zhou, Xiaojian; Wang, Jianwu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the methods, effects, and application value of a combination of CO2 laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and selective nasal cavity expansion for the treatment of multiplanar narrowing-induced obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Ninety-three patients with OSAHS and multiplanar stenosis were treated with CO2 laser-assisted modified UPPP and selective surgical expansion of the nasal cavity, with 12 completing the operation in stages. Six months after the operation, 23 patients (24.7%) were effectively cured, 52 (55.9%) had excellent efficacy, and 18 (19.4%) were cured, and the total efficacy was 100%. One year after the surgery, the surgical outcomes of 65 patients were reviewed, and the surgeries were ineffective in four (6.2%), effective in 14 (21.5%), very effective in 36 (55.4%), and curative in 11 (16.9%), and the total efficacy was 93.8%. Another 93 cases were treated with the traditional UPPP method only. At the six-month postoperative review, 18 (19.4%) were effectively cured, 30 (32.3%) had excellent efficacy, and 10 (10.8%) were cured, while the surgery was ineffective in 35 (37.6%). The total efficacy was 62.4%. One year after the surgery, the surgical outcomes of 75 patients were reviewed, and the surgeries were ineffective in 29 (38.7%), effective in 14 (18.7%), very effective in 24 (32.0%), and curative in eight (10.7%), and the total efficacy was 61.3%. Compared to the traditional operative methods, the treatment with one operation involving CO2-laser-assisted UPPP and selective nasal cavity expansion was thoroughly effective on multiple stenosis sites, including nasal, nasopharyngeal, and oropharyngeal airways. However, potential complications must be carefully avoided. PMID:26770642

  10. Diversity of bacterial species in the nasal cavity of sheep in the highlands of Ethiopia and first report of Histophilus somni in the country.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Biruk; Sisay Tessema, Tesfaye; Tefera, Genene

    2013-06-01

    A study was conducted to isolate bacterial species/pathogens from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy and pneumonic sheep. Nasal swabs were collected aseptically, transported in tryptose soya broth and incubated for 24 h. Then, each swab was streaked onto chocolate and blood agar for culture. Bacterial species were identified following standard bacteriological procedures. Accordingly, a total of 1,556 bacteria were isolated from 960 nasal swabs collected from three different highland areas of Ethiopia, namely Debre Berhan, Asella, and Gimba. In Debre Berhan, 140 Mannheimia haemolytica, 81 Histophilus somni, 57 Staphylococcus species, and 52 Bibersteinia trehalosi were isolated. While from Gimba M. haemolytica, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and H. somni were isolated at rates of 25.2, 15.9, 11.4, and 5.9 %, respectively, of the total 647 bacterial species. In Asella from 352 bacterial species isolated, 93 (26.4 %) were M. haemolytica, 48 (13.6 %) were Staphylococcus species, 26 (7.4 %) were B. trehalosi, and 17 (4.8 %) H. somni were recognized. Further identification and characterization using BIOLOG identification system Enterococcus avium and Sphingomonas sanguinis were identified at 100 % probability, while, H. somni and Actinobacillus lignerisii were suggested by the system. The study showed that a variety of bacterial species colonize the nasal cavity of the Ethiopian highland sheep with variable proportion between healthy and pneumonic ones. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of H. somni, an important pathogen in cattle, from the respiratory tract of a ruminant species in the country. PMID:23328945

  11. Use of an image-guided robotic radiosurgery system for the treatment of canine nonlymphomatous nasal tumors.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Seth A; Charney, Sarah; Dervisis, Nikolaos G; Witten, Matthew R; Ettinger, Susan; Berg, Jason; Joseph, Richard

    2014-01-01

    An image-guided robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) system can be used to deliver curative-intent radiation in either single fraction or hypofractionated doses. Medical records for 19 dogs with nonlymphomatous nasal tumors treated with hypofractionated image-guided robotic stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), either with or without adjunctive treatment, were retrospectively analyzed for survival and prognostic factors. Median survival time (MST) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Age, breed, tumor type, stage, tumor size, prescribed radiation dose, and heterogeneity index were analyzed for prognostic significance. Dogs were treated with three consecutive-day, 8-12 gray (Gy) fractions of image-guided robotic SBRT. Overall MST was 399 days. No significant prognostic factors were identified. Acute side effects were rare and mild. Late side effects included one dog with an oronasal fistula and six dogs with seizures. In three of six dogs, seizures were a presenting complaint prior to SBRT. The cause of seizures in the remaining three dogs could not be definitively determined due to lack of follow-up computed tomography (CT) imaging. The seizures could have been related to either progression of disease or late radiation effect. Results indicate that image-guided robotic SBRT, either with or without adjunctive therapy, for canine nonlymphomatous nasal tumors provides comparable survival times (STs) to daily fractionated megavoltage radiation with fewer required fractions and fewer acute side effects. PMID:24446402

  12. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  13. In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1300 nm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm × 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions. PMID:25136490

  14. Interstitial radiation therapy for early-stage nasal vestibule cancer: A continuing quest for optimal tumor control and cosmesis

    SciTech Connect

    Levendag, Peter C. . E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl; Nijdam, Wideke M.; Moolenburgh, Sanne E. van; Tan, Lisa; Noever, Inge R.T.T.; Rooy, Peter van; Mureau, Marc; Jansen, Peter P.; Munte, Kai; Hofer, Stefan O.P.

    2006-09-01

    Introduction: This article reports on the effectiveness, cosmetic outcome, and costs of interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for early-stage cancer of the nasal vestibule (NV) proper and/or columella high-dose-rate (HDR). Methods and Materials: Tumor control, survival, cosmetic outcome, functional results, and costs were established in 64 T1/T2N0 nasal vestibule cancers treated from 1991-2005 by fractionated interstitial radiation therapy (IRT) only. Total dose is 44 Gy: 2 fractions of 3 Gy per day, 6-hour interval, first and last fraction 4 Gy. Cosmesis is noted in the chart by the medical doctor during follow-up, by the patient (visual analog scale), and by a panel. Finally, full hospital costs are computed. Results: A local relapse-free survival rate of 92% at 5 years was obtained. Four local failures were observed; all four patients were salvaged. The neck was not treated electively; no neck recurrence in follow-up was seen. Excellent cosmetic and functional results were observed. With 10 days admission for full treatment, hospital costs amounted to Euro 5772 ($7044). Conclusion: Excellent tumor control, cosmesis, and function of nasal airway passage can be achieved when HDR-IRT for T1/T2N0 NV cancers is used. For the more advanced cancers (Wang classification: T3 tumor stage), we elect to treat by local excision followed by a reconstructive procedure. The costs, admission to hospital inclusive, for treatment by HDR-IRT amounts to Euro 5772 ($7044 US). This contrasts substantially with the full hospital costs when NV cancers are treated by plastic reconstructive surgery, being on average threefold as expensive.

  15. [The influence of an isotonic solution containing benzalkonium chloride and a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium from the nasal cavity in vitro].

    PubMed

    Laberko, E L; Bogomil'sky, M R; Soldatsky, Yu L; Pogosova, I E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of an isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride and of a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium in the nasal cavity in vitro. To this effect, we investigated the cytological material obtained from 35 children presenting with adenoid tissue hypertrophy. The tissue samples were taken from the nasal cavity by the standard method. A cellular biopsy obtained from each patient was distributed between three tubes that contained isotonic saline solution supplemented by benzalconium chloride (0.1 mg/ml), a hypertonic seawater solution, and a standard physiological saline solution. It was shown that the number of the viable cells in both isotonic solutions was statistically comparable and significantly higher than in the hypertonic solution (p<0.05). The ciliary beat frequency of the cells embedded in the two isotonic solutions was not significantly different but considerably exceeded that in the hypertonic seawater solution (p<0.05). Thus, the present study has demonstrated the absence of the ciliotoxic influence of isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and the strong ciliotoxic effect of the hypertonic seawater solution. This finding gives reason to recommend isotonic solutions for the regular application whereas hypertonic solutions can be prescribed only during infectious and/or inflammatory ENT diseases. PMID:27213656

  16. Extramedullary nasal plasmacytoma: Literature review and a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Corvo, Marco Antonio dos Anjos; Granato, Lídio; Ikeda, Felipe; de Próspero, José Donato

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a plasma cell tumor that grows within any of the soft tissues of the organism. Similar to all plasmacytic dyscrasia, the disease is extremely rare. Aim: This study reports a case of an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal cavity and provides a literature review on the topic. Case report: A 51-year-old woman presented at our tertiary university hospital with a 6-month history of progressive nasal obstruction, predominantly to the right side, and self-limiting epistaxis. Examination revealed a large pale-reddish tumor within the right nasal cavity. Anatomopathological analysis showed features consistent with a plasmacytoma diagnosis, which was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemical techniques. Further assessment revealed the solitary nature of the condition, consistent with extramedullary plasmacytoma. Radiotherapy was initiated, which led to partial regression of the symptoms. The tumor was surgically removed by using a mid-facial degloving approach. The patient evolved with a naso-oral fistula and underwent 3 corrective surgeries. No evidence of associated systemic disease was found after 5 years of follow-up. Conclusions: This case report, which describes a rare tumor of the nasal cavity, is expected to improve the recognition and referral of this condition by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists for multidisciplinary management and long-term follow-up. PMID:25992016

  17. Treatment of nasal hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Simic, R; Vlahovic, A; Subarevic, V

    2009-10-01

    Hemangiomas are the most common soft tissue tumors of infancy. Almost 60% of these tumors develop in the head and neck region. Nasal hemangiomas, distort human physiognomy and leave long lasting psychological sequelae. Conservative approach (intralesional corticosteroids, laser) may accelerate involution. Proponents of an early surgery suggest that aesthetic improvement during a critical period in child development can be achieved. Fourteen patients with nasal hemangioma were treated during 5-year period (2003-2007) with intralesional corticosteroids, lenticular excision, open rhinoplasty excision, and circular excision with "purse string suture". The first line of treatment for large nasal hemangiomas is intralesional corticosteroids. Excision is indicated for small hemangiomas, while subtotal excision is preferable for large nasal hemangiomas. Circular excision and "purse string suture" is appropriate for prominent hemangiomas with predominant deep component. In our opinion surgery with maximal care for nasal architecture is the treatment option for nasal hemangioma. PMID:19656579

  18. Genotypes and enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight-catering employees.

    PubMed

    Hatakka, M; Björkroth, K J; Asplund, K; Mäki-Petäys, N; Korkeala, H J

    2000-11-01

    Hand and nasal samples of flight-catering staff were collected from 1995 to 1997 to find employees carrying Staphylococcus aureus. Altogether 153 hand samples and 136 nose samples were taken. Nasal sampling showed a higher prevalence of S. aureus among food handlers (29%) than hand sampling (9%). A high proportion of the strains (46%) were enterotoxigenic, and a considerable amount of food handlers carried enterotoxigenic S. aureus, 6% and 12% according to hand and nasal sampling, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction profiles revealed a total of 32 different types associated with the 35 employees carrying S. aureus. In most cases, the same type colonized both the hand and nose of a person. Despite the wide variety of types found, one strain colonized five persons and the second most common strain was associated with four food handlers. The predominant toxin produced was B, which was produced by the most common strain. The results showed that nasal sampling is a good way to detect S. aureus carriers, whereas hand sampling may fail to reveal carriers. The high proportion of enterotoxigenic strains show that a food handler harboring S. aureus must be considered a potential source of enterotoxigenic strains for airline meals. PMID:11079688

  19. Osteolipoma: a rare tumor in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Omonte, Sheyla Viana; de Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; Leal, Rosana Maria; Capistrano, Hermínia Marques; Souza, Paulo Eduardo Alencar; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello

    2016-07-01

    Osteolipoma is a rarely reported histologic variant of lipoma that exhibits bone formation. To the best of our knowledge, only 13 well-documented case reports of osteolipoma in the oral cavity have been published in the English literature. This study presents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of an osteolipoma in the oral cavity and reviews the pertinent literature. The patient was a 29-year-old female, who presented with an 8-month history of a painless, progressively enlarging, well-defined, movable submucosal mass in the left posterior buccal mucosa. The lesion had a hard consistency. Imaging findings revealed a spherical radiopacity with an irregular trabecular pattern. The lesion was excised and the diagnosis of osteolipoma was established. No recurrence was observed after a 5-year follow-up. PMID:26652892

  20. alpha-Galactosylceramide can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infection and tumor.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sung-Youl; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Chang, Woo-Sung; Park, Se-Ho; Kweon, Mi-Na; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2005-09-01

    alpha-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a ligand of invariant Valpha14+ NKT cells and is presented by CD1d molecule on APC. NKT cells produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in response to alpha-GalCer-presented APC. In this study, we assessed whether alpha-GalCer could act as an effective nasal vaccine adjuvant for mucosal vaccine that would be capable of inducing systemic as well as mucosal immune responses. When alpha-GalCer was administered with OVA via the intranasal route to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, significant OVA-specific mucosal secretory IgA, systemic IgG, and CTL responses were induced with mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles seen in both strains of mice. Interestingly, as BALB/c mice were intranasally immunized with PR8 hemagglutinin Ag isolated from influenza virus A/PR/8/34 together with alpha-GalCer, significant protection was afforded against influenza viral infection. When alpha-GalCer was coimmunized with a replication-deficient live adenovirus to BALB/c mice, it significantly induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, intranasal administration of OVA with alpha-GalCer showed complete protection against EG7 tumor challenge in C57BL/6. The adjuvant effects induced by intranasal coadministration with alpha-GalCer were blocked in CD1d-/- mice, indicating that the immune responses were exclusively mediated by CD1d molecule on APC. Most interestingly, intranasally coadministered alpha-GalCer activated naive T cells and triggered them to differentiate into functional effector T cells when CFSE-labeled OT-1 cells were adoptively transferred into syngeneic mice. Overall, our results are the first to show that alpha-GalCer can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infections and tumors. PMID:16116223

  1. Tumor cell nuclear diameter and CD30 expression as potential prognostic parameter in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junshik; Park, Sanghui; Baek, Hae Lim; Jung, Joo Hyun; Kang, Il Gyu; Sym, Sun Jin; Park, Jinny; Ahn, Jeong Yeal; Cho, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seon Tae; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (nasal ENKTL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity of lymphoid tumors with variable size and differentiation of tumor cells. Nasal ENKTL is related to infection of the tumor cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and virtually all cases contain monoclonal episomal EBV DNA and detectable EBV encoded small nuclear RNAs (EBERs). Several clinical factors are known for their relation to the prognosis, but histopathologic prognostic factors of nasal ENKTL have not yet been well established. We evaluated the prognostic value of the longest nuclear diameter of EBER+ tumor cells (NDTC) along with the result of CD30 expression. Twenty two patients with newly diagnosed nasal ENKTL were evaluated regarding clinicopathologic characteristics. NDTC was measured using a computerized image analysis system. The results were expressed as the mean diameter of ≥ 50 cells in a patient. Median of the mean NDTC of the patients was 7.32 μm (5.15-11.27). Patients with larger mean NDTC (≥ 7.35 μm) had a poorer event-free survival (EFS) than those with smaller mean NDTC (<7.35 μm; p = 0.024) and had a tendency of inferior overall survival (OS) (p = 0.08). Patients with CD30 expression had a inferior EFS (p = 0.018) and OS (p = 0.011) compared those without CD30 expression. The NDTC of EBV infected tumor cell and CD30 expression had relation to survival in the current exploratory analysis. PMID:23119111

  2. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartomas arise secondary to germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 in the pleuropulmonary blastoma tumor-predisposition disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Douglas R.; Messinger, Yoav; Williams, Gretchen M.; Yang, Jiandong; Field, Amanda; Schultz, Kris Ann P.; Harney, Laura A.; Doros, Leslie A.; Dehner, Louis P.; Hill, D. Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a rare nasal tumor that typically presents in young children. We previously reported on NCMH occurrence in children with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), a rare pulmonary dysembryonic sarcoma that is the hallmark neoplasm in the PPB-associated DICER1 tumor predisposition disorder. Methods Original pathologic materials from individuals with a PPB, PPB-associated tumor and/or a DICER1 mutation were centrally reviewed by the International PPB Registry. Paraffin-embedded NCMH tumor tissue was available in three cases. Laser-capture microdissection was used to isolate mesenchymal spindle cells and cartilage in one case for Sanger sequencing of DICER1. Results Nine patients (5F/4M) had PPB and NCMH. NCMH was diagnosed at a median age of 10 years (range 6-21years). NCMH developed 4.5 - 13 years after PPB. Presenting NCMH symptoms included chronic sinusitis and nasal congestion. Five patients had bilateral tumors. Local NCMH recurrences required several surgical resections in two patients, but all nine patients were alive at 0 – 16 years of follow-up. Pathogenic germline DICER1 mutations were found in 6/8 NCMH patients tested. In 2 of the patients with germline DICER1 mutations, somatic DICER1 missense mutations were also identified in their NCMH (E1813D; n=2). Three additional PPB patients developed other nasal lesions seen in the general population (a Schneiderian papilloma, chronic sinusitis with cysts, and allergic nasal polyps with eosinophils). Two of these patients had germline DICER1 mutations. Conclusion Pathogenic germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 in NCMH establishes that the genetic etiology of NCMH is similar to PPB, despite the disparate biological potential of these neoplasms. PMID:25118636

  3. A simple classification of cranial-nasal-orbital communicating tumors that facilitate choice of surgical approaches: analysis of a series of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yue-Fei; Lei, Bing-Xi; Zheng, Mei-Guang; Zheng, Yi-Qing; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lan, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Cranial-nasal-orbital communicating tumors involving the anterior and middle skull base are among the most challenging to treat surgically, with high rates of incomplete resection and surgical complications. Currently, there is no recognized classification of tumors with regard to the choice of surgical approaches. From January 2004 to January 2014, we classified 32 cranial-nasal-orbital communicating tumors treated in our center into three types according to the tumor body location, scope of extension and direction of invasion: lateral (type I), central (type II) and extensive (type III). This classification considerably facilitated the choice of surgical routes and significantly influenced the surgical time and amount of hemorrhage during operation. In addition, we emphasized the use of transnasal endoscopy for large and extensive tumors, individualized treatment strategies drafted by a group of multidisciplinary collaborators, and careful reconstruction of the skull base defects. Our treatment strategies achieved good surgical outcomes, with a high ratio of total resection (87.5 %, 28/32, including 16 cases of benign tumors and 12 cases of malignant tumors) and a low percentage of surgical complications (18.8 %, 6/32). Original symptoms were alleviated in 29 patients. The average KPS score improved from 81.25 % preoperatively to 91.25 % at 3 months after surgery. No serious perioperative complications occurred. During the follow-up of 3 years on average, four patients with malignant tumors died, including three who had subtotal resections. The 3-year survival rate of patients with malignant tumors was 78.6 %, and the overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5 %. Our data indicate that the simple classification method has practical significance in guiding the choice of surgical approaches for cranial-nasal-orbital communicating tumors and may be extended to other types of skull base tumors. PMID:27016919

  4. TP53, p14ARF, p16INK4a and H-ras gene molecular analysis in intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Federica; Oggionni, Maria; Birindelli, Sarah; Suardi, Simona; Tabano, Silvia; Romano, Roberta; Moiraghi, Maria Luisa; Bimbi, Gabriella; Quattrone, Pasquale; Cantu, Giulio; Pierotti, Marco A; Licitra, Lisa; Pilotti, Silvana

    2003-06-10

    Intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (ITAC) of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is an uncommon tumor associated with occupational exposure to dusts of different origin. Few investigations addressed molecular alterations in ITAC mainly focused on TP53, K-ras and H-ras gene mutations. The occurrence of TP53, p14(ARF) and p16(INK4a) deregulation and H-ras mutations was investigated in 21 consecutive and untreated ITACs cases, 17 with known professional exposure. No H-ras mutations were found. In patients with known exposure, cumulative evidence of TP53 or p14(ARF) alterations accounted for 88% and the evidence of p16(INK4a) alterations for 65%, respectively. TP53 mutations were present in 44% of the ITACs, consisted of G:C-->A:T transitions in 86%, and involved the CpG dinucleotides in 50% of the cases. LOH at the locus 17p13 and an uncommon high rate of p53 stabilization were detected in 58% and 59% of the cases, respectively. p14(ARF)and p16(INK4a) promoter methylation accounted for 80% and 67% respectively, and LOH at the locus 9p21 occurred in 45% of the cases. Interestingly, all dust-exposed tumors with p16(INK4a) alterations shared TP53 or p14(ARF) deregulation. The present results show a close association of this occupational tumor with TP53, p14(ARF) and p16(INK4a) gene deregulation. Given the important role that these genes play in cell growth control and apoptosis, the knowledge of ITAC genetic profile may be helpful in selecting more tailored treatments. PMID:12673679

  5. Characteristics of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and Nasal Absorption Capacity in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry. PMID

  6. Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Brain Tumors Delivered via a Novel Intra-Cavity Moldable Polymer Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Cheryl V.; Smith, Stuart J.; Morgan, Paul S.; Langmack, Keith A.; Clarke, Phil A.; Ritchie, Alison A.; Macarthur, Donald C.; Rose, Felicity R.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Grundy, Richard G.; Ruman Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Polymer-based delivery systems offer innovative intra-cavity administration of drugs, with the potential to better target micro-deposits of cancer cells in brain parenchyma beyond the resected cavity. Here we evaluate clinical utility, toxicity and sustained drug release capability of a novel formulation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microparticles. Methods PLGA/PEG microparticle-based matrices were molded around an ex vivo brain pseudo-resection cavity and analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography. In vitro toxicity of the polymer was assessed using tumor and endothelial cells and drug release from trichostatin A-, etoposide- and methotrexate-loaded matrices was determined. To verify activity of released agents, tumor cells were seeded onto drug-loaded matrices and viability assessed. Results PLGA/PEG matrices can be molded around a pseudo-resection cavity wall with no polymer-related artifact on clinical scans. The polymer withstands fractionated radiotherapy, with no disruption of microparticle structure. No toxicity was evident when tumor or endothelial cells were grown on control matrices in vitro. Trichostatin A, etoposide and methotrexate were released from the matrices over a 3-4 week period in vitro and etoposide released over 3 days in vivo, with released agents retaining cytotoxic capabilities. PLGA/PEG microparticle-based matrices molded around a resection cavity wall are distinguishable in clinical scanning modalities. Matrices are non-toxic in vitro suggesting good biocompatibility in vivo. Active trichostatin A, etoposide and methotrexate can be incorporated and released gradually from matrices, with radiotherapy unlikely to interfere with release. Conclusion The PLGA/PEG delivery system offers an innovative intra-cavity approach to administer chemotherapeutics for improved local control of malignant brain tumors. PMID:24155955

  7. [Craniosinusonasal tumors].

    PubMed

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Egorova, V K

    1997-01-01

    Tumors extending into the nasal cavity, cranium, and paranasal sinuses have a number of distinctive features to take into consideration. Among them are the communication with an open air, high incidence of associated intracranial infections, specific complications (i.e. suppurative sinusitis, polyps, mucocele, pneumocephalus, nasal CSF leak). The features mentioned make these lesions unique. 50 consecutive patients underwent treatment in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. The diagnosis was confirmed either by CT, MRI, or at operation. Rhinological and otoneurological signs were also subjected to analysis. Most frequently these tumors (the majority of which were meningiomas (n = 34) extended into the nasal cavity (40 patients) and paranasal sinuses (n = 50). It was noted that the clinical signs vary depending on the histological type of tumor, its location and direction of growth (i.e. medial or lateral). Medially growing tumors usually involved 2-4 sinuses, while laterally growing tumors involved only one sinus. Among the symptoms, disturbances of smell, conductive hearing impairment, deformation of both the soft and hard palate, slowing of the experimental nystagmus due to disturbed extraocular movements. Some light is shed on the differential diagnosis, indications for various surgical approaches (transcranial, transnasal, and facial). The results of surgical treatment and postoperative complications are presented in the paper. The diagnosis and treatment of such patients require an interdisciplinary approach while would involve a team of a neurosurgeon, neuroradiologist, otoneurologist, and a neuro-ophthalmologist. PMID:9424946

  8. Rational design of nasal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Hagenaars, Niels; Jiskoot, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Nasal vaccination is a promising alternative to classical parental vaccination, as it is non-invasive and, in principle, capable of eliciting strong systemic and local immune responses. However, the protective efficacy of nasally administered antigens is often impaired because of delivery problems: free antigens are readily cleared from the nasal cavity, poorly absorbed by nasal epithelial cells and generally have low intrinsic immunogenicity. In this review paper, we describe the main physiological hurdles to nasal vaccine delivery, survey the progress made in technological approaches to overcome these hurdles and discuss emerging opportunities for improving nasal vaccines. According to current insights, encapsulation of the antigen into bioadhesive (nano)particles is a promising approach towards successful nasal vaccine delivery. These antigen-loaded particles can be tailor made by supplying them with targeting ligands, adjuvants or endosomal escape mediators to form the desired vaccine that provides long-lasting protective immunity. PMID:18172815

  9. Encapsulated therapeutic stem cells implanted in the tumor resection cavity induce cell death in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kauer, Timo M; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Hingtgen, Shawn; Shah, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutically engineered stem cells have shown promise for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy; however, key preclinical studies are urgently needed for their clinical translation. In this study, we investigated a new approach to GBM treatment using therapeutic stem cells encapsulated in biodegradable, synthetic extracellular matrix (sECM) in mouse models of human GBM resection. Using multimodal imaging, we first showed quantitative surgical debulking of human GBM tumors in mice, which resulted in increased survival. Next, sECM encapsulation of engineered stem cells increased their retention in the tumor resection cavity, permitted tumor-selective migration and release of diagnostic and therapeutic proteins in vivo. Simulating the clinical scenario of GBM treatment, the release of tumor-selective S-TRAIL (secretable tumor necrosis factor apoptosis inducing ligand) from sECM-encapsulated stem cells in the resection cavity eradicated residual tumor cells by inducing caspase-mediated apoptosis, delayed tumor regrowth and significantly increased survival of mice. This study demonstrates the efficacy of encapsulated therapeutic stem cells in mouse models of GBM resection and may have implications for developing effective therapies for GBM. PMID:22197831

  10. Distribution of Genes Encoding Resistance to Macrolides Among Staphylococci Isolated From the Nasal Cavity of Hospital Employees in Khorramabad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbi, Farzad; Anbari, Khatereh; Ghafarzadeh, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus strains isolated from nasal carriers in each region can be helpful to select appropriate drugs to eradicate carriage states, control nosocomial infections and also treat patients. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile and the molecular prevalence of the ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes among Staphylococcus strains isolated from the anterior nares of hospital employees. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 Staphylococcus isolates, 51 Staphylococcus aureus, 49 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from the anterior nares of hospital employees in Khorramabad, Iran. Susceptibility pattern to macrolide antibiotics were determined using the disk diffusion method. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied to determine the major erythromycin-resistant genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA). Results Fifty-three (53%) isolates were simultaneously resistant to erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin (cross-resistance); while 8 (8%) isolates had variable macrolide susceptibility pattern. Among the S. aureus isolates, the difference in prevalence of resistance to erythromycin between males and females was significant (P = 0.011). The frequency of ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA genes were 3%, 5%, 33% and 20%, respectively. It was also found that out of 53 isolates resistant to erythromycin, 44 (83%) isolates (eight S. aureus and thirty-six CoNS strains) carried at least one of the four tested genes. Eight (8%) isolates had intermediate phenotype to erythromycin, in which 4 (50%) isolates carried ermB or ermC genes. In addition, out of 39 erythromycin-susceptible isolates, 3 (7.7%) isolates were positive for ermB or ermC genes. Conclusions No entire association was found between genotype and phenotype methods to detect macrolides-resistant isolates. In addition, distribution of genetically erythromycin

  11. Puffed-cheek computed tomography: a dynamic maneuver for imaging oral cavity tumors.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Nezahat; Bulbul, Erdogan; Songu, Murat; Uluc, Engin; Onal, Kazim; Apaydin, Melda; Katilmis, Huseyin

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study to compare the effectiveness of conventional computed tomography (CT) and puffed-cheek CT in detecting the presence and extension of oral cavity malignant tumors. We enrolled 11 patients--5 men and 6 women, aged 32 to 85 years--who had a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. These tumors were located in the floor of the mouth in 4 patients, in the buccal mucosa in 4, in both the buccal mucosa and retromolar trigone in 2, and in the retromolar trigone only in 1. First, conventional contrast-enhanced axial CT was obtained through the oral cavity and neck in each patient. Next, axial imaging was obtained through the oral cavity while patients inflated their cheeks, pursed their lips, and held their breath. We found that the puffed-cheek CTs provided more information regarding the size and extent of the squamous cell carcinomas than did the conventional CTs. For example, in 8 patients, conventional CT could not differentiate the tumor from the normal mucosal surface, but puffed-cheek images clearly showed the surface of the tumor as distinct from the normal mucosa. More disconcerting was the fact that in the other 3 patients, conventional CTs were evaluated as normal, even though puffed-cheek imaging clearly showed the mass in each case. We conclude that puffed-cheek CT is superior to conventional CT for evaluating the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. It provides a clearer and more detailed picture with no downside. PMID:22996710

  12. Molecular Imaging Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Spontaneous Nasal Tumors in Canines

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Tyler J.; Bowen, Stephen R.; Deveau, Michael A.; Kubicek, Lyndsay; White, Pamela; Bentzen, Søren M.; Chappell, Richard J.; Forrest, Lisa J.; Jeraj, Robert

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies have so far focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy each to the gross tumor volume. Patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-, fluorothymidine (FLT)-, and Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM)-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before therapy and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to conventional maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) measurements, imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed but was restricted to 2 predictor variables due to the limited number of patients. The best bivariable model was selected according to pseudo-R{sup 2}. Results: The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=.011), midtreatment FLT SUV{sub mean} (P=.018), and midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.006). Large decreases in FLT SUV{sub mean} from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=.013). In the bivariable model, the best 2-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.022) in

  13. Bevacizumab in Reducing CNS Side Effects in Patients Who Have Undergone Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Primary Brain Tumor, Meningioma, or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineocytoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Intraoperative brain tumor resection cavity characterization with conoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Amber L.; Burgner, Jessica; Chen, Ishita; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Sun, Kay; Thompson, Reid C.; Webster, Robert J., III; Miga, Michael I.

    2012-02-01

    Brain shift compromises the accuracy of neurosurgical image-guided interventions if not corrected by either intraoperative imaging or computational modeling. The latter requires intraoperative sparse measurements for constraining and driving model-based compensation strategies. Conoscopic holography, an interferometric technique that measures the distance of a laser light illuminated surface point from a fixed laser source, was recently proposed for non-contact surface data acquisition in image-guided surgery and is used here for validation of our modeling strategies. In this contribution, we use this inexpensive, hand-held conoscopic holography device for intraoperative validation of our computational modeling approach to correcting for brain shift. Laser range scan, instrument swabbing, and conoscopic holography data sets were collected from two patients undergoing brain tumor resection therapy at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The results of our study indicate that conoscopic holography is a promising method for surface acquisition since it requires no contact with delicate tissues and can characterize the extents of structures within confined spaces. We demonstrate that for two clinical cases, the acquired conoprobe points align with our model-updated images better than the uncorrected images lending further evidence that computational modeling approaches improve the accuracy of image-guided surgical interventions in the presence of soft tissue deformations.

  15. Rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Michitsugu; Yokoi, Hidenori; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Yuma; Yamanaka, Hidetaka; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Saito, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who had rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity. A 72-year-old woman had undergone surgery for frontal sinusitis via external incision at another hospital 13 years previously. Left-sided hemiparesis appeared in the patient and gradually worsened. Five days later, she exhibited disorientation, abnormal behavior, poor articulation, and difficulty in standing. Therefore, she was taken to the neurosurgery department by ambulance. An extensive frontal sinus pyocele was suspected, and a cerebral abscess and edema of the frontal lobe were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. After antibiotics, steroid and glycerol were administered for a few weeks; disorientation and left hemiparesis improved. Next, craniotomy for complete removal of the brain abscess by neurosurgeons and endoscopic endonasal surgery by otolaryngologists were carried out at the same surgery. From the analysis of the pathological mucosa sample taken from the right ethomoidal sinus during surgery, an inverted papilloma was diagnosed. The patient completely recovered and is currently receiving follow-up examination. Regarding rhinogenic intracranial complications, ascertaining clinical condition in order to determine the need for either immediate radical surgery, or for curative surgery after waiting for improvement of the overall body condition by conservative management, is still needed. PMID:27489711

  16. Rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Michitsugu; Yokoi, Hidenori; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Yuma; Yamanaka, Hidetaka; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Saito, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who had rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity. A 72-year-old woman had undergone surgery for frontal sinusitis via external incision at another hospital 13 years previously. Left-sided hemiparesis appeared in the patient and gradually worsened. Five days later, she exhibited disorientation, abnormal behavior, poor articulation, and difficulty in standing. Therefore, she was taken to the neurosurgery department by ambulance. An extensive frontal sinus pyocele was suspected, and a cerebral abscess and edema of the frontal lobe were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. After antibiotics, steroid and glycerol were administered for a few weeks; disorientation and left hemiparesis improved. Next, craniotomy for complete removal of the brain abscess by neurosurgeons and endoscopic endonasal surgery by otolaryngologists were carried out at the same surgery. From the analysis of the pathological mucosa sample taken from the right ethomoidal sinus during surgery, an inverted papilloma was diagnosed. The patient completely recovered and is currently receiving follow-up examination. Regarding rhinogenic intracranial complications, ascertaining clinical condition in order to determine the need for either immediate radical surgery, or for curative surgery after waiting for improvement of the overall body condition by conservative management, is still needed. PMID:27489711

  17. Molecular imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy for spontaneous nasal tumors in canines

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Tyler J.; Bowen, Stephen R.; Deveau, Michael; Kubicek, Lyndsay; White, Pamela; Bentzen, Søren M.; Chappell, Richard J.; Forrest, Lisa; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies so far have focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy to the GTV. Patients underwent FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging before therapy, and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to traditional SUV measures (eg, maximum SUV), imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to RECIST criteria. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed, but was restricted to two predictor variables due to the limited patient number. The best bivariable model was selected according to Pseudo R2. Results The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=0.011), midtreatment FLT SUVmean (P=0.018), and midtreatment FLT SUVmax (P=0.006). Large decreases in FLT SUVmean from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=0.013). In the bivariable model, the best two-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUVmax (P=0.022) in combination with large FLT response from pretreatment to midtreatment (P=0.041). Conclusions In addition to tumor volume, pronounced tumor proliferative response quantified using FLT PET, especially when associated with high residual FLT PET at midtreatment, is a negative prognostic

  18. Scanning electron microscope observations on the monogenean parasite Paraquadriacanthus nasalis from the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt with a note on some surface features of its microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Safaa Zaky

    2012-05-01

    Surface features of the monogenean Paraquadriacanthus nasalis Ergens, 1988 (quoted by Kritsky, 1990) inhabiting the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus were studied for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The anterior adhesive areas possess two slit-like openings. Many small openings were detected on the tegument covering the anterior-most region of the head. Some considerably large openings were also found in the median region between the two slit-like openings of the adhesive sacs. A transverse slit-like mouth opening with two lip-like structures was detected on the ventral surface of the body. Three types of presumed sensory structures were found associated with the tegument of the anterior adhesive area and anterior region of the body. These are surface ciliary sensilla, dome-shaped structures, and many spherical structures. The possible functions of these presumed sensory structures were discussed. The tegument covering the anterior adhesive area lacks microvilli, while the tegument covering the haptor is associated with microvilli. The haptoral sclerites were found in two different positions. Some surface features of the nasal cavities of C. gariepinus (microhabitat of P. nasalis) were also studied using scanning electron microscopy. Many lamellae-like and spine-like structures were recognized. The epithelium lining in some regions of the nasal cavities has small and large openings and covered with mucus. The possible roles of some haptoral sclerites in the attachment of the parasite to the host tissues were discussed. PMID:22015385

  19. Effect of nasal decongestion on voice spectrum of a nasal consonant-vowel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H; Wang, Ching-Ping; Kuo, Terry B J

    2005-03-01

    The nasal cavity and its related structures make significant contributions to human phonation, especially the resonance of voice spectra. The voice spectra of the nasal consonant-vowel (CV), [md:], in the subjects with nasal obstruction were obtained and were compared with the spectra of the same CV vocalized by the same subjects after topical nasal decongestion treatment with 1:1000 epinephrine solution. Results revealed that the intensity damping was more marked in the high-frequency area (>1600 Hz) after the nasal decongestion. Moreover, the intensities of the spectral valleys damped more than the spectral peaks, especially the spectral valley of 1000-2700 Hz. Therefore, a more complex spectral pattern was formed by the resultant uneven damping effect after nasal decongestion. The nasal cavity plays an important role in the formation of spectral peaks and valleys, and such engraved voice spectra may also characterize nasal voices like the nasal CV [md:] demonstrated in our study. PMID:15766851

  20. Novel strategy for orbital tumor resection: surgical "displacement" into the maxillary cavity.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Kazuhide; Fu, Rong; Nakao, Yuzo

    2006-11-01

    Surgical intervention consisting of lateral orbitotomy, the indication of which is extremely wide for orbital tumor surgery, has been applied in cases of large, retrobulbar cavernous hemangioma. However, no method exists involving displacement of the tumor from the crowded orbital contents, with the exception of tumor traction toward the outer side. The impact of traction force on the fragile hemangioma is extremely traumatic and dangerous. The authors examined how a tumor might be "displaced" in the absence of traction force effect, into an appropriate cavity neighboring the orbit. The maxillary sinus may afford the most suitable space to shift the laterally situated orbital tumor. Thus, the osteotomy level was extended to the lateral half of the inferior orbital floor and orbital rim in order to displace the tumor through an "escape window" of sufficient size between the orbit and maxilla. This report describes the treatment of two cases with long histories of progressive proptosis associated with retrobulbar large cavernous hemangiomas. This novel procedure resulted in a successful outcome. The current approach and management, which involves displacement of the tumor into the maxillary sinus through the orbital floor escape window, is a novel procedure for orbital tumor surgery. PMID:17119440

  1. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  2. Mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity: clinico-pathologic and molecular study of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Furlan, Daniela; Franzi, Francesca; Battaglia, Paolo; Frattini, Milo; Zanellato, Elena; Marando, Alessandro; Sahnane, Nora; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Capella, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITACs) are rare neoplasms histologically resembling intestinal adenocarcinomas. Although a neuroendocrine differentiation in ITACs has been described, true mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30 % of the lesion, are extremely rare and their molecular alterations are largely unknown. We describe herein the clinico-pathologic features, the methylation profile, chromosomal gains and losses, and mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF and p53 in a nasal mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma resected in a 79-year-old man. The tumor was composed of an ITAC and a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Both exocrine and neuroendocrine components were CK8, CK20, CDX2 and p53 positive, and CK7 and TTF1 negative. The neuroendocrine component also showed immunoreactivity for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and glicentin. Gains and losses were found at following chromosome regions: 17p13 (TP53), 14q24 (MLH3), 19q13 (KLK3), 5q21 (APC), 7q21 (CDK6), 9q34 (DAPK1), 12p13 (TNFRSF 1A, CDKN1B), 13q12 (BRCA2), 17p13.3 (HIC1), 18q21 (BCL2), and 22q12 (TIMP3). Aberrant methylation was detected only in the neuroendocrine component and involved APC and DAPK1 genes. No mutation of KRAS (exons 2-4), BRAF (exon 15), and p53 (exons 4-10) was found in both components. The results suggest a monoclonal origin of the tumor from a pluripotent cell undergoing a biphenotypic differentiation and that the neuroendocrine differentiation may be from an exocrine to an endocrine pathway. We have also reviewed the literature on sinonasal mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas to give to the reader a comprehensive overview of these very rare tumor types. PMID:22740238

  3. [Personal experience in the surgery of nasal sinus polyps].

    PubMed

    García Juncal, J; Soto Sánchez, C; Farina Conde, J; Rodríguez Alvarez, E; Estrada Gromaz, J

    1994-01-01

    Personal opinions on surgery of polyps of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, including from simple polypectomy to ethmoid microsurgery and nasal endoscopic surgery. The diagnostic importance of tomodensitometry and the essential postsurgical care are emphasized. The results of 29 patients with polyps of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses treated with intranasal microsurgery and endoscopic surgery are reported. PMID:8068361

  4. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tooth may hurt even without stimulation (spontaneous toothache). If irreversible damage to the pulp occurs and ... To detect cavities early, a dentist inquires about pain, examines the teeth, probes the teeth with dental instruments, and may take x-rays. People should ...

  5. Newborn nasal obstruction due to congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo; Silva, Vanessa; Hazboun, Igor; Paschoal, Jorge; Maunsell, Rebecca; Sakano, Eulalia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nasal obstruction is an important condition that can lead to severe respiratory distress in newborns. There are several differential diagnoses, and one of them is congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS). CNPAS is a rare case of respiratory distress caused by excessive growth of the nasal process of the maxilla and leads to narrowing of the anterior third of the nasal cavity. Diagnosis, associated anomalies, and treatment strategies are reviewed by the following presentation of two cases. Case Presentation: We report two cases of infants diagnosed with CNPAS. The patients in the first case had no concomitant comorbidities, and the outcome was successful after surgical correction of stenosis. The patient in the second case had an associated holoprosencephaly, and although surgical correction and nasal cavity patency, the patient remains dependent on tracheostomy due to dysphagia and neurologic impairment. Discussion: Airway obstruction affects 1 in 5000 children, and CNPAS is a diagnosis frequently forgotten and even unknown to neonatal and pediatric intensivists. Newborns are obligate nasal breathers, and, nasal obstruction, therefore, can lead to severe respiratory distress. CNPAS is not only rare but, many times, is not easily recognized. It is important to bear in mind the diagnostic criteria when evaluating infants with nasal obstruction. Conservative treatment should be prioritized, but surgical treatment is required in severe cases with failure to thrive and persistent respiratory distress. Respiratory distress and dysphagia may persist to some degree despite correction of the stenotic pyriform aperture due to associated narrowing of the entire nasal cavity and association with other anomalies. Final Comments: CNPAS is a rare condition and may be lethal in newborns. Differential diagnosis of nasal obstruction must be remembered to recognize this anomaly, and the otolaryngologist must be familiarized with this condition and its

  6. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Afrin® Nasal Spray ... Anefrin® Nasal Spray ... Dristan® Nasal Spray ... Mucinex® Nasal Spray ... Nostrilla® Nasal Spray ... Vicks Sinex® Nasal Spray ... Zicam® Nasal Spray ... Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It is also used to ...

  7. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Oral Cavity: Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 21 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vanguri, Vijay; Allen, Carl M.; Eversole, Lewis Roy; Wright, John M.; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2009-01-01

    We describe clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of 21 cases of solitary fibrous tumor presenting in the oral cavity. There were 9 male and 12 female patients with a median age of 51 years (range 37–83). The most common locations included the buccal mucosa (the most common site), lip, maxillary or mandibular vestibule and tongue. Histopathologic examination showed well-circumscribed tumors with two well-defined patterns: the classic pattern with densely cellular areas alternating with hypocellular areas in a variably collagenous, vascular stroma and a more uniformly sclerotic pattern with only subtle classic areas. The spindle-shaped neoplastic cells consistently showed immunoreactivity for antibodies directed against CD34. Five of nineteen cases (26%) were reactive for CD99 and 19 of 19 for Bcl-2. Follow-up information was available in 17 cases and averaged 54 months, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis in any of these patients. Awareness that solitary fibrous tumor may present in the oral cavity is important so that confusion with other spindle cell neoplasms can be avoided. We also briefly describe the differential diagnosis and compare this series, the largest single series of intraoral SFT, to cases previously reported in the literature. PMID:19644541

  8. Neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, Masao; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2008-12-12

    Antigen-transporting cells take up pathogens, and then migrate from sites of inflammation to secondary lymphoid tissues to induce an immune response. Among antigen-transporting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be the most potent and professional antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate naive T cells. However, the cells that transport antigens, tumor cell antigens in particular, have not been clearly identified. In this study we have analyzed what types of cells transport tumor cell antigens to secondary lymphoid tissues. We show that neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages but not DCs engulf X-irradiated P388 leukemic cells after their injection into the peritoneal cavity, and that neutrophils and monocytes but not macrophages migrate to the parathymic lymph nodes (pLN), the blood, and then the spleen. The monocytes in the pLN comprise Gr-1{sup -} and Gr-1{sup +} ones, and some of these cells express CD11c. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  9. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  10. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  11. The Dynamic Tumor Bed: Volumetric Changes in the Lumpectomy Cavity During Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, Brendan; Indelicato, Daniel J. Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Saito, Anneyuko I.; Lightsey, Judith L.; Snead, Felicia E.; Morris, Christopher G.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude of volume change in the postoperative tumor bed before and during radiotherapy, and to identify any factors associated with large volumetric change. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six consecutive patients with early-stage or preinvasive breast cancer underwent breast-conserving therapy at our institution between June 2006 and October 2007. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the breast were obtained shortly after surgery, before the start of radiotherapy (RT) for treatment planning, and, if applicable, before the tumor bed boost. Postoperative changes, seroma, and surgical clips were used to define the tumor bed through consensus agreement of 3 observers (B.P., D.I., and J.L.). Multiple variables were examined for correlation with volumetric change. Results: Between the first and last scan obtained (median time, 7.2 weeks), the tumor bed volume decreased at least 20% in 86% of patients (n = 31) and at least 50% in 64% of patients (n = 23). From the postoperative scan to the planning scan (median time, 3 weeks), the tumor bed volume decreased by an average of 49.9%, or approximately 2.1% per postoperative day. From planning scan to boost scan (median interval, 7 weeks), the median tumor bed volume decreased by 44.6%, at an average rate of 0.95% per postoperative day. No single factor was significantly associated with a change in tumor bed volume greater than 20%. Conclusions: The average postlumpectomy cavity undergoes dramatic volumetric change after surgery and continues this change during RT. The rate of change is inversely proportional to the duration from surgery. In this study no factors studied predicted large volumetric change.

  12. Postirradiation sarcoma of the head and neck: a report of three late sarcomas following therapeutic irradiation for primary malignancies of the paranasal sinus, nasal cavity, and larynx. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Coia, L.R.; Fazekas, J.T.; Kramer, S.

    1980-11-01

    Sarcoma of the head and neck region following irradiation for primary malignancy other than retinoblastoma has rarely been reported. Three cases of postirradiation sarcoma arising in the head and neck region following definitive radiotherapy for primary malignancies of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and larynx are presented. The dosage ranged from 6000 to 6400 rads using conventional fractionation on a /sup 60/Cobalt teletherapy unit. Methotrexate was utilized during the initial course of radiation in two of the three patients. The cases conform well to established criteria for the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma.

  13. A new species of Nasicola Yamaguti, 1968 (Monogenea: Capsalidae) from the nasal cavities of Thunnnus obesus and a redescription of N. klawei (Stunkard, 1962) from T. albacares off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kohn, A; Baptista-Farias, M F; dos Santos, A L; Gibson, D I

    2004-01-01

    Two species of Nasicola Yamaguti, 1968 are described from the nasal cavities of tunas ( Thunnus spp.) from off the coast of Brazil: N. brasiliensis n. sp. from T. obesus (Lowe) and the type-species, N. klawei (Stunkard, 1962), from T. albacares (Bonn.). The new species is differentiated from N. klawei on the basis of the large number of testes and from N. hogansi Wheeler & Beverley-Burton, 1986 by its greater body-size, proportionately smaller haptor and smaller number of marginal spines. The host-specificity of Nasicola spp. is commented upon. PMID:14739675

  14. Nose, Nasal Cavities & Paranasal Sinuses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  15. Bradykinin metabolism in rat and sheep nasal secretions.

    PubMed

    Chung, F Y; Donovan, M D

    1995-07-01

    The nasal secretions are the first barrier that nasally administered drugs encounter. Therefore, the characterization of peptide metabolism in the nasal secretions is essential to predict nasal peptide bioavailability. Metabolism of bradykinin was measured in rat and sheep nasal secretions to estimate the extent of degradation of nasally administered peptide compounds. A single-pass, in situ nasal perfusion technique was employed to collect secretions for the investigation of peptide metabolism in rat nasal secretions. The protein content, mucin concentration, and degree of bradykinin metabolism in perfusate aliquots collected over a 2-h period showed that the early perfusate fractions contained most of the active secretory materials. Evidence of continuous mucus secretion and plasma extravasation was found in the nasal perfusate throughout the entire collection period. Sheep nasal secretions were collected with a cotton pledget inserted into the nasal cavity. Bradykinin and its fragments were degraded by carboxypeptidases and endopeptidases present in both rat and sheep nasal secretions. Hydrolysis of Phe5-Ser6 was the major metabolism pathway of bradykinin in the rat nasal perfusate, whereas in sheep nasal secretions, hydrolysis of the Pro7-Phe8 and Phe8-Arg9 bonds also occurred. Evidence of angiotensin converting enzyme, carboxypeptide N, and aminopeptidase activity was identified in the rat nasal perfusate with specific substrates and inhibitors. The activity of these and other enzymes in the nasal secretions may significantly limit the bioavailability of nasally administered peptide drugs prior to their exposure to the nasal mucosal tissues. PMID:7562432

  16. Nasal reconstruction after epithelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present our procedure for the treatment, histopathological diagnosis, and resection of skin cancer in the nasal pyramid and its subsequent reconstruction. Because we are dealing with the most important anatomical feature of the face our goal is an aesthetic reconstruction [2,4] according to the anatomical subunits criterion of Burget [3]. First, a histopathological diagnosis is made to determine the nature of the tumor. Then, we proceed with the resection according to the Mohs Micrographic Surgery [1,5,7]. Then we begin with the first step of the nasal reconstruction. PMID:11568830

  17. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  18. Comparative pathology of the nasal mucosa in laboratory animals exposed to inhaled irritants

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R. )

    1990-04-01

    The nasal cavity is susceptible to chemically induced injury as a result of exposure to inhaled irritants. Some responses of the nasal mucosa to inhaled toxicants are species specific. These species-related differences in response may be due to variations in structural, physiologic, and biochemical factors, such as gross nasal cavity structure, distribution of luminal epithelial cell populations along the nasal airway, intranasal airflow patterns, nasal mucociliary apparatus, and nasal xenobiotic metabolism among animal species. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy and irritant-induced pathology of the nasal cavity in laboratory animals. The toxicologist, pathologist, and environmental risk assessor must have a good working knowledge of the similarities and differences in normal nasal structure and response to injury among species before they can select animal models for nasal toxicity studies, recognize toxicant-induced lesions in the nasal airway, and extrapolate experimental results to estimate the possible effects of an inhaled toxicant on the human nasal airway.

  19. Experimental transmission of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious neoplasm of the secretory epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa of sheep and goats. It is associated with the betaretrovirus, enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), but a causative relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, 14-day-old lambs were experimentally infected via nebulization with cell-free tumor filtrates derived from naturally occurring cases of ENA. At 12 weeks post-infection (wpi), one of the five infected lambs developed clinical signs, including continuous nasal discharge and open mouth breathing, and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed the presence of a large bilateral tumor occupying the nasal cavity. At 45 wpi, when the study was terminated, none of the remaining infected sheep showed evidence of tumors either by computed tomography or post-mortem examination. ENTV-1 proviral DNA was detected in the nose, lung, spleen, liver and kidney of the animal with experimentally induced ENA, however there was no evidence of viral protein expression in tissues other than the nose. Density gradient analysis of virus particles purified from the experimentally induced nasal tumor revealed a peak reverse transcriptase (RT) activity at a buoyant density of 1.22 g/mL which was higher than the 1.18 g/mL density of peak RT activity of virus purified from naturally induced ENA. While the 1.22 g/mL fraction contained primarily immature unprocessed virus particles, mature virus particles with a similar morphology to naturally occurring ENA could be identified by electron microscopy. Full-length sequence analysis of the ENTV-1 genome from the experimentally induced tumor revealed very few nucleotide changes relative to the original inoculum with only one conservative amino acid change. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ENTV-1 is associated with transmissible ENA in sheep and that under experimental conditions, lethal tumors are capable of developing in as little as 12 wpi demonstrating the

  20. Extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma of the palate and paranasal sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaos, Nikitakis; Grigorios, Polyzois; Konstantinos, Katoumas; Savvas, Titsinides; Vassiliki, Zolota; Alexandra, Sklavounou; Theodoros, Papadas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Extranodal nasal-type natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma represents a rare entity, typically originating in the nasal cavity, palate or midfacial region. Signs and symptoms include non-specific rhinitis and/or sinusitis, nasal obstruction, epistaxis, facial swelling and development of deep necrotic ulceration in the midline of the palate, causing an oronasal defect. Differential diagnosis includes fungal infections, Wegener’s granulomatosis, tertiary syphilis, other non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and malignant epithelial midline tumors. Case Report: We present a case of a 40-year-old man complaining of headache, facial pain, nasal congestion and fever. Examination revealed a large deep necrotic ulcer in the middle of the palate, presenting as an oronasal defect. Endoscopic rhinoscopy revealed crusts in the nasal cavities, moderate perforation of the nasal septum cartilage and contraction of the middle and inferior conchae. Computer tomography showed occupation of the maxillary sinuses, ethmoidal cells and sphenoidal sinus by a hyperdense soft tissue mass. Laboratory investigation revealed increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A wide excision of the lesion was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation established the diagnosis of extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy, involved-field radiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. A removable partial denture with obturator was fabricated and inserted to relieve problems caused by the oronasal defect. Conclusions: Extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma is a very aggressive, rapidly progressing malignant neoplasm with a poor prognosis, which can be improved by early diagnosis and combined treatment. PMID:23569495

  1. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  2. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose is constantly exposed to inhaled debris and microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungus). The respiratory system has ... Mucus is designed to trap inhaled particles (including microbes) that are subsequently cleared from the airways. Nasal ...

  3. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  4. Septoplasty and decongestant improve distribution of nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jiaoping; Fan, Yunping; Feng, Shaoyan; Xia, Wentong; Wang, Jingqing; Li, Huabin

    2011-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the intranasal distribution of nasal spray after nasal septal correction and decongestant administration. A cohort of 20 patients was assessed for the distribution of nasal spray before and after nasal septum surgery. Sprays were dyed and administered one puff per nostril when patients hold their head up in an upright position. Before and after decongestant administration, the intranasal distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by nasal endoscopy. The results showed that the dyed drug was preferentially sprayed onto the nasal vestibule, the head of the inferior turbinate, the anterior part of septum and nasal floor. As far as the anterior-inferior segment of the nasal cavity was concerned, the distribution was found to be influenced neither by the decongestant nor by the surgery (P>0.05). However, both the decongestant and surgery expanded the distribution to the anatomical structures in the superior and posterior nasal cavity such as olfactory fissure, middle turbinate head and middle nasal meatus. No distribution was observed in the sphenoethmoidal recess, posterior septum, tail of inferior turbinate and nasopharynx. It was concluded that nasal septum surgery and decongestant administration significantly improves nasal spray distribution in the nasal cavity. PMID:22173509

  5. Nasal dissemination of a single-clone IgH-rearranged conjunctival MALT lymphoma through the nasolacrimal duct: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chung-Yu; Liao, Yi-Ping; Wu, Chia-Che; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun; Roan, Rachel; Liew, Phui-Ly; Lai, Ming-Tang; Lee, Feipeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report a rare case of single-clone, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH)-rearranged mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the conjunctiva, with nasal cavity dissemination through the nasolacrimal duct. A 24-year-old female was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma of the nasal cavity at the Department of Otolaryngology, Wan Fang Medical Center, Taipei Medical University (Tapei, Taiwan) in October 2008. A biopsy of the relapsing conjunctival lesion revealed a MALT lymphoma by pathological staining, while a single-clone, IgH-rearranged tumor lesion in the nasal cavity and conjunctiva was confirmed using continuous sinus computed tomography scans and polymerase chain reaction. Tumor lesions were negative for Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia infection, but exhibited bilateral neck lymph node dissemination. A combination of radiation therapy (a total dosage of 46.8 Gray, in two phases covering the left lacrimal sac, nasal cavity and bilateral neck region) and topical ciprofloxacin plus steroid (0.3% ciprofloxacin 4 times a day and betamethasone eye ointment before sleep for 1 month) was provided as an effective therapeutic strategy, and no recurrence was found in the next 3 years. The nasolacrimal duct serves as a channel for conjunctival tumor spreading and is easily neglected. IgH-involved translocation in MALT lymphoma is a factor in the progression of the disease, and aggressive combination therapy is essential for a high-risk, disseminated IgH-rearranged MALT lymphoma.

  6. Mediastinal Single Nodal Relapse of a Nasal Nk/T cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyoung Hoon; Hong, Seok Chan; An, Jeong Min; Huh, Jooryung; Sook, Ryu Jin; Lee, Jin Seong

    2007-01-01

    A nasal NK/T cell lymphoma is a very aggressive form of lymphoma. Patterns of relapse after treatment have not been systematically evaluated, and mediastinal nodal relapse at a primary site has never been documented. We describe here a 40-year old man who presented with a nasal obstruction caused by a protruding mass that was identified as a nasal NK/T cell lymphoma. The initial work-up, including chest and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET), showed no regional or distant metastasis. A CT scan performed following three cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) showed that the mass had nearly disappeared. Radiation therapy undertaken following chemotherapy was given to the primary site. However, PET performed following radiotherapy revealed a single mediastinal lymphadenopathy, with no evidence of residual tumor in the nasal cavity. A biopsy using video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) showed the presence of a recurrent NK/T cell lymphoma with an immunophenotype identical to that of the primary nasal lymphoma. An additional three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy were administered, and the patient remains alive, with no evidence of disease 30 months after the initial relapse. These findings indicate that early detection with PET and prompt surgical excision with the use of VATS can lead to successful treatment of a relapsed nasal NK/T cell lymphoma. PMID:17939339

  7. Mediastinal single nodal relapse of a nasal NK/T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung Hoon; Hong, Seok Chan; An, Jeong Min; Huh, Jooryung; Sook, Ryu Jin; Lee, Jin Seong; Suh, Cheolwon

    2007-09-01

    A nasal NK/T cell lymphoma is a very aggressive form of lymphoma. Patterns of relapse after treatment have not been systematically evaluated, and mediastinal nodal relapse at a primary site has never been documented. We describe here a 40-year old man who presented with a nasal obstruction caused by a protruding mass that was identified as a nasal NK/T cell lymphoma. The initial work-up, including chest and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET), showed no regional or distant metastasis. A CT scan performed following three cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) showed that the mass had nearly disappeared. Radiation therapy undertaken following chemotherapy was given to the primary site. However, PET performed following radiotherapy revealed a single mediastinal lymphadenopathy, with no evidence of residual tumor in the nasal cavity. A biopsy using video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) showed the presence of a recurrent NK/T cell lymphoma with an immunophenotype identical to that of the primary nasal lymphoma. An additional three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy were administered, and the patient remains alive, with no evidence of disease 30 months after the initial relapse. These findings indicate that early detection with PET and prompt surgical excision with the use of VATS can lead to successful treatment of a relapsed nasal NK/T cell lymphoma. PMID:17939339

  8. Alvespimycin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-09

    and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  9. Nasal endoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Nasal endoscopy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  10. Giant and high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the abdomino-pelvic cavity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUJIAO; PENG, JIE; HUANG, JINBAI

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are benign mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical presentations of patients with GIST are variable and may be non-specific. The current study reports the case of a 66-year-old man that presented with a gradual enlargement of the abdomen, emaciation, hyperhidrosis and frequent and urgent micturition. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed a large, heterogeneous, low density mass that occupied the entire abdomino-pelvic cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified a high signal intensity on the T2 weighted image and an intermediate signal intensity on the T1 weighted image. A contrast enhanced CT scan and MRI demonstrated the uptake of contrast material. A biopsy revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells, and immunohistochemical analysis identified the presence of mast/stem cell growth factor receptors. Together, these results lead to a diagnosis of GIST. The clinical findings, imaging modalities and pathological studies suggested that the GIST was a large and high-risk tumor located in the abdomino-pelvic cavity. The final surgical results confirmed these findings. Following conservative treatment with imatnib (400 mg, daily) for 6 months, the tumor became smaller and was suitable for surgery, which the patient received in December 2014. The final surgery confirmed the high-risk GIST. Subsequent to the surgery, the patient was recommended to continue the use of imatnib with regular CT or MRI reexaminations every 3 months, which are planned to continue for 3 years. PMID:26998117

  11. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kimbell, J.S.; Frank, D.O.; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G.J.M.; Rhee, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning. PMID:24063885

  12. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  13. Nasal T cell lymphoma: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Maliha; Ikram, Mubasher; Junaid, Montasir

    2014-03-01

    Nasal type of Natural Killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma manifests in the nasal cavity. Approximately 95% of them are associated with EBV(Ebstein Barr Virus) with a strong predilection for the Asian population. It has certain systemic and localized symptoms which aid in diagnosis of the condition. However, the histological criteria is pivotal in confirming the diagnosis as well as aiding in confirming the association of EBV. Nasal type of NK/T cell lymphoma has a guarded prognosis. Treatment plan include radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Despite all this, the 5-year survival rate ranges from 15-75%. A 35 years old male presented with an ulcerative nasal lesion. Diagnosed as nasal type of NK/T cell lymphoma via a tissue biopsy, it was managed by chemo-radiotherapy leading to complete resolution of symptoms and disease free on his follow-up 6 months later. PMID:24718007

  14. An adjustment factor for mode-of-action uncertainty with dual-mode carcinogens: the case of naphthalene-induced nasal tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Kenneth T

    2008-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines for cancer risk assessment recognize that some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) involving mutation and cell-killing-induced hyperplasia. The guidelines recommend that for such dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment should be used to compare and assess results using separate "linear" (genotoxic) versus "nonlinear" (nongenotoxic) approaches to low-level risk extrapolation. Because the guidelines allow this only when evidence supports reliable risk extrapolation using a validated mechanistic model, they effectively prevent addressing MOA uncertainty when data do not fully validate such a model but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. An adjustment-factor approach is proposed to address this gap, analogous to reference-dose procedures used for classic toxicity endpoints. By this method, even when a "nonlinear" toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, the effect of DMOA uncertainty on low-dose risk can be addressed. Application of the proposed approach was illustrated for the case of risk extrapolation from bioassay data on rat nasal tumors induced by chronic lifetime exposure to naphthalene. Bioassay data, toxicokinetic data, and pharmacokinetic analyses were determined to indicate that naphthalene is almost certainly a DMOA carcinogen. Plausibility bounds on rat-tumor-type-specific DMOA-related uncertainty were obtained using a mechanistic two-stage cancer risk model adapted to reflect the empirical link between genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the most potent identified genotoxic naphthalene metabolites, 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone. Bound-specific adjustment factors were then used to reduce naphthalene risk estimated by linear extrapolation (under the default genotoxic MOA assumption), to account for the DMOA exhibited by this compound. PMID:18564993

  15. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other allergies, or ... nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray ...

  16. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%. PMID:23630172

  17. Nasal ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is likely to have an increasing role in the management of acute ventilatory failure, weaning, and chronic ventilatory problems. Further improvements in ventilator and mask design will be seen. Appropriate application is likely to reduce both mortality and admissions to intensive care, while domiciliary use can improve life expectancy and/or quality of life in chronic ventilatory disorders. As with any new technique, enthusiasm should not outweigh clear outcome information, and possible new indications should always be subject to careful assessment. Images Figure 2 PMID:9799887

  18. Leiomyoma: A rare tumor in the head and neck and oral cavity: Report of 3 cases with review

    PubMed Central

    Veeresh, M; Sudhakara, M; Girish, G; Naik, Charudatta

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from smooth muscle, most commonly seen in uterine myometrium, gastrointestinal tract, skin and lower extremities of middle-aged women. Leiomyomas are uncommon in the oral cavity with reported incidence of 0.065%, which accounts for 0.42% of all soft-tissue neoplasms in the oral cavity. Leiomyomas of head and neck region account for less than 1% of all leiomyomas. The most common site of leiomyoma in the head and neck region is the lips (27.46%) followed by tongue (18.30%), cheeks and palate (15.49%), gingiva (8.45%) and mandible (5.63%). The purpose of this article is to present three cases of leiomyoma comprising of an intraoral vascular leiomyoma and two solid leiomyomas in the head and neck region. The clinical features, etiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of leiomyoma are discussed with review of the literature. PMID:24250094

  19. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration. PMID:27380868

  20. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route.

    PubMed

    Jain, Darshana S; Bajaj, Amrita N; Athawale, Rajani B; Shikhande, Shruti S; Pandey, Abhijeet; Goel, Peeyush N; Gude, Rajiv P; Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. PMID:27040235

  1. Proton therapy for tumors of the base of the skull.

    PubMed

    Noel, Georges; Gondi, Vinai

    2016-08-01

    Relative to conventional photon irradiation, proton therapy has distinct advantages in its ability to more precisely target tumor while shielding adjacent normal tissues. In the setting of skull base tumors, proton therapy plays a critical role in the dose-escalation required for optimal tumor control of chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and malignancies of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. For benign tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas and meningiomas, proton therapy can limit long-term adverse effects, such as secondary malignancies. This review summarizes published literature to date regarding the role of proton therapy in skull base tumors and introduces emerging proton therapy approaches such as pencil-beam scanning (PBS). PMID:27558252

  2. Numerical study of the effect of the nasal cycle on unilateral nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Jo, Gyehwan; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of the nasal cycle on the modification of unilateral nasal resistance using nasal cavity models from 2 different patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. A steady airflow field with an inspiratory flow rate of 250 mL/s was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT v14.5. The distribution of local unilateral nasal resistance showed different shapes of variation and magnitudes of resistance depending on the distribution of cross-sectional area in the nasal cavity models. The highest local resistance on the congested side was found near the nasal valve area in the first patient, whereas the highest value was found in the nasal vestibule for the second patient. The relative importance of nasal resistance in the turbinated air passage differed for the 2 patients. The unilateral resistance of the congested state was in the range of 0.0229-0.221 Pas/mL. In the inferior meatus, greater flow rate was allowed during the congested state than during the decongested state if an extensive backflow developed. PMID:26315663

  3. Continuous sensing of tumor-targeted molecular probes with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashurama, Natesh; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; De La Zerda, Adam; El Kalassi, Pascale; Cho, Seongjae; Liu, Hongguang; Teed, Robert; Levy, Hart; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Cheng, Zhen; Levi, Ofer; Harris, James S.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2012-11-01

    Molecular optical imaging is a widespread technique for interrogating molecular events in living subjects. However, current approaches preclude long-term, continuous measurements in awake, mobile subjects, a strategy crucial in several medical conditions. Consequently, we designed a novel, lightweight miniature biosensor for in vivo continuous optical sensing. The biosensor contains an enclosed vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser and an adjacent pair of near-infrared optically filtered detectors. We employed two sensors (dual sensing) to simultaneously interrogate normal and diseased tumor sites. Having established the sensors are precise with phantom and in vivo studies, we performed dual, continuous sensing in tumor (human glioblastoma cells) bearing mice using the targeted molecular probe cRGD-Cy5.5, which targets αVβ3 cell surface integrins in both tumor neovasculature and tumor. The sensors capture the dynamic time-activity curve of the targeted molecular probe. The average tumor to background ratio after signal calibration for cRGD-Cy5.5 injection is approximately 2.43±0.95 at 1 h and 3.64±1.38 at 2 h (N=5 mice), consistent with data obtained with a cooled charge coupled device camera. We conclude that our novel, portable, precise biosensor can be used to evaluate both kinetics and steady state levels of molecular probes in various disease applications.

  4. Continuous sensing of tumor-targeted molecular probes with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser-based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Parashurama, Natesh; O’Sullivan, Thomas D.; De La Zerda, Adam; El Kalassi, Pascale; Cho, Seongjae; Liu, Hongguang; Teed, Robert; Levy, Hart; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Cheng, Zhen; Levi, Ofer; Harris, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Molecular optical imaging is a widespread technique for interrogating molecular events in living subjects. However, current approaches preclude long-term, continuous measurements in awake, mobile subjects, a strategy crucial in several medical conditions. Consequently, we designed a novel, lightweight miniature biosensor for in vivo continuous optical sensing. The biosensor contains an enclosed vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser and an adjacent pair of near-infrared optically filtered detectors. We employed two sensors (dual sensing) to simultaneously interrogate normal and diseased tumor sites. Having established the sensors are precise with phantom and in vivo studies, we performed dual, continuous sensing in tumor (human glioblastoma cells) bearing mice using the targeted molecular probe cRGD-Cy5.5, which targets αVβ3 cell surface integrins in both tumor neovasculature and tumor. The sensors capture the dynamic time-activity curve of the targeted molecular probe. The average tumor to background ratio after signal calibration for cRGD-Cy5.5 injection is approximately 2.43±0.95 at 1 h and 3.64±1.38 at 2 h (N=5 mice), consistent with data obtained with a cooled charge coupled device camera. We conclude that our novel, portable, precise biosensor can be used to evaluate both kinetics and steady state levels of molecular probes in various disease applications. PMID:23123976

  5. Saline nasal irrigation: Its role as an adjunct treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Papsin, Blake; McTavish, Alison

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review clinical evidence on the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation for treatment of sinonasal conditions and to explore its potential benefits. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Clinical trials, reviews, and treatment guidelines discussing nasal irrigation were obtained through a MEDLINE search from January 1980 to December 2001. Most trials were small and some were not controlled; evidence, therefore, is level II, or fair. MAIN MESSAGE: Flushing the nasal cavity with saline solution promotes mucociliary clearance by moisturizing the nasal cavity and by removing encrusted material. The procedure has been used safely for both adults and children, and has no documented serious adverse effects. Patients treated with nasal irrigation rely less on other medications and make fewer visits to physicians. Treatment guidelines in both Canada and the United States now advocate use of nasal irrigation for all causes of rhinosinusitis and for postoperative cleaning of the nasal cavity. CONCLUSION: Nasal irrigation is a simple, inexpensive treatment that relieves the symptoms of a variety of sinus and nasal conditions, reduces use of medical resources, and could help minimize antibiotic resistance. PMID:12619739

  6. Soft tissue tumors of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Johncilla, Melanie; Jo, Vickie Y

    2016-03-01

    Primary soft tissue tumors arising in the sinonasal tract are rare. While many mesenchymal neoplasms have been reported in the nasal cavity, sinuses, and nasopharynx, few are distinctive to this anatomic region. Some tumor types are relatively more common in this area, such as schwannoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and sinonasal hemangiopericytoma are unique entities of the sinonasal tract, as well as the recently characterized biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma. This review discusses the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features and currently known molecular data of the more frequently encountered soft tissue tumors of the sinonasal tract. PMID:26472693

  7. Hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  8. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  9. Numerical Analysis of the Relationship between Nasal Structure and Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shen; Sun, Xiu-zhen; Liu, Ying-xi

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the nasal cavity are closely related to its structure. In this study the three-dimensional finite element models were established based on the clinical data of twenty-four volunteers to study the influence of nasal structure on nasal functions of heating the inhaled airflow. Numerical simulations mainly concerning the airflow distribution and the airflow temperature are performed. The character of airflow heating process in these models is gained from the simulation results of these nasal cavities. The parameters describing the geometry of nasal cavity, such as the surface area of nasal airway and the volume of nasal cavity, are considered to be related to the nasal function of heating the inhaled airflow. The approximate function describing the relationship between the geometric parameters of the nasal airway and the nasal functions is gotten. This study can provide a numerical platform for studying some clinical problems and will contribute to the further research on the relationship between nasal structure and nasal functions. PMID:24672336

  10. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    PubMed Central

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y.; Magkou, Christina; Lae, Marick

    2015-01-01

    Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years) presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm) showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery. PMID:26351605

  11. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  12. Nonneoplastic nasal lesions in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Monticello, T M; Morgan, K T; Uraih, L

    1990-01-01

    Rodents are commonly used for inhalation toxicology studies, but until recently the nasal passages have often been overlooked or only superficially examined. The rodent nose is a complex organ in which toxicant-induced lesions may vary, depending on the test compound. A working knowledge of rodent nasal anatomy and histology is essential for the proper evaluation of these responses. Lack of a systematic approach for examining rodent nasal tissue has led to a paucity of information regarding nonneoplastic lesions in the rodent nose. Therefore, slides from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) were examined, and the literature was reviewed to assemble the spectrum of nonneoplastic rodent nasal pathology. Presented are lesions associated with the various types of epithelia lining the rodent nasal cavity plus lesions involving accessory nasal structures. Even though there are anatomic and physiologic differences between the rodent and human nose, both rats and mice provide valuable animal models for the study of nasal epithelial toxicity, following administration of chemical compounds. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PLATE 26. PLATE 27. PLATE 28. PLATE 29. PLATE 30. PLATE 31. PLATE 32. PLATE 33. PLATE 34. PLATE 35. PLATE 36. PLATE 37. PLATE 38. PMID:2200665

  13. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  14. Nasal Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis with Orbital Extension.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Moghimi, Mansour; Sharouny, Hadi; Behniafard, Nasim

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is an extremely rare, chronic, benign, idiopathic disorder that mostly affects the upper respiratory tract, particularly the nasal cavity, and features progressive submucosal perivascular fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of EAF with orbital involvement have been reported. We report a case of sinonasal EAF with orbital extension that presented with left nasolacrimal duct obstruction. A 35-year-old man presented with left epiphora, proptosis, anterolateral globe displacement and nasal obstruction. Endoscopic sinus examination showed a firm, gritty, creamy, yellow, fibrous, adherent mass of maxillary sinus. Diagnosis was established with histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of the lesion. Although EAF is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of upper airway tract, particularly the nasal cavity. Biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and treatment planning. Resecting of the involved tissues completely is essential for prevention of recurrence. PMID:25601283

  15. Nose and Nasal Planum Neoplasia, Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Worley, Deanna R

    2016-07-01

    Most intranasal lesions are best treated with radiation therapy. Computed tomographic imaging with intravenous contrast is critical for treatment planning. Computed tomographic images of the nose will best assess the integrity of the cribriform plate for central nervous system invasion by a nasal tumor. Because of an owner's emotional response to an altered appearance of their dog's face, discussions need to include the entire family before proceeding with nasal planectomy or radical planectomy. With careful case selection, nasal planectomy and radical planectomy surgeries can be locally curative. PMID:26968300

  16. Effects of an external nasal dilator strip (ENDS) compared to xylometazolin nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Høyvoll, L R; Lunde, K; Li, Henrik S; Dahle, S; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Steinsvåg, S K

    2007-11-01

    Nasal blockage is a common complaint in Family Practice. Decongestive nosedrops are frequently employed therapeutic measures. Due to a considerable risk of abuse and side effects, alternatives are wanted. The purpose of this study was to elucidate to what extent ENDS might represent an alternative to decongestive nose sprays (DNS). The effects of DNS (xylometazolin) and ENDS (BreatheRight) on subjective and objective nasal blockage were compared in 89 patients. Main outcome measures were recordings of nasal symptom scores on visual analogue scales (VAS), minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA) and nasal cavity volumes (NCV) as measured by acoustic rhinometry (AR), and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). ENDS significantly increased the MCA and the NCV in the anterior 0.0-3.0 cm of the nose compared to DNS, but had no effect on MCA from 3.0 to 5.4 cm behind the nostrils. In contrast to DNS, ENDS had no effect on the posterior NCV. ENDS and DNS gave comparable increase in nasal inspiratory flow as measured by PNIF, and in the subject's own experience of nasal obstruction. ENDS may represent an alternative to DNS as a measure against nasal blockage. PMID:17530269

  17. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunchuan; Liu, Honggang; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Hu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion. PMID:23634315

  18. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal wash (unless boiled or filtered ... water. You may use: Distilled water Sterilized water Tap water that has been boiled for 1 minute (at ...

  19. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ... device or a Water Pik® with a nasal irrigation nozzle. Warm water with baking soda or salt ( ...

  20. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men ...

  1. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. It ... nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose). Mometasone nasal spray should not be used to ...

  2. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  3. Nasal fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000554.htm Nasal fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose ...

  4. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  5. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic rhinitis symptoms , such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, or swelling of the nasal passageway Nasal ... Repeat these steps for the other nostril. Avoid sneezing or blowing your nose right after spraying.

  6. Treatment of nostril and nasal stenosis due to facial burn using a self-expandable metallic esophageal stent.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kuwon; Matsune, Shoji; Shiiba, Kyoko; Kimura, Maki; Okubo, Kimihiro; Kaneshiro, Tadashi; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Akira

    2015-08-01

    For the treatment of nasal and nostril stenosis caused by facial burn, it is necessary to perform rhinoplasty and nasal vestibuloplasty using various flaps, perform cicatrectomy of the nostrils with a rhinosurgical procedure, and prevent restenosis of the nostrils and nasal cavity for a certain period by methods such as placement of a nasal retainer or transnasal airway and gauze packing of the nasal cavity. With all methods, postoperative placement of a retainer or nasal treatment is necessary for the prevention of postoperative restenosis, and the patient's cooperation is essential. In a patient who did not cooperate in postoperative treatments due to autism and had recurrences of nasal and nostril stenosis after conventional surgical treatments, adequate patency of the nasal cavity and nostrils could be maintained with minimal postoperative treatment by placing a self-expandable metallic esophageal stent. PMID:25748514

  7. Esophageal metastasis secondary to extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MO, ZHENG-YING; WANG, PING; YANG, HONG-WEI; LI, WEN-BIN; LIANG, QING-LE

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of recurrent nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma in a 21-year-old male patient. The patient presented with an esophageal mass, fever and difficulty in swallowing. There were no other obvious sites of recurrence apart from the esophageal lesion. Metastatic esophageal lesions are extremely rare. The histological analysis demonstrated a highly aggressive tumor with a characteristic angiodestructive growth pattern and nasal cavity necrosis. The lymphoma cells were immunopositive for leukocyte common antigen, T-cell intracytoplasmic antigen 1 and CD68, negative for CD56 and CD3, and positive for Epstein-Barr virus. A computed tomography scan revealed mild thickening of the wall of the lower esophagus. The barium swallow revealed stiffness of the esophageal wall, with limited expansion and mucosal damage. The final diagnosis was primary nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma, with metastasis to the esophagus. Clinically, it is important to distinguish nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma from other types of tumors, as its prognosis and treatment of secondary metastases differ significantly. PMID:27330799

  8. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  9. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    Salt water washes; Nasal irrigation; Nasal lavage; Sinusitis - nasal wash ... by mixing: 3 teaspoons (tsp) canning or pickling salt (no iodine) 1 tsp baking soda 1 cup warm distilled, filtered, or boiled water To use the wash: Fill the device with ...

  10. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is recommended by a doctor. Children 6 to 12 years of age should use oxymetazoline nasal spray carefully and under adult supervision. Oxymetazoline is in a class of medications called nasal decongestants. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages.

  11. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  12. Disabling the mitotic spindle and tumor growth by targeting a cavity-induced allosteric site of survivin

    PubMed Central

    Berezov, A; Cai, Z; Freudenberg, JA; Zhang, H; Cheng, X; Thompson, T; Murali, R; Greene, MI; Wang, Q

    2012-01-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family and has an essential role in mitosis. Survivin is overexpressed in a large variety of human cancers and represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor and Her/neu-transformed human tumors in particular exhibit high levels of survivin. The survivin protein forms dimers through a conserved region that is critical for subcellular localization and biological functions of the protein. We identified small molecules that target a specific cavity adjacent to the survivin dimerization surfaces. S12, a lead compound identified in the screen, can bind to the survivin protein at the intended target site. Moreover, S12 alters spindle formation, causing mitotic arrest and cell death, and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Cell death occurs in premetaphase stage following mitotic arrest and is not a consequence of general toxicity. Thus, the study validates a novel therapeutic target site in the survivin protein and provides a promising strategy to develop a new class of therapeutic small molecules for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:21892210

  13. Perception of better nasal patency correlates with increases in mucosal cooling after surgery for nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Corbin D.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1. Quantify mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) spatially in the nasal passages of nasal airway obstruction (NAO) patients before and after surgery using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 2. Correlate mucosal cooling with patient-reported symptoms, as measured by the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for sensation of nasal airflow. Study Design Prospective Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Computed tomography (CT) scans and NOSE and VAS surveys were obtained from 10 patients before and after surgery to relieve NAO. Three-dimensional models of each patient’s nasal anatomy were used to run steady-state CFD simulations of airflow and heat transfer during inspiration. Heat loss across the nasal vestibule and the entire nasal cavity, and the surface area of mucosa exposed to heat fluxes > 50 W/m2 were compared pre- and post-operatively. Results After surgery, heat loss increased significantly on the pre-operative most obstructed side (p values < 0.0002). A larger surface area of nasal mucosa was exposed to heat fluxes > 50 W/m2 after surgery. The best correlation between patient-reported and CFD measures of nasal patency was obtained for NOSE against surface area in which heat fluxes > 50 W/m2 (Pearson r = −0.76). Conclusion A significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients’ perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery. CFD-derived heat fluxes may prove to be a valuable predictor of success in NAO surgery. PMID:24154749

  14. Intranasal coadministration of Cholera toxin with amoeba lysates modulates the secretion of IgA and IgG antibodies, production of cytokines and expression of pIgR in the nasal cavity of mice in the model of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Lopez-Reyes, Israel; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Rodriguez-Cortes, Antonio Yahve; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Miliar-Garcia, Angel; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2014-11-01

    The nasal mucosa is the first contact with antigens to induce IgA response. The role of this site has rarely been studied. We have shown than intranasal administration with Naegleria fowleri lysates plus Cholera toxin (CT) increased the protection (survival up to 100%) against N. fowleri infection in mice and apparently antibodies IgA and IgG together with polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells avoid the attachment of N. fowleri to apical side of the nasal epithelium. We also observed that nasal immunization resulted in the induction of antigen-specific IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in nasal washes at days 3 and 9 after the challenge and IgA and IgG in the nasal cavity, compared to healthy and infected mice. We found that immunization with both treatments, N. fowleri lysates plus CT or CT alone, increased the expression of the genes for alpha chain, its receptor (pIgR), and it also increased the expression of the corresponding proteins evidenced by the ∼65 and ∼74kDa bands, respectively. Since the production of pIgR, IgA and IgG antibodies, is up-regulated by some factors, we analyzed the expression of genes for IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β by using RT-PCR of nasal passages. Immunization resulted in an increased expression of IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ cytokines. We also aimed to examine the possible influences of immunization and challenge on the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). We observed that the stimulus of immunization inhibits the production of TNF-α compared to the infected group where the infection without immunization causes an increase in it. Thus, it is possible that the coexistence of selected cytokines produced by our immunization model may provide a highly effective immunological environment for the production of IgA, IgG and pIgR as well as a strong activation of the PMN in mucosal effector tissue such as nasal passages. PMID:24731967

  15. Nasal Tip Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cerkes, Nazim

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tip deficiency can be congenital or secondary to previous nasal surgeries. Underdeveloped medial crura usually present with underprojected tip and lack of tip definition. Weakness or malposition of lateral crura causes alar rim retraction and lateral nasal wall weakness. Structural grafting of alar cartilages strengthens the tip framework, reinforces the disrupted support mechanisms, and controls the position of the nasal tip. In secondary cases, anatomic reconstruction of the weakened or interrupted alar cartilages and reconstitution of a stable nasal tip tripod must be the goal for a predictable outcome. PMID:26616702

  16. CT-Based Evaluation of Tumor Volume After Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy of Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Comparison with Clinical Remission Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Stefan Turowski, Bernd; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kovacs, Adorjan F.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the volume of locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity and the oropharynx before and after intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy by means of computed tomography and to compare these data with clinically determined treatment response of the same patient population. Methods. Eighty-eight patients with histologically proven, advanced carcinoma of the oral cavity and/or the oropharynx (local tumor stages T3/4) received neoadjuvant i.a. chemotherapy with cisplatin as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen, comprising (1) local chemotherapy, (2) surgery, and (3) combined radio-chemotherapy. Three weeks after the intervention, residual disease was evaluated radiologically by measurement of the tumor volume and clinically by inspection and palpation of the primary tumor according to WHO criteria. Results. Comparison of treatment response according to radiological and clinical criteria respectively revealed complete remission in 5% vs. 8% (p < 0.05), partial remission in 30% vs. 31%, stable disease in 61% vs. 58%, and tumor progression in 5% vs. 2%. Conclusion. Radiological volumetry and clinical evaluation found comparable response rates after local chemotherapy. However, in patients with good response after local treatment, volumetric measurement with CT may help to distinguish between partial and complete remission. Thus, radiological tumor volumetry provides precise and differentiated information about tumor response and should be used as an additional tool in treatment monitoring after local chemotherapy.

  17. Asymmetry in reflex responses of nasal muscles in anesthetized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, S I; Ishikawa, T; Sant'Ambrogio, G

    1998-07-01

    Nasal reflexes elicited by mechanical or electrical stimulation of nasal afferents were studied in anesthetized guinea pigs. Probing the nasal cavity of one side evoked a greater activation of the contralateral than the ipsilateral nasal muscles and, occasionally, sneezing. Similarly, electrical stimulation of the ethmoidal nerve often caused sneezing, with a greater activation of the nasal muscles and a greater increase in resistance on the contralateral side. Asymmetrical activation of the nasal muscles in response to mechanical stimuli induces asymmetrical airflows, especially during sneezing, between the two sides of the nasal cavity. Most of the expired air is forcibly blown out through the ipsilateral nostril, thus improving the elimination of irritants from the nose. PMID:9655764

  18. Cytotoxic effects of nasal buserelin on nasal mucosal tissue in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oghan, Fatih; Apuhan, Tayfun; Terzi, Hakan; Kukner, Aysel; Coksuer, Hakan; Yılmaz, Fahrettin

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effects of nasal buserelin on rabbit nasal mucosal tissue, twenty-four female rabbits were studied prospectively. The rabbits were divided into 4 groups including 6 rabbits. The rabbits' left noses were included in the all study groups: 150 μg/puff/day of buserelin acetate was administered topically twice daily during 21, 42 and 63 days. Saline was administered topically twice daily to the left nasal cavity in the control group. The nasal septal mucosal stripe tissue was carefully removed from underlaying cartilage after sedation. HE staining, Masson's trichrome, toluidine blue and TUNEL staining were used to evaluate mucosal changes. Each preparation was investigated via apoptotic cells, and they were accounted. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate nonparametric comparison of apoptotic cells. Mononuclear cells have been raised in the sub-epithelial connective tissue, nucleuses of epithelial cells in the apical region were pyknotic, and apoptotic cells were determined on 21-day group. In the 42-day group, nasal epithelial tissue was similar to 21-day group and epithelial cells including pyknotic nucleus were present in this group, too. In the 63-day group, epithelial cells were light colored. Venous sinuses in the sub-epithelial connective tissue were wide but not congested and not raised collagen filaments. In the intra-epithelial tissue, some of cells were TUNEL (+). Apoptotic cells were fewer in the control group according to 21-day group. In 42- and 63-day groups, these cells were fewer than in 21-day group. Numerical difference was present between the groups, but statistical significance was not found between the groups. We concluded that nasal buserelin cytotoxicity was not potent in the nasal cavity in rabbits. We use nasal buserelin in all indications with confidence. PMID:22160101

  19. Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Parsons, J.T.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal vestibule are essentially skin cancers that require special therapeutic considerations because of the regional anatomy. They have sometimes been considered poorly suited for treatment by irradiation because of potential or actual cartilage and/or bone invasion and therefore have been treated by surgical resection, sometimes producing defects that are difficult to reconstruct satisfactorily. From 1966 to April 1980, 13 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Florida. Eight lesions were de novo; 5 were recurrent after 1 or more surgical procedures. Treatment consisted of radium needle implantation and/or external beam therapy. Neck management was individualized. All de novo and 4 of 5 recurrent lesions were controlled locally. Cosmetic resultes were good in patients with de novo lesions. There were no instances of significant cartilage or soft tissue necrosis despite cartilage involvement by tumor in 6 cases.

  20. The Usefulness of Nasal Packing with Vaseline Gauze and Airway Silicone Splint after Closed Reduction of Nasal Bone Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Young; Kim, Sin Rak; Park, Jin Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Background Packing after closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture causes inconvenient nasal obstruction in patients. We packed the superior meatus with Vaseline gauze to support the nasal bone, and packed the middle nasal meatus with a Doyle Combo Splint consisting of an airway tube, a silastic sheet, and an expandable sponge to reduce the inconvenience. In addition, we aimed to objectively identify whether this method not only enables nasal respiration but also sufficiently supports the reduced nasal bone. Methods Nasal ventilation was measured via spirometry 1 day before surgery and compared to 1 day after surgery. To compare support of the reduced nasal bone by the 2 methods, 2 plastic surgeons assessed the displacementon X-rays taken after the surgery and after removing the packing. The extent of nasal obstruction, dry mouth, sleep disturbance, headache, and swallowing difficulty were compared with visual analog scales (VAS) on a pre-discharge survey. Results In the experimental group, the nasal respiration volume 1 day after surgery remained at 71.3%±6.84% on average compared to 1 day prior to surgery. Support of the reduced bone in the experimental group (2.80±0.4) was not significantly different from the control group (2.88±0.33). The VAS scores for all survey items were lower in the experimental group than in the control group, where a lower score indicated a lower level of inconvenience. Conclusions The nasal cavity packing described here maintained objective measures of nasal respiration and supported the reduced bone similar to conventional methods. Maintaining nasal respiration reduced the inconvenience to patients, which demonstrates that this packing method is useful. PMID:23233886

  1. Angioleiomyoma of the oral cavity extended to submandibular space; an unusual tumor in an unusual deep-seated space: a case report.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; De Carlo, A; Roukos, R; Illuminati, G; Cerbelli, B

    2012-10-01

    Angioleiomyoma (AL) is a benign neoplasia originating from smooth muscle and very uncommon in the oral cavity. The most frequent subtype in the oral cavity is the vascular one. AL usually occurs in the extremities: only around 12% are found in other areas such as head and neck. It presents as an asymptomatic, slow growing nodule lodging in the palate, tongue or lips. The diagnosis is essentially by histological exam and special specific stains are helpful to confirm the origin and to distinguish it from other tumors. We present a case of AL found in unusual site: attached to the submandibular region in a deep-seated space. PMID:23090830

  2. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Wook; Kim, Young Joon; Kim, Hoon; Nam, Sang Hyun; Shin, Bo Moon

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemic infectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome. However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasal bone fracture. Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasal carriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken from both the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84%) of the 190 total patients after excluding 10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) were found in 48 (25.26%). Staphylococcus aureus was the second most identified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%), followed by 7 cases (3.68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher than that in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18), but other demographic factors had no effect on the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS. Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rate of CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according to specific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on the potential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data. PMID:24086806

  3. Computerized rhinomanometry: a study of total nasal resistance normal values.

    PubMed

    Janosević, L; Dotlić, J; Janosević, S; Dudvarski, Z; Milovanović, A; Pendjer, I

    2009-01-01

    Computerized rhinomanometry with the practical software programmes is used widely as a research tool to evaluate objectively nasal air flow and resistance parameters, while the increase of its clinical application may be facilitated by further standardization of the method. The aim of the study was to determine the total nasal resistance normal values in healthy adult population using a method of computerized rhinomanometry. A randomized sample of 108 white healthy adults (216 nasal cavities), both sexs with a mean age of 32 (20-45) years comprised the test group. Nasal patency was measured by active anterior rhinomanometry in non-decongested mucosa ("at rest") during 10 repetitive measurements at inspiratory and expiratory reference pressure of 150 Pa. Nasal resistance was measured and calculated according to the recommendations of the Committee on objective assessment of the nasal airway, International Rhinologic Society. The mean total nasal resistance in the sample was found to be 0.179 Pa/cm3/s with the confidant interval from 0,167 to 0,191 Pa/cm3/s at the probability level of 95%. Total nasal resistance was very significantly influenced by sex (t = -4.614), height (F=11.625) and weight (F=11.529) of the examinees. This paper provides additional information on total nasal resistance normal values in healthy adult population important for computirezed rhinomanometry normative parameters standardization. PMID:20218102

  4. The Differential Imaging Features of Fat-Containing Tumors in the Peritoneal Cavity and Retroperitoneum: the Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Na-young; Chung, Jae-Joon; Chung, Yong-Eun; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Young-Nyun

    2010-01-01

    There are a variety of fat-containing lesions that can arise in the intraperitoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space. Some of these fat-containing lesions, such as liposarcoma and retroperitoneal teratoma, have to be resected, although resection can be deferred for others, such as adrenal adenoma, myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, ovarian teratoma, and lipoma, until the lesions become large or symptomatic. The third group tumors (i.e., mesenteric panniculitis and pseudolipoma of Glisson's capsule) require medical treatment or no treatment at all. Identifying factors such as whether the fat is macroscopic or microscopic within the lesion, the origin of the lesions, and the presence of combined calcification is important for narrowing the differential diagnosis. The development and wide-spread use of modern imaging modalities make identification of these factors easier so narrowing the differential diagnosis is possible. At the same time, lesions that do not require immediate treatment are being incidentally found at an increasing rate with these same imaging techniques. Thus, the questions about the treatment methods have become increasingly important. Classifying lesions in terms of the necessity of performing surgical treatment can provide important information to clinicians, and this is the one of a radiologist's key responsibilities. PMID:20461188

  5. Nasal vs oral intubation.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, L

    2003-05-01

    Both nasal and oral route for intubation have advantages and disadvantages. Oral intubation is easier to perform, faster and less painful than nasal intubation under direct laryngoscopy, while blind nasal intubation represents a good alternative in conscious patient, without sedation. In trauma patient, oral route should be preferred, with cervical immobilisation. By the contrary, nasal intubation can cause bleeding, retro-pharyngeal and turbinate bones injury, but it seems preferable in preventing laryngeal complications. Moreover nasal intubation seem to increase risk for sinusitis while, there is no clear advantage for any of the two routes, concerning nosocomial pneumonia, bacteriemia and otitis. Nevertheless nasal route increases comfort for the patient and decreases injury and necrosis of tongue and lips; tube fastening is simpler thus reducing accidental extubation. PMID:12768165

  6. Outcome Prediction After Surgery and Chemoradiation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, and Hypopharynx: Use of Baseline Perfusion CT Microcirculatory Parameters vs. Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Anand, Sharma K.; Glavina, Gordana; Day, Terry; Rumboldt, Zoran

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether pretreatment perfusion computed tomography (PCT) may predict outcome in chemoradiated patients with oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) after surgical excision. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with SCCA were examined before treatment. The primary site was oral cavity in 6, oropharynx in 7, and hypopharynx in 8 patients; there were 11 T2, 6 T3, and 4 T4 tumors. PCT was performed at the level of largest tumor diameter based on standard neck CT. The data were processed to obtain blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface area product (PS). Regions of interest were free-hand positioned on the lesions to obtain PCT measurements. Tumor volume was also calculated. Follow-up was performed with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and endoscopy. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for comparison between the subgroups. A regression model was constructed to predict recurrence based on the following predictors: age, gender, tumor (T) and nodal (N) stage, tumor volume, and PCT parameters. Results: BF{sub mean}, BF{sub max}, BV{sub mean}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, PS{sub mean}, and PS{sub max} were significantly different between patients with and without tumor recurrence (0.0001, p < 0.04). T stage, tumor volume, N stage, BF{sub max}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, and radiation dose (p < 0.001) were independent predictors for recurrence. Cox proportional hazards model for tumor recurrence revealed significantly increased risk with high tumor volume (p = 0.00001, relative risk [RR] 7.4), low PS{sub mean} (p = 0.0001, RR 14.3), and low BF{sub max} (p = 0.002, RR 5.9). Conclusions: Our data suggest that PCT parameters have a prognostic role in patients with SCCA.

  7. Ameloblastoma of the Nasal Septum Origin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zatoński, Tomasz; Roszkowska, Anna; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor. It represents about 1% of all tumors of the jaw. Extragnathic location of the ameloblastoma is typical and extremely rare. Case Report. We report a case of ameloblastoma of the nasal septum origin, causing nasal obstruction. According to our information, this is the first reported case of ameloblastoma coming from the nasal septum as a primary tumor without maxillary sinus involvement. Conclusions. Ameloblastoma can not only locate in the maxilla and mandible, but also in other regions of the craniofacial. Ameloblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors causing nasal obstruction. Nonspecific clinical features of sinonasal ameloblastoma make it extremely important to perform accurate diagnostic imaging and histopathological examination. PMID:24171127

  8. Canine and feline nasal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Christine

    2006-05-01

    Dogs and cats of our society have outgrown their status as merely pets and are now considered our close companions and even family members. This shift in their roles has led to pet owners seeking improved preventative medicine for their four-legged friends. Subsequently, dogs and cats are living longer lives than ever before and developing more old-age-related diseases. One of the most devastating diseases of older animals is cancer. Once a veterinarian has detected cancer in a pet, pet owners seek advice on their next course of action. This article is intended to provide concise information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intranasal tumors of the dog and cat. This article outlines the forms of nasal tumors that are the most common, the recommended imaging and biopsy techniques to diagnose the tumor, and the most appropriate treatments of them. PMID:16711615

  9. [Pharmacological and clinical evalutation of nasal obstruction: application to xylometazoline].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, André

    2006-01-01

    Nasal obstruction, a prominent feature of rhinitis, may be quantified in humans by haemodynamic techniques (measuring local blood flux), static methods (measuring the geometry of nasal cavities) and dynamic methods (assessing the patency of nasal airways through the measure of resistance to air flow). These methods demonstrated the nasal decongestant activity of xylometazoline in healthy volunteers and rhinitis patients. Controlled double-blind studies established the clinical efficacy of xylometazoline in infectious and allergic (seasonal and perennial) rhinitis versus placebo and in comparison with various reference substances. The effects on nasal epithelium ciliary activity which are observed in vitro are modest and even less pronounced in vivo owing to dilution in situ and protective physiological processes. PMID:16792148

  10. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine and Irinotecan Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors or Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Currently Accruing Only Triple-negative Breast Cancer Patients Since 6/8/2007)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  11. Complex flow in the nasal region of guitarfishes.

    PubMed

    Agbesi, Mawuli P K; Naylor, Sara; Perkins, Elizabeth; Borsuk, Heather S; Sykes, Dan; Maclaine, James S; Wang, Zhijin; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2016-03-01

    Scent detection in an aquatic environment is dependent on the movement of water. We set out to determine the mechanisms for moving water through the olfactory organ of guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae, Chondrichthyes) with open nasal cavities. We found at least two. In the first mechanism, which we identified by observing dye movement in the nasal region of a life-sized physical model of the head of Rhinobatos lentiginosus mounted in a flume, olfactory flow is generated by the guitarfish's motion relative to water, e.g. when it swims. We suggest that the pressure difference responsible for motion-driven olfactory flow is caused by the guitarfish's nasal flaps, which create a region of high pressure at the incurrent nostril, and a region of low pressure in and behind the nasal cavity. Vortical structures in the nasal region associated with motion-driven flow may encourage passage of water through the nasal cavity and its sensory channels, and may also reduce the cost of swimming. The arrangement of vortical structures is reminiscent of aircraft wing vortices. In the second mechanism, which we identified by observing dye movement in the nasal regions of living specimens of Glaucostegus typus, the guitarfish's respiratory pump draws flow through the olfactory organ in a rhythmic (0.5-2 Hz), but continuous, fashion. Consequently, the respiratory pump will maintain olfactory flow whether the guitarfish is swimming or at rest. Based on our results, we propose a model for olfactory flow in guitarfishes with open nasal cavities, and suggest other neoselachians which this model might apply to. PMID:26780177

  12. A new multilayer reconstruction using nasal septal flap combined with fascia graft dural suturing for high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic endonasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kentaro; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of a new endoscopic multilayer reconstruction using nasal septal flap (NSF) to prevent high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic endonasal surgery. This study was a retrospective review on 97 patients who underwent multilayer reconstructions using NSF combined with fascia graft dural suturing after endoscopic endonasal surgery between July 2012 and March 2014. Patients were divided into two groups, third ventricle opening group and nonopening group, based on the presence of a direct connection between the third ventricle and the paranasal sinus after tumor removal. Furthermore, we compared this procedure with our previous reconstruction after resection of craniopharyngioma. Finally, we checked the patients who had postoperative prolonged discomfort of the nasal cavity for over a year. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in three patients (3.1 %): one from the third ventricle opening group and the remaining two from the nonopening group. External lumbar drain was performed after surgery in only seven patients (7.2 %). The incidence of postoperative CSF leak was similar in both groups, whereas the rate of craniopharyngioma in the third ventricle opening group was significantly higher. The incidence of postoperative CSF leak after resection of craniopharyngioma was not statistically significant but obviously higher in the previous group (12.2 %) compared with that in the present group (2.3 %). Twelve patients (12.4 %) had postoperative nasal discomfort of the nasal cavity for over a year. Multilayer reconstruction using NSF combined with fascia graft dural suturing is a more reliable method for preventing postoperative high-flow CSF leakage after endoscopic endonasal surgery even if there is a direct connection between the third ventricle and the paranasal sinus. However, we should pay close attention especially to prolonged discomfort of the nasal cavity after harvesting NSF

  13. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors and Liver or Kidney Dysfunction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Subependymoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer

  14. Nasal mites (Gamasida: Rhinonyssidae) of Paroaria coronata (Miller) (Passeriformes: Emberezidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Coimbra, M A A; Müller, G; Brum, J G W

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the species of nasal mites of Paroaria coronata (red-crested cardinal), the nasal cavity of 40 birds were examined. The nasal mites were identified as Ptilonyssus sairae de Castro and Sternostoma pirangae Pence, with 50% and 7.5% of prevalence, respectively. This is the first record of these mite species parasitizing P. coronata. This report also amplifies the area of occurrence of S. pirangae for Brazil and that of P. sairae for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:21952970

  15. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  16. Malignant Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Long-Term Outcome and Morbidity With Emphasis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Snyers, An Janssens, Geert; Twickler, Marcel B.; Hermus, Ad R.; Takes, Robert P.; Kappelle, Arnoud C.; Merkx, Matthias A.W.; Dirix, Piet; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome after surgery and radiotherapy for patients with sinonasal cancer and assess late toxicity, with special emphasis on hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 168 patients treated for sinonasal cancer in a single institute between 1986 and 2006. A more detailed analysis was performed on a subgroup of 76 patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma treated with curative intent. Long-term survivors were evaluated for late toxicity by a multidisciplinary team using the late effects of normal tissues (LENT SOMA) scoring system. Additional endocrinologic tests were performed for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary function. Results: Five-year actuarial local control and overall survival rates were 62% and 35% for all patients and 64% and 42% for the subgroup with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In multivariate analysis, T stage was the only significant factor predicting local relapse (79% at 5 years for T1-T3 vs. 53% for T4; p = 0.006). Sinonasal mucosal melanomas had the highest rate of regional failure (33% at 5 years). Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) evaluated at the late morbidity clinic had hormonal disturbances, of whom 5 (24%) had definitive evidence of hypopituitarism with multiple hormonal deficiencies. Conclusion: Local failure is the dominant cause of treatment failure for patients with sinonasal cancer, with T4 stage the only independent predictor. Because of a high rate of radiation-induced hypopituitarism, we recommend endocrinologic surveillance for these patients.

  17. The crooked nasal tip.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jeremy; Adamson, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Successful treatment of the crooked nasal tip includes proper analysis and assessment, employment of the proper techniques, reaching ideal tip dynamics, and close follow-up. Both the caudal septum and the nasal tip cartilages must be addressed. When executed properly, satisfaction should be high for both the patient and the surgeon. PMID:22028009

  18. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. PMID:24818769

  19. Unexpected nasal changes in rats related to reflux after gavage dosing.

    PubMed

    Damsch, Siegrid; Eichenbaum, Gary; Looszova, Adriana; Lammens, Lieve; Feyen, Bianca; Van den Bulck, Kathleen; Knight, Elaine; Kelley, Michael; Tonelli, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    In a three-week oral gavage toxicity study in rats, a high incidence of respiratory symptoms and high mortality was noted in compound-dosed rats only. Because of audible respiration, an effect in the upper respiratory tract was suspected and the nasal cavity was included for examination. Histology revealed extensive necrosis and purulent inflammation within the nasal passages, indicative of direct irritation. Since posterior nasal regions were most affected, with food material present within the inflammatory exudates, reflux and retrograde aspiration of irritant material (possibly stomach contents with test formulation) into the nasal cavity were suspected. Lowering the dose volume and fasting the rats prior to gavage dosing substantially reduced the respiratory effects and mortality. The current article focuses on the histological changes in the nasal cavity indicative of gavage-related reflux and provides guidance on differentiation between technical gavage error and gavage-related reflux. PMID:21422260

  20. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  1. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  2. A Nasal Epithelial Receptor for Staphylococcus aureus WTA Governs Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Modulates Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Faulstich, Manuela; Grau, Timo; Severin, Yannik; Unger, Clemens; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Rudel, Thomas; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Weidenmaier, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Nasal colonization is a major risk factor for S. aureus infections. The mechanisms responsible for colonization are still not well understood and involve several factors on the host and the bacterial side. One key factor is the cell wall teichoic acid (WTA) of S. aureus, which governs direct interactions with nasal epithelial surfaces. We report here the first receptor for the cell wall glycopolymer WTA on nasal epithelial cells. In several assay systems this type F-scavenger receptor, termed SREC-I, bound WTA in a charge dependent manner and mediated adhesion to nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The impact of WTA and SREC-I interaction on epithelial adhesion was especially pronounced under shear stress, which resembles the conditions found in the nasal cavity. Most importantly, we demonstrate here a key role of the WTA-receptor interaction in a cotton rat model of nasal colonization. When we inhibited WTA mediated adhesion with a SREC-I antibody, nasal colonization in the animal model was strongly reduced at the early onset of colonization. More importantly, colonization stayed low over an extended period of 6 days. Therefore we propose targeting of this glycopolymer-receptor interaction as a novel strategy to prevent or control S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:24788600

  3. Pharmacotherapy of nasal disease.

    PubMed

    Mygind, N

    1985-01-01

    Rhinitis may be classified as infectious (purulent), seasonal allergic, perennial allergic, perennial nonallergic (vasomotor) and nasal polyps. Pharmacotherapy can be local or systemic. A variety of compounds are available, including alpha adrenergic agonists, mast cell stabilizing agents, Beta-2 agonists, antihistamines, cholinergic antagonists and corticosteroids. In terms of histamine receptors, H1 receptors predominate in the epithelium and glands but both H1 and H2 receptors are present in nasal blood vessels. Trigeminus-reflex mediated nasal secretions, can be treated by parasympatholytic drugs. PMID:2888012

  4. Drastic initial response and subsequent response to two ALK inhibitors in a patient with a highly aggressive ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor arising in the pleural cavity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Akira; Murakami, Haruyasu; Serizawa, Masakuni; Wakuda, Kazushige; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Koh, Yasuhiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2016-09-01

    A 57-year-old male current smoker was diagnosed with an aggressive variant of ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) arising in the pleural cavity. First line treatment with ASP3026 was initiated at a dose of 125mg once daily. A follow-up CT scan revealed drastic regression of the pleural lesion. After disease progression with ASP3026 treatment, LDK378 (ceritinib) was initiated at a dose of 750mg once daily. A follow-up CT scan revealed a second drastic regression of the pleural lesion. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that this case represents the use of serum hyaluronan levels to assist in monitoring of treatment efficacy in an IMT. Herein, we present the first case of a patient with a highly aggressive ALK-rearranged IMT arising in the pleural cavity, who showed both initial and subsequent drastic response to two ALK inhibitors while being monitored for serum hyaluronan. PMID:27565932

  5. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-03-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the /sup 133/Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated.

  6. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  7. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... prescribed by your doctor.Ciclesonide nasal spray is only for use in the nose. Do not swallow ...

  8. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction. PMID:27400845

  9. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Olopatadine is in a class of ... Olopatadine nasal spray controls the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, but does not cure these condition. Continue to ...

  10. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, stuffy, runny, itchy nose) caused by the common cold. Mometasone nasal spray is in a class of ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...