... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8724 of October 3, 2011 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the... of our commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously... recent decades in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of breast cancer. Still, this...
... to gain new insights into cancer biology, prevention, diagnostics, and treatments. Multiple centers are developing breast cancer computational models. NCI and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences are jointly funding three Breast Cancer ...
... Americans can do to prevent breast cancer. ] IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day... of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-24658 Filed 10-3-12... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By...
Bensenhaver, Jessica; Winchester, David P
Evidence has shown that multidisciplinary specialist team evaluation and management for cancer results in better patient outcomes. For breast cancer, breast centers are where this evaluation and management occurs. The National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers has helped standardize multidisciplinary breast cancer care by defining services and standards required of accredited breast centers. PMID:24882354
... Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 9028 Proclamation 9028 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9028 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013By the President... battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every corner of the...
Martineau, Rebecca M
. Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 195 / Friday, October 8, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 193 / Friday, October 4, 2013 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...
Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Saadat, Soheil; Ramezani, Rashid; Kaviani, Ahmad
Breast cancer is the leading type of malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The screening programs and advances in the treatment of patients with breast cancer have led to an increase in overall survival. Cancer registry systems play an important role in providing basic data for research and the monitoring of the cancer status. In this study, the results of the 10-year national cancer registry (NCR) of Iran in breast cancer are reviewed. NCR database records were searched for primary breast cancer records according to ICD-O-3 coding and the cases were reviewed. A total of 52,068 cases were found with the coding of primary breast cancer. Females constituted 97.1% of the cases. Breast cancer was the leading type of cancer in Iranian females, accounting for 24.6% of all cancers. The mean age of the women with breast cancer was 49.6 years (95%CI 49.5-49.6). Most of the cases (95.7%) were registered as having invasive pathologies (behavior code 3). The most common morphology of primary breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma (ICD-O 8500/3) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ICD-O 8520/3) with relative frequencies of 77.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The average annual crude incidence of primary breast cancer in females was 22.6 (95%CI 22.1-23.1) per 100,000 females, with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 27.4 (95%CI 22.5-35.9). There were no data on survival, staging or immunohistochemical marker(s) of the breast-cancer-registered cases. The incidence of breast cancer in Iran is lower than in low-middle-income neighboring countries. The NCR data registry of breast cancer is not accurate in monitoring the effect of screening programs or determining the current status of breast cancer in Iran. Screening programs of breast cancer in Iran have failed to enhance the detection of the patients with in situ lesion detection. A quality breast cancer registry and a screening program for breast cancer are both needed. PMID:26070507
... Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 8572 Proclamation 8572 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8572 of October 1, 2010 Proc. 8572 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010By the President of... against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently diagnosed type of non-skin cancer and the...
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk ...
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...
... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...
... Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 8874 Proclamation 8874 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8874 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8874 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans from...
... Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2009 8425 Proclamation 8425 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8425 of September 30, 2009 Proc. 8425 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2009By the President... diagnosed with breast cancer, and more than 40,000 women are expected to die from this disease. It is...
... Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 8724 Proclamation 8724 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8724 of October 3, 2011 Proc. 8724 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011By the President of... commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously battling...
... Sciences are jointly funding three Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures on breast development and breast cancer risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance ...
... of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. Cancer treatment can be local or ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...
Saldanha, J D; Garrett, R M; Snaddon, L; Longmuir, M; Bradshaw, N; Watt, C; George, W D; Wilson, C R; Doughty, J C; Stallard, S; Reid, I; Murday, V; Davidson, R
The breast cancer risk of women already under family history surveillance was accurately assessed according to national guidelines in an attempt to rationalize the service. Women attending two breast units in Glasgow between November 2003 and February 2005 were included. One thousand and five women under annual surveillance were assessed and had their relatives diagnoses verified. Four hundred and ninety-seven women were at significantly increased risk and eligible for follow-up. Five hundred and eight (50%) women attending were not eligible for family history surveillance, and 498 (98%) of these women accepted discharge. In conclusion, national guidelines have helped to more clearly define women who should undergo surveillance. This avoids unnecessary and potentially harmful routine investigations, and the service has been improved. PMID:22089040
The pregnancy–lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23264680
... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...
Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Rutter, Charles E.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ≥50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns.
Background Common measures of surgical quality are 30-day morbidity and mortality, which poorly describe breast cancer surgical quality with extremely low morbidity and mortality rates. Several national quality programs have collected additional surgical quality measures; however, program participation is voluntary and results may not be generalizable to all surgeons. We developed the Breast Cancer Surgical Outcomes (BRCASO) database to capture meaningful breast cancer surgical quality measures among a non-voluntary sample, and study variation in these measures across providers, facilities, and health plans. This paper describes our study protocol, data collection methods, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of these data. Methods We included 4524 women ≥18 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2003-2008. All women with initial breast cancer surgery performed by a surgeon employed at the University of Vermont or three Cancer Research Network (CRN) health plans were eligible for inclusion. From the CRN institutions, we collected electronic administrative data including tumor registry information, Current Procedure Terminology codes for breast cancer surgeries, surgeons, surgical facilities, and patient demographics. We supplemented electronic data with medical record abstraction to collect additional pathology and surgery detail. All data were manually abstracted at the University of Vermont. Results The CRN institutions pre-filled 30% (22 out of 72) of elements using electronic data. The remaining elements, including detailed pathology margin status and breast and lymph node surgeries, required chart abstraction. The mean age was 61 years (range 20-98 years); 70% of women were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, 20% with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 10% with invasive lobular carcinoma. Conclusions The BRCASO database is one of the largest, multi-site research resources of meaningful breast cancer surgical quality data in the United States
... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...
Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it. PMID:27533387
Pezzullo, Phaedra C.
Since 1984, October has been recognized in the U.S. as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. In 1997, the Toxic Links Coalition of the Bay Area, California, began organizing annual "Stop Cancer Where It Starts" tours to counter attempts to obscure the environmentally-linked causes of cancer. By drawing on research including participant…
... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...
Tian, Wei; Pan, Tao; Ye, Juan; Zhang, Suzhan
Breast cancer is a worldwide threat to female health with patient outcomes varying widely. The exact correlation between global outcomes of breast cancer and the national socioeconomic status is still undetermined. Mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) of breast cancer was calculated with the contemporary age standardized incidence and mortality rates for countries with data available at GLOBOCAN 2012 database. The MIR matched national human development indexes (HDIs) and health system attainments were respectively obtained from Human Development Report and World Health Report. Correlation analysis, regression analysis, and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test were used to explore the effects of HDI and health system attainment on breast cancer MIR. Our results demonstrated that breast cancer MIR was inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -.950; P < .001) and health system attainment (r = -.898; P < .001). Countries with very high HDI had significantly lower MIRs than those with high, medium and low HDI (P < .001). Liner regression model by ordinary least squares also indicated negative effects of both HDI (adjusted R2 = .903, standardize β = -.699, P < .001) and health system attainment (adjusted R2 =. 805, standardized β = -.009; P < .001), with greater effects in developing countries identified by quantile regression analysis. It is noteworthy that significant health care disparities exist among countries in accordance with the discrepancy of HDI. Policies should be made in less developed countries, which are more likely to obtain worse outcomes in female breast cancer, that in order to improve their comprehensive economic strength and optimize their health system performance. PMID:27391077
... chance that you could develop breast cancer: Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The more risk factors you have, the more your risk increases. ...
... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...
... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...
... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...
Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Yoon, Tae In; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Soo Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Chae, Byung Joo; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won
Tumor size and number of lymph node (LN) metastases are well known as the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer. We hypothesized that very small breast cancers with LN metastasis represent a progressive biologic behavior and evaluated tumor size stratified by LN metastasis. Data between 1990 and 2010 were obtained retrospectively from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry with inclusion criteria of female, non-metastatic, unilateral, and T1/2 breast cancer. We collected the following variables: age at surgery, tumor size, number of LN metastases, nuclear grade (NG), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Patient characteristics were compared by means of independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier curves, with corresponding results of log-rank tests, were constructed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Five- and eight-year breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) was obtained in groups of 300 patients, followed by smoothing according to the confidence interval using the lowess method. We identified 39,826 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 1433 (3.6 %) patients died due to breast cancer. The median follow-up duration was 63.4 (3-255) months. In the multivariate analysis, age at surgery, NG, LVI, subtype, and tumor size-nodal interactions were independently associated with BCSM. The N1 group had lower BCSS for T1a than T1b. The N2+ group also had lower BCSS for T1b than T1c or T2. In the N1 group of tumors smaller than 10 mm, 5- and 8-year BCSM decreased with larger tumor size. Patients with very small tumors with LN metastasis have decreased BCSM according to increase tumor size. Small tumors with LN metastasis could have aggressive biological behavior. PMID:27590199
The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.
Dennis Parker, Elizabeth; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Sheppard, Vanessa
Introduction Compared to White breast cancer survivors, African American survivors are more likely to be overweight and obese. Differences in weight status may be attributed to differences in dietary intake; however, there is limited research pertaining to the dietary habits of African American breast cancer survivors. Methods We compared baseline dietary intakes of 31 overweight and obese African American breast cancer survivors enrolled in a healthy lifestyle intervention to national dietary guidelines and also examined beverage intake habits. Dietary intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and beverage intake was assessed using 3-day food intake records. Results Overall, the majority of survivors consumed the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables (71.0%) and red meat (83.9%); however, survivors exceeded national recommendations for energy intake from fat (64.5%), saturated fat (87.1%) and added sugars (77.4%). Few women met the guidelines for whole grain and fiber intake (6.5% and 35.5%, respectively). Additionally, survivors consumed ~10% of total energy intake from beverages alone and only ~3.5 cups of water daily. Conclusions Current dietary guidelines for cancer survivors recommend consuming >5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables and broad guidelines regarding limiting discretionary fat and added sugars, but do not specify beverage intake recommendations. Future dietary interventions in African American Breast cancer survivors should focus on reducing intake from dietary fat and added sugar, as well as increasing whole grain consumption as a means for increasing daily fiber intake. Furthermore, substituting caloric beverages with water or noncaloric beverages may be a strategy to decrease caloric intake in African American Breast cancer survivors. Nutrition information targeting these nutrients could be administered during treatments or doctor's visits as a means to prevent weight gain that
Capasso, Immacolata; Esposito, Emanuela; Pentimalli, Francesca; Crispo, Anna; Montella, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Maria; De Marco, MariaRosaria; Cavalcanti, Ernestina; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Fucito, Alfredo; Frasci, Giuseppe; Maurea, Nicola; Esposito, Giuseppe; Pedicini, Tonino; Vecchione, Aldo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio
Postmenopausal women show the highest incidence of breast cancer in the female population and are often affected by metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome (MS)--characterized by central adiposity, insulin resistance, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high serum triglyceride and high blood pressure--seems to be strictly correlated to breast carcinogenesis. We enrolled 777 healthy women and women with breast cancer in our nested case-control study to evaluate the association between MS and breast cancer, analyzing anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, waist and hip circumference), blood pressure, serum HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, testosterone and uric acid levels and administering a questionnaire about physical activity, food intake, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, personal and familial history of disease. We found an higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (30%) in postmenopausal breast cancer patients compared to healthy women (19%). None of the individual MS features was strong enough to be considered responsible for breast carcinogenesis alone. However, of the 63 postmenopausal breast cancer cases associated to MS, 30% presented three or more MS features, suggesting that the activation of multiple molecular pathways underlying MS might contribute to tumorigenesis. Our data support the hypothesis that MS may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The unsettlement of the hormonal arrangement in postmenopausal, along with an increase in visceral adiposity, probably favour the hormone-dependent cell proliferation, which drives tumorigenesis. Adjustments in lifestyle with physical activity intensification and healthy diet could represent modifiable factors for the primary prevention of sporadic breast cancer. PMID:20935521
Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N
We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709
... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...
Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G
As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays. PMID:21615819
... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...
Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...
Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...
Lee, Nancy C.; Wong, Faye L.; Jamison, Patricia M.; Jones, Sandra F.; Galaska, Louise; Brady, Kevin T.; Wethers, Barbara; Stokes-Townsend, George-Ann
In 1990, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act because of increases in the number of low-income and uninsured women being diagnosed with breast cancer. This act authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to establish the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to provide high-quality and timely breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income, uninsured women. The program started in 1991, and, in 1993, Congress amended the act to allow the CDC to fund American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and tribal organizations. By 1996, the program was providing cancer screening across the United States. To ensure appropriate delivery and monitoring of services, the program adopted detailed policies on program management, evidence-based guidelines for clinical services, a systematized clinical data system to track service quality, and key partnerships that expand the program’s reach. The NBCCEDP currently funds 67 programs, including all 50 states, the District of Columbia, 5 US territories, and 11 tribes or tribal organizations. PMID:25099896
Kang, Moon Hae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Cho, Eun
This goal of this research was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea from a government expenditure perspective. In 2002-2003 (baseline), a total of 8,724,860 women aged 40 years or over were invited to attend breast cancer screening by the NCSP. Those who attended were identified using the NCSP database, and women were divided into two groups, women who attended screening at baseline (screened group) and those who did not (non-screened group). Breast cancer diagnosis in both groups at baseline, and during 5-year follow-up was identified using the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The effectiveness of the NCSP for breast cancer was estimated by comparing 5-year survival and life years saved (LYS) between the screened and the unscreened groups, measured using mortality data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and the National Health Statistical Office. Direct screening costs, indirect screening costs, and productivity costs were considered in different combinations in the model. When all three of these costs were considered together, the incremental cost to save one life year of a breast cancer patient was 42,305,000 Korean Won (KW) (1 USD=1,088 KW) for the screened group compared to the non-screened group. In sensitivity analyses, reducing the false-positive rate of the screening program by half was the most cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=30,110,852 KW/LYS) strategy. When the upper age limit for screening was set at 70 years, it became more cost-effective (ICER=39,641,823 KW/LYS) than when no upper age limit was set. The NCSP for breast cancer in Korea seems to be accepted as cost-effective as ICER estimates were around the Gross Domestic Product. However, cost-effectiveness could be further improved by increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer screening and by setting appropriate age limits. PMID:23679319
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...
... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...
... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...
... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...
Kawai, Masaaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Miyata, Hiroaki; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Niikura, Naoki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka
Few studies have reported the association between body mass index (BMI) and outcome among Asian breast cancer patients. We analyzed data for 20,090 female invasive breast cancer patients who had been followed-up for a median period of 6.7 years entered in the National Clinical Database-Breast Cancer Registry between 2004 and 2006. We used mainly the WHO criteria for BMI (kg/m(2) ) categories; <18.5 (underweight), ≥18.5-<21.8 (reference), ≥21.8-<25, ≥25-<30 (overweight), and ≥30 (obese). We divided normal weight patients into two subgroups because this category includes many patients compared to others. The timing of BMI measurement was not specified. The Cox proportional hazards model and cubic spline regression were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were not controlled. A total of 1418 all-cause, 937 breast cancer-specific deaths, and 2433 recurrences were observed. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of all-cause (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16-1.83) and breast cancer-specific death (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.11-1.93) for all patients, and with all-cause (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13-1.92) and breast cancer-specific death (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.13-2.20) for postmenopausal patients. Being underweight was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death for all (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.16-1.71) and for postmenopausal patients (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15-1.84). With regard to subtype and menopausal status, obesity was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer-specific death for all cases of luminal B tumor (HR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.51-4.43; Pheterogeneity of Luminal B vs. Triple negative = 0.016) and for postmenopausal patients with luminal B tumor (HR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.71-6.17). Being obese or underweight is associated with a higher risk of death among female breast cancer patients in Japan. PMID:26923549
Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena
Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086
Wolff, Antonio C.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Visvanathan, Kala; Rugo, Hope S.; Moy, Beverly; Goldstein, Lori J.; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith; Neumayer, Leigh; Langbaum, Terry S.; Theriault, Richard L.; Hughes, Melissa E.; Weeks, Jane C.; Karp, Judith E.
Purpose Outcomes for early-stage breast cancer have improved. First-generation adjuvant chemotherapy trials reported a 0.27% 8-year cumulative incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myelogenous leukemia. Incomplete ascertainment and follow-up may have underestimated subsequent risk of treatment-associated marrow neoplasm (MN). Patients and Methods We examined the MN frequency in 20,063 patients with stage I to III breast cancer treated at US academic centers between 1998 and 2007. Time-to-event analyses were censored at first date of new cancer event, last contact date, or death and considered competing risks. Cumulative incidence, hazard ratios (HRs), and comparisons with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results estimates were obtained. Marrow cytogenetics data were reviewed. Results Fifty patients developed MN (myeloid, n = 42; lymphoid, n = 8) after breast cancer (median follow-up, 5.1 years). Patients who developed MN had similar breast cancer stage distribution, race, and chemotherapy exposure but were older compared with patients who did not develop MN (median age, 59.1 v 53.9 years, respectively; P = .03). Two thirds of patients had complex MN cytogenetics. Risk of MN was significantly increased after surgery plus chemotherapy (HR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 36.1) or after all modalities (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation; HR, 7.6; 95% CI, 1.6 to 35.8), compared with no treatment with chemotherapy. MN rates per 1,000 person-years were 0.16 (surgery), 0.43 (plus radiation), 0.46 (plus chemotherapy), and 0.54 (all three modalities). Cumulative incidence of MN doubled between years 5 and 10 (0.24% to 0.48%); 9% of patients were alive at 10 years. Conclusion In this large early-stage breast cancer cohort, MN risk after radiation and/or adjuvant chemotherapy was low but higher than previously described. Risk continued to increase beyond 5 years. Individual risk of MN must be balanced against the absolute survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID
... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...
... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...
... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...
... Johnson KC, Olsson H, Casagrande JT, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: ... D, Ferlay J, Brinton LA, Cook MB. An international comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence ...
... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...
Sherman, Recinda L.; Howlader, Nadia; Jemal, Ahmedin; Ryerson, A. Blythe; Henry, Kevin A.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Cronin, Kathleen A.; Lake, Andrew; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Henley, S. Jane; Eheman, Christie R.; Anderson, Robert N.; Penberthy, Lynne
Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to produce updated, national cancer statistics. This Annual Report includes a focus on breast cancer incidence by subtype using new, national-level data. Methods: Population-based cancer trends and breast cancer incidence by molecular subtype were calculated. Breast cancer subtypes were classified using tumor biomarkers for hormone receptor (HR) and human growth factor-neu receptor (HER2) expression. Results: Overall cancer incidence decreased for men by 1.8% annually from 2007 to 2011. Rates for women were stable from 1998 to 2011. Within these trends there was racial/ethnic variation, and some sites have increasing rates. Among children, incidence rates continued to increase by 0.8% per year over the past decade while, like adults, mortality declined. Overall mortality has been declining for both men and women since the early 1990’s and for children since the 1970’s. HR+/HER2- breast cancers, the subtype with the best prognosis, were the most common for all races/ethnicities with highest rates among non-Hispanic white women, local stage cases, and low poverty areas (92.7, 63.51, and 98.69 per 100000 non-Hispanic white women, respectively). HR+/HER2- breast cancer incidence rates were strongly, positively correlated with mammography use, particularly for non-Hispanic white women (Pearson 0.57, two-sided P < .001). Triple-negative breast cancers, the subtype with the worst prognosis, were highest among non-Hispanic black women (27.2 per 100000 non-Hispanic black women), which is reflected in high rates in southeastern states. Conclusions: Progress continues in reducing the burden of cancer in the United States. There are unique racial/ethnic-specific incidence patterns for breast cancer subtypes; likely because of both biologic and social risk
Plasilova, Magdalena L; Hayse, Brandon; Killelea, Brigid K; Horowitz, Nina R; Chagpar, Anees B; Lannin, Donald R
The aim of this study was to determine the features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a large national database. TNBC is known to be an aggressive subtype, but national epidemiologic data are sparse. All patients with invasive breast cancer and known molecular subtype diagnosed in 2010 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with and without TNBC were compared with respect to their sociodemographic and clinicopathologic features. TNBC was present in 38,628 of 295,801 (13%) female patients compared to 185 of 3136 (6%) male patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of TNBC varied by region from 10.8% in New England to 15.8% in the east south central US (P < 0.001), as well as by race with the highest rates in African-Americans (23.7%), and lowest in Filipino patients (8.9%). The incidence of TNBC also varied by histology, accounting for 76% of metaplastic cancers, but only 2% of infiltrating lobular carcinomas. TNBCs were significantly larger than non-TNBC (mean 2.8 cm vs 2.1 cm, P < 0.001), and more TNBC were poorly differentiated compared to other subtypes (79.7% vs 25.8%, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, TNBC was no more likely than non-TNBC to have node-positive disease (32.0% vs 31.7%, respectively, P = 0.218) but in a multivariable analysis controlling for tumor size and grade, TNBC was associated with significantly less node-positivity (OR = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.60). TNBC has distinct features regarding age, gender, geographic, and racial distribution. Compared to non-TNBC, TNBC is larger and higher grade, but less likely to have lymph node metastases. PMID:27583878
Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia
This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS. PMID:26248106
... the chance of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). MRI does not use any x-rays. ...
... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.
Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya
The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice. PMID:23181529
Caplan, L S; May, D S; Richardson, L C
OBJECTIVES: This study examined times to diagnosis and treatment for medically underserved women screened for breast cancer. METHODS: Intervals from first positive screening test to diagnosis to initiation of treatment were determined for 1659 women 40 years and older diagnosed with breast cancer. RESULTS: Women with abnormal mammograms had shorter diagnostic intervals than women with abnormal clinical breast examinations and normal mammograms. Women with self-reported breast symptoms had shorter diagnostic intervals than asymptomatic women. Diagnostic intervals were less than 60 days in 78% of cases. Treatment intervals were generally 2 weeks or less. CONCLUSIONS: Most women diagnosed with breast cancer were followed up in a timely manner after screening. Further investigation is needed to identify and then address factors associated with longer diagnostic and treatment intervals to maximize the benefits of early detection. PMID:10630153
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
... This may result in a delay in diagnosis. Survival is highest when breast cancer is found early. If you notice any of ... chest or nipple, see a doctor right away. Survival rates are similar for men and women when breast cancer is found at the same stage. A man’s ...
Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.
Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele
The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573
Xu, Jinhua; Chen, Yinghua; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.
MYC is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis. MYC deregulation contributes to breast cancer development and progression and is associated with poor outcomes. Multiple mechanisms are involved in MYC deregulation in breast cancer, including gene amplification, transcriptional regulation, and mRNA and protein stabilization, which correlate with loss of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenic pathways. The heterogeneity in breast cancer is increasingly recognized. Breast cancer has been classified into 5 or more subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and each subtype has distinct biological features and clinical outcomes. Among these subtypes, basal-like tumor is associated with a poor prognosis and has a lack of therapeutic targets. MYC is overexpressed in the basal-like subtype and may serve as a target for this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Tumor suppressor BRCA1 inhibits MYC’s transcriptional and transforming activity. Loss of BRCA1 with MYC overexpression leads to the development of breast cancer—especially, basal-like breast cancer. As a downstream effector of estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor family pathways, MYC may contribute to resistance to adjuvant therapy. Targeting MYC-regulated pathways in combination with inhibitors of other oncogenic pathways may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, the basal-like subtype in particular. PMID:21779462
... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...
... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...
Hu, Xichun; Jiang, Zefei; Li, Huiping; Chen, Jiayi; Cui, Shude; Li, Qing; Liao, Ning; Liu, Donggeng; Liu, Jian; Lu, Jinsong; Shen, Kunwei; Sun, Tao; Teng, Yuee; Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Shulian; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Xiaojia; Wang, Yongsheng; Wu, Jiong; Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Qingyuan; Zheng, Hong; Pang, Da; Ren, Guosheng; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Zhenzhou; Song, Erwei; Song, Santai
The recently available guidelines on the management of advanced breast cancer (ABC) organized by Chinese Anti-Cancer Association, Committee of Breast Cancer Society (CACA-CBCS) do not elucidate ABC in details. To instruct clinicians in treatment of ABC, a Chinese expert consensus meeting on diagnosis and treatment of ABC was held in June 2014 and a consensus is developed. The following consensus provides the level of evidence and supporting documents for each recommendation, and introduces research topics to be urgently addressed. Notably, the consensus on diagnosis and treatment of ABC in China is developed to be applied nationwide. In different areas, multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) tailored to the each patient and the disease itself should be applied based on the basic principles of modern oncology. PMID:26605288
DeGroff, Amy; Cheung, Karen; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Hall, Mary Ann; Melillo, Stephanie; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca
Purpose The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a systematic screening and assessment process to identify promising practices implemented by grantees of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and its partners that were appropriate for rigorous evaluation. Methods The systematic screening and assessment (SSA) process was conducted from September 2010 through March 2012 and included five steps: (1) nominations of promising practices; (2) a first rating by subject matter experts; (3) field-based evaluability assessments; (4) a second rating by experts; and (5) use of results. Nominations were sought in three program areas including health education and promotion, quality assurance and quality improvement, and case management/patient navigation. Results A total of 98 practices were nominated of which 54 % were eligible for the first review by the experts. Fifteen practices were selected for evaluability assessment with ten forwarded for the second review by the experts. Three practices were ultimately recommended for rigorous evaluation, and one evaluation was conducted. Most nominated practices were based on evidence-based strategies rather than representing new, innovative activities. Issues were identified through the process including inconsistent implementation and lack of implementation fidelity. Conclusion While the SSA was successful in identifying several programs for evaluation, the process also revealed important shortcomings in program implementation. Training and technical assistance could help address these issues and support improved programming. PMID:25701247
... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...
BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557
Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping
Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552
... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...
... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...
Sasidharan, R; Harvey, V
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) presents a challenging clinical situation. This article reviews the current evidence around the management of PABC and the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer. The trend towards later age at first childbirth has resulted in an increase in the number of breast cancer cases coexistent with pregnancy. The management of breast cancer during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Breast surgery can be safely performed during any trimester of pregnancy. Radiation therapy, if required, must be delayed until after delivery. The majority of patients with PABC require chemotherapy. The timing of delivery in relation to chemotherapy administration should be carefully considered. There is no evidence to date that pregnancy termination influences overall survival for the mother. To date, there is no clear evidence that subsequent pregnancy after breast cancer is associated with worse maternal survival. There is a suggestion that subsequent pregnancy may in fact be associated with an improved survival. However, the available studies are limited by potential biases.
Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a healthcare concern of women worldwide. Despite procedures being available for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, researchers are working intensively on the disease in order to improve the life quality of breast cancer patients. At present, there is no single treatment known to bring a definite cure for breast cancer. One of the possible solutions for combating breast cancer is through identification of reliable protein biomarkers that can be effectively used for early detection, prognosis and treatments of the cancer. Therefore, the task of identification of biomarkers for breast cancer has become the focus of many researchers worldwide. PMID:24520539
... therapy and targeted therapy. This helps to increase survival. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two main types of breast ... shown lumpectomy plus radiation offers the same overall survival benefit as mastectomy for early ... (almost always followed by radiation): The surgeon ...
Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth
The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596
Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth
The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596
Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression. This is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite the high rates of response to chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the clinicopathological, therapeutic features and outcomes associated with this type of breast cancer. Methods This is a retrospective study of confirmed triple negative breast cancer females collected at the National institute of oncology of Rabat in Morocco, between January 2007 and December 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic and evolutive data were analyzed. OS and DFS rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results A total of one 152 patients with breast cancer, were identified as having triple-negative breast cancer (16,5%). The median age at diagnosis was 46 years. 130 patients (86%) had infiltrating ductal carcinoma and thirteen had medullar carcinoma (9%). 84 cases (55%) were grade III Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR). 48 % had positive lymph nodes, and 5 % had distant metastases at diagnosis. According TNM staging, 12 patients (8%) had stage I, 90 patients (60%) had stage II and the 43(28%) had stage III. 145 patients received surgery. 41 (28%) had conservative surgery and 104 (72%) received radical mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection. 14 patients with advanced tumors or inflammatory breast cancer have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and four patients (28%) had complete pathologic response. From 131 patients how received adjuvant chemotherapy, 99 patients (75,5%) had Anthracycline based chemotherapy) and 27 patients (20,6%) had sequential Anthracycline and docetaxel,. Seven patients with metastatic disease received anthracycline-based regimen in the first line metastatic chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 46 months (range 6,1 -60 months). Overall survival at 5 years for all
... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...
... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...
... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to Health Professional Version Key ...
HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Wilson, John W; Cook, Elise D; Edwards, Cora L; Gibson, Regina V; McElwain, Diane L; Figueroa-Moseley, Colmar D; Paskett, Electra D; Roberson, Noma L; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman
Background One of the first chemoprevention trials conducted in the western hemisphere, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project’s (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT), demonstrated the need to evaluate all aspects of recruitment in real time and to implement strategies to enroll racial and ethnic minority women. Purpose The purpose of this report is to review various patient recruitment efforts the NSABP developed to enhance the participation of racial and ethnic minority women in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial and to describe the role that the recruitment process played in the implementation and understanding of breast cancer risk assessment in minority communities. Methods The NSABP STAR trial was a randomized, double-blinded study comparing the use of tamoxifen 20 mg/day to raloxifene 60 mg/day, for a 5-year period, to reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Eligible postmenopausal women were required to have a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of 1.66% based on the modified Gail Model. For the current report, eligibility and enrollment data were tabulated by race/ethnicity for women who submitted STAR risk assessment forms (RAFs). Results A total of 184,460 RAFs were received, 145,550 (78.9%) from white women and 38,910 (21.1%) from minority women. Of the latter group, 21,444 (11.6%) were from African Americans/blacks, 7913 (4.5%) from Hispanics/Latinas, and 9553 (5.2%) from other racial or ethnic groups. The percentages of risk-eligible women among African Americans, Hispanics/Latinas, others, and whites were 14.2%, 23.3%, 13.7%, and 57.4%, respectively. Programs targeting minority enrollment submitted large numbers of RAFs, but the eligibility rates of the women referred from those groups tended to be lower than the rates among women referred outside of those programs. The average number of completed risk assessments increased among minority women over the course of the recruitment period compared
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value. PMID:21475500
Erel, C Tamer; Senturk, Levent M; Kaleli, Semih
Tibolone is a relatively new drug for postmenopausal women, which is structurally related to 19‐nortestosterone derivatives and exhibits weak oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities. The effect of tibolone on breast tissue is still obscure. In vitro studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of tibolone on breast cells. On the other hand, although epidemiological studies show an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women treated with tibolone, accumulation of data obtained from radiological studies presents promising results. However, the safety of tibolone with regard to breast tissue needs to be investigated further, especially through well‐designed, large‐scale, randomised‐controlled trials. PMID:17068276
One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that the two cancers a
Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi
Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index
Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou
Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518
Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093
The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
Euhus, David; Di Carlo, Philip A; Khouri, Nagi F
Breast cancer screening has become a controversial topic. Understanding the points of contention requires an appreciation of the conceptual framework underpinning cancer screening in general, knowledge of the strengths and limitations of available screening modalities, and familiarity with published clinical trial data. This review is data intense with the intention of presenting enough information to permit the reader to enter into the discussion with an ample knowledge base. The focus throughout is striking a balance between the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. PMID:26315519
... gov/news/fullstory_160134.html 'Ppl, I Have Breast Cancer' Many women found online support after their diagnosis, ... Women who communicated via social media after a breast cancer diagnosis and received information and/or support about ...
FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...
... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...
The importance of the tumor microenvironment including immune cell infiltrates in breast cancer has long been recognized. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are prognostic and predictive; however, their prevalence as well as their prognostic and predictive power are subtype-dependent and appear most prominent in aggressive subtypes like triple-negative and HER2-positive disease. The immune responses observed in many cancers are attracted by tumor-associated antigens and, as suggested by recent research, by neoantigens - immunogenic antigens encoded for by non-synonymous mutations. The appealing promise of cancer vaccines has been pursued in breast cancer for over 2 decades; however, despite much effort having been put into vaccine trials, their clinical benefit, with the exception of some encouraging preliminary results, remains disappointing. The main hurdles compromising the efficacy of these vaccination strategies are the difficulties to generate broad and robust immune responses as well as to overcome immune escape mechanisms. The remarkable efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma and lung cancer has set the ground for a race in the clinical development of numerous agents targeting these immune escape mechanisms in many tumor entities. Early clinical data in metastatic breast cancer suggests at least some clinical activity. This review discusses the current status and future perspectives of immunotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27260697
... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...
Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W
The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breast cancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breast cancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breast cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated. PMID:12095951
Zhou, Liang; Xu, Kecheng
With recent improvements in breast imaging, the ability to identify small breast tumors is markedly improved, prompting significant interest in the use of cryoablation without surgical excision to treat early-stage breast cancer. The cryoablation is often performed using ultrasound-guided tabletop argon-gas-based cryoablation system with a double freeze/thaw cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that, as a primary therapy for small breast cancer, cryoablation is safe and effective with durable results, and can successfully destroy all cancers <1.0 cm and tumors between 1.0 and 1.5 cm without a significant ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) component. Presence of noncalcified DCIS is the cause of most cryoablation failures. At this time, cryoablation should be limited to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma <1.5 cm and with <25% DCIS in the core biopsy. For unresectable advanced breast cancer, cryoablation is a palliation modality and may be used as complementary for subsequent resection or other therapies. PMID:25083433
Dooley, W C
Women with breast cancer today have many more therapeutic options available to them for their surgical therapy. Almost all patients with breast cancer have some options for breast conservation. Active patient involvement in analyzing and understanding the pros and cons of each of these options seems extremely important to the long-term emotional and psychological outcome of their breast cancer therapy. Several reports this year have reintroduced the issue of adequate local control. The common philosophy a decade ago was that because systematic therapy (adjuvant chemotherapy) was improving, local therapy would become of lesser importance. Several studies this year have indicated the extreme importance of local control in maximizing survival advantage because of the relationship of increasing local failure and deteriorating survival from systemic disease. Despite significant improvements in treatment, our screening and diagnostic approaches have still failed to identify the majority of lesions prior to the patient's own palpation of the tumor. Using new diagnostic modalities that do not involve surgery, the biopsy of lower probability lesions with great accuracy is expected to improve the efficacy of the current screening measures. Despite all the improvements, the most important therapeutic step in the management of breast cancer remains earlier diagnosis and earlier extirpation of the initial invasive focus of malignancy. PMID:9818228
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai
Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697
Meirik, O; Lund, E; Adami, H O; Bergström, R; Christoffersen, T; Bergsjö, P
The possible association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and the risk of breast cancer developing before the age of 45 was investigated by means of a population based case-control study in Sweden and Norway. Information was obtained by personal interview from 422 (89.2%) of all eligible patients with a newly diagnosed breast cancer from May, 1984, to May, 1985, and from 722 (80.6%) of all contacted age-matched controls. A multivariate analysis, which accounted for several possible confounding factors, revealed a significant (p = 0.03) association between total duration of OC use and breast cancer risk. The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer after 12 or more years of OC use was 2.2 (1.2-4.0). OC use for more than 7 years before first full-term pregnancy entailed an increased breast cancer risk (RR = 2.0 [1.0-4.2]) which was of borderline significance. When total duration of use was considered, the risk of breast cancer was virtually unrelated to age at first OC use and latency from first use. The results suggest that long-term use of OCs may increase the risk of breast cancer in young women. PMID:2876135
Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.
In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628
Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Martínez-Montañez, Olga Georgina; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio
Breast Cancer is a significant public health problem associated with epidemiological and demographic transitions that are currently taking place in Mexico. Aging and increased exposure to risk factors are thought to increase breast cancer incidence, having great relevance for the society and health services. Under this scenario, the health system must respond to the growing needs for better breast cancer screening services. In this paper we present an update of breast cancer mortality, general international recommendations for breast cancer screening programs and key aspects of the Mexico Action Program for Breast Cancer Screening and Control 2007-2012. Breast cancer policies are aimed at organizing and increasing the infrastructure to develop a National Program for Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer with optimal quality, friendliness and respect for patient's rights. PMID:19967293
Demers, Alain A.; Decker, Kathleen M.; Kliewer, Erich V.; Musto, Grace; Shu, Emma; Biswanger, Natalie; Fradette, Katherine; Elias, Brenda; Griffith, Jane
Introduction First Nations (FN) women historically have low rates of preventive care, including breast cancer screening. We describe the frequency of breast cancer screening among FN women living in Manitoba and all other Manitoba (AOM) women after the introduction of a provincial, organized breast screening program and explore how age, area of residence, and time period influenced breast cancer screening participation. Methods The federal Indian Registry was linked to 2 population-based, provincial data sources. A negative binomial model was used to compare breast cancer screening for FN women with screening for AOM women. Results From 1999 through 2008, 37% of FN and 59% of AOM women had a mammogram in the previous 2 years. Regardless of area of residence, FN women were less likely to have had a mammogram than AOM women (relative rate [RR] = 0.69 in the north, RR = 0.55 in the rural south, and RR = 0.53 in urban areas). Conclusions FN women living in Manitoba had lower mammography rates than AOM women. To ensure equity for all Manitoba women, strategies that encourage FN women to participate in breast cancer screening should be promoted. PMID:26020546
Canale, Sandra; Balleyguier, Corinne; Dromain, Clarisse
Imaging of breast cancer is multimodal. Mammography uses X-rays, the development of digital mammography has improved its quality and enabled implementations of new technologies such astomosynthesis (3D mammography) or contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Ultrasound is added to mammography when there is need to improve detection in high-density breast, to characterize an image, or guide apuncture or biopsy. Breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality. It detects a possible tumor angiogenesis by highlighting an early and intense contrast uptake. This method has an excellent negative predictive value, but its lack of specificity (false positives) can be problematic, thus it has to be prescribed according to published standards. An imaging breast screening report must be concluded by the BI-RADS lexicon classification of the ACR and recommendations about monitoring or histological verification. PMID:24579332
Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach. PMID:27051149
Pasqualini, Jorge R
Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically
An in-depth analysis has produced the most comprehensive portrait to date of the myriad genomic alterations involved in breast cancer. In sequencing the whole genomes of 560 breast cancers and combining this information with published data from another 772 breast tumors, the research team uncovered several new genes and mutational signatures that potentially influence this disease. PMID:27225883
Siegl, Elvira J.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Khan, Kris; Harris, Susan E.
Quality assurance (QA) is the process of providing evidence that the outcome meets the established standards. Quality improvement (QI), by contrast, is the act of methodically developing ways to meet acceptable quality standards and evaluating current processes to improve overall performance. In the case of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the desired outcome is the delivery of quality health care services to program clients. The NBCCEDP provides professional development to ensure that participating providers have current knowledge of evidence-based clinical standards regarding breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnosis and are monitoring women with abnormal screening results for timely follow-up. To assess the quality of clinical care provided to NBCCEDP clients, performance data are collected by NBCCEDP grantees and compared against predetermined Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) benchmarks known as Data Quality Indicator Guides. In this article, the authors describe 1) the development and use of indicators for QI in the NBCCEDP and 2) the professional development activities implemented to improve clinical outcomes. QA identifies problems, whereas QI systematically corrects them. The quality of service delivery and improved patient outcomes among NBCCEDP grantees has enhanced significantly because of continuous monitoring of performance and professional development. By using QA, NBCCEDP grantees can maximize the quality of patient screening, diagnostic services, and follow-up. Examples of grantee activities to maintain quality of care are also described in this report. PMID:25099901
Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma
Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura
Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173
... from a trained breast cancer survivor. Cancer Survivors Network : An online community of people with cancer and their loved ones that provides peer support through discussion boards, chat rooms and other ...
There have been four key steps in the advent of breast cancer advocacy: priming the market, engaging consumers, establishing political advocacy, and taking the advocacy mainstream. Breast cancer was surrounded by secrecy until the 1980s, when brave individuals such as former First Ladies Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan, and founder of the Susan G. Komen Foundation, Nancy Brinker (Susan Komen's sister), began speaking publicly about the personal impact of the disease, which increased awareness of breast cancer and made it more acceptable to talk about it openly. At the same time, statistics about breast cancer were presented in new ways that the public could understand. Public health advocates played a key role in the second step, engaging consumers, when they established guidelines in the 1980s that encouraged women to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs) and have screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations (CBEs). Other events that helped engage consumers were increased media coverage of breast cancer issues, the founding of the Komen Race for the Cure in 1983, and the establishment of other programs that both educated the public and raised funds. Funds from these efforts enabled advocates to hold educational forums and produce educational materials in different media and tailored to different audiences and to become active in the funding of research. The third step, political action, became possible when breast cancer advocates joined together in the 1980s and 1990s to work toward legislative, regulatory, and funding changes, such as passage of the Mammography Quality Standards Act and increased funding for the National Cancer Institute. These efforts contributed to a more than quadrupling of federal funding for breast cancer research in the 1990s. Going mainstream, the final step in the advocacy process, entailed establishing a solid base of support to ensure that the message about breast cancer stays strong and fresh. This has been achieved by engaging
Zervoudis, Stefanos; Iatrakis, George; Navrozoglou, Iordanis
Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women of developed countries, and as a result of new developments in breast cancer treatment, more women are cured after being diagnosed with this disease. It is important that fertility preservation strategies are addressed before chemotherapy, because chemotherapy may induce premature ovarian failure (depending on the woman's age, the drugs used, the dosage and duration of treatment). Among possible solutions are embryos or oocytes cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation-freezing with a subsequent orthotopic and heterotopic autotransplantation, whole ovary cryopreservation, ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, which inhibit ovarian follicular depletion induced by chemotherapeutic agents and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) after ovulation induction with aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen. PMID:20170848
Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
... References: Breast cancer detailed guide What`s new in breast cancer research and treatment? Researchers around the world are ... for breast cancer Breast cancer treatment Causes of breast cancer Studies continue to uncover lifestyle factors and habits, ...
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer
Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)
... therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of surgery can be ... 2 to 3 hours. What to expect after breast cancer surgery: After your surgery, you will be taken ...
Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea
Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622
Bozovic-Spasojevic, I; Azambuja, E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Dinh, P; Cardoso, F
Despite the progress that has been made in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, this disease is still a major health problem, being the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the first leading cause of cancer death among women both in developed and economically developing countries. In some developed countries incidence rate start to decrease from the end of last millennium and this can be explained, at least in part, by the decrease in hormone replacement therapy use by post-menopausal women. Chemoprevention has the potential to be an approach of utmost importance to reduce cancer burden at least among high-risk populations. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are both indicated for the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk for the development of the disease, although raloxifene may have a more favorable adverse-effect profile, causing fewer uterine cancers and thromboembolic events. Aromatase inhibitors will most probably become an additional prevention treatment option in the near future, in view of the promising results observed in adjuvant trials and the interesting results of the very recently published first chemoprevention trial using an aromatase inhibitor.(2) Despite impressive results in most clinical trials performed to date, chemoprevention is still not widely used. Urgently needed are better molecular risk models to accurately identify high-risk subjects, new agents with a better risk/benefit ratio and validated biomarkers. PMID:21856081
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
Paterson, Alexander H G; Anderson, Stewart J; Lembersky, Barry C; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Falkson, Carla I; King, Karen M; Weir, Lorna M; Brufsky, Adam M; Dakhil, Shaker; Lad, Thomas; Baez-Diaz, Luis; Gralow, Julie R; Robidoux, André; Perez, Edith A; Zheng, Ping; Geyer, Charles E; Swain, Sandra M; Costantino, Joseph P; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wolmark, Norman
Summary Background Bisphosphonates are thought to act through the osteoclast by changing bone microenvironment. Previous findings of adjuvant clodronate trials in different populations with operable breast cancer have been mixed. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) protocol B-34 aims to ascertain whether oral clodronate can improve outcomes in women with primary breast cancer. Methods NSABP B-34 is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 3323 women with stage 1–3 breast cancer. After surgery to remove the tumour, patients were stratified by age, axillary nodes, and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either oral clodronate 1600 mg daily for 3 years (n=1662) or placebo (1661). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00009945. Findings Median follow-up was 90·7 months (IQR 82·7–100·0) and 3311 patients had data for this period. Disease-free survival did not differ between groups (286 events in the clodronate group vs 312 in the placebo group; hazard ratio 0·91, 95% CI 0·78–1·07; p=0·27). Moreover, no differences were recorded for overall survival (0·84, 0·67–1·05; p=0·13), recurrence-free interval (0·83, 0·67–1·04; p=0·10), or bone metastasis-free interval (0·77, 0·55–1·07; p=0·12). Non-bone metastasis-free interval was slightly increased with clodronate (0·74, 0·55–1·00; p=0·047). Analyses in women age 50 years or older on study entry showed benefits of clodronate for recurrence-free interval (0·75, 0·57–0·99; p=0·045), bone metastasis-free interval (0·62, 0·40–0·95; p=0·027), and non-bone metastasis-free interval (0·63, 0·43–0·91; p=0·014), but not for overall survival (0·80, 0·61–1·04, p=0·094). Adherence to treatment at 3 years was 56% for the clodronate group and 60% for the placebo group. Grade 3 or
Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S
Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...
High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida
Matro, Jennifer M.; Li, Tianyu; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Hughes, Melissa E.; Ottesen, Rebecca A.; Weeks, Jane C.; Wong, Yu-Ning
Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an uncommon clinicopathologic entity characterized by rapid progression and aggressive behavior. We used the NCCN Outcomes Database to characterize recurrence patterns and outcomes. Methods Patients with newly diagnosed IBC treated between 1999 and 2009 at 12 NCCN institutions were identified and baseline characteristics obtained. Patients had multimodality therapy if they received two of three treatments: surgery, perioperative (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) chemotherapy, or perioperative radiation. First site of recurrence/metastatic diagnosis was identified. Overall survival was calculated based on stage at diagnosis and receipt of multimodality therapy. Results We identified 673 patients, of which 195 (29%) had metastatic disease at presentation. Median follow-up was 29 months. Of stage III patients, 82% received >1 treatment modality. Among 203 stage III patients who recurred, the most frequent sites of first recurrence were bone (28%), central nervous system (CNS), lung, and liver (all 21%). HER2 positive and triple negative subtypes had higher rates of CNS recurrence (p=0.001). Median survival was 66 months (95% CI 54-107) for stage III and 26 months (95% CI 22-33) for stage IV. Among 82% of stage III patients receiving multimodality therapy, median survival was 107 months (95% CI 71-Not Reached). Conclusions This large, retrospective, multi-institutional study confirms the aggressive clinical features, unique recurrence patterns and adverse prognosis of IBC. The high rate of CNS recurrence among high-risk subtypes, despite the inflammatory nature of the breast cancer, suggests that new strategies are needed for earlier detection or prevention of brain metastases to improve long-term prognosis. PMID:25034439
Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110
Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D
Breast tomosynthesis, a three-dimensional x-ray based breast imaging technology, has been available for clinical use in the United States since 2011. In this paper we review the literature on breast cancer screening with this new technology including where gaps in knowledge remain. PMID:26472036
Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E
Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:24723234
Dourado, Fernanda; Carreira, Helena
Background: Understanding the patterns of mammography use is essential to promote the participation in breast cancer screening. Objectives: To describe the patterns of screening mammography use in Portugal. Methods: As part of the fourth National Health Survey (2005/2006), 3045 women were evaluated in face-to-face interviews. The previous use of mammography for screening was classified as never or ever, and the latter was further grouped according to the time elapsed since the latest mammography. Having undergone the latest mammography >2 years before was considered underuse. We assessed the determinants of never having been screened by mammography and, among those who had been tested, the determinants of mammography underuse, through age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Among women aged 45–49 and 50–69 years, 86.3% and 88.0%, respectively, underwent a screening mammography before, and most of them were tested in the previous 2 years. The lowest risk of never having been screened was in Norte (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21–0.80) and the highest in Açores (OR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.37–6.92), in comparison with Centro (the region with organized screening for a longer time). Participants with <4 years of formal education were more likely to have never been screened than the more educated (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.67–10.89). Women with private health insurance (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04–0.65), as well as those who had undergone cervical cytology screening before (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30–0.85), had a lower risk of underuse. Conclusions: This study provides useful information to improve the allocation of resources to breast cancer screening. PMID:22874736
Liu, Suling; Wicha, Max S.
There is increasing evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, contain populations of cells that display stem-cell properties. These breast cancer stem cells, by virtue of their relative resistance to radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy, may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The elucidation of pathways that regulate these cells has led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets. A number of agents capable of targeting breast cancer stem cells in preclinical models are currently entering clinical trials. Assessment of the efficacy of the agents will require development of innovative clinical trial designs with appropriate biologic and clinical end points. The effective targeting of breast cancer stem cells has the potential to significantly improve outcome for women with both early-stage and advanced breast cancer. PMID:20498387
Brinton, Louise A; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur
Background: Although dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of breast cancer by modulating estrogen metabolism, the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation of dietary fiber intake to breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histologic type among postmenopausal women in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 185,598; mean age: 62 y). Design: Dietary intakes were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident breast cancer cases were identified through linkage with state cancer registries. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 2-sided 95% CIs. Results: During an average of 7 y of follow-up, 5461 breast cancer cases were identified, of which 3341 cases had estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with breast cancer risk [RR for the highest quintile (Q5) compared with the lowest quintile (Q1): 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; P for trend: 0.02]. The inverse association appeared to be stronger for ER−/PR− tumors (RRQ5vsQ1: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.90; P for trend: 0.008; 366 cases) than for ER+/PR+ tumors (RRQ5vsQ1: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.20; P for trend: 0.47; 1641 cases). The RRQ5vsQ1 of lobular tumors was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.97; P for trend: 0.04), and the RRQ5vsQ1 of ductal tumors was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.04; P for trend: 0.10). Fiber from grains, fruit, vegetables, and beans was not related to breast cancer. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that dietary fiber can play a role in preventing breast cancer through nonestrogen pathways among postmenopausal women. PMID:19625685
van Asperen, C J; de Bock, G H; van der Horst, F; de Koning, H J; Rutgers, E J
For healthy women, without malignancies in their personal histories, a positive family history for breast cancer is the single indication for individual breast surveillance outside the population screening. Management of women is based on individual risk assessment. A cumulative risk of 20% and more, as a result of a positive family history, will in practice be an indication for breast surveillance. This threshold is not evidence-based yet, nor are data available on the benefits of this surveillance efficacy. When a personal cumulative risk of more than 30% exists to develop breast cancer, a consultation with a clinical geneticist involved in a family cancer clinic should be offered. Surveillance of women with a high-risk cumulative risk should preferably be included in a prospective study design. Only in this way will data about compliance and the estimates of different ways of surveillance become available. There is no convincing evidence that population screening for women aged 40-49 years does lead to important mortality reduction in combination with a good balance between pros and cons for the women involved. Women in the age category 50-75 years, with breast cancer in their personal histories, who are not followed anymore, should be informed by their specialist about participating (again) in the population breast screening. There is no evidence of mortality reduction as a result of breast self-examination nor of palpation performed by a physician. However, awareness of the own body can be useful for early recognition of breast abnormalities; it may reduce the delay between the first recognizable symptom and the subsequently initiated therapy. PMID:11206121
This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.
Blakeman, Victoria; Williams, Jack L; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H
Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, and link this to increased tumour risk in women who work irregular shift patterns. Understanding the influence of circadian rhythms on breast cancer could lead to more efficacious therapies, reformed public health policy and improved patient outcome. PMID:27590298
Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
... what you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot control ... risk. Race . White women are diagnosed with breast cancer more often than African American/black, ... Can Control Risk factors you can control ...
Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M
The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I
Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290
Sledge, George W
Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered incurable, and this colors doctor-patient interactions for patients with metastatic disease. Although true for most patients, there appear to be important exceptions, instances where long-term disease-free survival occurs. Although these instances are few in number, they suggest the possibility of cure. How will we move toward cure for a much larger population of patients with metastatic disease? This article outlines a potential research agenda that might move us toward that distant goal. PMID:26759458
Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A
This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037
... men treated? Surgery for breast cancer in men Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Chemotherapy for breast cancer in men ... these may be used after surgery and/or radiation therapy. Regional recurrence: When breast cancer comes back in nearby lymph nodes (such as ...
Darbre, P D
Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991
Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio
Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer
Simmons, C.E.; Hogeveen, S.; Leonard, R.; Rajmohan, Y.; Han, D.; Wong, A.; Lee, J.; Brackstone, M.; Boileau, J.F.; Dinniwell, R.; Gandhi, S.
Background Use of the neoadjuvant approach to treat breast cancer patients has increased since the early 2000s, but the overall pathway of care for such patients can be highly variable. The aim of our project was to establish a multidisciplinary consensus among clinicians with expertise in neoadjuvant therapy (nat) for breast cancer and to determine if that consensus reflects published methods used in randomized controlled trials (rcts) in this area. Methods A modified Delphi protocol, which used iterative surveys administered to 85 experts across Canada, was established to obtain expert consensus concerning all aspects of the care pathway for patients undergoing nat for breast cancer. All rcts published between January 1, 1967, and December 1, 2012, were systematically reviewed. Data extracted from the rcts were analyzed to determine if the methods used matched the expert consensus for specific areas of nat management. A scoring system determined the strength of the agreement between the literature and the expert consensus. Results Consensus was achieved for all areas of the pathway of care for patients undergoing nat for breast cancer, with the exception of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-treatment or preoperative setting. The levels of agreement between the consensus statements and the published rcts varied, primarily because specific aspects of the pathway of care were not well described in the reviewed literature. Conclusions A true consensus of expert opinion concerning the pathway of care appropriate for patients receiving nat for breast cancer has been achieved. A review of the literature illuminated gaps in the evidence about some elements of nat management. Where evidence is available, agreement with expert opinion is strong overall. Our study is unique in its approach to establishing consensus among medical experts in this field and has established a pathway of care that can be applied in practice for patients receiving nat. PMID
Ramirez, A G; Talavera, G A; Villarreal, R; Suarez, L; McAlister, A; Trapido, E; Pérez-Stable, E; Marti, J
Although Hispanics' use of breast cancer screening services has been investigated, to date there have been no published studies of distinct Hispanic populations in different areas of the country. Using the diverse populations and sites involved in the National Hispanic Leadership Initiative on Cancer 'En Acción', this study examines ethno-regional differences in breast cancer screening rates among these groups and explores the correlates of screening participation. Data collected through telephone surveys were analyzed for women 40 years of age and older (n = 2082). After controlling for demographic variables traditionally related to breast cancer screening rates, it was found that ethno-regional differences in breast cancer screening practices clearly persisted. In addition to traditional demographic factors, other variables evidently underlie differences in Hispanics' utilization of breast cancer screening services. These variables may be cultural and should be investigated in future research. Meanwhile, researchers should not refer to the 'Hispanic' population at large without identifying, addressing and clarifying the ethno-regional characteristics of their samples. PMID:11184215
Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida
Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC) among women who gained weight in adult years. Methods. NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study (NHEFS) database was used in the study. Women that were cancers-free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers-free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index (BMI) at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index (BMI) regressed on age (started at 25 years) while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Results. A total of 158 women were included into the study. The conditional logistic regression adjusted for weight gain demonstrated positive association between weight fluctuation in adult years and postmenopausal breast cancers (odds ratio/OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval/CI: 1.06–2.66). Conclusions. The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation. PMID:26953120
... My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® ...
Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida
High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young.... 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...
... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...
... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... Risk factors you cannot control includes: Age . Your risk for breast cancer increases as you age. Most cancers are found in ...
Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie
The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research. PMID:12631387
Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.
This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…
Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth
Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949
... medical literature, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial was started in 1998. That study enrolled ... in the BCPT. Studies, such as BCPT and STAR, involve women who have not had breast cancer, ...
Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Ulman-Włodarz, Izabela
Recent years have seen a notable increase in the number of breast cancer diagnoses among women who have not fulfilled their maternity plans before the disease. Cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapy), used in the treatment of breast cancer patients, cause varying degrees of damage to the ovaries. The expected favorable effect of gonadoliberin analogues on the preservation of fertility has not been confirmed in clinical trials, and these drugs are currently not recommended for therapy. It is only the development of cryobiology and assisted reproduction techniques that make it possible to preserve the reproductive potential. The safety of the mother and the baby after breast cancer treatment is a separate issue. The available data indicate that both, pregnancy and breast-feeding are safe for the mother and the baby. However, the majority of findings come from retrospective studies covering small sample size and excluding the heterogeneity of both, cancer cells and patient clinical data. PMID:25775879
Nelson, Erik R.; Chang, Ching-yi; McDonnell, Donald P.
Cholesterol is a risk factor for breast cancer although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. One hypothesis is that dyslipidemia results in increased cholesterol content in cell membranes thus impacting membrane fluidity and subsequent signaling. Additionally, studies demonstrate that the metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), can function as an estrogen, increasing the proliferation of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. This was unexpected as 27HC and other oxysterols activate the liver X receptors resulting in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol. Resolution of this paradox will require a dissection of the molecular mechanisms by which ER and LXR converge in breast cancer cells. Regardless, the observation that 27HC influences breast cancer provides rationale for strategies that target cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25458418
An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Rietjens, Mario
Recently, lipofilling is being performed either as a part of oncoplastic technique or alone by itself for correction of defects and asymmetry after oncologic breast cancer surgery. Its efficacy, safety and technical procedures are varying among institutions and individual surgeon’s experiences. We provide a literature review and view point focus on this novel technique which emphasize on the application on breast cancer reconstruction. PMID:25083450
BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer
Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew
Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy here) is an intracellular degradation pathway enhanced in response to a variety of stresses and in response to nutrient deprivation. This process provides the cell with nutrients and energy by degrading aggregated and damaged proteins as well as compromised organelles. Since autophagy has been linked to diverse diseases including cancer, it has recently become a very interesting target in breast cancer treatment. Indeed, current clinical trials are trying to use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with other drugs to inhibit autophagy during breast cancer therapy since chemotherapy and radiation, regimens that are used to treat breast cancer, are known to induce autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, in breast cancer, autophagy has been involved in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-estrogens. Moreover, a close relationship has recently been described between autophagy and the HER2 receptor. Here, we discuss some of the recent findings relating autophagy and cancer with a particular focus on breast cancer therapy. PMID:25114840
Dantzig, Paul I
Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer. PMID:20049264
Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer
Verschoor, A M F; Kuijer, A; Verloop, J; Van Gils, C H; Sonke, G S; Jager, A; van Dalen, T; Elias, S G
Over recent years, adjuvant systemic treatment guidelines (AST) for early-stage breast cancer have changed considerably. We aimed to assess the impact of these guideline changes on the administration of AST in early-stage breast cancer patients and to what extent these guidelines are adhered to at a nation-wide level. We used Netherlands Cancer Registry data to describe trends in AST prescription, adherence to AST guidelines, and to identify clinicopathological determinants of nonadherence. Between 1990 and 2012, 231,648 Dutch patients were diagnosed with early breast cancer, of whom 124,472 received AST. Adjuvant endocrine treatment (ET) use increased from 23 % of patients (1990) to 56 % (2012), and chemotherapy from 11 to 44 %. In 2009-2012, 8 % of patients received ET and 3 % received chemotherapy without guideline indication. Conversely, 10-29 % of patients did not receive ET and chemotherapy, respectively, despite a guideline indication. Unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics generally decreased the chance of undertreatment and increased the chance for overtreatment. Remarkable was the increased chance of ET undertreatment in younger women (RR < 35 vs 60-69 years 1.79; 95 % CI 1.30-2.47) and in women with HER2+ disease (RR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.46-1.85). Over the years, AST guidelines expanded resulting in much more Dutch early breast cancer patients receiving AST. In the majority of cases, AST administration was guideline concordant, but the high frequency of chemotherapy undertreatment in some subgroups suggests limited AST guideline support in these patients. PMID:27514397
Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S
Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling. PMID:19235775
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...
Background Metabolic Syndrome (MS) has been correlated to breast carcinogenesis. MS is common in the general population (34%) and increases with age and body mass index. Although the link between obesity, MS and hormone related cancer incidence is now widely recognized, the molecular mechanisms at the basis of such increase are still poorly characterized. A crucial role is supposed to be played by the altered insulin signalling, occurring in obese patients, which fuels cancer cell growth, proliferation and survival. Therefore we focused specifically on insulin resistance to investigate clinically the potential role of insulin in breast carcinogenesis. Methods 975 patients were enrolled and the association between MS, insulin resistance, and breast cancer was evaluated. Women were stratified by age and menopausal status. Insulin resistance was measured through the Homeostasis Model Assessment score (HOMA-IR). The cut off value to define insulin resistance was HOMA-IR ≥ 2.50. Results Higher prevalence of MS (35%) was found among postmenopausal women with breast cancer compared to postmenopausal healthy women (19%) [OR 2.16]. A broad range of BMI spanning 19–48 Kg/m2 was calculated. Both cases and controls were characterized by BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 (58% of cases compared to 61% of controls). Waist circumference >88 cm was measured in 53% of cases - OR 1.58- (95% CI 0.8-2.8) and in 46% of controls. Hyperinsulinemia was detected in 7% of cases – OR 2.14 (95% CI 1.78-2.99) and only in 3% of controls. HOMA-IR score was elevated in 49% of cases compared to 34% of controls [OR 1.86], suggesting that insulin resistance can nearly double the risk of breast cancer development. Interestingly 61% of women operated for breast cancer (cases) with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 presented subclinical insulin resistance with fasting plasma glucose levels and fasting plasma insulin levels in the normal range. Both android fat distribution and insulin resistance correlated to MS in the
Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474
Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree
Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584
Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Mohamed, Ibraham
Data from the National Cancer Registry of Malaysia for 2004 provide an age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of 46.2 per 100,000 women. This means that approximately 1 in 20 women in the country develop breast cancer in their lifetime. However, the rate differs between the three main races, the Malays, Chinese and Indians. The age standardized incidence in Chinese is the highest, with 59.7 per 100,000, followed by the Indians at 55.8 per 100,000. The Malays have the lowest incidence of 33.9 per 100,000. This translates into 1 in 16 Chinese, 1 in 16 Indian and 1 in 28 Malay women developing breast cancer at some stage in their lives. The commonest age at presentation is between 40-49 years, with just over 50% of the cases under the age of 50 years, 16.8% below 40, and 2% under 30. Some 55.7% of all cases were found to be ER positive. The commonest presenting symptom was a lump in the breast in over 90% of cases, generally felt by the woman herself. The mean size of the lump was 4.2 cm, and on average, the women waited 3 months before seeking medical attention. Over the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, about 60-70% of women presented with early stage (Stages 1-2) while 30-40% presented with late breast cancer (Stages 3-4). Especially Malays present at later stages and with larger tumours. Consequently their survival is worse than with Chinese and Indian women. The challenge in Malaysia is to be able to provide a comprehensive service in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, and this requires training of a team of health professionals dedicated to breast health, such as breast surgeons, radiologists specializing in breast imaging, breast pathologists, plastic surgeons specializing in breast reconstruction, medical and radiation oncologists, psycho-oncologists, counselors, and breast nurses. Advocacy can play a role here in galvanizing the political will to meet this challenge. PMID:17059323
Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism
Pusztai, Lajos; Ladányi, Andrea; Székely, Borbála; Dank, Magdolna
The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349
Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511
Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Battaglia, Tracy A; Darnell, Julie S; Ko, Naomi; Snyder, Fred; Paskett, Electra D; Wells, Kristen J; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Griggs, Jennifer J; Karnad, Anand; Young, Heather; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Simon, Melissa A; Calhoun, Elizabeth
Patient navigation is emerging as a standard in breast cancer care delivery, yet multi-site data on the impact of navigation at reducing delays along the continuum of care are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of navigation on reaching diagnostic resolution at specific time points after an abnormal breast cancer screening test among a national sample. A prospective meta-analysis estimated the adjusted odds of achieving timely diagnostic resolution at 60, 180, and 365 days. Exploratory analyses were conducted on the pooled sample to identify which groups had the most benefit from navigation. Clinics from six medical centers serving vulnerable populations participated in the Patient Navigation Research Program. Women with an abnormal breast cancer screening test between 2007 and 2009 were included and received the patient navigation intervention or usual care. Patient navigators worked with patients and their care providers to address patient-specific barriers to care to prevent delays in diagnosis. A total of 4675 participants included predominantly racial/ethnic minorities (74 %) with public insurance (40 %) or no insurance (31 %). At 60 days and 180 days, there was no statistically significant effect of navigation on achieving timely diagnostic care, but a benefit of navigation was seen at 365 days (aOR 2.12, CI 1.36-3.29). We found an equal benefit of navigation across all groups, regardless of race/ethnicity, language, insurance status, and type of screening abnormality. Patient navigation resulted in more timely diagnostic resolution at 365 days among a diverse group of minority, low-income women with breast cancer screening abnormalities. Trial registrations clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00613275, NCT00496678, NCT00375024, NCT01569672. PMID:27432417
Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.
Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E
This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034
Baumann, Jan; Sevinsky, Christopher; Conklin, Douglas S.
Alterations in lipid metabolism have been reported in many types of cancer. Lipids have been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, motility and membrane homeostasis. It is required that their biosynthesis is tightly regulated to ensure homeostasis and to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of the role of lipids and lipogenic pathway regulation in breast cancer, including parallels drawn from the study of metabolic disease models, and suggestions on how these findings can potentially be exploited to promote gains in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer research. PMID:23562840
Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Gerber, Bernd
Summary Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22–72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50–65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice. PMID:25759621
Basra, Muhammad Asim R; Saher, Manzoor; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof; Raza, Muhammad Hashim
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women worldwide. In the past it was considered as disease of older middle aged women, but the incidence of BC in young females is growing in recent years concordant with studies in Pakistan. In this paper, we reviewed the mutant functions of tumor suppressor genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, ATM and PTEN), epigenetic transformation and involvement of estrogen receptors in development of breast cancer. We further reviewed the current situation of BC in Pakistan that depicts a higher incidence in young females. According to SKMCH and RC data, age group 4549 years is more prone to BC with high rate of incidence 45.42%. A few studies explored the high expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu in Pakistani females. Moreover, presence of BRCA1 (c.1961dupA) mutation in Pakistani shows concordance with data in different areas of world. But we are unable to find an authentic study that can explore epigenetic based transformation of breast tumors in Pakistan. This area of research needs more attention to explore the complete picture of BC in Pakistan. PMID:27509926
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease ... Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new ...
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The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.
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DAROUDI, Rajabali; AKBARI SARI, Ali; NAHVIJOU, Azin; KALAGHCHI, Bita; NAJAFI, Massoomeh; ZENDEHDEL, Kazem
Background: Although breast cancer imposes a considerable economic burden on high-income countries, there is limited knowledge about its economic burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs), including Iran. In this study, we estimated the economic burden of breast cancer in Iran in 2010. Methods: We used the prevalence-based approach and estimated the direct and indirect costs of all breast cancer cases in 2010. We used several data sources, including national cancer registry reports, hospital records, occupational data, and interviews with experts. Result: The economic burden of breast cancer was US$947,374,468. Most of the cost (77%) pertained to the productivity lost due to breast cancer deaths and the direct medical cost accounted for 18.56% of the estimated total cost. Out of the US$175,860,607 as the direct medical cost, the chemotherapy cost constituted the main part ($76,755,740), of which prescriptions of trastuzumab accounted for 41% ($31,529,280). Conclusion: The economic burden of breast cancer in Iran is substantial and is expected to increase significantly due to the increasing incidence rate. Strategies for the prevention and early detection of breast cancer should be prioritized in the national cancer control program. PMID:26587497
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini
A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…
Theriault, Richard L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Schwartzberg, Lee S.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi
These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23847214